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  • COMPARING DIRECT CARBONATE AND STANDARD GRAPHITE 14C DETERMINATIONS OF BIOGENIC CARBONATES
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Jordon Bright; Chris Ebert; Matthew A Kosnik; John R Southon; Katherine Whitacre; Paolo G Albano; Carola Flores; Thomas K Frazer; Quan Hua; Michal Kowalewski; Julieta C Martinelli; David Oakley; Wesley G Parker; Michael Retelle; Matias do Nascimento Ritter; Marcelo M Rivadeneira; Daniele Scarponi; Yurena Yanes; Martin Zuschin; Darrell S Kaufman

    The direct carbonate procedure for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating of submilligram samples of biogenic carbonate without graphitization is becoming widely used in a variety of studies. We compare the results of 153 paired direct carbonate and standard graphite 14C determinations on single specimens of an assortment of biogenic carbonates. A reduced major axis regression shows

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • RADIOCARBON, TRACE ELEMENTS AND PB ISOTOPE COMPOSITION OF PINE NEEDLES FROM A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED REGION IN SOUTHERN POLAND
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2021-01-05
    Barbara Sensuła; Nathalie Fagel; Adam Michczyński

    We determined the chemical composition of pine needles to monitor environmental contamination in an urban forest environment in the most industrialized part of southern Poland. The concentrations of radiocarbon (14C), trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce, Pb) and the Pb isotope composition were measured in needles from Pinus sylvestris L. growing in nine urban forests near five factories

    更新日期:2021-01-05
  • RADIOCARBON DATING OF A LATE ANTIQUE NECROPOLIS FROM FELANITX (MALLORCA, BALEARIC ISLANDS)
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    C Mas Florit; M Á Cau Ontiveros; M Van Strydonck; M Boudin; F Cardona; S Munar

    The excavation of a building in the village of Felanitx in the eastern part of the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) has revealed the existence of a small necropolis. The inhumations did not provide grave goods except for a bronze belt buckle for which the typological study suggests a Late Antique chronology. The stratigraphical sequence however seems to suggest a possible evolution of the space

    更新日期:2020-12-21
  • BRIDGING THE GAP EBIII-IBA: EARLY INTERMEDIATE BRONZE RADIOCARBON DATES FROM KHIRBAT EL-’ALYA NORTHEAST, ISRAEL
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-18
    Ron Lev; Omer Shalev; Johanna Regev; Yitzhak Paz; Elisabetta Boaretto

    Recent radiocarbon (14C) research demonstrates that the urban culture of Early-Bronze III in the southern Levant ends around 2500 BC, and not around 2300 BC as was widely assumed. This should extend the Intermediate Bronze Age by 200 years. Charred olive pits from Intermediate Bronze Age contexts in the site of Khirbat el-‘Alya Northeast in the Judean Shephelah region (Israel) were 14C dated, resulting

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • CHALLENGES OF THE FARS NEOLITHIC CHRONOLOGY: AN APPRAISAL
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-18
    Morteza Khanipour; Kamalaldin Niknami; Masashi Abe

    Over the past few decades, several excavations that have been performed in the Fars Neolithic sites have resulted in the presentation of different chronologies for the region. Most of the research in Fars centered on the Kur River Basin (KRB). Fars has always had a different environment for the formation of different cultures over time, therefore, in order to reach a better understanding of the prehistoric

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • PRELIMINARY RADIOCARBON DATING RESULTS OF BONE SAMPLES AT THE LAC-UFF, BRAZIL
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-17
    Fabiana Oliveira; Kita Macario; Karolayne Silva; Bruna Pereira; Ingrid Chanca; Eduardo Alves; Alberto Cid; Rita Scheel-Ybert; Dayanne Amaral; Natacha Ribeiro-Pinto; Luiz C Ruiz Pessenda

    Collagen extraction depends on the state of bone preservation, and the acidity of Brazilian soils often prevents the use of this material for radiocarbon dating. When available, however, bone samples constitute very important chronological records for both archaeological sites and natural depositional sites of specific animals. The extraction of collagen was performed using two filters, the first aiming

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • CLUSTERING OF CALIBRATED RADIOCARBON DATES: SITE-SPECIFIC CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCES IDENTIFIED BY DENSE RADIOCARBON SAMPLING
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Peter Demján; Peter Pavúk

    Calibrated radiocarbon (14C) determinations are commonly used in archaeology to assign calendar dates to a site’s chronological phases identified based on additional evidence such as stratigraphy. In the absence of such evidence, we can perform dense 14C sampling of the site to attempt to identify periods of heightened activity, separated by periods of inactivity, which correspond to archaeological

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • THE NEW RADIOCARBON DATASET FOR TRILITH MONUMENTS OF SOUTHEASTERN ARABIA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    R Garba; P Demján; I Svetlik; D Dreslerová

