Accounting for spatiotemporal correlations of GNSS coordinate time series to estimate station velocities J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-13 C. Benoist; X. Collilieux; P. Rebischung; Z. Altamimi; O. Jamet; L. Métivier; K. Chanard; L. Bel
It is well known that GNSS permanent station coordinate time series exhibit time-correlated noise. Spatial correlations between coordinate time series of nearby stations are also long-established and generally handled by means of spatial filtering techniques. Accounting for both the temporal and spatial correlations of the noise via a spatiotemporal covariance model is however not yet a common practice. We demonstrate in this paper the interest of using such a spatiotemporal covariance model of the stochastic variations in GNSS time series in order to estimate long-term station coordinates and especially velocities. We provide a methodology to rigorously assess the covariances between horizontal coordinate variations and use it to derive a simple exponential spatiotemporal covariance model for the stochastic variations in the IGS repro2 station coordinate time series. We then use this model to estimate station velocities for two selected datasets of 10 time series in Europe and 11 time series in the USA. We show that coordinate prediction as well as velocity determination from short time series are improved when using this spatiotemporal model, as compared with the case where spatiotemporal correlations are ignored.
Discrete-element numerical modeling of sub-salt structures in the Central Kelasu fold-thrust belt, Kuqa Depression, northwestern China J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-03 Chunfang Zheng; Xiongwei Sun; Guiting Hou
Knowledge of the deformation history and dominant factors influencing the formation of sub-salt structures is necessary to understand the formation of sub-salt traps. In this study, the discrete-element method (DEM) is used to assess the deformation mechanism of sub-salt structures in the Central Kelasu fold-thrust belt of the Kuqa Depression. A series of DEM models of the Central Kelasu fold-thrust belt are constructed, the final deformation styles of the models are compared with the real structures in order to determine the fitting degree of each models, and the dominant factors influencing the formation of sub-salt structures are determined. A thin salt layer promotes the deformation in the sub-salt sequence. Salt sub-sags, basal uplifts, and pre-existing faults can also promote the deformation in the sub-salt sequence in the northern part of the models. Large deformations accumulate in pre-existing structures in the northern part of the models, and then subsequent deformations are also transmitted to the salt layer and supra-salt sequence; however, these deformations are hardly transmitted to the sub-salt sequence in the middle and southern parts of the models. Among the eight DEM models constructed in our research, the horizontal-stratum model without any initial structures showed the best fit to actual phenomena. Earlier simple structures of Mesozoic layers can be deformed into the current complex structures under compression effects in the late Himalayan period. By comparing with other regions and analyzing the deformation progress of the DEM model, the sub-salt structures in the Kuqa Depression are considered to be fold-accommodation fault structures.
Lithospheric structure of the xuefengshan belt, South China: Evidence from a seismic reflection profile J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-03 Xiaosan Zhu; Hongwei Zheng; Minjie Lu; Yinghui Zhang
In this study, we analyse and interpret a new seismic reflection profile across the Xuefengshan Belt (XFSB), South China, to determine the deep structure of this belt and provide insights into collisional orogenic architecture. We identify a deep regional fault located beneath the XFSB, which cuts through the reflection Moho below the belt and is interpreted as representing the collisional boundary between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks along the southeastern margin of the belt. We identify structural evidence for collision between the two blocks, including two groups of layered narrow slip belts (∼30 km) in the middle crust, one distributed in the Yangtze Block and the other in the Cathaysia Block. A narrow velocity-gradient belt in the upper mantle at a depth of ∼90 km is revealed by numerous strong seismic reflectors, some of which are layered. The study provides important new information on the lithospheric structure of the South China Block at the interface between the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks.
Magnetic fabrics of the neoproterozoic piquiri syenite massif (Southernmost Brazil): Implications for 3D geometry and emplacement J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-13 Samuel Sbaraini; M. Irene B. Raposo; Maria de Fátima Bitencourt; Camila Rocha Tomé
The study of magnetic fabrics and rock magnetic properties, together with geological and structural mapping, was carried out in a syenite pluton to investigate its shape and emplacement history. The Piquiri Syenite Massif (PSM) is an alkaline pluton which exhibits S >> L magmatic fabric and is interpreted to be part of the last Neoproterozoic post-collisional magmatic episodes in southernmost Brazil. Thermomagnetic curves, hysteresis data and coercivity spectra obtained from representative samples of different facies in the massif reveal that magnetic susceptibility is dominated by ferromagnetic minerals, especially magnetite. Magnetic fabric data were determined by using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) and Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanence (AARM). Both fabrics are coaxial, and the parallelism of AMS and AARM tensors in more than 84 % of the sampled sites rules out the possibility of significant effects of Single Domain (SD) crystals. The magnetic foliation is concordant with the magmatic foliation field measurements, both parallel to pluton contacts, with high, inward dip angles. The magnetic lineation shows distinct but related behaviour from one facies to another. It is dominantly subvertical in the marginal facies rocks and plunges at moderate to shallow angles in the main facies. It is sub-horizontal in the quartz-syenites and plunges at shallow angles in the granitic rocks. Oxidizing conditions determined from the study of magnetic mineralogy leads to challenge former interpretation of in situ differentiation and crystallization and points to the multi-intrusive character of the pluton. Field relations such as fragments of marginal facies rocks found within the main facies rocks, which are in turn intruded by quartz-syenites, together with the general absence of contact metamorphism except near the marginal facies, lead to interpret that a sequence of magmatic pulses have built up the pluton. Thus, a first magmatic pulse may have heated the host rocks and resulted in the marginal facies which was followed by the next pulses to form the main facies and the quartz-rich varieties, therefore constructing the pluton from outside inwards.
