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  • Feasibility of blood testing combined with PET-CT to screen for cancer and guide intervention.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Anne Marie Lennon,Adam H Buchanan,Isaac Kinde,Andrew Warren,Ashley Honushefsky,Ariella T Cohain,David H Ledbetter,Fred Sanfilippo,Kathleen Sheridan,Dillenia Rosica,Christian S Adonizio,Hee Jung Hwang,Kamel Lahouel,Joshua D Cohen,Christopher Douville,Aalpen A Patel,Leonardo N Hagmann,David D Rolston,Nirav Malani,Shibin Zhou,Chetan Bettegowda,David L Diehl,Bobbi Urban,Christopher D Still,Lisa Kann,Julie

    Cancer treatments are often more successful when the disease is detected early. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of multicancer blood testing coupled with positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging to detect cancer in a prospective, interventional study of 10,006 women not previously known to have cancer. Positive blood tests were independently confirmed by a diagnostic

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Sharing vitamins: Cobamides unveil microbial interactions
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Olga M. Sokolovskaya, Amanda N. Shelton, Michiko E. Taga

    Microbial communities are essential to fundamental processes on Earth. Underlying the compositions and functions of these communities are nutritional interdependencies among individual species. One class of nutrients, cobamides (the family of enzyme cofactors that includes vitamin B12), is widely used for a variety of microbial metabolic functions, but these structurally diverse cofactors are synthesized

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Number of HIV-1 founder variants is determined by the recency of the source partner infection
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Ch. Julián Villabona-Arenas, Matthew Hall, Katrina A. Lythgoe, Stephen G. Gaffney, Roland R. Regoes, Stéphane Hué, Katherine E. Atkins

    During sexual transmission, the high genetic diversity of HIV-1 within an individual is frequently reduced to one founder variant that initiates infection. Understanding the drivers of this bottleneck is crucial to developing effective infection control strategies. Little is known about the importance of the source partner during this bottleneck. To test the hypothesis that the source partner affects

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A piperidinium salt stabilizes efficient metal-halide perovskite solar cells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Yen-Hung Lin, Nobuya Sakai, Peimei Da, Jiaying Wu, Harry C. Sansom, Alexandra J. Ramadan, Suhas Mahesh, Junliang Liu, Robert D. J. Oliver, Jongchul Lim, Lee Aspitarte, Kshama Sharma, P. K. Madhu, Anna B. Morales‐Vilches, Pabitra K. Nayak, Sai Bai, Feng Gao, Chris R. M. Grovenor, Michael B. Johnston, John G. Labram, James R. Durrant, James M. Ball, Bernard Wenger, Bernd Stannowski, Henry J. Snaith

    Longevity has been a long-standing concern for hybrid perovskite photovoltaics. We demonstrate high-resilience positive-intrinsic-negative perovskite solar cells by incorporating a piperidinium-based ionic compound into the formamidinium-cesium lead-trihalide perovskite absorber. With the bandgap tuned to be well suited for perovskite-on-silicon tandem cells, this piperidinium additive enhances the

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • C(sp3)–H functionalizations of light hydrocarbons using decatungstate photocatalysis in flow
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Gabriele Laudadio, Yuchao Deng, Klaas van der Wal, Davide Ravelli, Manuel Nuño, Maurizio Fagnoni, Duncan Guthrie, Yuhan Sun, Timothy Noël

    Direct activation of gaseous hydrocarbons remains a major challenge for the chemistry community. Because of the intrinsic inertness of these compounds, harsh reaction conditions are typically required to enable C(sp3)–H bond cleavage, barring potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry. Here, we report a general and mild strategy to activate C(sp3)–H bonds in methane, ethane, propane, and

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • An ideal Josephson junction in an ultracold two-dimensional Fermi gas
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Niclas Luick, Lennart Sobirey, Markus Bohlen, Vijay Pal Singh, Ludwig Mathey, Thomas Lompe, Henning Moritz

    The role of reduced dimensionality in high-temperature superconductors is still under debate. Recently, ultracold atoms have emerged as an ideal model system to study such strongly correlated two-dimensional (2D) systems. Here, we report on the realization of a Josephson junction in an ultracold 2D Fermi gas. We measure the frequency of Josephson oscillations as a function of the phase difference across