    Triliths are megalithic monuments scattered across the coastal plains of southern and southeastern Arabia. They consist of aligned standing stones with a parallel row of large hearths and form a space, the meaning of which is undoubtedly significant but nonetheless still unknown. This paper presents a new radiocarbon (14C) dataset acquired during the two field seasons 2018–2019 of the TSMO (Trilith

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • MARINE RESERVOIR EFFECTS IN SEAL (PHOCIDAE) BONES IN THE NORTHERN BERING AND CHUKCHI SEAS, NORTHWESTERN ALASKA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Joshua Reuther; Scott Shirar; Owen Mason; Shelby L Anderson; Joan B Coltrain; Adam Freeburg; Peter Bowers; Claire Alix; Christyann M Darwent; Lauren Norman

    We explore marine reservoir effects (MREs) in seal bones from the northern Bering and Chukchi Seas regions. Ringed and bearded seals have served as dietary staples in human populations along the coasts of Arctic northeast Asia and North America for several millennia. Radiocarbon (14C) dates on seal bones and terrestrial materials (caribou, plants seeds, wood, and wood charcoal) were compared from archaeological

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • A HIGH-RESOLUTION CHRONOLOGY FOR THE PALATIAL COMPLEX OF XALLA IN TEOTIHUACAN, MEXICO, COMBINING RADIOCARBON AGES AND ARCHAEOMAGNETIC DATES IN A BAYESIAN MODEL
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Laura E Beramendi-Orosco; Galia Gonzalez-Hernandez; Ana M Soler-Arechalde; Linda R Manzanilla

    Teotihuacan is one of the most studied archaeological sites in Mesoamerica because of its exceptional size and urban planning; however, its last years of occupation and abandonment are still under debate. We report a high-resolution chronology for the Xalla complex integrating archaeomagnetic dates, radiocarbon (14C) ages, and detailed archaeological information about sample type and context in a Bayesian

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • VOLUMES OF WORTH—DELIMITING THE SAMPLE SIZE FOR RADIOCARBON DATING OF PARCHMENT
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Tuuli M Kasso; Markku J Oinonen; Kenichiro Mizohata; Jaakko K Tahkokallio; Tuomas M Heikkilä

    Medieval manuscripts are invaluable archives of the written history of our past. Manuscripts can be dated and localized paleographically, but this method has its limitations. The Fragmenta membranea manuscript collection at the National Library of Finland has proved difficult to date using paleographic methods. Radiocarbon dating has been applied to manuscripts of parchment before, but a systematic

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • CHANGES IN SOLAR ACTIVITY DURING THE WOLF MINIMUM—NEW INSIGHTS FROM A HIGH-RESOLUTION 14C RECORD BASED ON DANISH OAK
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Alexandra Fogtmann-Schulz; Claudia Baittinger; Christoffer Karoff; Jesper Olsen; Mads F Knudsen

    We present a new biennial record of radiocarbon (14C) measured in Danish oak. The new record covers the years 1251–1378 CE, thereby spanning the Grand Solar Minimum known as the Wolf Minimum. Two oak samples from every other year were measured at the AMS facility at Aarhus University (Denmark), resulting in an average precision of 1.4‰ for the record. Spectral analysis of the new record revealed two

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • THE LAST HUNTER-GATHERERS AND EARLY FARMERS OF THE MIDDLE SOUTHERN BUH RIVER VALLEY (CENTRAL UKRAINE) IN VIII–V MILL. BC
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Dmytro Kiosak; Nadiia Kotova; Willy Tinner; Soenke Szidat; Ebbe H Nielsen; Sandra O Brugger; Annick de Capitani; Erika Gobet; Serhii Makhortykh

    A new series of 19 radiocarbon dates provides new insights on the human settlement activity in central Ukraine. The paper presents data from the Early Holocene until the establishment of Trypillian mega-sites in the late Vth mill. BC. Our new dates from a long sequence of the site of Melnychna Krucha refine the chronology of the Middle and Late Mesolithic and local ceramic-bearing “Buh-Dniester” culture

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • 14C-AMS IN MEXICO AND PRE-COLUMBIAN ARCHAEOLOGY
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    C Solís; M Rodríguez-Ceja; E Chávez-Lomelí; A Alcántara; J Gazzola; J Balcells; J C Jimenez; Y de la Rosa; M A Martínez-Carrillo

    The complex geographical scenario of Mexico allowed the cultural diversification and development of multiple cultures such as Tolteca, Teotihuacan, Mexica, and Maya, among others. Despite this rich cultural heritage, radiometric dating of Mexican cultural samples with radiocarbon (14C) began only in the 1980s and with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in 2013. Analysis of 14C with AMS is the most

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • BATCH PROCESSING OF TREE-RING SAMPLES FOR RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Alexandra Fogtmann-Schulz; Sabrina G K Kudsk; Florian Adolphi; Christoffer Karoff; Mads F Knudsen; Neil J Loader; Raimund Muscheler; Pernille L K Trant; Stine M Østbø; Jesper Olsen

