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  • Greenery as a mitigation and adaptation strategy to urban heat
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Nyuk Hien Wong; Chun Liang Tan; Dionysia Denia Kolokotsa; Hideki Takebayashi

    The absence of vegetation in urban areas contributes to the establishment of the urban heat island, markedly increasing thermal stress for residents, driving morbidity and mortality. Mitigation strategies are, therefore, needed to reduce urban heat, particularly against a background of urbanization, anthropogenic warming and increasing frequency and intensity of heatwaves. In this Review, we evaluate

    更新日期:2021-01-26
  • Beneath the glacier
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Kyle R. Frischkorn

    An article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes how glacier–rock interactions could fuel chemosynthetic primary production in Icelandic sediments.

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Dust records mountain growth
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Erin Scott

    An article in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta reports a Nd-isotope record of terrestrial dust from northern Tibetan Plateau sediments since 52 Ma, revealing insight into regional uplift and climate changes from inland Asia.

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Uniting remote sensing, crop modelling and economics for agricultural risk management
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Elinor Benami; Zhenong Jin; Michael R. Carter; Aniruddha Ghosh; Robert J. Hijmans; Andrew Hobbs; Benson Kenduiywo; David B. Lobell

    The increasing availability of satellite data at higher spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions is enabling new applications in agriculture and economic development, including agricultural insurance. Yet, effectively using satellite data in this context requires blending technical knowledge about their capabilities and limitations with an understanding of their influence on the value of risk-reduction

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • Breaking down the NAO–AO connection
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Graham Simpkins

    An article in Nature Climate Change outlines how the connection between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation might break down under a warming climate.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Plants and dune dynamics
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Laura Zinke

    An article in Geomorphology examines the role of plants in coastal sand dune formation through wind tunnel experiments and field observations.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Anthropogenic intensification of short-duration rainfall extremes
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Hayley J. Fowler; Geert Lenderink; Andreas F. Prein; Seth Westra; Richard P. Allan; Nikolina Ban; Renaud Barbero; Peter Berg; Stephen Blenkinsop; Hong X. Do; Selma Guerreiro; Jan O. Haerter; Elizabeth J. Kendon; Elizabeth Lewis; Christoph Schaer; Ashish Sharma; Gabriele Villarini; Conrad Wasko; Xuebin Zhang

    Short-duration (1–3 h) rainfall extremes can cause serious damage to societies through rapidly developing (flash) flooding and are determined by complex, multifaceted processes that are altering as Earth’s climate warms. In this Review, we examine evidence from observational, theoretical and modelling studies for the intensification of these rainfall extremes, the drivers and the impact on flash flooding

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Around the sun in 12 issues
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-13

    Join us in celebrating the first anniversary of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment.

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Reflections on solid Earth research
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Shuichi Kodaira; Maria Seton; Laura J. Sonter; Christy B. Till; Helen M. Williams

    To celebrate the first anniversary of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, we asked five researchers investigating solid Earth processes to outline notable developments within their discipline and provide thoughts on important work yet to be done.

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Reflections on Earth surface research
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Irasema Alcántara-Ayala; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe; Louis Derry; Vamsi Ganti; Alice A. Horton; Min Sub Sim

    To celebrate the first anniversary of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, we asked six researchers investigating Earth surface processes to outline notable developments within their discipline and provide thoughts on important work yet to be done.

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Reflections on weather and climate research
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Wenjia Cai; Christa Clapp; Indrani Das; Sarah Perkins-Kirkpatrick; Adelle Thomas; Jessica E. Tierney

    To celebrate the first anniversary of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, we asked six researchers investigating weather and climate to outline notable developments within their discipline and provide thoughts on important work yet to be done.

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Evolution of the structure and impact of Earth’s biosphere
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Noah J. Planavsky; Sean A. Crowe; Mojtaba Fakhraee; Brian Beaty; Christopher T. Reinhard; Benjamin J. W. Mills; Cerys Holstege; Kurt O. Konhauser

    Life on Earth has existed for over 3.5 billion years and has caused fundamental changes in Earth’s biogeochemistry. However, the timing and impact of major events in the evolution of the biosphere are hotly contested, owing partially to the inherent difficulty in studying events that occurred in deep time. In this Review, we discuss the evolving structure of Earth’s biosphere and major changes in its

    更新日期:2021-01-07
  • Publisher Correction: Measuring, modelling and projecting coastal land subsidence
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-17
    Manoochehr Shirzaei; Jeffrey Freymueller; Torbjörn E. Törnqvist; Devin L. Galloway; Tina Dura; Philip S. J. Minderhoud

    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-020-00134-8.