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Strongly correlated superfluid order parameters from dc Josephson supercurrents
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    W. J. Kwon, G. Del Pace, R. Panza, M. Inguscio, W. Zwerger, M. Zaccanti, F. Scazza, G. Roati

    The direct-current (dc) Josephson effect provides a phase-sensitive tool for investigating superfluid order parameters. We report on the observation of dc Josephson supercurrents in strongly interacting fermionic superfluids across a tunneling barrier in the absence of any applied potential difference. For sufficiently strong barriers, we observed a sinusoidal current-phase relation, in agreement with

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Ultrahigh capacitive energy density in ion-bombarded relaxor ferroelectric films
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jieun Kim, Sahar Saremi, Megha Acharya, Gabriel Velarde, Eric Parsonnet, Patrick Donahue, Alexander Qualls, David Garcia, Lane W. Martin

    Dielectric capacitors can store and release electric energy at ultrafast rates and are extensively studied for applications in electronics and electric power systems. Among various candidates, thin films based on relaxor ferroelectrics, a special kind of ferroelectric with nanometer-sized domains, have attracted special attention because of their high energy densities and efficiencies. We show that

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Rapid development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Qiang Gao,Linlin Bao,Haiyan Mao,Lin Wang,Kangwei Xu,Minnan Yang,Yajing Li,Ling Zhu,Nan Wang,Zhe Lv,Hong Gao,Xiaoqin Ge,Biao Kan,Yaling Hu,Jiangning Liu,Fang Cai,Deyu Jiang,Yanhui Yin,Chengfeng Qin,Jing Li,Xuejie Gong,Xiuyu Lou,Wen Shi,Dongdong Wu,Hengming Zhang,Lang Zhu,Wei Deng,Yurong Li,Jinxing Lu,Changgui Li,Xiangxi Wang,Weidong Yin,Yanjun Zhang,Chuan Qin

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2–specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Cell position fates and collective fountain flow in bacterial biofilms revealed by light-sheet microscopy.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Boyang Qin,Chenyi Fei,Andrew A Bridges,Ameya A Mashruwala,Howard A Stone,Ned S Wingreen,Bonnie L Bassler

    Bacterial biofilms represent a basic form of multicellular organization that confers survival advantages to constituent cells. The sequential stages of cell ordering during biofilm development have been studied in the pathogen and model biofilm-former Vibrio cholerae. It is unknown how spatial trajectories of individual cells and the collective motions of many cells drive biofilm expansion. We developed

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Thermal bottlenecks in the life cycle define climate vulnerability of fish
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Flemming T. Dahlke, Sylke Wohlrab, Martin Butzin, Hans-Otto Pörtner

    Species’ vulnerability to climate change depends on the most temperature-sensitive life stages, but for major animal groups such as fish, life cycle bottlenecks are often not clearly defined. We used observational, experimental, and phylogenetic data to assess stage-specific thermal tolerance metrics for 694 marine and freshwater fish species from all climate zones. Our analysis shows that spawning

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The histone H3-H4 tetramer is a copper reductase enzyme
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Narsis Attar, Oscar A. Campos, Maria Vogelauer, Chen Cheng, Yong Xue, Stefan Schmollinger, Lukasz Salwinski, Nathan V. Mallipeddi, Brandon A. Boone, Linda Yen, Sichen Yang, Shannon Zikovich, Jade Dardine, Michael F. Carey, Sabeeha S. Merchant, Siavash K. Kurdistani

    Eukaryotic histone H3-H4 tetramers contain a putative copper (Cu2+) binding site at the H3-H3′ dimerization interface with unknown function. The coincident emergence of eukaryotes with global oxygenation, which challenged cellular copper utilization, raised the possibility that histones may function in cellular copper homeostasis. We report that the recombinant Xenopus laevis H3-H4 tetramer is an oxidoreductase

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A phage-encoded anti-CRISPR enables complete evasion of type VI-A CRISPR-Cas immunity.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Alexander J Meeske,Ning Jia,Alice K Cassel,Albina Kozlova,Jingqiu Liao,Martin Wiedmann,Dinshaw J Patel,Luciano A Marraffini

