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  • Seasonal Sea Surface Temperature Variability over Tropical Indo-Pacific Region Simulated by FIO-ESM Model Under Global Warming
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Xinyou Zhang, Lin Liu, Yajuan Song

    Abstract The long-term trend and seasonal variability of sea surface temperature (SST) over tropical Indo-Pacific region under the global warming projection simulated by FIO-ESM model are analyzed. At seasonal time scale, significant warming trend over Indo-Pacific area is well captured by FIO-ESM model over the warm pool region under RCP8.5 scenario. The La Niña-like warming pattern is dominant in the tropical Pacific and the negative Indian Ocean Dipole warming pattern takes place in the Indian Ocean in global warming projection separately. The strength of SST warming trend is found to be seasonal dependent over Indo-Pacific region. The spatial distribution of calendar month where fastest/slowest SST warming trend take place in tropical Indo-Pacific has been assessed in FIO-ESM simulation, which is corresponded with the distribution of SST climatology closely in Pacific but not in Indian Ocean.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Response of Air–Sea Fluxes and Oceanic Features to the Coupling of Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave During the Passage of a Tropical Cyclone
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Vimlesh Pant, Kumar Ravi Prakash

    Abstract A coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave model was used to assess the impact of model coupling on the simulations of air–sea fluxes, surface currents, waves, and temperature profile during the passage of a tropical cyclone (TC) Phailin in the Bay of Bengal. Four numerical experiments with different coupling configurations among the atmosphere, ocean, and wave models were carried out to identify differences in simulated atmospheric and oceanic parameters. The simulated track and intensity of Phailin agree well with the observations. The inter-comparison of model experiments with different coupling options highlights the importance of better air–sea fluxes in the coupled model as compared to the uncoupled model towards an improvement in the simulation of TC Phailin. The coupled model configurations overcome the cold bias (up to − 2 °C) in sea surface temperature simulated by the uncoupled ocean model. A higher magnitude of the surface drag coefficient in the uncoupled atmosphere model enhanced the bottom stress (> 2 N m−2). As a result of excess momentum transfer to the sea surface, the uncoupled ocean model produced stronger surface currents as compared to the coupled model. The inclusion of the wave model increases the sea surface roughness and, thereby, improves the wind speed and momentum flux at the air–sea interface. The maximum significant wave height in the coupled model was about 2 m lower than the uncoupled wave model. The model experiments demonstrate that the periodic feedback among the atmosphere, ocean, and wave models leads to a better representation of momentum and heat fluxes that improves the prediction of a tropical cyclone.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Geophysical Investigation of Mount Nemrut Stratovolcano (Bitlis, Eastern Turkey) Through Aeromagnetic Anomaly Analyses
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Yunus Levent Ekinci, Aydin Büyüksaraç, Özcan Bektaş, Can Ertekin

    Abstract Quaternary Mount Nemrut stratovolcano, having a spectacular summit caldera and associated lakes, is located north of the Bitlis–Zagros suture zone, Eastern Turkey. Although much attention has been paid to its geology, morphology, history and biology, a detailed geophysical investigation has not been performed in this special region. Thus, we attempted to characterize the stratovolcano and the surroundings using total field aeromagnetic anomalies. Potential field data processing techniques helped us to interpret geologic sources causing magnetic signatures. Resulting image maps obtained from some linear transformations and a derivative-based technique revealed general compatibility between the aeromagnetic anomalies and the near-surface geology of the study area. Some high amplitude magnetic anomalies observed north of the Nemrut caldera rim are associated with the latest bimodal volcanic activity marked by lava fountains and comenditic-basaltic flows occurred along the rift zone. After minimizing the high-frequency effects, a pseudogravity-based three-dimensional inversion scheme revealed that the shallowest deep-seated sources are located about 3.0 km below the ground surface. Two-dimensional normalized full gradient solutions also exposed the depths of these anomaly sources, in good agreement with the inversion results. This first geophysical study performed through aeromagnetic anomalies clearly gave insights into some main magnetized structures of the Mount Nemrut stratovolcano.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Computation of Ground Motion Amplification Scenario in NCT Delhi for Earthquake Engineering Purposes and Seismic Microzonation
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Luxman Kumar, J. P. Narayan

    Abstract This paper presents a scenario for the spatial variation of the fundamental frequency of the sediment deposits above the basement and the corresponding amplification as well as the average spectral amplification in different frequency bandwidths for the National Capital Territory Delhi (the capital of India). The exposed central quartzite ridge and the Yamuna River channel are responsible for very large spatial variations of the fundamental frequency in the eastern part of the National Capital Territory Delhi. At 20% of the considered sites, a good match is obtained between the fundamental frequency computed numerically using available S-wave velocities to a certain depth and their extrapolation and that obtained experimentally. The computed fundamental and dominant frequencies reveal that both medium-rise (5–10 storey) and high-rise (> 10 storey) buildings in the western part and medium-rise buildings lying in the localities east of or very near to the Yamuna River may suffer heavy to very heavy damage due to the occurrence of the double resonance phenomenon. Furthermore, 1–2-storey buildings lying on the weathered exposed quartzite rock may also suffer heavy damage during local earthquakes because of the occurrence of double resonance. The possible reasons behind the lack of earthquake damage to the Qutab Minar, the tallest brick masonry minaret in the world, over the last 800 years may be the nonoccurrence of double resonance and almost no amplification in the low frequency range. There are two localities in the western part of the National Capital Territory Delhi, namely Kanganheri-Chhawla and Buradi, wherein all sorts of buildings are highly vulnerable to earthquake damage. For the closed Chhatarpur Basin and a semiclosed basin to its northeast, formed due to exposed quartzite rock, three-dimensional (3D) simulations are required to predict the characteristics of basin-generated surface waves and their focusing effects in the Chhatarpur Basin. The average spectral amplification map developed for the 0–10 Hz bandwidth depicts a range of 2.25–4.82 in the National Capital Territory Delhi and may be directly used to transfer the estimated seismic hazard at basement to the free surface.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Multi-geophysical Approach for the Characterization of Thermally-Induced Cracks in Granite: Discussion of Reproducibility and Persistence
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Mohamed Salah Boussaid, Céline Mallet, Kévin Beck, Jodry Clara

    Abstract We study damage induced by low temperature variations in granite samples given their role in shallow geological reservoirs. We consider two thermal treatments, slow cooling and thermal shock, and implement a multi-geophysical approach to characterize the induced micro-scale damage. The methodology consists in monitoring elastic wave velocity and thermal conductivity as well as describing the damage by the way of Hg-porosity measurements and microscopic observations. To discuss the reproducibility of the induced damage, the same thermal protocol is performed on five samples. Our first results indicate that the thermal shock leads to a more pronounced damage. This is interpreted to be due to a larger variety of nucleated intragranular and intergranular cracks as observed by SEM and optic microscope. Yet, this more significant damage does not appear reproducible from one sample to another compared to the damage introduced by slow cooling. According to this first result, thereby, we propose a timely monitoring of elastic wave velocity, conductivity and Hg-porosity. It appears that the damage introduced by the slow cooling, unlike the thermal shock, does not present a long persistence. Indeed, after 15 days, the different properties had returned to their initial state. A time-dependence mechanism is proposed to discuss this observed process.

    更新日期:2020-02-13
  • Global Occurrence of Large Tsunamis and Tsunami-like Waves Within the Last 120 years (1900–2019)
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Viacheslav K. Gusiakov

    Abstract The run-up catalogs of two global tsunami databases maintained by the NCEI/WDC NOAA and NTL/ICMMG SD RAS are examined to compile the list of annual maximum runups observed or measured in the oceanic, marine and inland basins during the last 120 years (from 1900 to 2019). All the retrieved annual maximum runups were divided into four groups according to four main types of tsunami sources (seismogenic, landslide-generated, volcanic, and meteorological). Their distribution over the type of sources shows that of the 120 maximum runups only 78 (65%) resulted from seismogenic sources, while the remaining 42 runups were divided between landslide-generated (19%), volcanic (8%), and meteorological (7.5%) sources. The analysis of geographical distribution of source locations demonstrates that tsunamis are not exclusively a marine hazard—over 15% of all maximum runups were observed in coastal and inland water basins (narrow bays, fiords, lakes, and rivers). Temporal distribution of the collected runups shows that annual occurrence of large tsunamis was more or less stable throughout the twentieth century and only demonstrates some increase during the last 27 years (since 1992) when the practice of post-event surveys of all damaging tsunamis was implemented. This paper also outlines the existing problems with data compilation, cataloguing, and distribution, and discusses incompleteness of runup and wave-form data for a considerable number of non-damaging tsunamis, even those resulting from the strong (magnitude higher than 7.5) submarine earthquakes.

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Asperity Failure Control of Stick–Slip Along Brittle Faults
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Xiaofeng Chen, Brett M. Carpenter, Ze’ev Reches

    Abstract Stick–slips are spontaneous, unstable slip events during which a natural or man-made system transitions from a strong, sticking stage to a weaker, slipping stage. Stick–slips were proposed by Brace and Byerlee (Science 153:990–992, 1966) as the experimental analogue of natural earthquakes. We analyze here the mechanics of stick–slips along brittle faults by conducting laboratory experiments and by modeling the instability mechanics. We performed tens of shear tests along experimental faults made of granite and gabbro that were subjected to normal stresses up to 14.3 MPa and loading velocities of 0.26–617 µm/s. We observed hundreds of spontaneous stick–slips that displayed shear stress drops up to 0.66 MPa and slip-velocities up to 14.1 mm/s. The pre-shear and post-shear fault surface topography were mapped with atomic force microscopy at pixel sizes as low as 0.003 µm2. We attribute the sticking phase to the locking of touching asperities and the slipping phase to the brittle failure of these asperities, and found that the fault asperities are as strong as the inherent strength of the host rock. Based on the experimental observations and analysis, we derived a mechanical model that predicts the relationships between the measured stick–slip properties (stress-drop, duration, and slip-distance) and asperity strength.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Application of Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo Algorithms to Elastic and Petrophysical Amplitude-Versus-Angle Inversions
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Mattia Aleardi, Alessandro Salusti