    We here present a comparison of methods for the pretreatment of a batch of tree rings for high-precision measurement of radiocarbon at the Aarhus AMS Centre (AARAMS), Aarhus University, Denmark. The aim was to develop an efficient and high-throughput method able to pretreat ca. 50 samples at a time. We tested two methods for extracting α-cellulose from wood to find the most optimal for our use. One

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • CONTAMINATION OF RADIOCARBON ANALYSES OF PLANT SAMPLES BY FUNGAL HYPHAE
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Daniel E Karig; Chase G Mayers; Cassandra J Wattenburger; John Southon

    Fungal hyphae associated with tree roots extending into the surrounding substrate are suspected to have to contaminated buried plant material with recent carbon in two examples and to have resulted in erroneously young radiocarbon ages. This problem might be overcome by choosing sampling sites far from trees or by analyzing the lignin component of samples, although the latter is presently difficult

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • ERRONEOUSLY OLD RADIOCARBON AGES FROM TERRESTRIAL POLLEN CONCENTRATES IN YELLOWSTONE LAKE, WYOMING, USA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Christopher M Schiller; Cathy Whitlock; Kathryn L Elder; Nels A Iverson; Mark B Abbott

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of pollen concentrates is often used in lake sediment records where large, terrestrial plant remains are unavailable. Ages produced from chemically concentrated pollen as well as manually picked Pinaceae grains in Yellowstone Lake (Wyoming) sediments were consistently 1700–4300 cal years older than ages established by terrestrial plant remains, tephrochronology

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • LONG-TERM CHANGES IN 14C AGE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HUMIC ACID AND PLANT FRAGMENTS AND THEIR LINKS TO PAST CLIMATE CHANGE
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Youngeun Kim; Jaesoo Lim; Jaehyung Yu; Sujeong Park; Jin-Young Lee; Sei-Sun Hong; Gyujun Park

    Radiocarbon (14C) dating has been widely used to determine the age of deposits, but there have been frequent reports of inconsistencies in age among different dating materials. In this study, we performed radiocarbon dating on a total of 33 samples from 8-m-long sediment cores recovered from the wetland of the Muljangori volcanic cone on Jeju Island, South Korea. Ten pairs of humic acid (HA) and plant

    更新日期:2020-12-18
  • ABSOLUTE DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL SCALE FOR PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) FROM UJŚCIE (NW POLAND), DATED USING RAPID ATMOSPHERIC 14C CHANGES
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Marek Krąpiec; Andrzej Rakowski; Jacek Pawlyta; Damian Wiktorowski; Monika Bolka

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses are commonly used to determine the absolute age of floating tree-ring chronologies. At best, with the wiggle-matching method, a precision of 10 years could be achieved. For the early Middle Ages, this situation has been markedly improved by the discovery of rapid changes in atmospheric 14C concentrations in tree-rings dated to 774/775 and 993/994 AD. These high-resolution

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • RADIOCARBON DATING OF PRECIOUS CORALS OFF THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF KOCHI PREFECTURE, SOUTHWEST JAPAN
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Tomoyo Okumura; Fujio Kumon; Hidekazu Tokuyama

    Radiocarbon (14C) dating was performed for various types of precious coral colony fragments collected from the Ashizuri fishing field, around 100–200 m deep, off the southwest coast of Kochi Prefecture, Japan, to understand the historical background of one of the largest precious coral fishing fields in Japan. The 14C ages of the 55 specimens range from ~7500 years ago to the modern. Most of the measured

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • MARINE RESERVOIR AGE CORRECTION FOR THE ANDAMAN BASIN
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Harsh Raj; Ravi Bhushan; M Muruganantham; Romi Nambiar; Ankur J Dabhi

    Marine reservoir age is an important component for correction in radiocarbon (14C) dating of marine and coastal samples. 14C concentration in pre-bomb marine samples of known age are used to derive marine reservoir age of a region. Annually banded coral from Landfall island in the northern Andaman has been analyzed for its 14C concentration during the pre-bomb period 1948–1951. 14C age and reservoir

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • EVALUATING THE RADIOCARBON RESERVOIR EFFECT IN LAKE KUTUBU, PAPUA NEW GUINEA – CORRIGENDUM
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Larissa Schneider; Colin F Pain; Simon Haberle; Russell Blong; Brent V Alloway; Stewart J Fallon; Geoff Hope; Atun Zawadzki; Henk Heijnis

    We examined the radiocarbon (14C) reservoir effect in Lake Kutubu using tephrochronology and terrestrial plant material to deliver a precise age-depth profile and sedimentation rates for this lake. Based on the presence of two tephra horizons (Tibito and Olgaboli), we found a reservoir age offset in sediments of between 1490 and 2280 14C yr using the sediment ages derived from the lead-210 (210Pb)