    更新日期:2020-12-17
  • Volcanic Gasometer
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-17
    Erin Scott

    An article in Geophysical Research Letters reports that pCO2 levels at the surface of Taal Volcano crater lake can be used to continuously monitor volcanic CO2 flux, which could help provide important insights for eruption monitoring.

    更新日期:2020-12-17
  • The coral volatilome
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Graham Simpkins

    An article in Global Change Biology characterizes the diversity and abundance of biogenic volatile organic compounds from two coral species.

    更新日期:2020-12-10
  • Wearing down olivine
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Laura Zinke

    An article in Chemical Geology reports the use of magnesium and lithium isotopes to track olivine weathering in soils.

    更新日期:2020-12-10
  • Measuring, modelling and projecting coastal land subsidence
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Manoochehr Shirzaei; Jeffrey Freymueller; Torbjörn E. Törnqvist; Devin L. Galloway; Tina Dura; Philip S. J. Minderhoud

    Coastal subsidence contributes to relative sea-level rise and exacerbates flooding hazards, with the at-risk population expected to triple by 2070. Natural processes of vertical land motion, such as tectonics, glacial isostatic adjustment and sediment compaction, as well as anthropogenic processes, such as fluid extraction, lead to globally variable subsidence rates. In this Review, we discuss the

    更新日期:2020-12-10
  • Post-mining recoveries
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Laura Zinke

    An article in the Journal of Hydrology reports the impact of coal mining on groundwater resources and vegetation greenness in Inner Mongolia, China.

    更新日期:2020-12-08
  • A year in numbers
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-07

    As the first year of Nature Reviews Earth & Environment draws to an end, we celebrate the successes and reflect on the areas of improvement needed for volume two and beyond. Thank you to all our authors, peer reviewers and readers.

    更新日期:2020-12-07
  • Use of weather and climate information essential for SDG implementation
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    David Griggs; Mark Stafford-Smith; David Warrilow; Roger Street; Carolina Vera; Michelle Scobie; Youba Sokona

    Owing to a lack of understanding, and data being unavailable, unusable or unsuitable, weather and climate information is currently underutilized in Sustainable Development Goal implementation. Improvements are essential in knowledge brokering, clarifying responsibilities, multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder governance arrangements and research on systemic risks and decisions.

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Beach nourishment has complex implications for the future of sandy shores
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Matthieu A. de Schipper; Bonnie C. Ludka; Britt Raubenheimer; Arjen P. Luijendijk; Thomas. A. Schlacher

    Beach nourishment — the addition of sand to increase the width or sand volume of the beach — is a widespread coastal management technique to counteract coastal erosion. Globally, rising sea levels, storms and diminishing sand supplies threaten beaches and the recreational, ecosystem, groundwater and flood protection services they provide. Consequently, beach nourishment practices have evolved from

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The generation of large earthquakes
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Aitaro Kato; Yehuda Ben-Zion

    Despite decades of observational, laboratory and theoretical studies, the processes leading to large earthquake generation remain enigmatic. However, recent observations provide new promising perspectives that advance knowledge. Here, we review data on the initiation processes of large earthquakes and show that they are multiscale and diverse, involving localization of deformation, fault heterogeneities

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Author Correction: Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial systems
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Yuichi Onda; Keisuke Taniguchi; Kazuya Yoshimura; Hiroaki Kato; Junko Takahashi; Yoshifumi Wakiyama; Frederic Coppin; Hugh Smith

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Author Correction: Carbon dioxide storage through mineral carbonation
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir; Bergur Sigfússon; Chiara Marieni; David Goldberg; Sigurður R. Gislason; Eric H. Oelkers

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Magnetic sources in the Earth’s mantle
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Eric C. Ferré; Ilya Kupenko; Fátima Martín-Hernández; Dhananjay Ravat; Carmen Sanchez-Valle