    Abstract We infer the elastic and petrophysical properties from pre-stack seismic data through a transdimensional Bayesian inversion. In this approach the number of model parameters (i.e. the number of layers) is treated as an unknown, and a reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (rjMCMC) algorithm is used to sample the variable-dimension model space. This inversion scheme provides a parsimonious solution, and reliably quantifies the uncertainties affecting the estimated model parameters. Parallel tempering, which employs a sequence of interacting Markov chains in which the likelihood function is successively relaxed, is used to improve the efficiency of the probabilistic sampling. In addition, the delayed rejection updating scheme is employed to speed up the convergence of the rjMCMC algorithm to the stationary regime. Both elastic and petrophysical inversions invert the amplitude versus angle responses and employ a convolutional forward modelling based on the exact Zoeppritz equations. First, synthetic tests are used to assess the reliability of the implemented rjMCMC algorithms, then their applicability is demonstrated by inverting field seismic data acquired onshore. In this case the inversion was aimed at inferring the elastic and petrophysical properties around a gas-saturated reservoir hosted in a shale-sand sequence. In this case, the final outcomes provided by the rjMCMC algorithms are also compared with the predictions of linear Bayesian elastic and petrophysical inversions. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that the implemented algorithms can successfully estimate model uncertainty, model dimensionality and subsurface parameters with an affordable computational cost.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Seismic Sequences of the 2017 Mainling M w 6.5 Earthquake: Imaging the Seismogenic Fault by Aftershock Analysis
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Weiping Wang, Jiansi Yang, Yanbin Wang

    Abstract In the southeastern part of Tibet, an earthquake with a local magnitude of 6.9 occurred in the prefecture of Mainling on 18 November 2017. The mainshock and more than 900 aftershocks were recorded by a local seismic network comprising seven three-component seismic stations. In this study, both HypoDD location of aftershocks and focal mechanism inversion of moderate events were performed in order to accurately identify the pattern of active faults. The result reveals that the mainshock has a thrust source mechanism located at a depth of 14 km beneath the NE flank of the Namcha Barwa–Gyala Peri (NB-GP) massif. The aftershock sequences are caused mainly by two determined faults, one of which is the seismogenic fault stretching with a SE–NW trend parallel to the GP ridge and with a high NE-oriented dipping angle, and the other is activated by the mainshock and displays features of a SSE-NNW trend and SW-dipping, inferring the adjustment of stress in the focal area. The source parameters of the mainshock and the selected aftershocks show the reverse property of the seismogenic fault and its adjunct fault, thus inferring the backlash and uplift of the NB-GP massif, especially GP, for adjusting the uneven extrusion from the eastern Himalayan syntaxis to the adjacent Lhasa block. Furthermore, it is deduced that the rupture energy of the mainshock and aftershocks was limited by the surrounding rigid rock mass with high seismic velocity, such as the Lhasa block in the north and east, and Namcha Barwa complex in the south, and other aftershocks appearing at the NW top of GP and the SE side of Yarlung Tsangpo Big Bend reflect the strong squeezing effect of the NB-GP massif to its northeastern geological mass.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Study of Generation and Underground Flow of Acid Mine Drainage in Waste Rock Pile in an Uranium Mine Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Matheus Felipe Stanfoca Casagrande, César Augusto Moreira, Débora Andrade Targa

    Abstract Mineral exploration is often associated with the generation of environmental liabilities, whose potential damages might imperil local water quality. An example of these environmental impacts is the acid mine drainage—AMD, caused by sulfides oxidation and production of acid and saline effluents. The analysis of critical areas with generation and spread of contamination plumes becomes more feasible due to the possibility to obtain geophysical models of water systems, especially to identify regions with accumulation of reactive minerals and preferential water flows. The rock-waste pile named BF-04 fits in this context of contamination, and it was studied based on the Electrical Resistivity Tomography technique, inversion models and isosurface models, providing conditions to recognize sulfide zones (> 10.1 mV/V), whereas chaotic high salt content underground flows, along several depths, were identified by low resistivity zones (< 75.8 Ω m). The complex behavior of groundwater flow in this kind of artificial granular aquifer is caused by its granulometric and lithologic heterogeneities, and compacted material. In addition, the results reveled a substantial water infiltration from Consulta creek, however the most critic zones for AMD generation are located at shallow levels where the waste rock material is more exposed to atmospheric O2 and meteoric water infiltration. The bedrock was not associated with significant low resistivity anomalies, which means that its contribution to AMD generation was considered relatively less important. The results will contribute to the environmental remediation management and also to demonstrate the potential applicability of geophysical methods in mining wastes.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Visibility Data Assimilation and Prediction Using an Observation Network in South Korea
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Minyou Kim, Keunhee Lee, Yong Hee Lee

    Abstract There have been many studies to improve visibility forecast skills using numerical models, but their performance still remains behind the forecast skills for other meteorological phenomena. This study attempted to improve visibility forecasts using a newly established automatic visibility observation network composed of 291 forward-scattering sensors in South Korea. In the analysis of recent 3-year visibility observations, clear days (visibility above 20 km) were reported for 46% of the days, and fog cases (visibility less than 1 km) accounted for 1.58% of the total observations. The Very short-range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) assimilated the visibility observations based on the Met Office Unified Model with visibility data assimilation of Clark et al. (Q J R Meteorol Soc 134:1801–1816, 2008). Prior to the data assimilation, a precipitation check eliminated visibility data with precipitation (9.4% in total, 23% for visibility less than 1 km), and a consistency check removed visibility observations that were inappropriate to relative humidity, temperature, and pressure. In a case study on two consecutive fog days, visibility forecast skills were improved by applying visibility data assimilation, mostly through modifications of aerosol concentrations. A 3-month model run in the winter of 2016 showed a positive bias in visibility predictions, especially for the low-visibility cases. Visibility data assimilation improved the prediction skills, but the positive effects were limited within 9 forecast hours and were smaller for extremely low-visibility events. Sensitivity experiments were performed using local aerosol observations with a larger number of smaller aerosol particles. Modifications in aerosol properties made better results in frequency bias for the whole forecast ranges and also improved the equitable threat score (ETS) for relatively longer forecast hours (more than 4 h).

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Dynamic Modelling of Induced Seismicity by Using Seismic Efficiency Constraints and a New Scaling Law for Slip-Weakening Distance
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Atsushi Sainoki, Chiaki Hirohama, Adam Karl Schwartzkopff

    Abstract In the numerical simulation of induced seismicity, much attention is generally paid to the calibration of the frictional resistance of the causative fault to obtain a seismic moment consistent with that of the actual event, whereas sufficient investigation is not made in the estimation of the slip-weakening distance Dc as well as in the calibration of seismically radiated energy. The present study addresses this problem by numerically and analytically investigating the relation between Dc and seismic source parameters. First, this study performs the dynamic simulation of an induced seismic event caused by a decrease in the effective normal stress. The analysis demonstrated that seismic efficiency η can be used to improve the accuracy of estimating the critical slip-weakening distance and the coefficient of kinetic friction µd whilst considering not only seismic moment but also radiated energy in the calibration. This gave insight into the development of the new calibration method for induced seismicity that considers energy-related seismic source parameters. Furthermore, a new scaling law of the slip-weakening distance was derived from the theoretical expression of seismic efficiency η, considering seismic moment Mo and scaled energy \( \hat{e} \). The proposed scaling law can yield the relation between Dc and Mo, which is shown to be similar to that obtained from a previous study, but additionally considers the relation between seismically radiated energy and Dc. The dependency of Dc on seismically radiated energy implied from the proposed scaling law has been verified from the dynamic analyses where η = 0.06 was used to place a constraint on Dc for seismic events with different magnitudes. The developed numerical simulation methodology of induced seismicity as well as the scaling law considering the energy indices significantly contributes to improving the accuracy of back-analysis, thus leading to a more accurate estimation of the mechanical properties of faults and/or shear zones in seismically active regions of deep underground mines or reservoirs composed of discontinuous hard rock masses.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • 80th Anniversary of Pure and Applied Geophysics : A Bibliometric Overview
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Carles Mulet-Forteza, Antonio Socias Salvá, Sebastian Monserrat, Angel Amores

    Abstract Pure and Applied Geophysics (PAGEOPH) is one of the leading journals in the field of geophysics. The first issue was published in 1939; thus, the journal is celebrating its 80th anniversary in 2018. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete lifetime overview of the academic structure of the journal using bibliometric indicators. This analysis includes key factors such as the most cited articles, leading authors, originating institutions and countries, publication and citation structures, and the most commonly used keywords. The bibliometric data used to conduct this analysis comes from the Scopus database. Additionally, the visualization of similarities (VOS)viewer software is used to create a graphic map of some of the bibliometric results. The graphical analysis uses co-citation, bibliographic coupling and co-occurrence of keywords. The results indicate that PAGEOPH is a leading journal in the areas in which it is indexed, with publications from a wide range of authors, institutions, and countries around the world.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Seismic Risk on the Northern Xiaojiang Fault Implied by the Latest and Nearest GPS Observations
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Zhen Fu, Lisheng Xu, Yongzhe Wang

    Abstract On the basis of the continuous and dense GPS observations covering the northern segment of the Xiaojiang fault zone (n-XJFZ) from March 2012 to March 2016, we present the velocity field, spatiotemporal deformation, slip rate and locking depth of the n-XJFZ. The results provide strong support for achieving a better understanding of the deformation behavior of this fault. The heterogeneity of the GPS velocity field and relatively nonuniform distribution of seismicity suggest that the observational area is fragmented. Shear strain has been accumulating with an almost constant azimuth, which is consistent with the trends of the mapped major faults. The 2014 Ms 6.5 Ludian earthquake produced a sudden change in the dilatational strain, which was almost constant prior to the event, and an increase in the shear strain rate. The near-field deformation of the n-XJFZ estimated with the near-field data was larger than expected, revealing that the n-XJFZ is becoming more locked. These results imply that the seismic risk in the study area is currently rising and that, similar to the 2014 Ms 6.5 Ludian earthquake, future earthquakes will possibly occur away from mapped faults.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Configuration of Late Archaean Chilimanzi and Razi Suites of Granites, South-Central Zimbabwe Craton, From Gravity Modelling: Geotectonic Implications
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Rubeni T. Ranganai, Oswald Gwavava, Cynthia J. Ebinger, Kathryn A. Whaler