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Δ 14C PEAKS APPEARING IN EARLYWOOD AND LATEWOOD TREE RINGS (AD 770–780) IN NORTHEASTERN ARIZONA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    J H Park; J Southon; JW Seo; P P Creasman; W Hong; G Park; K H Sung

    The AD 775 peak in Δ14C (henceforth, M12) was first measured by Miyake et al. and has since been confirmed globally. Here we present earlywood and latewood Δ14C values from tree rings of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) from Mummy Cave, Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Chinle, Arizona, USA, for the period AD 770–780. These data reconfirm the timing of M12 and show a small rise in Δ14C in AD 774 latewood

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • AN INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY FOR RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS WITH THE NEW GENERATION HIGH-YIELD ACCELERATOR MASS SPECTROMETERS
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    A T Aerts-Bijma; D Paul; M W Dee; S W L Palstra; H A J Meijer

    The radiocarbon (14C) dating facility at the Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen went through a major upgrade in 2017 and this included installation of a MICADAS accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS). In the first 18 months, we performed 4000 sample and 3000 reference measurements. A careful evaluation of those measurement results is presented, to characterize the various sources of

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • BOUNDING MIDDLE PERIOD CEMETERY USE IN SAN PEDRO DE ATACAMA, CHILE
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    William J Pestle; Christina Torres-Rouff; Gonzalo Pimentel; Mark Hubbe

    The San Pedro de Atacama oases, located in northern Chile’s hyperarid Atacama Desert, have been occupied for at least 3000 years. Here, we examine cemetery use in the oases, with emphasis on the Middle Period (ca. AD 400–1000). By modeling of a large corpus (n=243) of radiocarbon dates, over 90% of which are direct AMS assays of human bone collagen, we attempt to establish a temporal framework by which

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • NEW BAYESIAN RADIOCARBON MODELS AND CERAMIC CHRONOLOGIES FOR EARLY BRONZE IV TELL ABU EN-NI‘AJ AND MIDDLE BRONZE AGE TELL EL-HAYYAT, JORDAN
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Patricia L Fall; Steven E Falconer; Felix Höflmayer

    We present two new Bayesian 14C models using IntCal20 that incorporate 17 new calibrated AMS ages for Early Bronze IV Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj and Middle Bronze Age Tell el-Hayyat, located in the northern Jordan Valley, Jordan. These freshly augmented suites of carbonized seed dates now include 25 AMS dates from Tell Abu en-Ni‘aj and 31 AMS dates from Tell el-Hayyat. The modeled founding date for Tell Abu

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • RADIOCARBON DATING OF PRE-COLUMBIAN PERUVIAN FUNERARY BUNDLES OF THE CHANCAY CULTURE
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Łukasz Majchrzak; Pieter van Dalen Luna; Tomasz Goslar

    The article presents the results of the absolute dating of 31 pre-Columbian funerary bundles excavated on the Cerro Colorado site located in the northern part of the Peruvian Central Coast, where the Chancay culture developed in the last centuries before the Spanish invasion. The typical custom in this region was to wrap the dead with textiles and a vegetal material, by which the bundle was created

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • USING RADIOCARBON DATA TO CHRONOLOGICALLY CONTROL POPULATION DENSITY ESTIMATES DERIVED FROM SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECTED INTRA-SETTLEMENT DISTRIBUTIONAL DATA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Brandon T Ritchison

    Population density is an important variable in the development of social complexity. Estimating population densities from the archaeological record requires combining estimates of population, area, and time. Archaeological population estimates tend to be reported as a maximum population derived from the total accumulation of discrete archaeological material types, usually ceramics or radiocarbon (14C)

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • RADIOCARBON DATING OF ORACLE BONES OF LATE SHANG PERIOD IN ANCIENT CHINA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Kexin Liu; Xiaohong Wu; Zhiyu Guo; Sixun Yuan; Xingfang Ding; Dongpo Fu; Yan Pan

    Oracle bone script developed into a sophisticated writing system in Shang Dynasty of China more than 3000 years ago. The systematic scientific dating of oracle bones had not been previously reported. Here we present radiocarbon (14C) dates measured from the sequential samples of oracle bones that pertain to the Shang kings. The results indicate that King Wu Ding (who is called Wu Ting in some literature)

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • CHRONOLOGY OF THE BURIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LAST HUNTER-GATHERERS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN IBERIAN PENINSULA, PORTUGAL
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    R Peyroteo-Stjerna

    For most of human history, funerary burial has been unusual. Archaeology shows a shift in funerary practices in postglacial hunter-gatherers, in parts of Europe during the Late Mesolithic. This is documented by the burial grounds in the Tagus and Sado valleys in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, Portugal, where ca. 376 burials were excavated. This study presents a chronology for the burial activity