    The CRISPR RNA (crRNA)–guided nuclease Cas13 recognizes complementary viral transcripts to trigger the degradation of both host and viral RNA during the type VI CRISPR-Cas antiviral response. However, how viruses can counteract this immunity is not known. We describe a listeriaphage (ϕLS46) encoding an anti-CRISPR protein (AcrVIA1) that inactivates the type VI-A CRISPR system of Listeria seeligeri

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Mart M Lamers,Joep Beumer,Jelte van der Vaart,Kèvin Knoops,Jens Puschhof,Tim I Breugem,Raimond B G Ravelli,J Paul van Schayck,Anna Z Mykytyn,Hans Q Duimel,Elly van Donselaar,Samra Riesebosch,Helma J H Kuijpers,Debby Schippers,Willine J van de Wetering,Miranda de Graaf,Marion Koopmans,Edwin Cuppen,Peter J Peters,Bart L Haagmans,Hans Clevers

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that is primarily thought to infect the lungs with transmission through the respiratory route. However, clinical evidence suggests that the intestine may present another viral target organ. Indeed, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Physics meets America's defense agenda
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Melanie Frappier

    In Quantum Legacies: Dispatches from an Uncertain World, David Kaiser gives a witty and insightful overview of the development of modern physics. Through a series of previously published but carefully reedited essays, he explores how America's defense agenda has shaped physics research and education, from the ever-increasing size of research teams to the way we talk about quantum phenomena.

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Better homes and safer spaces
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Barbara Brown

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) pandemic has transformed our homes into schools, workplaces, recreational centers, and experimental kitchens, rendering us increasingly aware of the opportunities and constraints built into their design. In her new book, The Great Indoors, science journalist Emily Anthes helps us channel this awareness into an appreciation of how design alters our feelings and

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Improve alignment of research policy and societal values
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Peter Novitzky, Michael J. Bernstein, Vincent Blok, Robert Braun, Tung Tung Chan, Wout Lamers, Anne Loeber, Ingeborg Meijer, Ralf Lindner, Erich Griessler

    Historically, scientific and engineering expertise has been key in shaping research and innovation (R&I) policies, with benefits presumed to accrue to society more broadly over time (1). But there is persistent and growing concern about whether and how ethical and societal values are integrated into R&I policies and governance, as we confront public disbelief in science and political suspicion toward

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • When do fish succumb to heat?
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jennifer Sunday

    Physiological responses to temperature can provide a window into climate change vulnerability of species. How warm will it get relative to a species' ability to tolerate heat? One complication in answering this question is that an organism's temperature tolerance can change throughout its life span, and organisms in early life stages may be more sensitive to cold and heat extremes than adults (the

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Stronger bonds bring bigger challenges
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Gabriela Oksdath-Mansilla

    For organic chemists, synthesizing complex molecules in a few steps without waste and with minimal energy has been a long-standing challenge. In many cases, synthetic methodology now enables the design of straightforward syntheses of molecules with different degrees of structural complexity and even their large-scale production. The starting materials are often derived ultimately from hydrocarbons

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The secret life of histones
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Johannes Rudolph, Karolin Luger

    Histone proteins are the ubiquitous organizers of all eukaryotic genomes (1). Two each of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 form a disk-shaped assembly around which 147 base pairs (bp) of DNA are tightly coiled. Hundreds of thousands of these connected nucleosomes wrap up further to form chromosomes. The substantial sequence conservation between eukaryotic histones and the presence of simple histones

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Shutting down RNA-targeting CRISPR
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Rodolphe Barrangou, Erik J. Sontheimer

    Explorations of the evolutionary arms race between bacteria and bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) have unearthed a variety of defense mechanisms that include CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR-associated nuclease) adaptive immune systems (1). Understanding the mechanisms of CRISPR-mediated immunity, involving DNA-encoded, RNA-guided, sequence-specific targeting of invasive nucleic acids (2, 3), has spawned

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Tracing cell trajectories in a biofilm
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Alma Dal Co, Michael P. Brenner

    Born in 1881 on a farm in Pennsylvania, Alice C. Evans dedicated her life to studying bacteria in dairy products. Early in her career, Alice became convinced that most bacteria display multicellular behavior as part of their life cycles. At the time, the morphological changes observed in bacterial life cycles created confusion among scientists. In 1928, as the first female president of the American