    Abstract The subsurface geometry of five representative late Archaean ‘Chilimanzi and Razi’ suite plutons in the Zimbabwe craton (ZC) has been investigated by gravity modelling constrained in part by surface geology, density measurements and seismic information, to determine their 3D configuration and infer tectonic context of emplacement. The generally K-rich, massive, homogeneous monzogranites are characterised by large Bouguer gravity lows (up to − 30 mGal amplitude) whose gradients outline their spatial extent well. The southernmost plutons and their anomalies have general trends paralleling the North Marginal Zone (NMZ) of the Limpopo orogenic belt (LB). Predictive gravity models indicate that the density contrast of the Chivi batholith (CB) adjacent to the ‘volcanic arc-like’ Belingwe greenstone belt extends to a depth of about 13 km. The nearby Razi pluton (RP) which intrudes the ZC-LB boundary appears to have been emplaced at shallower depths/levels. The gravity model suggests a thickness of about 5–6 km, and a moderate to shallow dip to the southeast under the NMZ, compatible with syn-kinematic intrusion during overthrust of the LB over the ZC. The smallest Nalatale granite (Ng) is on average 2.5 km thick under the Fort Rixon greenstone belt but includes a root up to 4.5 km thick under the anomaly peak, and a steep contact with the tonalite/gneiss to the east. These granites follow the general power-law for pluton dimension and are similar in this respect to the classical wedge-shaped plutons, extending largely in one direction, with large aspect ratios (Length (L)/Thickness (T) > 7). However, the overall shape of the RP is typical of a diapir (Width (W) < T), although it may have been affected by the LB deformation. Gravity modelling along a NS traverse crossing the Chilimanzi batholith (ChB), the Masvingo greenstone belt (MGB) and the Zimbabwe granite (ZG) indicate a thickness of around 6 km for the dense greenstone belt with a thickness of about 8.5 km for the adjacent ZG. The ‘complex’ shaped ChB shows a 2 km thick tabular body with a root zone extending to ~ 4.5 km depth on the south end, adjacent to the greenstone belt; typical of the so-called flat-floored plutons with a gently dipping floor towards the root zone. These two plutons roughly follow the power-law for laccolith/batholith dimensions (W/T > 5; L/T > 15). Overall, the CB and the ZG are interpreted as massive, deep-rooted batholithic intrusions (L/T ≅ 10), contrary to some geological interpretations of these late, post-kinematic intrusions as sheet-like bodies emplaced at relatively shallow levels in the crust. On the other hand, the ChB appears to be a tabular intrusion, probably fed by dykes; it exhibits a lateral extent much greater than the vertical one, outlining a sheeted geometry (W/T > 7; L/T > 18). The geophysical evidence, together with geological and fabric data, support and/or confirm the two main granite configurations: sheets and batholith; and thus also confirm the two main modes of emplacement: dyke and diapirism or ballooning plutonism. This is consistent with other known batholiths on the ZC but considered unusual for plutons of the same age and spatially close when compared to other Archaean cratons.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Geophysical Evaluation of Effectiveness of Blasting for Roof Caving During Longwall Mining of Coal Seam
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Łukasz Wojtecki, Petr Konicek, Maciej J. Mendecki, Iwona Gołda, Wacław M. Zuberek

    Abstract Deep longwall mining of coal seams is made in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) under complicated and mostly unfavourable geological and mining conditions. Usually, it is correlated with rockburst hazard mostly at a high level. One of the geological factors affecting the state of rockburst hazard is the presence of competent rocks in the roof of extracted coal seams, so rock falling behind the longwall face does not occur, and hanging-up of roof rocks remains. The long-lasting absence of caving may lead to an occurrence of high-energy tremor in the vicinity of the longwall face. Roof caving behind the longwall face may be forced by blasting. The column of explosives is then located in blastholes drilled in layers of roof rocks, e.g. sandstones behind the longwall face. In this article, a characterization of tremors initiated by blasts for roof caving during underground extraction of coal seam no. 507 in one of the collieries in the USCB has been made using three independent methods. By the basic seismic effect method, the effectiveness of blasting is evaluated according to the seismic energy of incited tremors and mass of explosives used. According to this method, selected blasts gave extremely good or excellent effect. An inversion of the seismic moment tensor enables determining the processes happening in the source of tremors. In the foci of provoked tremors the slip mechanism dominated or was clearly distinguished. The expected explosion had lesser significance or was not present. By the seismic source parameters analysis, among other things, an estimation of the stress drop in the focus or its size may be determined. The stress drop in the foci of provoked tremors was in the order of 105 Pa and the source radius, according to the Brune’s model, varied from 44.3 to 64.5 m. The results of the three mentioned methods were compared with each other and observations in situ. In all cases the roof falling was forced.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • On the Variability of Cold Wave Episodes Over Northwest India Using an NGFS Retrospective Analysis
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    A. Sandeep, V. S. Prasad

    Abstract A retrospective analysis of 17 years of NCMRWF Global Forecast System (NGFS) data was conducted to understand the state and variability of cold wave episodes over northwest India. During the 2000–2016 period, a total of 21 cold wave episodes (202 cold nights) were detected, out of which 5 severe cold episodes (63 cold nights) were registered. The 10 (6) episodes occurred during La Niña (El Niño) years suggesting that both phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation provide a favourable background for the occurrence of cold waves. The average duration of a cold wave episode was ~ 9.6 days, with the longest (shortest) episode, seen in the year 2008 (2006), lasting for 26 (6) consecutive days. The average duration of a severe cold wave episode is ≈ 4 days longer than that of a normal cold wave. In the year 2005, both the earliest (11 December) and latest (16 February) onsets of cold waves were seen. The omnipresence of intense Siberian anticyclone and the presence of western disturbance brought cold winds to the study region. Also, temperature advection and geo-potential height anomalies play vital roles in the maintenance of cold waves. The cold waves exhibit a significant intra-annual variability over northwest India. The intensity of cold waves has shown an increase of 0.11 °C per cold episode.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • A Regional Approach of Decadal Assessment of Extreme Precipitation Estimates: A Case Study in the Yangtze River Basin, China
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Samiran Das, Dehua Zhu, Chi-Han Cheng

    Abstract Changes in overall observed precipitation have been recognized in many parts of the world in recent decades, leading to the argument on climate change and its impact on extreme precipitation. However, the concept of natural variations and the complex physical mechanisms hidden in the observed data sets must also be taken into consideration. This study aims to examine the matter further with reference to inter-decadal variability in extreme precipitation quantiles appropriate for risk analysis. Temporal changes in extreme precipitation are assessed using a parametric approach incorporating a regional method in region-of-influence form. The index-flood method with the application of generalized extreme value distribution is used to estimate the decadal extreme precipitation. The study also performs a significance test to determine whether the decadal extremes are significant. A case study is performed on the Yangtze River Basin, where annual maximum 1-day precipitation data for 180 stations were analyzed over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010. Extreme quantiles estimated from the 1990s data emerged as the significant values on several occasions. The immediate drop in the quantile values in the following decade, however, suggested that it is not practical to assign more weight to recent data for the quantile estimation process. The temporal patterns identified are in line with the previous studies conducted in the region and thus make it an alternative way to perform decadal analysis with an advantage that the scheme can be transferred to ungauged conditions.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Effect of the Inclusion of Solar Cycle 24 in the Calculation of foF2 Long-Term Trend for Two Japanese Ionospheric Stations
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Blas F. de Haro Barbás, Ana G. Elias

    Abstract One of the main ionization sources of the F2 region of the Earth’s ionosphere is the solar EUV irradiance accounting for ~ 90% of its variability during quiet time. Consequently, prior to long-term trend estimations solar activity must be filtered out. The last two solar activity cycles present low activity levels, and particularly solar cycle 24 is the lowest in the last ten solar cycles. The effect of the inclusion of this last solar cycle on foF2 trend estimation is analyzed for two mid-latitude ionospheric stations: Kokubunji (35.7°N, 139.5°E) and Wakkanai (45.4°N, 141.7°E). Filtering is done considering the residuals of different regressions between foF2 and Rz and also between foF2 and F10.7. In both cases, foF2 trends become less negative when solar cycle 24 is included in trend estimations since foF2 residuals systematically exceeds the values predicted by a linear, quadratic or cubic fit between foF2 and F10.7 or Rz from 2008 onwards. In addition, the Earth’s magnetic field secular variation at both stations would induce a positive foF2 trend during daytime that could counteract the greenhouse gases decreasing trend. It is interesting to think that including the latest solar cycles does not necessarily imply incorrect results in the statistical analysis of the data, but simply that solar activity is decreasing on average and also the trend.

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Open Water Flow in a Wet/Dry Multiply-Connected Channel Network: A Robust Numerical Modeling Algorithm
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Sergii Kivva, Mark Zheleznyak, Oleksandr Pylypenko, Vasyl Yoschenko

    Abstract Our goal was to develop a robust algorithm for numerical simulation of one-dimensional shallow water flow in a complex multiply-connected channel network with arbitrary geometry and variable topography. We apply a central-upwind scheme with a novel reconstruction of the open water surface in partially flooded cells that does not require additional correction. The proposed reconstruction and an exact integration of source terms for the momentum conservation equation provide positivity preserving and well-balanced features of the scheme for various wet/dry states. We use two models based on the continuity equation and mass and momentum conservation equations integrated for a control volume around the channel junction to its treatment. These junction models permit to simulate subcritical and supercritical flows in a channel network. Numerous numerical experiments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed numerical algorithm and a good agreement of numerical results with exact solutions, experimental data, and results of the previous numerical studies. The proposed new specialized test on inundation and drying of an initially dry channel network shows the merits of the new numerical algorithm to simulate the subcritical/supercritical open water flows in the networks.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Topographically Predicted Vertical Gravity Gradient Field and Its Applicability in 3D and 4D Microgravimetry: Etna (Italy) Case Study
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Peter Vajda, Pavol Zahorec, Juraj Papčo, Daniele Carbone, Filippo Greco, Massimo Cantarero

    Abstract Some geophysical or geodynamic applications require the use of true vertical gradient of gravity (VGG). This demand may be associated with reductions of or corrections to observed gravity or its spatiotemporal changes. In the absence of in situ measured VGG values, the constant value of the theoretical (normal) free air gradient (FAG) is commonly used. We propose an alternative to this practice which may significantly reduce systematic errors associated with the use of constant FAG. The true VGG appears to be better approximated, in areas with prominent and rugged topography, such as alpine or some volcanic regions, by a value based on the modelled contribution of the topographic masses to the gradient. Such prediction can be carried out with a digital elevation model (DEM) of sufficient resolution and accuracy. Here we present the VGG field computed for Mt. Etna (Italy), one of the most active and best monitored volcanoes worldwide, to illustrate how strongly the VGG deviates spatially from constant FAG. The predicted (modelled) VGG field is verified by in situ observations. We also take a look at the sensitivity of the VGG prediction to the resolution and quality of used DEMs. We conclude with discussing the applicability of the topo-predicted VGG field in near surface structural and volcanological micro-gravimetric studies.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A Multi-fault Model Estimation from Tsunami Data: An Application to the 2018 M7.9 Kodiak Earthquake
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    M. Jakir Hossen, Anne F. Sheehan, Kenji Satake