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • SUITABILITY OF ACID-SOLUBLE AND ACID-INSOLUBLE LEATHER FRACTIONS IN RADIOCARBON DATING
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Alyssa M Tate; Brittany Hundman; Jonathan Heile

    Leather has been produced by a variety of methods throughout human history, providing researchers unique insight into multiple facets of social and economic life in the past. Archaeologically recovered leather is often fragile and poorly preserved, leading to the use of various conservation and restoration efforts that may include the application of fats, oils, or waxes. Such additives introduce exogenous

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • RADIOCARBON IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON BY UV OXIDATION: PROCEDURES AND BLANK CHARACTERIZATION AT NOSAMS
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Li Xu; Mark L Roberts; Kathryn L Elder; Mark D Kurz; Ann P McNichol; Christopher M Reddy; Collin P Ward; Ulrich M Hanke

    This study describes a procedural blank assessment of the ultraviolet photochemical oxidation (UV oxidation) method that is used to measure carbon isotopes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at the National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility (NOSAMS). A retrospective compilation of Fm and δ13C results for secondary standards (OX-II, glycine) between 2009 and 2018 indicated that a

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • CHRONOLOGY OF THE TIANSHANBEILU CEMETERY IN XINJIANG, NORTHWESTERN CHINA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Jianyi Tong; Jian Ma; Wenying Li; Xi’en Chang; Jianjun Yu; Jianxin Wang; Yingxia Ma; Yiliang Tian; Kuerban Reheman; Mulati Simayi; Liu Ruiliang

    Eurasian steppes experienced frequent cultural transfers, human migration, and diffusion of techniques during the Bronze Age. The Hami Oasis is one of the most dynamic areas and has attracted multiple cultural flows. It is an important area that connects various routes of the Tianshan Corridor with the Hexi Corridor in western China. The Tianshanbeilu cemetery is the largest Bronze Age cemetery in

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • INFERENCE FROM LARGE SETS OF RADIOCARBON DATES: SOFTWARE AND METHODS
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Enrico R Crema; Andrew Bevan

    The last decade has seen the development of a range of new statistical and computational techniques for analysing large collections of radiocarbon (14C) dates, often but not exclusively to make inferences about human population change in the past. Here we introduce rcarbon, an open-source software package for the R statistical computing language which implements many of these techniques and looks to

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • DIRECT DATING OF THE HUMAN NAVICULAR FROM THE CUEVA DE LOS TORREJONES (GUADALAJARA, SPAIN)
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Adrián Pablos; Nohemi Sala; Alfonso Arribas

    Pleistocene human remains are rare inland on the Iberian Peninsula. Most are considered Neandertals, but anthropological analyses and direct dating are rare. Recently, we published a study of a navicular from this region found in the Torrejones Cave. The results showed it differed from that of Neandertals and it was re-identified as Homo sapiens. Following the previous stratigraphic and biochronologic

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • DIRECT RADIOCARBON DATING OF CHARCOAL-BASED INK IN PAPYRI: A FEASIBILITY STUDY
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Mariaelena Fedi; Serena Barone; Luca Carraresi; Simona Dominici; Lucia Liccioli

    When dating documents by radiocarbon (14C), what we typically measure is the concentration of the support (e.g. paper, parchment, or papyrus). This can however lead to a possible misinterpretation of results because the support may be older than the writing itself. To minimize such a possible ambiguity, the ideal approach would be direct dating of the ink or color (if organic). Here we propose a feasibility

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • The IntCal20 Northern Hemisphere Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curve (0–55 cal kBP)
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Paula J Reimer; William E N Austin; Edouard Bard; Alex Bayliss; Paul G Blackwell; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Martin Butzin; Hai Cheng; R Lawrence Edwards; Michael Friedrich; Pieter M Grootes; Thomas P Guilderson; Irka Hajdas; Timothy J Heaton; Alan G Hogg; Konrad A Hughen; Bernd Kromer; Sturt W Manning; Raimund Muscheler; Jonathan G Palmer; Charlotte Pearson; Johannes van der Plicht; Ron W Reimer; David

    Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • SHCal20 Southern Hemisphere Calibration, 0–55,000 Years cal BP
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Alan G Hogg; Timothy J Heaton; Quan Hua; Jonathan G Palmer; Chris SM Turney; John Southon; Alex Bayliss; Paul G Blackwell; Gretel Boswijk; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Charlotte Pearson; Fiona Petchey; Paula Reimer; Ron Reimer; Lukas Wacker

    Early researchers of radiocarbon levels in Southern Hemisphere tree rings identified a variable North-South hemispheric offset, necessitating construction of a separate radiocarbon calibration curve for the South. We present here SHCal20, a revised calibration curve from 0–55,000 cal BP, based upon SHCal13 and fortified by the addition of 14 new tree-ring data sets in the 2140–0, 3520–3453, 3608–3590