    Since the 1970s, ferromagnetic minerals were believed to be absent in the Earth’s mantle and, even if present, the temperatures were considered too high for such phases to carry magnetic remanence. However, new experimental data, measurements on mantle xenoliths and an improved understanding of long-wavelength features in aeromagnetic data require that the magnetization of the mantle be revisited.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • An ice–climate oscillatory framework for Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Laurie C. Menviel; Luke C. Skinner; Lev Tarasov; Polychronis C. Tzedakis

    Intermediate glacial states were characterized by large temperature changes in Greenland and the North Atlantic, referred to as Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) variability, with some transitions occurring over a few decades. D–O variability included changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), temperature changes of opposite sign and asynchronous timing in each hemisphere

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial systems
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Yuichi Onda; Keisuke Taniguchi; Kazuya Yoshimura; Hiroaki Kato; Junko Takahashi; Yoshifumi Wakiyama; Frederic Coppin; Hugh Smith

    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Japan, released the largest quantity of radionuclides into the terrestrial environment since the 1986 accident at Chernobyl. This accident resulted in 2.7 PBq of radiocaesium (137Cs) contaminated forests, agricultural lands, grasslands and urban areas, which subsequently migrated through soil and waterways in the Fukushima Prefecture

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Climate change impacts on wind power generation
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Sara C. Pryor; Rebecca J. Barthelmie; Melissa S. Bukovsky; L. Ruby Leung; Koichi Sakaguchi

    Wind energy is a virtually carbon-free and pollution-free electricity source, with global wind resources greatly exceeding electricity demand. Accordingly, the installed capacity of wind turbines grew at an annualized rate of >20% from 2000 to 2019 and is projected to increase by a further 50% by the end of 2023. In this Review, we describe the factors that dictate the wind resource magnitude and variability

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • Internal wave-driven mixing: governing processes and consequences for climate
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Caitlin B. Whalen; Casimir de Lavergne; Alberto C. Naveira Garabato; Jody M. Klymak; Jennifer A. MacKinnon; Katy L. Sheen

    Turbulent mixing from breaking oceanic internal waves drives a vertical transport of water, heat and other climatically important tracers in the ocean, thereby playing an important role in shaping the circulation and distributions of heat and carbon within the climate system. However, linking internal wave-driven mixing to its impacts on climate poses a formidable challenge, since it requires understanding

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • The shaping of erosional landscapes by internal dynamics
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Joel S. Scheingross; Ajay B. Limaye; Scott W. McCoy; Alexander C. Whittaker

    Erosional landscapes transport sediment downstream, host natural hazards and are geologically active. While perturbations in external forcing, particularly climate and tectonics, sculpt erosional landscapes, similar landforms can be created by internal dynamics, that is, feedbacks between topography, erosion and sediment transport that occur independent of external perturbations. Internal system responses

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Subduction erosion and arc volcanism
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Susanne M. Straub; Arturo Gómez-Tuena; Paola Vannucchi

    Tectonic or subduction erosion refers to the removal of upper-plate material from the forearc at convergent margins. Subduction erosion has been suggested to represent a major process associated with the transfer of crustal material into the Earth’s mantle at subduction zones. However, few studies have attempted to trace the fate of eroded forearc crust beneath volcanic arcs, where the eroded crust

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Environmental impacts and decarbonization strategies in the cement and concrete industries
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    G. Habert; S. A. Miller; V. M. John; J. L. Provis; A. Favier; A. Horvath; K. L. Scrivener

    The use of cement and concrete, among the most widely used man-made materials, is under scrutiny. Owing to their large-scale use, production of cement and concrete results in substantial emission of greenhouse gases and places strain on the availability of natural resources, such as water. Projected urbanization over the next 50–100 years therefore indicates that the demand for cement and concrete

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Deforestation and reforestation impacts on soils in the tropics
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Edzo Veldkamp; Marcus Schmidt; Jennifer S. Powers; Marife D. Corre

    Soils under natural, tropical forests provide essential ecosystem services that have been shaped by long-term soil–vegetation feedbacks. However, deforestation of tropical forest, with a net rate of 5.5 million hectares annually in 2010–2015, profoundly impacts soil properties and functions. Reforestation is also prominent in the tropics, again altering the state and functioning of the underlying soils