    Abstract In this study, we developed a new search algorithm to find a multi-fault model of a complex earthquake using tsunami data, and applied it to the January 23, 2018 M7.9 Kodiak earthquake. Our method includes a Green’s function based time reverse imaging (GFTRI) approach to invert for sea surface displacement using tsunami waveforms, followed by inversion of the sea surface displacement for the earthquake slip distribution. The global CMT focal mechanism for this event indicates that faulting occurred on a steeply dipping fault striking either N–S (right lateral) or E–W (left lateral), while subsequent work reveals a more complex pattern of strike-slip faulting. We carried out a number of source inversions using different combinations of faults to find the model based on an extremum for residual errors. Our results suggest that the rupture occurred on at least three faults oriented in approximately N–S and E–W directions. We further explored the fault-geometry parameters by perturbing them within a range suggested by previous work. We found that the sea surface displacement model is best fit by our preferred three fault-model with the set of parameters (strike, dip, rake): (\(165^{\circ }\), \(60^{\circ }\), \(154^{\circ }\)) and (\(265^{\circ }\), \(60^{\circ }\), \(10^{\circ }\)) for N–S and E–W directions, respectively.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • On the Identification of Industrial Components in the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) from Microtremors
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Giancarlo Dal Moro

    Abstract In seismic hazard studies, the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) is nowadays routinely considered as a quick way to assess possible amplification effects. However, because of several issues that can affect the data, the HVSR cannot be considered as valid per se, and a careful data evaluation is necessary. In this study, a series of HVSR curves are evaluated in order to highlight industrial components that can significantly alter the natural HVSR. First, a controlled-source experiment is carried out in order to define the characteristics of spurious industrial signals. Data analysis shows that the coherence functions and the mildly smoothed amplitude spectra plotted with linear scales can help significantly in identifying industrial components that can be otherwise difficult to highlight. Coherence functions appear particularly interesting because of their ability to reveal the presence of industrial components independently of their amplitude. Field data from three sites are then analyzed on the basis of the evidence obtained through the controlled-source experiment. For the third site, data recorded on two different days are considered. While in the first data set no significant industrial component is present, in the second and third data sets, a series of remarkable industrial signals that severely alter the natural HVSR are identified. The assessment of the coherence functions and mildly smoothed amplitude spectra is therefore suggested as a valuable support to avoid pitfalls in the interpretation of the experimental HVSR. Finally, two quick and dirty procedures aimed at reducing the effect of industrial components are also presented.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • The 2018 Alaska-Kodiak Tsunami off the West Coast of North America: A Rare Mid-plate Tsunamigenic Event
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Kejia Wang, Richard E. Thomson, Alexander B. Rabinovich, Isaac V. Fine, Tania L. Insua

    Abstract The major (Mw 7.9) earthquake that struck the Gulf of Alaska near Kodiak Island on 23 January 2018 was a rare, mid-plate strike-slip event that triggered a minor trans-Pacific tsunami. An analysis of the simultaneous measurements of tsunami waveforms at 21 open-ocean sites (including three independent arrays of stations) and 27 coastal tide gauges in the Gulf of Alaska and along the coast of North America has enabled us to examine properties of the 2018 tsunami, its transformation over the continental slope and shelf, and its amplification as the waves approached the coast. Results show that the tsunami wave variance decreased monotonically along the west coast from northern British Columbia to southern Oregon. Based on the variance structure, the mean amplification factor for Tofino on the west coast of Vancouver Island (a “beacon” site with a long time series), was \(A_{RMS}^{Tof}\) = 5.3, in good agreement with corresponding estimates for four major past events; 4.5 (2009 Samoa), 4.3 (2010 Chile), 6.3 (2011 Tohoku) and 5.2 (2012 Haida Gwaii). This variance-derived amplification for Tofino was greater than the amplification factor based on the amplitude ratio (\(A_{{}}^{Tof}\) = 3.2). Spectral analysis of the records showed that the tsunami had a relatively large high-frequency content (i.e., was “blueish”), with nearly 90% of the total energy in the open ocean at frequencies > 1.7 cph (periods < 35 min) and with an “integral frequency scale” of 4 cph (period 15 min). Wavelet analysis revealed strong dispersion of the propagating tsunami waves, in agreement with theoretical estimates. The abrupt jump in water depth of about 4 cm detected at DART 46409, located mid-plate about 85 km from the epicenter of the 2018 Kodiak earthquake, appears to have been due to an earthquake-induced seafloor subsidence.

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Statistics and Spatial–Temporal Structure of Ground Acceleration Caused by Earthquakes in the North-Western Pacific
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    V. F. Pisarenko, M. V. Rodkin

    Abstract The possibilities of statistical estimation of quantiles of predicted maximum peak ground acceleration are discussed. The estimation is based on the theory of extreme values. The quantiles of maximum peak ground acceleration are calculated for a spatial grid covering the territory of high seismicity regions of Japan, Kuril Islands, and Kamchatka. A new phenomenon is observed: spatial spots of increased ground acceleration showing essential inhomogeneity not only across the deep ocean trench, but as well along its extension. Some spots exist during all observation time (130 years), whereas some other can disappear or appear during this time interval. The position of majority of spots is correlated with the concentration of underwater sea mounts at the adjacent part of the oceanic plate. The subduction of these sea mounts could induce an increased seismicity. A correlation of spots with sites of increased (Mb − Mw) values is observed also, which can be caused by an increased friction between the plates. Stable spots of higher acceleration are observed for different earthquake catalogs and various time periods. Our results make advisable using the extreme values theory technique for statistical estimation of seismic hazard, in particular, for characterization of seismic activity spots.

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Adaptive Denoising of Acoustic Noise Injections Performed at the Virgo Interferometer
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Alessandro Longo, Stefano Bianchi, Wolfango Plastino, Irene Fiori, Donatella Fiorucci, Jan Harms, Federico Paoletti, Matteo Barsuglia, Mikel Falxa

    Abstract A methodology using adaptive time series analysis is tested on data from a seismometer monitoring the north end building (NEB) of the Virgo interferometer during four acoustic noise injections. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used for adaptive detrending, while the recently developed time-varying filter EMD algorithm is used for narrowband mode extraction. Mode persistency is evaluated with detrended fluctuation analysis, and denoising is achieved by setting a threshold \(H_{\text {thr}}\) on the Hurst exponent of the obtained modes. The adopted methodology is proven useful in adaptively separating the seismic noise induced by the acoustic noise injections from the underlying nonlinear non-stationary recordings of the seismometer monitoring NEB. The Hilbert–Huang transform provides a high-resolution time–frequency representation of the data. Furthermore, the local Hurst exponent exhibits a drop due to the injections that is of the same order of \(H_{\text {thr}}\). This suggests that the local Hurst exponent could be calculated as an initial step in order to select the threshold \(H_{\text {thr}}\). The algorithms could be used for detector characterisation purposes such as the investigation of non-Gaussian noise.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Ground Shaking Scenario at the Historical Center of Napoli (Southern Italy) for the 1456 and 1688 Earthquakes
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    C. Nunziata, M. R. Costanzo

    Abstract Ground motion is computed at the historical center of Napoli for the 5 December 1456 and 5 June 1688 earthquakes responsible for VIII maximum felt intensity (MCS scale). Computations are performed using the hybrid technique, which is based on the mode summation and finite difference methods. These consider the source, propagation and local site effects. The approach is fully justified by the detailed knowledge of the physical parameters of the local subsoil based on the models inferred from noise cross-correlation measurements between two receivers. Moreover, the propagation model is validated through the fitting of synthetics with recording of a moderate earthquake at the historical center of Napoli (29 December 2013, MW = 5.2) close to the seismogenic fault responsible for the 1688 earthquake. Ground motion is computed along a two-dimensional section crossing the historical center for the seismogenic sources as known from the literature. A consistency exists between the computed peak ground acceleration and intensity data if we attribute higher moment magnitudes of 7 to the 1688 earthquake and 7.3–7.4 for the 1456 earthquake. In light of the uncertainties related to the macroseismic intensities and estimated magnitudes of these historical events and the relevant masonry heritage of the historical center of Napoli, the highest values of the computed ground motion are suggested for seismic retrofitting of the masonry heritage. A scenario earthquake like those of 1688 (MW = 7) and 5 December 1456 (MW = 7.4) is predicted by the seismic code for limit states of life safety or collapse, depending on the site and the true material damping.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • The Chios, Greece Earthquake of 23 July 1949: Seismological Reassessment and Tsunami Investigations
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Nikolaos S. Melis, Emile A. Okal, Costas E. Synolakis, Ioannis S. Kalogeras, Utku Kânoğlu

    Abstract We present a modern seismological reassessment of the Chios earthquake of 23 July 1949, one of the largest in the Central Aegean Sea. We relocate the event to the basin separating Chios and Lesvos, and confirm a normal faulting mechanism generally comparable to that of the recent Lesvos earthquake located at the Northern end of that basin. The seismic moment obtained from mantle surface waves, \(M_0 = 7 \times 10^{26}\) dyn cm, makes it second only to the 1956 Amorgos earthquake. We compile all available macroseismic data, and infer a preference for a rupture along the NNW-dipping plane. A field survey carried out in 2015 collected memories of the 1949 earthquake and of its small tsunami from surviving witnesses, both on Chios Island and nearby Oinousses, and on the Turkish mainland. While our results cannot help discriminate between the two possible fault planes of the 1949 earthquake, an important result is that both models provide an acceptable fit to the reported amplitudes, without the need to invoke ancillary sources such as underwater landslides, in contrast to the case of other historical tsunamis in the Aegean Sea, such as the 1956 Amorgos and 1948 Rhodos events.