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Improbable oasis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Rodrigo Pérez Ortega

    Deep in Mexico's Chihuahuan Desert, the turquoise-blue pools of Cuatro Ciénegas host ancient microbes and provide a "window into early Earth." The waters of these pools, with a chemistry that resembles that of Earth's ancient seas, are home to unusual bacterial mats and formations called stromatolites. Some of the bacterial lineages in the pools date back to 680 million years ago. Valeria Souza Saldívar

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Greenland rock cores to trace ice's past melting
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Paul Voosen

    In 2021, U.S. researchers will go to the frozen expanse of Greenland's northern ice sheet to pinpoint the last time it disappeared. The 5-year, $7 million campaign, awarded last month by the National Science Foundation, will mark the first large U.S. ice drilling program in Greenland in more than 25 years. But unlike past projects, the target is not the climate records held in the ice, but the rocks

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A colorful chemotherapy agent could be made less toxic
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jocelyn Kaiser

    Doxorubicin, an old chemotherapy drug known as "the red devil" because of its distinctive hue and toxicity, remains a key treatment for many cancer patients. But a new study reports the drug can be tweaked to reduce its most punishing side effect, cardiac damage, without blunting its ability to curb tumors. The work, from a team in the Netherlands, upends conventional thinking about doxorubicin and

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Rock seen inside Venus's orbit could solve puzzle
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Nola Redd

    Earlier this year, astronomers discovered an oddball asteroid inside the orbit of Venus—the first member of a predicted flock near the Sun, informally called Vatiras. No bigger than a small mountain, the asteroid has now gained another distinction: It appears to be rich in the mineral olivine, which makes up much of Earth's deep rock. Some astronomers think that is a clue to a larger set of "missing

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The line starts to form for a coronavirus vaccine
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jon Cohen

    When and if the world has a COVID-19 vaccine, who should get it first? That question came into sharp relief last week as the World Health Organization and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to publicly discuss priority groups such as the elderly and health care workers. New data suggested how fraught any prioritization is likely to be: Pregnant women—normally the last to receive

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • News at a glance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    In science news around the world, the world's second largest Ebola outbreak, in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is declared officially over. As the world battles the COVID-19 pandemic, an influenza virus strain widely circulating among pigs in China has the potential to spark another, researchers say. As part of a giant legal settlement, Bayer proposes to fund an independent

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Scale-free ferroelectricity induced by flat phonon bands in HfO2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Hyun-Jae Lee, Minseong Lee, Kyoungjun Lee, Jinhyeong Jo, Hyemi Yang, Yungyeom Kim, Seung Chul Chae, Umesh Waghmare, Jun Hee Lee

    Discovery of robust yet reversibly switchable electric dipoles at reduced dimensions is critical in advancing nanoelectronics devices. Energy bands flat in momentum space generate robust localized states that are activated independently of each other. We determined flat bands exist and induce robust yet independently switchable dipoles exhibiting a unique ferroelectricity in HfO2. Flat polar phonon

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Covalent surface modifications and superconductivity of two-dimensional metal carbide MXenes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Vladislav Kamysbayev, Alexander S. Filatov, Huicheng Hu, Xue Rui, Francisco Lagunas, Di Wang, Robert F. Klie, Dmitri V. Talapin

    Versatile chemical transformations of surface functional groups in 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) open up a new design space for this broad class of functional materials. We introduce a general strategy to install and remove surface groups by performing substitution and elimination reactions in molten inorganic salts. Successful synthesis of MXenes with O, NH, S, Cl, Se, Br, and Te surface terminations

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Wei Deng, Linlin Bao, Jiangning Liu, Chong Xiao, Jiayi Liu, Jing Xue, Qi Lv, Feifei Qi, Hong Gao, Pin Yu, Yanfeng Xu, Yajin Qu, Fengdi Li, Zhiguang Xiang, Haisheng Yu, Shuran Gong, Mingya Liu, Guanpeng Wang, Shunyi Wang, Zhiqi Song, Ying Liu, Wenjie Zhao, Yunlin Han, Linna Zhao, Xing Liu, Qiang Wei, Chuan Qin

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. It currently remains unclear whether convalescing patients have a risk of reinfection. We generated a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was characterized by interstitial pneumonia and systemic viral dissemination mainly