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • Burning embers: towards more transparent and robust climate-change risk assessments
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Zinta Zommers; Philippe Marbaix; Andreas Fischlin; Zelina Z. Ibrahim; Sean Grant; Alexandre K. Magnan; Hans-Otto Pörtner; Mark Howden; Katherine Calvin; Koko Warner; Wim Thiery; Zita Sebesvari; Edouard L. Davin; Jason P. Evans; Cynthia Rosenzweig; Brian C. O’Neill; Anand Patwardhan; Rachel Warren; Maarten K. van Aalst; Margot Hulbert

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports provide policy-relevant insights about climate impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation through a process of peer-reviewed literature assessments underpinned by expert judgement. An iconic output from these assessments is the burning embers diagram, first used in the Third Assessment Report to visualize reasons for concern, which aggregate

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Author Correction: The emergence and evolution of Earth System Science
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Will Steffen; Katherine Richardson; Johan Rockström; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Opha Pauline Dube; Sébastien Dutreuil; Timothy M. Lenton; Jane Lubchenco

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-03
  • The concept and future prospects of soil health
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Johannes Lehmann; Deborah A. Bossio; Ingrid Kögel-Knabner; Matthias C. Rillig

    Soil health is the continued capacity of soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans, and connects agricultural and soil science to policy, stakeholder needs and sustainable supply-chain management. Historically, soil assessments focused on crop production, but, today, soil health also includes the role of soil in water quality, climate change and human health

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Vegetation fires in the Anthropocene
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    David M. J. S. Bowman; Crystal A. Kolden; John T. Abatzoglou; Fay H. Johnston; Guido R. van der Werf; Mike Flannigan

    Vegetation fires are an essential component of the Earth system but can also cause substantial economic losses, severe air pollution, human mortality and environmental damage. Contemporary fire regimes are increasingly impacted by human activities and climate change, but, owing to the complex fire–human–climate interactions and incomplete historical or long-term datasets, it is difficult to detect

    更新日期:2020-08-19
  • South Pacific Convergence Zone dynamics, variability and impacts in a changing climate
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Josephine R. Brown; Matthieu Lengaigne; Benjamin R. Lintner; Matthew J. Widlansky; Karin van der Wiel; Cyril Dutheil; Braddock K. Linsley; Adrian J. Matthews; James Renwick

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is a diagonal band of intense rainfall and deep atmospheric convection extending from the equator to the subtropical South Pacific. Displacement of the SPCZ causes variability in rainfall, tropical-cyclone activity and sea level that affects South Pacific island populations and surrounding ecosystems. In this Review, we synthesize recent advances in understanding

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Experimental elasticity of Earth’s deep mantle
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Hauke Marquardt; Andrew R. Thomson

    Geophysical remote-sensing methods, particularly seismology, provide an incredibly detailed view of the structure and composition of Earth’s mantle. The seismic velocity structure of the deep mantle can be used, in theory, to constrain its temperature, mineralogy and composition. However, inversion of the mantle velocity structure relies on quantitative knowledge of the elastic properties of Earth’s

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • Climate change, tropical fisheries and prospects for sustainable development
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Vicky W. Y. Lam; Edward H. Allison; Johann D. Bell; Jessica Blythe; William W. L. Cheung; Thomas L. Frölicher; Maria A. Gasalla; U. Rashid Sumaila

    Tropical fisheries substantially contribute to the well-being of societies in both the tropics and the extratropics, the latter through ‘telecoupling’ — linkages between distant human–natural systems. Tropical marine habitats and fish stocks, however, are vulnerable to the physical and biogeochemical oceanic changes associated with rising greenhouse gases. These changes to fish stocks, and subsequent

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • The COVID-19 lockdowns: a window into the Earth System
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Noah S. Diffenbaugh; Christopher B. Field; Eric A. Appel; Ines L. Azevedo; Dennis D. Baldocchi; Marshall Burke; Jennifer A. Burney; Philippe Ciais; Steven J. Davis; Arlene M. Fiore; Sarah M. Fletcher; Thomas W. Hertel; Daniel E. Horton; Solomon M. Hsiang; Robert B. Jackson; Xiaomeng Jin; Margaret Levi; David B. Lobell; Galen A. McKinley; Frances C. Moore; Anastasia Montgomery; Kari C. Nadeau; Diane