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Probabilistic Modelling for Earthquake Forecasting in the Northwestern Part of Haryana State, India
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Vansittee Dilli Rao, Deepankar Choudhury

    Abstract This study attempts to estimate the probability of the occurrence of large earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.5) in the northwestern part of Haryana state, India, where a new nuclear power plant (NPP) is going to be constructed in the near future. First, an earthquake catalogue is developed for the period 1803–1986, and five stochastic models, namely lognormal, Weibull, gamma, Rayleigh, and double exponential, are then applied to past earthquake data. The performance of these models is checked using three statistical tests, and the lognormal, Weibull, and Rayleigh models are found to produce good approximations for this region, whereas the double exponential and gamma models yield intermediate and poor results. Hence, cumulative and conditional probabilities and related hazard curves for future earthquakes are estimated using the most suitable models. The cumulative probability of the occurrence of an earthquake (Mw ≥ 5.5) since the last event (1986) reached 0.95–0.98 as of 2018. The conditional probability of the occurrence of such an earthquake reaches 0.90–0.95 about 9–12 years from now (2027–2030), when the elapsed time will be 32 years (i.e., since 2018). The probability of earthquakes with different threshold magnitudes is then estimated, and based on the outcome of this investigation, earthquake magnitudes are classified from occasional (Mw ≤ 6.1) to very rare events (Mw ≥ 7.6) that this region may experience in the future. The findings of this study will be considered in seismic hazard assessment, liquefaction hazard assessment, and earthquake-resistant design of NPP components.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Radioxenon Releases from A Nuclear Power Plant: Stack Data and Atmospheric Measurements
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    A. Ringbom, A. Axelsson, O. Björnham, N. Brännström, T. Fritioff, H. Grahn, S. Hennigor, M. Olsson

    Abstract An analysis of a data set consisting of 3 years of high time resolution radioxenon stack measurements from the three nuclear reactors at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Sweden, as well as measurements of atmospheric radioxenon in Stockholm air, 110 km away, is presented. The main causes for the stack releases, such as the function of the xenon mitigation systems, presence of leaking fuel elements, and reactor operations such as shutdown and startup, are discussed in relation to the stack data. The relation between radioxenon releases and reactor operation is clearly illustrated by the correlation between the stack measurements and thermal reactor power. In general, the isotopic ratios of the Stockholm measurements, which are shown to mainly originate from Forsmark releases, agree well with stack measurements, and with a modeled reactor operational sequence. Results from a forward atmospheric dispersion calculation agree very well with observed plume arrival times and widths, and with some exceptions, also with absolute activity concentrations. The results illustrates the importance of detailed knowledge of radioxenon emissions from nuclear power plants when interpreting radioxenon measurements for nuclear test ban verification, and provide new input to this kind of analysis. Furthermore, it demonstrates the possibility to use sensitive radioxenon detection systems to remotely detect and verify reactor operation.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Relationship Between Seismic Moment and Source Duration for Seismogenic Earthquakes in Taiwan: Implications for the Product of Static Stress Drop and the Cube of Rupture Velocity
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Ruey-Der Hwang, Cheng-Ying Ho, Tzu-Wei Lin, Wen-Yen Chang, Yi-Ling Huang, Cai-Yi Lin, Chiung-Yao Lin

    Abstract A systematic analysis of the source duration (τ) and seismic moment (M0) for seismogenic earthquakes (MW 5.5–7.1) in the Taiwan region was completed by using a teleseismic P-wave inversion method. Irrespective of the source self-similarity, the M0–τ relationship derived in this study had a power-law form, namely M0 ∝ τ3, under the assumption that ΔσVr3 is constant following a circular fault model (Δσ: static stress drop; Vr: rupture velocity). For Taiwan’s earthquakes, the derived M0–τ relationship not only provides information to predict the source duration of large earthquakes, but also probes the rupture features of seismogenic earthquakes. That is, there are different rupture patterns for earthquakes, but the product ΔσVr3 remains nearly constant.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Strong Site Effect Revealed by a New Broadband Seismometer on the Continental Shelf Offshore Nice Airport (Southeastern France)
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Francoise Courboulex, E. Diego Mercerat, Anne Deschamps, Sébastien Migeon, Marion Baques, Christophe Larroque, Diane Rivet, Yann Hello

    A broadband seismological station (PRIMA) installed offshore Nice airport (southeastern France) reveals a strong amplification effect of seismic waves. PRIMA station was in operation for 2 years (9/2016 to 10/2018) on the outer shelf at a water depth of 18 m. Situated at the mouth of the Var River, this zone is unstable and prone to landslides. A catastrophic landslide and tsunami already occurred in 1979, causing 10 casualties. Given the level of seismicity of the area, it is important to infer the impact of an earthquake on this zone. We analyze the recordings of earthquakes and seismic noise at the PRIMA station by comparing them to nearby inland stations. We find that the seismic waves are strongly amplified at PRIMA at some specific frequencies (with an amplification factor greater than 10 at 0.9 Hz). Using geological and geophysical data, we show that the main amplification frequency peak (at 0.9 Hz) is due to the velocity contrast between the Pliocene sedimentary layer and fine-grained sediments dated from the Holocene, at about 100 m depth. This velocity contrast is also present along the Var valley, but the level of amplification detected on PRIMA station is larger. Using numerical simulations of seismic waves in a 2D model that accounts for the pinch-out geometry related to the termination of the Holocene sedimentary layer, we can partially explain this amplification. This offshore site effect could have a crucial impact on the triggering of a submarine landslide by an earthquake in this region. More generally, this effect should be taken into account for the modeling of landslides and induced tsunamis triggered by seismic waves.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Gravity Inversion of Blocky Basement Relief Using L 0 Norm Constraint with Exponential Density Contrast Variation
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Xuliang Feng, Shengrong Liu, Ruikun Guo, Pengfei Wang, Jinai Zhang

    Depicting the basement relief of a sedimentary basin with gravity data is vital to predicting the hydrocarbon potential of a sedimentary basin and guiding exploration work. We have developed a gravity inversion method to estimate the depth to a blocky basement of a sedimentary basin. The basement rocks are assumed to be homogeneous and have uniform density, while the density of the sediment over the basement increases exponentially with depth. The density contrast between the sediment and the basement at the surface varies horizontally. The decay factor of density contrast is also nonuniform. The sediment above the basement is divided into vertically juxtaposed prisms, and the depth of the bottom of each prism represents the depth to the basement and is the parameter to be estimated. The L0 norm is introduced to limit the gradient of the parameter vector to obtain the model constraint function. We then establish the objective function for inversion by combining the gravity data misfit function, the known depth constraint function, and the model constraint function. The inversion is performed by minimizing the objective function using the nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm. The inversion method is evaluated using a 2D and a 3D sedimentary basin model. The results show that our proposed method is capable of delineating the blocky basement relief of a sedimentary basin, and the result is sharper than that obtained using the L1 norm constraint. The method is applied to real data from the western part of the Zhu 1 depression in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea. The solution reveals a strongly faulted basement, which is in accordance with the known tectonic information indicating the basin is a fully developed graben.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Tsunami Modelling with Static and Dynamic Tides in Drowned River Valleys with Morphological Constrictions
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Kaya M. Wilson, Hannah E. Power

    Tsunami modelling is widely used to estimate the potential impacts of tsunamis. Models require a tide input, which can be either static, representing a specific tide level, such as Highest Astronomic Tide or dynamic, which represents a moving tide level. Although commonly used, static tide inputs do not account for tsunami–tide interactions, which are known to be non-linear and more significant in estuaries when compared to the open coast. To demonstrate the differences between tsunami models using static or dynamic tide inputs, a series of models were carried out for two New South Wales estuaries, Sydney harbour and port hacking. Model boundary conditions phased a MW 9.0 Puysegur source tsunami with multiple tide scenarios. Fourteen distinct scenarios with dynamic tides were created by phasing the largest tsunami wave peak at regular intervals across the tidal range. For comparison, static tide models were run using equivalent tide levels. The situations where static tide models provide results comparable or more conservative than dynamic tide models are for the first 1–2 h after tsunami arrival, at high tides, and when compared to dynamic falling tides at the same tide level. Differences are most apparent upriver of geomorphological constrictions. The effects of geomorphological constrictions were further examined using idealised model setups with a constriction variable. Results show that constrictions affect downriver maximum water levels, tsunami wave heights, upriver water accumulation and inundation maxima and distributions. These results have implications for estuaries vulnerable to erosion at constriction sites during a tsunami event.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Seiches Around the Shetland Islands
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    D. T. Pugh, P. L. Woodworth, E. M. S. Wijeratne

    Abstract Sea level records have been obtained from a dozen tide gauges deployed around the Shetland Islands, and the high-frequency components of each record have been analysed to determine how the amplitudes and periods of seiches vary from place to place. We have found that seiches occur almost everywhere, although with different periods at different locations, and sometimes with amplitudes exceeding several decimetres. Spectral analysis shows that two or more modes of seiching are present at some sites. The study attempts to explain, with the help of a numerical model, why seiches with particular periods are observed at each location, and what forcings are responsible for them. In particular, we have revisited an earlier study of seiches on the east coast of Shetland by Cartwright and Young (Proc R Soc Lond A 338:111–128, 1974) and find no evidence to support the theory that they proposed for their generation. In addition, we have investigated how often and why the largest seiche events occur at Lerwick (with trough-to-crest wave heights of about 1 m), taking advantage of its long sea level record. Seiches (and other types of high-frequency sea level variability) are often ignored in studies of sea level changes and their coastal impacts. And yet they can be large enough to contribute significantly to the extreme sea levels that have major impacts on the coast. Therefore, our Shetland research serves as a case study of the need to have a fuller understanding of the climatology of seiches for the whole world coastline.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Site Amplification Assessment in the East Corinth Gulf Using 3D Finite-Difference Modeling and Local Geophysical Data
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Evangelos Mouzakiotis, Vassilios Karastathis, Nikolaos Voulgaris, Panagiotis Papadimitriou

    Elastic 3D wave-field simulations were performed in the seismically active region of Eastern Gulf of Corinth, in the area of Loutraki city. A new methodology was tested with the aim of performing multiple simulations for a large variety of realistic sources located around the study area, by employing 3D finite-difference modeling using matrix operations for the calculation of the spatial velocity and stress derivatives. The new methodology was proven to be quite efficient in simulating the near surface 3D site effect of the study area, by greatly minimizing the simulation time, thus allowing the use of 3D finite-difference modeling for a large number of simulations. The complex geological features of the study area were obtained by performing multiple passive MASW surveys within the busy urban area of Loutraki. By processing the acquired geophysical data, a highly inhomogeneous near surface velocity structure in the study area was obtained and was implemented in the 3D wave-field simulations. The near surface amplification that is caused by the 3D subsurface structure was proven to be highly significant for the area of Loutraki, with high spectral amplification compared to the amplification that is caused by an equivalent 1D model in the area. The dominant frequencies of the spectral amplification for the 3D model were also confirmed by Processing HVSR measurements that were also taken in the area. Finally, we also investigated how the propagation direction affects the near surface amplification.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Peak Ground Motions and Site Response at Anza and Imperial Valley, California
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jon B. Fletcher, John Boatwright