A study of the solid Earth tides, ocean and atmospheric loadings using an 8-year record (2010-2018) from superconducting gravimeter OSG-060 at Djougou (Benin, West Africa) J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-12-03 Jacques Hinderer; U. Riccardi; S. Rosat; J.-P. Boy; B. Hector; M. Calvo; F. Little; J.-D. Bernard
We investigate a nearly 8-year record (2010-2018) of the superconducting gravimeter OSG-060 located at Djougou (Benin, West Africa). We first perform a tidal analysis with ET34-ANA v7.1 software that leads to the gravimetric amplitude and phase factors for all separable waves according to the available time duration. We test nine different ocean tide models for the main eleven tidal constituents (Ssa, Mm, Mf, Q1, O1, P1, K1, N2, M2, S2, K2). After correction for ocean tidal loading we obtain the real and imaginary parts of the residual vector. We also investigate atmospheric loading which is dominated in this equatorial location by the thermal waves S1 and S2 that are modulated in amplitude by annual and semi-annual components. After correction for ocean loading, we test different air pressure corrections on the tidal gravimetric factors for the waves Sa, Ssa, S1 and S2. We show the rather large discrepancy that exists between the classical single admittance pressure reduction and a hybrid model using global atmospheric models everywhere except in the local zone where the model pressure is replaced by the observed pressure.
Lithological control on multiple surface ruptures during the 2016-2017 Amatrice-Norcia seismic sequence J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2019-11-09 Eugenio Carminati; Cristian Bignami; Carlo Doglioni; Luca Smeraglia
Seismic signature of the Alpine indentation, evidence from the Eastern Alps. J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2015-11-04 I Bianchi,G Bokelmann
The type of collision between the European and the Adriatic plates in the easternmost Alps is one of the most interesting questions regarding the Alpine evolution. Tectonic processes such as compression, escape and uplift are interconnected and shape this area. We can understand these ongoing processes better, if we look for signs of the deformation within the Earth's deep crust of the region. By collecting records from permanent and temporary seismic networks, we assemble a receiver function dataset, and analyze it with the aim of giving new insights on the structure of the lower crust and of the shallow portion of the upper mantle, which are inaccessible to direct observation. Imaging is accomplished by performing common conversion depth stacks along three profiles that crosscut the Eastern Alpine orogen, and allow isolating features consistently persistent in the area. The study shows a moderately flat Moho underlying a seismically anisotropic middle-lower crust from the Southern Alps to the Austroalpine nappes. The spatial progression of anisotropic axes reflects the orientation of the relative motion and of the stress field detected at the surface. These observations suggest that distributed deformation is due to the effect of the Alpine indentation. In the shallow upper mantle right below the Moho interface, a further anisotropic layer is recognized, extended from the Bohemian Massif to the Northern Calcareous Alps.
Tidal Love and Shida numbers estimated by geodetic VLBI. J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2013-10-01 Hana Krásná,Johannes Böhm,Harald Schuh
Frequency-dependent Love and Shida numbers, which characterize the Earth response to the tidal forces, were estimated in a global adjustment of all suitable geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions from 1984.0 to 2011.0. Several solutions were carried out to determine the Love and Shida numbers for the tidal constituents at periods in the diurnal band and in the long-period band in addition to values of the Love and Shida numbers common for all tides of degree two. Adding up all twelve diurnal tidal waves that were estimated, the total differences in displacement with respect to the theoretical conventional values of the Love and Shida numbers calculated from an Earth model reach 1.73 ± 0.29 mm in radial direction and 1.15 ± 0.15 mm in the transverse plane. The difference in the radial deformation following from the estimates of the zonal Love numbers is largest for the semi-annual tide Ssa with 1.07 ± 0.19 mm.