    Restrictions to reduce human interaction have helped to avoid greater suffering and death from the COVID-19 pandemic, but have also created socioeconomic hardship. This disruption is unprecedented in the modern era of global observing networks, pervasive sensing and large-scale tracking of human mobility and behaviour, creating a unique test bed for understanding the Earth System. In this Perspective

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Keeping pace with marine heatwaves
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Neil J. Holbrook; Alex Sen Gupta; Eric C. J. Oliver; Alistair J. Hobday; Jessica A. Benthuysen; Hillary A. Scannell; Dan A. Smale; Thomas Wernberg

    Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are prolonged extreme oceanic warm water events. They can have devastating impacts on marine ecosystems — for example, causing mass coral bleaching and substantial declines in kelp forests and seagrass meadows — with implications for the provision of ecological goods and services. Effective adaptation and mitigation efforts by marine managers can benefit from improved MHW predictions

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • Life and death of slow-moving landslides
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Pascal Lacroix; Alexander L. Handwerger; Grégory Bièvre

    In the most destructive and catastrophic landslide events, rocks, soil and fluids can travel at speeds approaching several tens of metres per second. However, many landslides, commonly referred to as slow-moving landslides, creep at rates ranging from millimetres to several metres per year and can persist for years to decades. Although slow-moving landslides rarely claim lives, they can cause major

    更新日期:2020-07-21
  • How scientists and refugees brought green to the Desert Garden
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Moaed A. Al Meselmani; Harry C. Wright; Duncan D. Cameron; Anthony J. Ryan

    Through the Desert Garden program, scientists and refugees have turned two problems — the inability to grow fresh fruits and vegetables in desert refugee camps and a warehouse of unrecyclable foam mattresses — into a humanitarian solution.

    更新日期:2020-07-21
  • Global lake responses to climate change
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    R. Iestyn Woolway; Benjamin M. Kraemer; John D. Lenters; Christopher J. Merchant; Catherine M. O’Reilly; Sapna Sharma

    Climate change is one of the most severe threats to global lake ecosystems. Lake surface conditions, such as ice cover, surface temperature, evaporation and water level, respond dramatically to this threat, as observed in recent decades. In this Review, we discuss physical lake variables and their responses to climate change. Decreases in winter ice cover and increases in lake surface temperature modify

    更新日期:2020-07-14
  • Nitrous oxide emissions from permafrost-affected soils
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Carolina Voigt; Maija E. Marushchak; Benjamin W. Abbott; Christina Biasi; Bo Elberling; Steven D. Siciliano; Oliver Sonnentag; Katherine J. Stewart; Yuanhe Yang; Pertti J. Martikainen

    Soils are sources of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) globally, but emissions from permafrost-affected soils have been considered negligible owing to nitrogen (N) limitation. Recent measurements of N2O emissions have challenged this view, showing that vegetated soils in permafrost regions are often small but evident sources of N2O during the growing season (~30 μg N2O–N m−2 day−1). Moreover

    更新日期:2020-07-07
  • Multiphase flow behaviour and hazard prediction of pyroclastic density currents
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Gert Lube; Eric C. P. Breard; Tomaso Esposti-Ongaro; Josef Dufek; Brittany Brand

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are dangerous multiphase flows originating from volcanic eruptions. PDCs cause more than a third of volcanic fatalities globally and, therefore, development of robust PDC hazard models is a priority in volcanology and natural hazard science. However, the complexity of gas–particle interactions inside PDCs, as well as their hostile nature, makes quantitative measurements

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Including early career researchers
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-29

    The efforts of early career researchers are many and varied, but how they are acknowledged requires improvement. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment is now part of a peer review trial to include, train and acknowledge early career referees. The efforts of early career researchers are many and varied, but how they are acknowledged requires improvement. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment is now part of

    更新日期:2020-06-29
  • Metal contamination and bioremediation of agricultural soils for food safety and sustainability
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Deyi Hou; David O’Connor; Avanthi D. Igalavithana; Daniel S. Alessi; Jie Luo; Daniel C. W. Tsang; Donald L. Sparks; Yusuke Yamauchi; Jörg Rinklebe; Yong Sik Ok

    Agricultural soil is a non-renewable natural resource that requires careful stewardship in order to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. However, industrial and agricultural activity is often detrimental to soil health and can distribute heavy metal(loid)s into the soil environment, with harmful effects on human and ecosystem health. In this Review, we examine processes that can

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • The tree-lined path to carbon neutrality
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Asryelle Mora Rollo; Audrey Rollo; Camilo Mora

    The Carbon Neutrality Challenge is an initiative to mitigate climate change, in which individuals estimate their CO2 footprint and then plant enough trees to offset it. Thousands of trees have been planted by volunteers in Hawaii who took the Carbon Neutrality Challenge.