    Abstract Power spectra of shear-waves for eighteen earthquakes from the Anza-Imperial Valley region were inverted for source, mid-path Q, site attenuation and site response. The motivation was whether differences in site attenuation (parameterized as t*, r/cQ, where r is distance along ray path near the site, c is shear velocity and Q is the quality factor that parameterizes attenuation) and site response could be correlated with residuals in peak values of velocity or acceleration after removing the affect of distance-dependent attenuation. We decomposed spectra of S-waves from horizontal components of 18 earthquakes from 2010 to 2018 into a common source for each event with ω−2 spectral fall-off at high frequencies and then projected the residuals onto path and site terms following the methodology of Boatwright et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 81:1754–1782, 1991). The site terms were constrained to have an amplification at a particular frequency governed by VS30 at two of the sites which had downhole shear-wave logs. The 18 events, 3 < M < 4, had moments between approximately 1020 and 1022 dyne-cm, and stress drops between 1 and 100 bars. Average mid-crust attenuation had a Q of 844 reflecting the average path through the crystalline rock of the San Jacinto Mountains. t* for each station corresponded to the geologic environment such that stations on hard rock had low t* (e.g. stations KNW, PFO and RDM) a station in the San Jacinto fault zone (station SND) had a moderate t* of 0.035 s and stations in the Imperial Valley usually had higher t*s. Generally t* correlated with average amplification suggesting that sites characterized by low surface velocities and higher attenuation also have more amplification in the 1–6 Hz band. Residuals of peak values were determined by subtracting the prediction of Boore and Atkinson (2008). There is a correlation between average amplification and peak velocity, but not peak acceleration. Interestingly, there is less scatter at high values of amplification although there is also less data. Scatter in values of peak velocity and peak acceleration are higher at shorter compared to longer durations. When using a frequency-dependent form for Q, variances are higher, sometimes much higher; the dataset does not support frequency-dependent Q, which is not similar to results from the Imperial Valley and northeastern North America.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Study of the PGV, Strong Motion and Intensity Distribution of the February 1969 (Ms 8.0) Offshore Cape St. Vincent (Portugal) Earthquake Using Synthetic Ground Velocities
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    C. Pro, E. Buforn, A. Udías, J. Borges, C. S. Oliveira

    The 28 February 1969 (Ms 8.0) Cape St. Vincent earthquake is the largest shock to have occurred in the region after the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. However, the study of the rupture process has been limited due to the characteristics of the available seismic data which were analogue records that were generally saturated at both regional and teleseismic distances. Indeed, these data consist of just one accelerograph record at the 25th April Bridge in Lisbon (Portugal) and the observed intensities in the Iberian Peninsula and northern part of Morocco. We have used these data to simulate the distribution of PGV (Peak Ground Velocity) for the 1969 event at regional distances (less than 600 km) by using a 3D velocity model. The PGV values are very important in seismic hazard studies. The velocity model and the methodological approach were tested by comparing synthetic and observed ground velocities at regional distances for two recent, well-studied earthquakes that occurred in this region, namely, the 2007 (Mw = 5.9) and the 2009 (Mw = 5.5) earthquakes. By comparing the synthetic and observed PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) at Lisbon, the focal depth was estimated equal to 25 km and the seismic moment equal to 6.4 × 1020 N m (Mw = 7.8) for 1969 earthquake. With these parameters, PGV values were obtained for 159 sites located in the Iberian Peninsula and northern region of Morocco where we have felt intensity values. Using different empirical relations, the instrumental intensity values were calculated and compared with the felt intensities. As a result, the synthetic PGV values obtained in this study for the 1969 earthquake could be used as reference values, and the methodological approach would allow the PGV and intensity to be simulated for other events in the region.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Present-day Tectonic Stress Field and GPS Observations in Hubei Province, Central China
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yanjun Dong, Fanxi Liao, Dongzhen Wang, Chengchen Du, Kai He

    Here, we show the present-day tectonic stress field and regional GPS velocity and strain rate fields in Hubei Province, central China. Our results are calculated based on the digital observation data from 01 January 2010, to 31 December 2017, by using the seis-CAP, P-wave first motion, and grid search methods and the software GAMIT/GLOBK10.4. The results show that the P axis azimuths of focal mechanism solutions, the principal compressional stress field, and the regional velocity and strain rate fields are conformably compressional in a NW–SE direction. The regional stress shape ratio R values are relatively low, and the faults are dominantly compressive-shear or compresso-shear faults. The average velocity modulus value for the GPS observation stations in western Hubei is 6.1 mm/a, which is higher than that in eastern Hubei (5.4 mm/a). The average velocity modulus value in the Jianghan Basin interior is relatively low (4.4 mm/a), while that in the northwestern Jianghan Basin is higher (7.6 mm/a). The strain rate field is characterized by NW–SE compression accompanied by NE–SW tension. The results suggest that the present-day crustal movement in Hubei Province is mainly controlled by collisions with the Indian Plate in the west and the Philippine Plate in the east and the consequent crustal shortening induced by western Hubei wedging into the Jianghan Basin. Further, the resistance by the thrust-and-fold belt in eastern Hubei contributes to the principal compressional movement in the study area. The T axis azimuth of focal mechanism solutions is consistent with the principal extensional stress field direction. In the central and northern Jianghan Basin, the R values are relatively high, the faults are mainly transtensional, and the crustal deformation is mainly extensional, which may be affected by the denudation, thinning and rapid rebound of the Dabie Orogen, resulting in tectonic extrusion and flow in the Jianghan Basin to both the NE and SW sides.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • New Updated World Maps of Sea-Surface Salinity
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Aleksandar Valjarević, Dejan Filipović, Miško Milanović, Dragana Valjarević

    Sea surface salinity presents one of the most important chemical elements in the water. Climatic variables, included in new view of salinity distribution at a global scale, were used in this research. For the purpose of this research newly updated climate parameters for the period until 2100 were used along with (CMIP5) climatological model. The new distribution of surface salinity may show water desalination and energy potential. This map can be useful in the determination of new littoral areas or for fishermen’s routes. These data are presented in geo-tiff raster extension with the resolution of 0.1. This map could be updated with climatological parameters with obtained medium climate change effects. Some places in the world sea have low, some have high salinity. Salinity increases in accordance with the increase of precipitation and decreases with the decrease of it. The paper presents following maps; salinity world map when there is no climate change; the moderate one, if the temperature increases for 2.0 °C until 2100, and high if the increase of temperature was between 2.0 °C and 5.0 °C. The three scenarios were taken to show updated maps of world salinity in comparison with climate change effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Statistical Method of Forecasting of Seasonal Precipitation over the Northwest Himalayas: North Atlantic Oscillation as Precursor
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Usha Devi, M. S. Shekhar, G. P. Singh, S. K. Dash

    Abstract Dynamical and Statistical models are operationally used by Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) for winter precipitation forecasting over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH). In this paper, a statistical regression model developed for seasonal (December–April) precipitation forecast over Northwest Himalaya is discussed. After carrying out the analysis of various atmospheric parameters that affect the winter precipitation over the NWH two parameters are selected such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) over specific areas of North Atlantic Ocean for the development of statistical regression model. A set of 27 years (1990–1991 to 2016–2017) of observed precipitation data and parameters (NAO and OLR) are utilized. Out of 27 years of data, first 20 years (1990–1991 to 2009–2010) are used for the development of regression model and remaining 7 years (2010–2011 to 2016–2017) are used for the validation purpose. Precipitation over NWH mainly associated with Western Disturbances (WDs) and the results of the present study reveal that NAO during SON has negative relationship with WDs and also with the winter precipitation over same region. Quantitative validation of the multiple regression model, result shows good Skill Score and RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR) which is 0.79 and 0.45 respectively and BIAS − 0.92.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Improvement of the Efficiency of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Measurement
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Chong Liu, LiZhen Cheng, Xueping Dai, Mamadou Cherif Diallo

    The long-term sustainable development of mineral exploration under covers require effective deep detection techniques and methods. Start from enhancing the surface-borehole time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) technique, the present study established a new relationship between the pulse width (Δ), the target time constant (τ) and the measurement time (t). Under certain conditions, the new formula has been extended to all TEM systems that use square or trapezoidal waveforms. A series of numerical simulations illustrate the consistent behaviors of the surface-borehole, ground and airborne TEM fields. The new relationship allows us to evaluate optimal pulse widths for different off-times and to help TEM survey design.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Utilizing the Geophysical and Hydrogeological Data for the Assessment of the Groundwater Occurrences in Gallaba Plain, Western Desert, Egypt
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Sayed Mosaad, Alhussein Adham Basheer

    Abstract The investigated region is located in the western desert fringes of the Nile Valley which requires studies of groundwater related to the many projects of land reclamation. The key objective of this paper is to estimate the qualitative and geometrical features of the investigated aquifer. Using 60 vertical electrical sounding and time-domain electromagnetic soundings allows us to suggest one possible model of the geometrical features of the local aquifer. A hydrogeological monitoring has been undertaken to investigate the current groundwater situation at the Gallaba plain. Such hydrological monitoring has not been undertaken before in detail. The results show that the investigated region has high groundwater potentialities in two main aquifers which belong to Pleistocene: shallow fresh water and deep brackish water. The lithological and structural elements contribute mainly to recharge and store the groundwater in the western part of the River Nile in Kom Ombo graben. The geochemical properties of the groundwater of the studied aquifers reflect meteoric water, which is a fresh to slightly brackish water. The small amount of groundwater salinity arises from silicate weathering and evaporation processes occurring in the aquifer matrix. Moreover, most of the studied groundwater samples are unfit for human consumption. Such samples are very satisfactory for livestock and poultry purposes and they can be used for irrigation using modern and improved irrigation methods e.g. sprinkler and drip methods. Furthermore, the hydrogeological monitoring of the concerned area indicates that it has high groundwater potentialities which will support its sustainable development.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Subsurface Structure on the CE-3 Landing Site: LPR CH-1 Data Processing by Shearlet Transform
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ling Zhang, Bin Hu, Zhuo Jia, Yi Xu

    Abstract The Lunar penetrating radar (LPR) carried by Chang’E-3 (CE-3) mission is an important application of radar in lunar exploration. An opportunity of significance to detect the information of regolith and the subsurface structure on the landing site is offered by LPR aboard the Yutu rover. On the basis of a data processing flow, a low-frequency radar image has been available for mapping subsurface structure. The noise interfered data give a huge challenge for geological stratification and interpretation. To solve the limitation imposed by noise, we adopt the shearlet transform as a promising tool for data analysis and noise attenuation. The different distributions of the noise and signal in the shearlet domain decrease the difficulty of noise attenuation. To optimize the denosing strategy, we replace a local adaptive thresholding function with the conventional hard threshold. The quality of the processed data is improved, which is helpful for geological stratification and interpretation. Finally, by combining these data with the regional geology and previous research, especially the LPR data, we can provide an interpretation of the LPR CH-1.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Machine Learning Using U-Net Convolutional Neural Networks for the Imaging of Sparse Seismic Data
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jiayuan Huang, Robert L. Nowack