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Marine20—The Marine Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curve (0–55,000 cal BP)
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Timothy J Heaton; Peter Köhler; Martin Butzin; Edouard Bard; Ron W Reimer; William E N Austin; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Pieter M Grootes; Konrad A Hughen; Bernd Kromer; Paula J Reimer; Jess Adkins; Andrea Burke; Mea S Cook; Jesper Olsen; Luke C Skinner

    The concentration of radiocarbon (14C) differs between ocean and atmosphere. Radiocarbon determinations from samples which obtained their 14C in the marine environment therefore need a marine-specific calibration curve and cannot be calibrated directly against the atmospheric-based IntCal20 curve. This paper presents Marine20, an update to the internationally agreed marine radiocarbon age calibration

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • The IntCal20 Approach to Radiocarbon Calibration Curve Construction: A New Methodology Using Bayesian Splines and Errors-in-Variables
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Timothy J Heaton; Maarten Blaauw; Paul G Blackwell; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Paula J Reimer; E Marian Scott

    To create a reliable radiocarbon calibration curve, one needs not only high-quality data but also a robust statistical methodology. The unique aspects of much of the calibration data provide considerable modeling challenges and require a made-to-measure approach to curve construction that accurately represents and adapts to these individualities, bringing the data together into a single curve. For

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Findings from an in-Depth Annual Tree-Ring Radiocarbon Intercomparison
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    L Wacker; E M Scott; A Bayliss; D Brown; E Bard; S Bollhalder; M Friedrich; M Capano; A Cherkinsky; D Chivall; B J Culleton; M W Dee; R Friedrich; G W L Hodgins; A Hogg; D J Kennett; T D J Knowles; M Kuitems; T E Lange; F Miyake; M-J Nadeau; T Nakamura; J P Naysmith; J Olsen; T Omori; F Petchey; B Philippsen; C Bronk Ramsey; G V Ravi Prasad; M Seiler; J Southon; R Staff; T Tuna

    The radiocarbon (14C) calibration curve so far contains annually resolved data only for a short period of time. With accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) matching the precision of decay counting, it is now possible to efficiently produce large datasets of annual resolution for calibration purposes using small amounts of wood. The radiocarbon intercomparison on single-year tree-ring samples presented

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Updated Cariaco Basin 14C Calibration Dataset from 0–60 cal kyr BP
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Konrad A Hughen; Timothy J Heaton

    We present new updates to the calendar and radiocarbon (14C) chronologies for the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela. Calendar ages were generated by tuning abrupt climate shifts in Cariaco Basin sediments to those in speleothems from Hulu Cave. After the original Cariaco-Hulu calendar age model was published, Hulu Cave δ18O records have been augmented with increased temporal resolution and a greater number

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • IntCal20 Tree Rings: An Archaeological Swot Analysis
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Alex Bayliss; Peter Marshall; Michael W Dee; Michael Friedrich; Timothy J Heaton; Lukas Wacker

    We undertook a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of Northern Hemisphere tree-ring datasets included in IntCal20 in order to evaluate their strategic fit with the demands of archaeological users. Case studies on wiggle-matching single tree rings from timbers in historic buildings and Bayesian modeling of series of results on archaeological samples from Neolithic long

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Testing and Improving the IntCal20 Calibration Curve with Independent Records
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Raimund Muscheler; Florian Adolphi; Timothy J Heaton; Christopher Bronk Ramsey; Anders Svensson; Johannes van der Plicht; Paula J Reimer

    Connecting calendar ages to radiocarbon (14C) ages, i.e. constructing a calibration curve, requires 14C samples that represent, or are closely connected to, atmospheric 14C values and that can also be independently dated. In addition to these data, there is information that can serve as independent tests of the calibration curve. For example, information from ice core radionuclide data cannot be directly

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Onset of the Younger Dryas Recorded with 14C at Annual Resolution in French Subfossil Trees – ERRATUM
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Manuela Capano; Cécile Miramont; Lisa Shindo; Frédéric Guibal; Christian Marschal; Bernd Kromer; Thibaut Tuna; Edouard Bard

    Subfossil trees with their annual rings constitute the most accurate and precise archive to calibrate the radiocarbon (14C) method. The Holocene part of the IntCal curve is based on tree-ring chronologies, absolutely dated by dendrochronological matching. For the Northern Hemisphere, the absolute curve starts at 12,325 cal BP. For the early part of the Younger Dryas (YD) climatic event (≈ 12,850–11

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • CALCIUM OXALATE RADIOCARBON DATING: PRELIMINARY TESTS TO DATE ROCK ART OF THE DECORATED OPEN-AIR CAVES, ERONGO MOUNTAINS, NAMIBIA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Jean-Pascal Dumoulin; Matthieu Lebon; Ingrid Caffy; Guilhem Mauran; Alma Nankela; David Pleurdeau; Emmanuelle Delqué-Količ; Christophe Moreau; Marion Perron; Marc Sieudat; Bruno Thellier; Lucile Beck