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • A typology of compound weather and climate events
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Jakob Zscheischler; Olivia Martius; Seth Westra; Emanuele Bevacqua; Colin Raymond; Radley M. Horton; Bart van den Hurk; Amir AghaKouchak; Aglaé Jézéquel; Miguel D. Mahecha; Douglas Maraun; Alexandre M. Ramos; Nina N. Ridder; Wim Thiery; Edoardo Vignotto

    Compound weather and climate events describe combinations of multiple climate drivers and/or hazards that contribute to societal or environmental risk. Although many climate-related disasters are caused by compound events, the understanding, analysis, quantification and prediction of such events is still in its infancy. In this Review, we propose a typology of compound events and suggest analytical

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Mountains, erosion and the carbon cycle
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Robert G. Hilton; A. Joshua West

    Mountain building results in high erosion rates and the interaction of rocks with the atmosphere, water and life. Carbon transfers that result from increased erosion could control the evolution of Earth’s long-term climate. For decades, attention has focused on the hypothesized role of mountain building in drawing down atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) via silicate weathering. However, it is now recognized

    更新日期:2020-06-09
  • The formation, character and changing nature of mesoscale convective systems
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Russ S. Schumacher; Kristen L. Rasmussen

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) describe organized groupings of thunderstorms in the tropics and mid-latitudes that span thousands of square kilometres. While recognized for over a century, the advent of satellite and radar observations, as well as atmospheric-model simulations, has brought about their increased understanding. In this Review, we synthesize current knowledge on MCS formation, climatological

    更新日期:2020-06-02
  • Monitoring ocean biogeochemistry with autonomous platforms
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Fei Chai; Kenneth S. Johnson; Hervé Claustre; Xiaogang Xing; Yuntao Wang; Emmanuel Boss; Stephen Riser; Katja Fennel; Oscar Schofield; Adrienne Sutton

    Human activities have altered the state of the ocean, leading to warming, acidification and deoxygenation. These changes impact ocean biogeochemistry and influence ecosystem functions and ocean health. The long-term global effects of these changes are difficult to predict using current satellite sensing and traditional in situ observation techniques. Autonomous platforms equipped with biogeochemical

    更新日期:2020-05-21
  • Developments in understanding seismicity triggered by hydraulic fracturing
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    Gail M. Atkinson; David W. Eaton; Nadine Igonin

    As recently as 2015, it was common in the scientific literature to find assertions that the risk of triggering a damaging earthquake by hydraulic fracturing (HF) — an industrial process where pressurized fluids are used to create or open fractures within rock layers — could be treated as negligible. However, that viewpoint has changed dramatically. It is now clear that the hazard from induced seismicity

    更新日期:2020-05-07
  • Renewed and emerging concerns over the production and emission of ozone-depleting substances
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Martyn P. Chipperfield; Ryan Hossaini; Stephen A. Montzka; Stefan Reimann; David Sherry; Susann Tegtmeier

    Stratospheric ozone depletion, first observed in the 1980s, has been caused by the increased production and use of substances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and other chlorine-containing and bromine-containing compounds, collectively termed ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Following controls on the production of major, long-lived ODSs by the Montreal Protocol, the ozone layer is now showing

    更新日期:2020-04-30
  • Author Correction: The environmental price of fast fashion
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Kirsi Niinimäki; Greg Peters; Helena Dahlbo; Patsy Perry; Timo Rissanen; Alison Gwilt

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-04-24
  • The first decade of scientific insights from the Deepwater Horizon oil release
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Elizabeth B. Kujawinski; Christopher M. Reddy; Ryan P. Rodgers; J. Cameron Thrash; David L. Valentine; Helen K. White
    更新日期:2020-04-24
  • 更新日期:2020-04-15
  • End-Triassic carbon runs deep
    Nat. Rev. Earth Environ. Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Laura Zinke
    更新日期:2020-04-15
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