    Machine learning using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is investigated for the imaging of sparsely sampled seismic reflection data. A limitation of traditional imaging methods is that they often require seismic data with sufficient spatial sampling. Using CNNs for imaging, even if the spatial sampling of the data is sparse, good imaging results can still be obtained. Therefore, CNNs applied to seismic imaging have the potential of producing improved imaging results when spatial sampling of the data is sparse. The imaged model can then be used to generate more densely sampled data and in this way be used to interpolate either regularly or irregularly sampled data. Although there are many approaches for the interpolation of seismic data, here seismic imaging is performed directly with sparse seismic data once the CNN model has been trained. The CNN model is found to be relatively robust to small variations from the training dataset. For greater deviations, a larger training dataset would likely be required. If the CNN is trained with a sufficient amount of data, it has the potential of imaging more complex seismic profiles.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Role of Atmospheric Processes Associated with a Flash-Flood Event Over Northwestern Turkey
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Hakki Baltaci

    This study investigates the atmospheric mechanisms triggering flash-flood event in Thrace Basin of Turkey on November 27, 2018. Underestimation of this extreme precipitation amounts by NWP global and regional models (i.e. ECMWF, ALARO, WRF) and other meteorological difficulties (i.e. complex topography, land-sea interactions) in weather forecasting disabled disaster risk reduction before the event occurred. Detailed synoptic, thermodynamic, in-situ, and remote sensing analyzing results showed that significant amount of moisture during the afternoon times of the day was transferred to the atmosphere (from ground to 300-hPa) as a consequence of the excessive heating of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the Aegean Sea (16.5 °C in Ayvacik-Gulpinar place, 0.9 °C above its long-term normals). Strong southwesterly wind speeds associated with slow meridional movement of mid-latitude cyclone from its origin to the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) enabled transferring of relatively warm moist air to the land areas of Thrace Region (> 300 km fetch distance). Strong updraft and instability conditions under developed a supercell resulted with lightning (totally 63 cloud-to-ground and 59 intra cloud) and heavy rainfall especially Suloglu, Kofcaz, and Edirne settlements with the 12-hour total amounts 160.0, 123.0, and 97.4 mm (rainfall return period ~ 100 years), respectively. Flash-flood event caused numerous injuries and the death of a person and damaged, automobiles, houses, crops, and infrastructure of the Edirne and its neighboring settlements. From Showalter, K, Total of Totals, SWEAT, and CAPE instability indices; SWEAT is most appropriate to represent high possibility of occurrence of severe thunderstorms over the Edirne province owing to low-level moisture, warm air advection and low and mid-level wind speed terms in its equation.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Closed-Form Expressions of Plane-Wave Reflection and Transmission Coefficients at a Planar Interface of Porous Media with a Normal Incident Fast P-Wave
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Dongyong Zhou, Xingyao Yin, Zhaoyun Zong

    Abstract A porous medium is composed of a rock skeleton and pore fluids, and seismic wave propagation in it will produce complex and diverse variations influenced by pores and fluids filling. It is very important to carry out the study of closed-form expressions of the plane-wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a planar interface between porous media for analyzing the properties of pores and its fluids and eventually revealing underground oil-bearing reservoirs. In this paper, based on the relationships among seismic wave functions, displacements and stresses in porous media, an exact equation of plane-wave reflection and transmission coefficients with a normal incident fast P-wave is first derived. Considering the characteristics of the parameters in a coefficient matrix of an exact equation, the closed-form expressions with clear geophysical meaning are further derived, which include three parts, the rock skeleton term, the fluid–solid coupling term and the pore fluid term. Through the establishment of two porous media models, the influence of each term in the approximate expression on the reflection characteristics of a fast P-wave is analyzed. Different approximate expressions of the reflection coefficient of a fast P-wave can be selected for oil and gas prediction of different reservoirs, which lays a foundation for the identification of gas, oil and brine.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Frequency-Domain Finite-Difference Elastic Wave Modeling in the Presence of Surface Topography
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Zhencong Zhao, Jingyi Chen, Xiaobo Liu

    Seismic numerical modeling in the presence of surface topography has become a valuable tool to characterize seismic wave propagation in basin or mountain areas. Regarding advantages of frequency-domain seismic wavefield simulations (e.g., easy implementation of multiple sources and straightforward extension of adding attenuation factors), we propose a frequency-domain finite-difference seismic wavefield simulation in 2D elastic media with an irregular free surface. In the frequency domain, we first transform second-order elastic wave equations and first-order free surface boundary conditions from the Cartesian coordinate system to the curvilinear coordinate system. Then we apply complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) absorbing boundary condition to second-order elastic wave equations in the curvilinear coordinate. To better couple free surface boundary conditions and CFS-PML absorbing boundary condition, we also apply the complex coordinate stretching method used in CFS-PML to free surface boundary conditions in the curvilinear coordinate. In the first numerical test, the comparison of the seismograms calculated by our algorithm with an analytical solution indicates that our algorithm can accurately simulate seismic wavefield in the frequency domain. Finally, we choose three more elastic models with different types of surface topographies to further characterize seismic wave propagation.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Spatio-temporal Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature: A Case Study Over the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Baohui Men, Zhijian Wu, Huanlong Liu, Wei Tian, Yong Zhao

    Climate change have a profound impact on the production and life of the people in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. Precipitation and temperature are regarded as two basic components of climate. This study investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and temperature over the region from 1960 to 2013. Different methods were used to analyze temporal variation and the results are mutually verified. Wavelet analysis was adopted to analyze the abrupt changes of precipitation and temperature. Empirical orthogonal function decomposition method was utilized to analyze the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation. The study yielded three major findings: First, the inter-annual decrease and increase of precipitation appeared alternately in the region. Temperature was rising significantly in the last 50 years, apart from a slow reduction in the late 1970s. Second, the spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation vary due to the distance from the ocean. The increasing trend of temperature in Beijing-centered region was more obvious than that in areas away from the sea. Third, precipitation and temperature show strong correlations in change. When temperature increased, the rainfall decreased. What is more, when the temperature mutated, the precipitation also changed rapidly. The results can guide local agriculture production and provide reference for the further study of climate change.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Radiological Impact and Environmental Monitoring of Gamma Radiations Along the Public Beach of Port Said, Egypt
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Akram Aziz, Tamer Attia, Mahmoud Hanafi

    Abstract Port Said is an Egyptian coastal city, laying on Mediterranean Sea. The city is a world-renowned international harbor and a free-trade zone. Therefore, it is one of the most popular shopping destinations in Egypt, where people can buy duty-free goods and enjoy the city’s free public beaches in summer vacations. Recent radiological hazards studies had located several high radioactive lenses along the Nile Delta coastline, resulted from accumulations of black sand deposits. Concerns had been raised regarding the safety of individuals who might be exposed to high doses of radiations due to the presence of black sand deposits along Port Said beach, especially when the beach is characterized by positive accretion rates. Detailed ground radioactivity surveys were conducted at the beach aiming to measure the activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radioelements (238U, 232Th and 40K). Spatial distributions of the three elements were mapped. Dose Rate (DR) and Annual Effective Dose Rates (AEDR) were calculated. Although the results of AEDR revealed that the radiations levels are fallen within the allowed limits, the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) factor exceeded the world’s average of 0.25. For public awareness, high-risk areas were delineated on a risk map, showing the locations where gamma radiation emissions exceeded the allowed exposure limits for humans. It is recommended to apply the same surveying procedures at all of the public beaches along Sinai coasts, where larger quantities of Black Sands had been detected along its shoreline.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Correlation of a 410-km Discontinuity Low Velocity Layer with Velocity Tomograms Beneath the Colorado Plateau Using the RISTRA Array
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Zhu Zhang, Kenneth G. Dueker

    The transition zone water filter model (Nature 425(6953), 39–44; 2003) predicts that a hydrous partial melt layer is only actively produced in a region of upwelling mantle. We test the transition zone water filter model via stacking of P-to-S converted receiver functions by using the IRIS-PASSCAL RISTRA (Colorado Plateau/Rio Grande Rift Seismic Transect Experiment) array. Assuming the high velocity regions found at the northwest and southeast ends of the array at 350–440 km by teleseismic velocity tomograms e.g. Schmandt and Humphreys (Earth and Planetary Science Letters 297(3–4): 435–445; 2010) are cold and sinking vertically, the 410-km low velocity layer should be absent in these regions. The receiver function stacking profiles find the mean depths of the two primary discontinuities at 417 ± 7.1 km for the 410-km discontinuity and 667 ± 8.2 km for the 660-km discontinuity. The average arrival amplitudes with respect to Z component are 3.0% for the 410-km discontinuity, 2.8% for the 660-km discontinuity, and − 1.8% for the 410-km low velocity layer. The stacked Pds image show the 410-km low cabsent at ~ 350 to 390 km in the high velocity regions, but present in low velocity region. A correlation plot of sum of the 410-km low velocity arrival amplitudes and P-wave perturbation finds a positive linear relationship. Therefore, our findings provide seismic evidence for the transition zone water filter model at a small scale.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Megathrust Locking and Viscous Mantle Flow Induce Continental Shortening in Central Andes
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Fuqiang Shi, Shaoyang Li, Marcos Moreno

    Abstract Crustal faults at subduction zones show evidence of activity over geological time, but at the scale of earthquake cycle the mechanical behavior of these faults is not fully understood. Here we construct 2-D viscoelastic models constrained by both horizontal and vertical GPS-derived interseismic velocities to investigate the contribution and interrelation between subduction zone locking, viscous mantle flow, and upper plate faulting on surface deformation in Central Andes. Main pattern of horizontal velocities can be explained by a combination of locking degree and viscous flow, whereas vertical signal is found essential for estimating the locking depth. A sharp deformation gradient near the major back-arc fault suggests an active interseismic shorting across this structure. We further conduct mechanical viscoelastic models with a frictional back-arc fault to analyze its displacement and activation conditions. Our results suggest that the back-arc fault is creeping at ~ 3 mm/year and its motion is mainly driven by the interseismic viscous mantle flow, which spreads plate tectonic stresses broadly across the continent. Moreover, the frictional strength of the back-arc fault must be remarkably weak and its mechanics re-distributes the interseismic deformation and shortens the continental plate in Central Andes. Geological estimates suggest that the long-term shortening rate at the back-arc fault is ~ 10 mm/year, suggesting that this structure can accumulate ~ 7 mm/year of slip deficit, confirming the seismic potential of this structure.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Using GPR Data as Constraints in RMT Data Inversion for Water Content Estimation: A Case Study in Heby, Sweden
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Mehdi Mohammadi Vizheh, Behrooz Oskooi, Mehrdad Bastani, Thomas Kalscheuer