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Accelerating water dissociation in bipolar membranes and for electrocatalysis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Sebastian Z. Oener, Marc J. Foster, Shannon W. Boettcher

    Catalyzing water dissociation (WD) into protons and hydroxide ions is important both for fabricating bipolar membranes (BPMs) that can couple different pH environments into a single electrochemical device, and for accelerating electrocatalytic reactions that consume protons in neutral-to-alkaline media. We designed a BPM electrolyzer to quantitatively measure WD kinetics and show that, for metal nanoparticles

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Architecture and function of human uromodulin filaments in urinary tract infections
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Gregor L. Weiss, Jessica J. Stanisich, Maximilian M. Sauer, Chia-Wei Lin, Jonathan Eras, Dawid S. Zyla, Johannes Trück, Olivier Devuyst, Markus Aebi, Martin Pilhofer, Rudi Glockshuber

    Uromodulin is the most abundant protein in human urine and forms filaments that antagonize the adhesion of uropathogens; however, filament structure and mechanism of protection remain poorly understood. We used cryo-electron tomography to show that the uromodulin filament consists of a zigzag-shaped backbone with laterally protruding arms. N-glycosylation mapping and biophysical assays revealed that

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Dynamic neural and glial responses of a head-specific model for traumatic brain injury in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Janani Saikumar, China N. Byrns, Matthew Hemphill, David F. Meaney, Nancy M. Bonini

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the strongest environmental risk factor for the accelerated development of neurodegenerative diseases. There are currently no therapeutics to address this due to lack of insight into mechanisms of injury progression, which are challenging to study in mammalian models. Here, we have developed and extensively characterized a head-specific approach to TBI in Drosophila

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Male reproductive aging arises via multifaceted mating-dependent sperm and seminal proteome declines, but is postponable in Drosophila [Evolution]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Irem Sepil, Ben R. Hopkins, Rebecca Dean, Eleanor Bath, Solomon Friedman, Ben Swanson, Harrison J. Ostridge, Lucy Harper, Norene A. Buehner, Mariana F. Wolfner, Rebecca Konietzny, Marie-Laëtitia Thézénas, Elizabeth Sandham, Philip D. Charles, Roman Fischer, Josefa Steinhauer, Benedikt M. Kessler, Stuart Wigby

    Declining ejaculate performance with male age is taxonomically widespread and has broad fitness consequences. Ejaculate success requires fully functional germline (sperm) and soma (seminal fluid) components. However, some aging theories predict that resources should be preferentially diverted to the germline at the expense of the soma, suggesting differential impacts of aging on sperm and seminal fluid

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Stem cell lineage survival as a noisy competition for niche access [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Bernat Corominas-Murtra, Colinda L. G. J. Scheele, Kasumi Kishi, Saskia I. J. Ellenbroek, Benjamin D. Simons, Jacco van Rheenen, Edouard Hannezo

    Understanding to what extent stem cell potential is a cell-intrinsic property or an emergent behavior coming from global tissue dynamics and geometry is a key outstanding question of systems and stem cell biology. Here, we propose a theory of stem cell dynamics as a stochastic competition for access to a spatially localized niche, giving rise to a stochastic conveyor-belt model. Cell divisions produce

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Screen identifies DYRK1B network as mediator of transcription repression on damaged chromatin [Cell Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Chao Dong, Kirk L. West, Xin Yi Tan, Junshi Li, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Cheng-han Yu, Shirley M. H. Sy, Justin W. C. Leung, Michael S. Y. Huen

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) trigger transient pausing of nearby transcription, an emerging ATM-dependent response that suppresses chromosomal instability. We screened a chemical library designed to target the human kinome for new activities that mediate gene silencing on DSB-flanking chromatin, and have uncovered the DYRK1B kinase as an early respondent to DNA damage. We showed that DYRK1B is swiftly

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Time-dependent plasticity in silicon microbeams mediated by dislocation nucleation [Engineering]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Mohamed Elhebeary, Tristan Harzer, Gerhard Dehm, M. Taher A. Saif

    Understanding deformation mechanisms in silicon is critical for reliable design of miniaturized devices operating at high temperatures. Bulk silicon is brittle, but it becomes ductile at about 540 °C. It creeps (deforms plastically with time) at high temperatures (∼800 °C). However, the effect of small size on ductility and creep of silicon remains elusive. Here, we report that silicon at small scales