    The direct dating of rock paintings is not always possible due to the lack of organic carbon compounds in pigments, or because sampling from a heritage site is often restricted. To overcome these limitations, dating laboratories have to develop new approaches. In this study, we consider sampling calcium oxalate crusts covering the painted artworks as a way to indirectly date the rock art. This stratigraphic

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • CREMATION VS. INHUMATION: MODELING CULTURAL CHANGES IN FUNERARY PRACTICES FROM THE MESOLITHIC TO THE MIDDLE AGES IN BELGIUM USING KERNEL DENSITY ANALYSIS ON 14C DATA
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Giacomo Capuzzo; Christophe Snoeck; Mathieu Boudin; Sarah Dalle; Rica Annaert; Marta Hlad; Ioannis Kontopoulos; Charlotte Sabaux; Kevin Salesse; Amanda Sengeløv; Elisavet Stamataki; Barbara Veselka; Eugène Warmenbol; Guy De Mulder; Dries Tys; Martine Vercauteren

    The adoption of a new funerary ritual with all its social and cognitive meanings is of great importance to understanding social transformations of past societies. The first known occurrence of cremation in the territory corresponding to modern Belgium dates back to the Mesolithic period. From the end of the Neolithic onward, the practice of cremation was characterized by periods in which this rite

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • AMS 14C DATING OF THE MAYAN CODEX OF MEXICO REVISITED
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Corina Solís; Miguel Á Martínez Carrillo; María Rodríguez-Ceja; Efraín Chávez; J Andrés Christen; A J Timothy Jull

    The Mayan Codex of Mexico (MCM), the only Mayan codex found in the 20th century, was unveiled in 1971 during the Ancient Maya Calligraphy exhibition at Club Grolier. The codex comprises 10 pages of bark paper in accordion format, coated with a layer of plaster on both sides. It illustrates the synodic cycles of Venus, with its four phases. Since its discovery, the MCM has been subject to controversy

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • PEOPLING OF OCEANIA: CLARIFYING AN INITIAL SETTLEMENT HORIZON IN THE MARIANA ISLANDS AT 1500 BC
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Mike T Carson

    Radiocarbon (14C) has been instrumental in clarifying how people came to inhabit the expanse of Pacific Oceania, now supporting an “incremental growth model” that shows a number of long-distance sea-crossing migrations over the last few millennia. A crucial step in this narrative involved the initial settlement of the remote-distance Oceanic region, in the case of the Mariana Islands around 1500 BC

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • ARTEMIS, THE 14C AMS FACILITY OF THE LMC14 NATIONAL LABORATORY: A STATUS REPORT ON QUALITY CONTROL AND MICROSAMPLE PROCEDURES
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Christophe Moreau; Cyrielle Messager; Bernard Berthier; Stéphane Hain; Bruno Thellier; Jean-Pascal Dumoulin; Ingrid Caffy; Marc Sieudat; Emmanuelle Delqué-Količ; Solène Mussard; Marion Perron; Valérie Setti; Lucile Beck

    Quality control procedures have been developed at the Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14) national laboratory throughout the years of operation. Routine procedures are applied to sample preparation depending on their composition and their size. The tuning of the ARTEMIS AMS facility, hosted by the LMC14 laboratory, uses an accurate procedure. A batch of unknown samples is measured with accompanying

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • THE NATURE OF THE HALLSTATTIAN CULTURAL CHANGE IN NORTHERN CENTRAL EUROPE IN LIGHT OF RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE LATE BRONZE AGE STRONGHOLD AT ŁUBOWICE NEAR RACIBÓRZ (SOUTHWEST POLAND)
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Jan Chochorowski; Marek Krąpiec

    At the close of the Bronze Age, a tendency developed in Central Europe towards the concentration of settlement and fortification of sites which served special economic and social functions. One of the largest centers of this kind in the northern part of Central Europe is the Łubowice stronghold (SW Poland). Archaeological excavations allowed the stratigraphy of the fortification remnants to be comprehensively

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • WHEN DID THE INCAS BUILD MACHU PICCHU AND ITS SATELLITE SITES? NEW APPROCHES BASED ON RADIOCARBON DATING
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Mariusz Ziółkowski; Jose Bastante Abuhadba; Alan Hogg; Dominika Sieczkowska; Andrzej Rakowski; Jacek Pawlyta; Sturt W Manning

    According to the classical chronology of the Inca State, the ascension to power of Pachacuti Inca took place around AD 1438 and the construction of Machu Picchu began by AD 1450–1460. However, the improvement in the accuracy of radiocarbon (14C) dating resulting from the application of Bayesian analysis has changed our view of the historical chronology. This new research raises questions about our