    This study uses ground penetrating radar (GPR) data as constraints in the inversion of radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) data, to provide an improved model at shallow depth. We show that modification of the model regularization matrix using all GPR common-offset (CO) reflections can mislead the constrained inversion of RMT data. To avoid such problems, common mid-point (CMP) GPR data are translated to a resistivity model by introducing a new petrophysical relationship based on a combination of Topp’s and Archie’s equations. This model is updated through a semi-iterative method and is employed as an initial and prior model in the subsequent inversion of RMT data. Finally, a water content model that fits the GPR CMP and RMT data is derived from the resistivity model computed by the constrained inversion of RMT data. To assess the proposed scheme, it is applied to a synthetic data set. Then, real RMT data collected along an 870 m-long profile across a known aquifer situated in the north of Heby, central Sweden, are inverted. By removing the smoothness constraints across GPR CO interfaces or using CMP-based inversion, thick (> 10 m) vadose and saturated zones are resolved and shown to correlate with logs from nearby boreholes. Nevertheless, the application of our CMP-based inversion was the only efficient scheme to retrieve thin (~ 3 m) saturated zones and the water table at a depth of 7–15 m in the RMT models. The estimated models of water content are in good agreement with the available hydrogeological information in the study area.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Enhancement and Sharpening the Migration Images of the Gravity Field and Its Gradients
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Xiaolei Tu, Michael S. Zhdanov

    Potential field migration represents a rapid technique for imaging the subsurface based on gravity data. However, migration transformation usually produces a smooth and unfocused image of the targets due to the diffusive nature of the potential fields. In this paper, we introduce a method of the migration image enhancement and sharpening based on the application of the hybrid focusing stabilizer, which combines the edge-preserving smoothing filter with the minimum support functional. The method is based on the model resolution matrix of the migration operator. We also improve the migration image with a novel target-oriented migration method. The developed method of migration image enhancement and sharpening is illustrated by synthetic model studies and case studies. The case study involves imaging the full tensor gravity gradient data collected in the Nordkapp Basin of the Barents Sea.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Comment on the Paper “Seismic Hazard Analysis of Surface Level, Using Topographic Condition in the Northeast of Algeria” by Mouloud Hamidatou, Mohammedi Yahia, Abdelkrim Yelles-Chaouche, Itharam Thallak, Dietrich Stromeyer, Saad Lebdioui, Fabrice Cotton, Nassim Hallal and Omar Khemici
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Mohamed Hamdache, José A. Peláez

    Abstract We would like to make some comments on the paper by Hamidatou et al. (2019). Initially, these comments are motivated to reveal that, previous results on probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, some of them computed and published by our research group, are wrongly quoted in the paper by these authors. In our opinion, some other points are worthy of debate, mainly, but not only, the used seismic source zone model, the used logic-tree, and also the comparison of estimated values of peak ground horizontal acceleration (PGA) with previous results.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The December 22, 2018 Anak Krakatau, Indonesia, Landslide and Tsunami: Preliminary Modeling Results
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Alexandre Paris, Philippe Heinrich, Raphaël Paris, Stéphane Abadie

    On the evening of December 22, 2018, the coasts of the Sunda Strait, Indonesia, were hit by a tsunami generated by the collapse of a part of the Anak Krakatau volcano. Hundreds of people were killed, thousands were injured and displaced. This paper presents a preliminary modeling of the volcano flank collapse and the tsunami generated based on the results of a 2D depth-averaged coupled model involving a granular rheology and a Coulomb friction for the slide description and dispersive effects for the water flow part. With a reconstructed total volume (subaerial and submarine) of the landslide of 150 million \(\hbox {m}^{3}\) inferred from pre and post-collapse satellite and aerial images, the comparison of the simulated water waves with the observations (tide gauges located all around the strait, photographs and field surveys) is satisfactory. Due to the lack of information for the submarine part of the landslide, the reconstructed submarine slope is assumed to be approximately constant. A significant time delay on the results and particularly in the Bandar Lampung Bay could be attributed to imprecisions of bathymetric data. The sensitivity to the basal friction and to dispersive effects is analyzed through numerical tests. Results show that the influence of the basal friction angle on the simulated wave heights decreases with distance and that a value of \(2^{\circ }\) gives consistent results with the observations. The dispersive effects are assessed by comparing water waves simulated by a shallow water model and a Boussinesq model. Simulations with frequency dispersion produce longer wave periods and smaller wave amplitudes in the Sunda Strait and particularly in deep waters.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A Major Hydrothermal Reservoir Underneath the Tatun Volcano Group of Taiwan: Clues from a Dense Linear Geophone Array
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    C. H. Lin, Y. C. Lai, M. H. Shih, C. J. Lin, J. S. Ku, Y. C. Huang

    A dense linear geophone array is deployed across the Tatun volcano group (TVG) at the northern tip of Taiwan, where more than 7 million residents live in the Taipei metropolis. The array is composed of 50 geophones with a station spacing of ~ 200 m in average, and it is designed for striking in the NW–SE direction to record the many earthquakes in eastern Taiwan, where the Philippine Sea plate subducted beneath the Eurasia plate. The detailed examination of felt earthquakes shows consistent P-wave delays are recorded at particular stations of the array. The further forward modeling indicates there is a low-velocity zone (LVZ) at depths between ~ 0.5 and ~ 2.5 km beneath the major fumarole sites. Combining this preliminary result with previous studies including clustering seismicity, volcanic earthquakes, low-resistivity zone, strong degassing processes and shallow velocity structures, we suggest that the LVZ might be associated with the major hydrothermal reservoir at the TVG. The identification of the hydrothermal reservoir by the LVZ not only implies a potential volcanic threat, such as phreatic eruptions, in the future, but also provides the possibility of sustainable geothermal resources for replacing traditional nuclear and fossil fuel power plants. Detailed images of the LVZ and other volcanic structures will be obtained soon when dense geophone arrays with more than 600 geophones are deployed from 2020 to 2022.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Fractal Analysis of Data from Seismometer Array Monitoring Virgo Interferometer
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Alessandro Longo, Stefano Bianchi, Wolfango Plastino, Bartosz Idźkowski, Maciej Suchiński, Tomasz Bulik

    Abstract The local Hurst exponent H(t) has been computed for an array of 38 seismometers, deployed at the Virgo West End Building for Newtonian Noise characterisation purposes. The analysed period is from January 31st, 2018 to February 5th, 2018. The Hurst exponent H is a fractal index quantifying the persistent behaviour of a time series, higher H corresponding to higher persistency. The adopted methodology makes use of the local Hurst exponent computed using small sliding windows, in order to characterise the properties of the seismometers. Hourly averages and averages of H(t) have been computed over the whole analysed period. Results show that seismometers placed on a concrete slab closer to the centre of the room systematically exhibit higher persistency than the ones that are not placed on it. Seismometers placed next to the outer walls also exhibit higher persistency. The seismometer placed on a thin metal plate exhibits instead very low values of persistency during the analysed period, compared to the rest of the array.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Towards Improved Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Bangladesh
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Dewan Mohammad Enamul Haque, Nawar Wadud Khan, Md. Selim, A. S. M. Maksud Kamal, Sara Hanan Chowdhury

    Abstract This study aims to build on the existing knowledge and improve the overall PSHA results by modifying source, path and site characteristics for Bangladesh. Firstly, six potential seismotectonic zones have been re-defined based on the recent study of Wang et al. (J Geophys Res Solid Earth 119:3576–3822, 2014) and Nath and Thingbaijam (J Seismol 15(2):295–315, 2011), and the updated earthquake catalogue has been declustered using two methods. Important source parameters, such as recurrence b-values and maximum magnitudes, have been determined using the Maximum Likelihood and cumulative moment methods, respectively, and their uncertainties have been addressed using a logic-tree approach. Secondly, based on literature review and studies in neighboring countries, suitable GMPEs have been selected for the seismic zones and the uncertainties have been addressed using a logic tree approach. A significant novelty of the study lies in the consideration of the site effects by integrating Vs30 values throughout the country. The ground motions—PGA and SA (at 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 s) are computed using GEM’s OpenQuake and presented in form of hazard maps for 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years as well as mean hazard curves and uniform hazard spectra. Disaggregation for capital city Dhaka has also been carried out to show the hazard contributions of magnitude–distance pairs. The spatial distribution of PGA and SA are found remarkably higher than previous findings, likely due to differences in parameters and uncertainties. The results show a marked increase (by almost 20%) in the observed ground motions with respect to those carried out previously by uniformly characterizing the whole country as a firm rock.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The 1674 Ambon Tsunami: Extreme Run-Up Caused by an Earthquake-Triggered Landslide
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Ignatius Ryan Pranantyo, Phil R. Cummins

    We present an analysis of the oldest detailed account of tsunami run-up in Indonesia, that of the 1674 Ambon tsunami (Rumphius in Waerachtigh Verhael van de Schuckelijcke Aerdbebinge, BATAVIA, Dutch East Indies, 1675). At 100 m this is the largest run-up height ever documented in Indonesia, and with over 2300 fatalities even in 1674, it ranks as one of Indonesia’s most deadly tsunami disasters. We consider the plausible sources of earthquakes near Ambon that could generate a large, destructive tsunami, including the Seram Megathrust, the South Seram Thrust, and faults local to Ambon. We conclude that the only explanation for the extreme run-up observed on the north coast of Amon is a tsunami generated by an earthquake-triggered coastal landslide. We use a two-layer tsunami model to show that a submarine landslide, with an approximate volume of 1 km3, offshore the area on Ambon’s northern coast, between Seith and Hila, where dramatic changes in coastal landscape were observed can explain the observed tsunami run-up along the coast. Thus, the 1674 Ambon tsunami adds weight to the evidence from recent tsunamis, including the 1992 Flores, 2018 Palu and Sunda Strait tsunamis, that landslides are an important source of tsunami hazard in Indonesia.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
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