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Inner Workings: Was Jupiter born beyond the current orbits of Neptune and Pluto? [Astronomy]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Ken Croswell

    Ancient people named the planet Jupiter well. Both its brilliance and its slow, regal movement across the sky evoked a king among gods. Today we know much more about the influence of Jupiter, a planet boasting more than twice as much mass as the solar system’s other planets put together. Jupiter’s tremendous gravity stunted the growth of newborn Mars, sculpts the asteroid belt today, and may even help

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Nur77 controls tolerance induction, terminal differentiation, and effector functions in semi-invariant natural killer T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Amrendra Kumar, Timothy M. Hill, Laura E. Gordy, Naveenchandra Suryadevara, Lan Wu, Andrew I. Flyak, Jelena S. Bezbradica, Luc Van Kaer, Sebastian Joyce

    Semi-invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are self-reactive lymphocytes, yet how this lineage attains self-tolerance remains unknown. iNKT cells constitutively express high levels of Nr4a1-encoded Nur77, a transcription factor that integrates signal strength downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) within activated thymocytes and peripheral T cells. The function of Nur77 in iNKT cells is unknown

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Intercepting second-messenger signaling by rationally designed peptides sequestering c-di-GMP [Microbiology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Chee-Seng Hee, Judith Habazettl, Christoph Schmutz, Tilman Schirmer, Urs Jenal, Stephan Grzesiek

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates a wide range of cellular functions from biofilm formation to growth and survival. Targeting a second-messenger network is challenging because the system involves a multitude of components with often overlapping functions. Here, we present a strategy to intercept c-di-GMP signaling pathways by directly targeting the second messenger

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Cofactor-enabled functional expression of fruit fly, honeybee, and bumblebee nicotinic receptors reveals picomolar neonicotinoid actions [Agricultural Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Makoto Ihara, Shogo Furutani, Sho Shigetou, Shota Shimada, Kunihiro Niki, Yuma Komori, Masaki Kamiya, Wataru Koizumi, Leo Magara, Mai Hikida, Akira Noguchi, Daiki Okuhara, Yuto Yoshinari, Shu Kondo, Hiromu Tanimoto, Ryusuke Niwa, David B. Sattelle, Kazuhiko Matsuda

    The difficulty of achieving robust functional expression of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has hampered our understanding of these important molecular targets of globally deployed neonicotinoid insecticides at a time when concerns have grown regarding the toxicity of this chemotype to insect pollinators. We show that thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3 (TMX3) is essential

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Bioinspired nervous signal transmission system based on two-dimensional laminar nanofluidics: From electronics to ionics [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yunfei Teng, Pei Liu, Lin Fu, Xiang-Yu Kong, Lei Jiang, Liping Wen

    Mammalian nervous systems, as natural ionic circuitries, stand out in environmental perception and sophisticated information transmission, relying on protein ionic channels and additional necessary structures. Prosperously emerged ionic regulated biomimetic nanochannels exhibit great potentialities in various application scenarios, especially signal transduction. Most reported direct current systems

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Hawking-Unruh effect associated with primordial black holes and maximum acceleration of elementary particles
    New Astron. (IF 1.058) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    V. Vipindas; T.E. Girish; C. Radhakrishnan Nair

    Three decades ago an expression for the maximum acceleration of elementary particles was derived using quantum theory. There is no experimental confirmation of this so far. In this paper we study the phenomenon of acceleration of elementary particles by the surface gravity of primordial black holes (PBH) formed in the early universe and the associated Hawking-Unruh effect. From a heuristic theory we

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Photometric study of five Kepler contact binaries
    New Astron. (IF 1.058) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Xu-Zhi Li; Liang Liu

    A lot of data in time domain were obtained by the Kepler mission, including many contact binaries. Long-term observation lets us obtain more information about the short time scale variation in their light curves or in their orbital periods. Unfortunately, the exposure time is too long (most of them are 30 minutes). Hence, many variations in light curves are smoothed. To avoid this problem, we analyzed