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • THE CULT AREA (ZOLNIK) FROM A SCYTHIAN HILLFORT IN CHOTYNIEC NEAR RADYMNO (SOUTHEASTERN POLAND) IN THE CONTEXT OF RADIOCARBON DATING
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Sylwester Czopek; Marek Krąpiec

    A zolnik excavated in 2016–2018 at the hillfort identified as the Scythian cultural circle in Chotyniec (southeastern Poland, 8 km west of the current Poland–Ukraine border) provided a very large quantity of archaeological sources and organic materials. From the latter, 17 samples coming from different horizons were selected for dating and were used to build a chronological model of functioning of

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • DATING OF REMAINS OF THE MEDIEVAL CHURCH SANTA MARIA DI CAMPOGROSSO IN SICILY IN THE LIGHT OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Marek Krąpiec; Sławomir Moździoch; Ewa Moździoch

    Excavations of the remains of the medieval church of Santa Maria di Campogrosso (Sicily) were conducted by the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences as part of scientific cooperation with Soprintendenza per i Beni Culturali ed Ambientali di Palermo. Based on the records of post-medieval historians, the construction of the church was placed in the second half of the

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • FROM LAND AND SEA: OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES OF DIRECTLY DATING DOG REMAINS ON POLYNESIAN ISLANDS
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Justin Cramb; Carla S Hadden

    Recent archaeological excavations on Rakahanga Atoll, Northern Cook Islands, produced one of the earliest examples of dog (Canis familiaris) remains found on East Polynesian atolls. Direct dating of these and other Pacific Island fauna by AMS is complicated by a number of factors. (1) The animals’ diets may consist of marine and terrestrial protein. (2) Marine 14C is itself a mix of carbon pools with

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • ASSESSING THE STRATIGRAPHIC INTEGRITY OF PLANKTIC AND BENTHIC 14C RECORDS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC FOR Δ14C RECONSTRUCTIONS AT THE LAST GLACIAL TERMINATION
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Lowell D Stott

    There is a growing database of radiocarbon (14C) reconstructions from biogenic carbonate taken from marine sediment cores being used to investigate changing ocean circulation and carbon cycling at the end of the last great ice age. Reported here are 14C results from a marine core taken in the Makassar Straits of the western equatorial Pacific that was intended to test whether there was evidence of

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • CAN THE 14C PRODUCTION IN 1055 CE BE AFFECTED BY SN1054?
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    F Terrasi; F Marzaioli; R Buompane; I Passariello; G Porzio; M Capano; S Helama; M Oinonen; P Nöjd; J Uusitalo; A J T Jull; I P Panyushkina; C Baisan; M Molnar; T Varga; G Kovaltsov; S Poluianov; I Usoskin

    Annually resolved radiocarbon (14C) measurements on tree rings led to the discovery of abrupt variations in 14C production attributed to large solar flares. We present new results of annual and subannual 14C fluctuations in tree rings from a middle-latitude sequoia (California) and a high-latitude pine (Finland), analyzed for the period 1030–1080 CE, to trace a possible impact of the Crab supernova

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • HIGH-PRECISION BAYESIAN CHRONOLOGICAL MODELING ON A CALIBRATION PLATEAU: THE NIEDERTIEFENBACH GALLERY GRAVE
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    John Meadows; Christoph Rinne; Alexander Immel; Katharina Fuchs; Ben Krause-Kyora; Clara Drummer

    We combine the results of a radiocarbon (14C) dating program with archaeogenetic, osteological and sparse stratigraphic data, to construct a Bayesian chronological model for a multi-generational sequence situated entirely on a plateau in the 14C calibration curve. Calibrated dates of individual human bones from the Late Neolithic gallery grave at Niedertiefenbach, Hesse, Germany, span the entire calibration

    更新日期:2020-08-07
  • The State-of-the-Art of Dating Techniques Applied to Ancient Mortars and Binders: A Review
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Petra Urbanová; Elisabetta Boaretto; Gilberto Artioli

    The most recent workshop on mortar dating (25–27 Oct. 2018, Bordeaux, Montaigne University, France), which closely followed the publication of an extensive round robin-exercise involving several laboratories, was an opportunity to review the history and challenges of mortar dating methods and procedures currently in use. This review stems from the keynote lectures presented at the meeting, and wishes

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • Radiocarbon Dating of Mortars and Charcoals from Novae Bath Complex: Sequential Dissolution of Historical and Experimental Mortar Samples with Pozzolanic Admixture
    Radiocarbon (IF 1.975) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Danuta Michalska; Małgorzata Mrozek-Wysocka

    Carbonaceous mortars from Novae (Bulgaria) contain local loess, crushed bricks and ceramic dust (pozzolanic materials). The reaction between lime and pozzolanic additives occurs easily and affects the rate and course of leaching reaction of carbonates in orthophosphoric acid during the sample pretreatment for dating. The composition of the Bulgarian mortars does not allow for unambiguous conclusions

    更新日期:2020-08-04
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