The intermediate step in fractionation trends of mildly alkaline volcanic suites: An experimental insight from the Pavin trachyandesite (Massif Central, France) CR Geosci. (IF 1.840) Pub Date : 2019-10-09 Morgane Rondet; Caroline Martel; Jean-Louis Bourdier
We examined magma storage conditions and eruptive dynamics for the trachyandesite (~58 wt% SiO2, 9–10 wt% alkalis) of the Pavin monogenetic volcano, a maar-like explosive crater belonging to a small group of youngest volcanoes in the Massif Central. By confronting the natural samples to experimental products, we constrained pre-eruptive conditions around 950–975 °C, 150–200 MPa (~5.5–7.0 km in depth), NNO+1.5, and 4.5–5.5 wt% melt H2O. There is petrological evidence of magma crystallization in the conduit up to shallow levels (~50 MPa; 2 km in depth) before fragmentation into pumice clasts in the last kilometre of ascent. The experiments highlight the role of biotite and of crystallization pressure in defining separate compositional trends of residual liquids, i.e. alkaline (trachytes) versus sub-alkaline (dacite-rhyolite).
Effect of anorthite on granite phase relations: Experimental data and models CR Geosci. (IF 1.840) Pub Date : 2019-11-15 Michel Pichavant; Catherine Weber; Arnaud Villaros
New experimental data on the effect of anorthite (An) on liquidus phase equilibria in the system Qz–Ab–Or are presented. The data were obtained for 5 wt% An added to variable Qz/Ab/Or compositions at 300 MPa and under H2O-saturated conditions. Crystal–liquid equilibria were determined for 13 synthetic glass compositions made from gels in experiments performed between 660 and 750 °C in cold-seal pressure vessels. Forward and reversal experiments were systematically conducted on each composition to demonstrate equilibrium. A total of 51 charges was examined. Three crystalline phases, quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase appear on the H2O-saturated liquidus surface. The determined minimum liquidus 5 wt% An “piercing” point (39% Qz, 33% Ab, 28% Or) is shifted away from the Ab apex toward the Qz–Or sideline when compared with the An-free 300 MPa H2O-saturated minimum. This shift is of the same type as that observed at 100 MPa in the same system and at 200 MPa in a rhyolitic system. The new experimental results are used to test both empirical and thermodynamic models for silicic magmas. Empirical models reproduce reasonably well the new experimental data, although more sophisticated calculations schemes appear to be required to improve their accuracy. The new experimental results in the haplogranodiorite system are not well reproduced with the model of Holland and Powell (2001), mainly because plagioclase stability appears greatly enhanced in the model. Rhyolite-MELTS satisfactorily reproduces the Qz-, Pl- and Af-liquid phase equilibria, but model H2O solubilities are significantly lower and crystallization temperatures higher than in experiments.
Titanite: A potential solidus barometer for granitic magma systems CR Geosci. (IF 1.840) Pub Date : 2019-11-15 Saskia Erdmann; Rucheng Wang; Fangfang Huang; Bruno Scaillet; Kai Zhao; Hongsheng Liu; Yan Chen; Michel Faure
Constraining crystallization pressure and thus intrusion depth of granites in various geodynamic settings remains challenging, yet important to further our understanding of magma system and crustal evolution. We propose that titanite, which is a common accessory in metaluminous and weakly peraluminous granites, can be used as a barometer if it crystallized in magmatic, near-solidus conditions and in equilibrium with amphibole, plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, biotite, and magnetite ± ilmenite. Titanite Al2O3 increases with pressure (P) according to: P (in MPa) = 101.66 × Al2O3 in titanite (in wt%) + 59.013 (R2 = 0.83) with estimated uncertainties of ~±60 to ~±100 MPa for crystallization between ~150 and 400 MPa. We highlight that the current calibration dataset is limited, and that systematic experimental studies are needed to rigorously quantify the relation. The most important use of this empirical barometer will be for rocks in which amphibole is present but significantly altered, or in combination with amphibole barometry, as titanite can be easily dated by LA-ICP-MS.
Secular cooling and crystallization of partially molten Archaean continental crust over 1 Ga CR Geosci. (IF 1.840) Pub Date : 2019-10-14 Olivier Vanderhaeghe; Célia Guergouz; Cécile Fabre; Stéphanie Duchêne; David Baratoux
The protracted tectonic and magmatic record of cratons over the Archaean Eon has been classically interpreted in terms of long-lived shallow-dipping subduction or repeated mantle plumes. In this paper, we use the 1D conductive heat equation to model the evolution of the geotherm of a generic felsic-dominated Archaean cratonic nuclei solely considering the secular decay of radioactive isotopes (238U, 235U, 232Th, and 40K), responsible for heat production in the crust. Using a range of plausible parameters for crustal thickness, lithospheric thickness, and surface heat flux, this modelling shows that Archaean crust was characterized by an initially high geothermal gradient at 3.5 Ga, with a Moho temperature close to 900 °C, and that it might have remained partially molten for about one billion years. The existence of a partially molten crust for an extended period of time offers an alternative option to shallow-dipping subduction or repeated mantle plumes for the understanding of the peculiar tectonic evolution of Archaean cratons marked by (i) protracted high-temperature metamorphism and magmatism associated with crustal differentiation, and (ii) widespread deformation characterized by structural domes attributed to the development of crustal-scale gravitational instabilities.
Crystal clustering in magmas: Insights from HP–HT experiments CR Geosci. (IF 1.840) Pub Date : 2019-11-15 Laurent Arbaret; Misha Bystricky; Patrick Launeau
We have studied by high-resolution X-ray Computed Tomography the effect of crystal clustering on the Shape-Preferred Orientation (SPO) development in synthetic magmas experimentally deformed at 300 MPa and 475–550°C. A fully connected solid network that could potentially induce the onset of yield strength is not achieved in these suspensions containing 16 vol% of crystals. The alumina grain population exhibits a glomeroporphyritic texture made of isolated grains (59.6%) and clusters of touching grains (40.4%). The SPO of the sub-population of isolated grains exhibits foliation and lineation, which are closely parallel to the plane and direction of shear, respectively. The SPO of clustered grains has little influence overall shape fabric. The angular relationships between the average foliation and cluster elongation provide a good indicator of the shear sense. Finally, we highlight the strain partitioning between nearly non-deformed large clusters acting as rigid glomerocrysts and highly sheared zones in low concentrated suspensions.