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Spatial characteristics on the occurrence of the nighttime midlatitude medium‐scale traveling ionospheric disturbance at topside ionosphere revealed by the Swarm satellite
    J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. (IF 2.799) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Xin Wan; Chao Xiong; Hui Wang; Kedeng Zhang; Fan Yin

    Using six years collecting of electron density (Ne ) data from the Swarm A satellite, this study portrays comprehensive maps of the occurrence of medium‐scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MSTID) at middle latitudes, which is characterized by the in‐situ absolute Ne fluctuations above a certain threshold. Two interesting spatial preference on the occurrence of MSTID as well as their dependence

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Early label-free analysis of mitochondrial redox states by Raman spectroscopy predicts septic outcomes
    J. Adv. Res. (IF 6.992) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Meiyan Wu; Kairui Pu; Tao Jiang; Qian Zhai; Zhi Ma; Hongli Ma; Fuxing Xu; Zhanqin Zhang; Qiang Wang
    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Biogenic Platinum from Agricultural Wastes Extract for Improved Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
    J. Adv. Res. (IF 6.992) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    N.A.I.M. Ishak; S.K. Kamarudin; S.N. Timmiati; N.A. Karim; S. Basri
    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Author Correction: Tunable correlated states and spin-polarized phases in twisted bilayer–bilayer graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Yuan Cao; Daniel Rodan-Legrain; Oriol Rubies-Bigorda; Jeong Min Park; Kenji Watanabe; Takashi Taniguchi; Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Daily briefing: Australian archaeological sites discovered on the seabed
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Emma Stoye

    Divers found stone tools belonging to people that lived more than 7,000 years ago. Plus: an image dataset tagged with offensive labels has been pulled offline, and a fire has destroyed valuable specimens at a museum in Brazil.

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Former Harvard researcher who sexually harassed postdoc sparks turmoil at Italian institute
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-02

    A research institute that appointed Pier Paolo Pandolfi as its scientific director has reversed its decision after internal protests.

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • What the atomic structure of enamel tells us about tooth decay
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Shamini Bundell; Nick Howe

    Hear the biggest stories from the world of science | 02 July 2020

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Structural basis of CXC chemokine receptor 2 activation and signalling
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Kaiwen Liu; Lijie Wu; Shuguang Yuan; Meng Wu; Yueming Xu; Qianqian Sun; Shu Li; Suwen Zhao; Tian Hua; Zhi-Jie Liu

    Chemokines and their receptors mediate cell migration, which influences multiple fundamental biological processes and disease conditions, such as inflammation and cancer1. Although ample efforts have been invested into the structural investigation of the chemokine receptors and receptor–chemokine recognition2–4, less is known about endogenous chemokine-induced receptor activation and G protein coupling

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Global thirst for electricity is fuelling the rise of a potent greenhouse gas
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01

    Emissions of sulfur hexafluoride soared over the 40 years to 2018, despite some countries’ efforts to curb its use.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Restoring Notre-Dame’s ‘magical’ windows
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Chris Woolston

    Conservation scientist Claudine Loisel is spellbound by the stained-glass splendours that survived a devastating fire at Paris’s famous cathedral.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Second Brazilian museum fire in two years reignites calls for reform
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Emiliano Rodríguez Mega

    A recent fire at a natural history museum in Minas Gerais is forcing some researchers to relive the pain of losing priceless specimens and artefacts.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The first five minutes of ReBirth
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Matt Thompson

    Time to prepare for another mission.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Daily briefing: LIGO turns huge mirrors into quantum objects to break precision limit
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Flora Graham

    Gravitational-wave detector goes quantum to overcome the limits of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Plus: why it’s so hard to know when we will reach herd immunity to COVID-19, and how flying snakes glide through the air.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Atomic forces mapped out by lasers
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Michael A. Sentef

    Indirect imaging of potential-energy landscapes in materials.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Observation of branched flow of light
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Anatoly Patsyk; Uri Sivan; Mordechai Segev; Miguel A. Bandres

    When waves propagate through a weak disordered potential with correlation length larger than the wavelength, they form channels (branches) of enhanced intensity that keep dividing as the waves propagate1. This fundamental wave phenomenon is known as branched flow. It was first observed for electrons1,2,3,4,5,6 and for microwave cavities7,8, and it is generally expected for waves with vastly different

    更新日期:2020-07-01
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