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  • Marine oligosaccharides originated from seaweeds: Source, preparation, structure, physiological activity and applications
    Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (IF 6.704) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Benwei Zhu; Fang Ni; Qiang Xiong; Zhong Yao

    Marine polysaccharides originated from seaweeds, including agar, alginate, carrageenan, and fucoidan, possess various kinds of physiological activities and have been widely used in food, agricultural and medical areas. However, the application has been greatly limited by their poor solubility and low bioavailability. Thus marine oligosaccharides, as the degradation products of those polysaccharides, have drawn increasing attentions due to their obvious biological activities, good solubility and excellent bioavailability. This review will summarize the recent advances on the source, molecular structure and physiological activity of marine oligosaccharides, emphasizing their application as functional food additives. Furthermore, the relationship between the structure and the physiological activity of marine oligosaccharides is also elucidated and highlighted. The review concludes with an outlook toward potential applications for preparing the functional oligosaccharides in food biotechnology and agriculture fields.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Repeated administrations of Mn3O4 nanoparticles cause testis damage and fertility decrease through PPAR-signaling pathway
    Nanotoxicology (IF 5.955) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Xiao Zhang; Zongkai Yue; Haijun Zhang; Lu Liu; Xiaomeng Zhou

    Potential health hazards of nanomaterials on male reproductive system have received raising concerns. Even though Mn3O4 nanoparticles (Mn3O4-NPs) is highly effective in clinical diagnostic and therapeutic applications of human disease, its potential toxic effect on the male reproductive system has not been reported. In this study, the testis damage and fertility decrease of male rats were conducted to testify the experimental reproductive injury induced by Mn3O4-NPs. After repeated tail vein injection with 10 mg/kg/week Mn3O4-NPs for 0, 60 and 120 days, Mn3O4-NPs accumulated in the testes resulted in oxidative stress and disorder of normal serum sex hormones. Experiments in vivo and in vitro indicated that mitochondria-mediated cell apoptosis were triggered via oxidative stress, demonstrated by the upregulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Notably, Mn3O4-NPs significantly resulted in a reduction of the quantity/quality of sperm and finally caused astonishing fertility decrease. Our preliminary result implied that the application of Mn3O4-NPs could be a double-edged sword and careful consideration should be given to the clinical uses.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mass spectrometry proteomics reveals a function for mammalian CALCOCO1 in MTOR-regulated selective autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jonathan A. Stefely; Yu Zhang; Elyse C. Freiberger; Nicholas W. Kwiecien; Hala Elnakat Thomas; Alexander M. Davis; Nathaniel D. Lowry; Catherine E. Vincent; Evgenia Shishkova; Nicholas A. Clark; Mario Medvedovic; Joshua J. Coon; David J. Pagliarini; Carol A. Mercer

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is suppressed by MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) and is an anticancer target under active investigation. Yet, MTOR-regulated autophagy remains incompletely mapped. We used proteomic profiling to identify proteins in the MTOR-autophagy axis. Wild-type (WT) mouse cell lines and cell lines lacking individual autophagy genes (Atg5 or Ulk1/Ulk2) were treated with an MTOR inhibitor to induce autophagy and cultured in media with either glucose or galactose. Mass spectrometry proteome profiling revealed an elevation of known autophagy proteins and candidates for new autophagy components, including CALCOCO1 (calcium binding and coiled-coil domain protein 1). We show that CALCOCO1 physically interacts with MAP1LC3C, a key protein in the machinery of autophagy. Genetic deletion of CALCOCO1 disrupted autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum (reticulophagy). Together, these results reveal a role for CALCOCO1 in MTOR-regulated selective autophagy. More generally, the resource generated by this work provides a foundation for establishing links between the MTOR-autophagy axis and proteins not previously linked to this pathway.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Atg11 is required for initiation of glucose starvation-induced autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Weijing Yao; Yixing Li; Liming Wu; Choufei Wu; Yi Zhang; Jing Liu; Zhiyong He; Xiaoyong Wu; Chenjun Lu; Liefeng Wang; Huiming Zhong; Zhi Hong; Shiming Xu; Wei Liu; Cong Yi

    How energy deprivation induces macroautophagy/autophagy is not fully understood. Here, we show that Atg11, a receptor protein for cargo recognition in selective autophagy, is required for the initiation of glucose starvation-induced autophagy. Upon glucose starvation, Atg11 facilitates the interaction between Snf1 and Atg1, thus is required for Snf1-dependent Atg1 activation. Phagophore assembly site (PAS) formation requires Atg11 via its control of the association of Atg17 with Atg29-Atg31. The binding of Atg11 with Atg9 is crucial for recruiting Atg9 vesicles to the PAS and, thus, glucose starvation-induced autophagy. We propose Atg11 as a key initiation factor controlling multiple key steps in energy deprivation-induced autophagy.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • MOX fuel microstructural evolution during the VERDON-3 and 4 tests
    J. Nucl. Mater. (IF 2.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    C. Le Gall; S. Reboul; L. Fayette; T. Blay; I. Zacharie-Aubrun; I. Félines; K. Hanifi; I. Roure; P. Bienvenu; F. Audubert; Y. Pontillon; Jean-Louis Hazemann

    The VERDON-3 and -4 tests were part of the VERDON-ISTP programme that aimed at studying the fuel and fission products (FP) behaviour in severe accident conditions. The main objective of these two complementary tests was the study of MOX fuel behaviour and FP release under oxidising (VERDON-3) and reducing (VERDON-4) conditions at very high temperature (>2300 °C). Complementary to the on-line gamma spectrometry measurements performed during the two tests, post-test characterisations were carried out in order to tackle these tasks. The two samples recovered after the VERDON-3 and -4 tests were compared to a third one extracted from the same father rod and left as irradiated. This comparison enabled to highlight the effect of temperature and atmosphere on the fuel behaviour. These three samples were characterised by several techniques available at the LECA-STAR facility of the CEA Cadarache. Experimental observations showed that an interaction between the fuel and the cladding occurred in both types of conditions by interdiffusion mainly between U and Zr. This phenomenon led to the formation of a UyZr1-yO2±x cubic phase at the periphery of the fuel pellet which melted in the VERDON-4 test conditions, penetrating through the cracks of the sample and dissolving the fuel matrix. No liquid was formed during the VERDON-3 test despite the formation of a large fuel-cladding interaction zone.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Corrosion studies of a low alloyed Fe–10Cr–4Al steel exposed in liquid Pb at very high temperatures
    J. Nucl. Mater. (IF 2.547) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Peter Dömstedt; Mats Lundberg; Peter Szakalos

    The aim of the work has been to study the corrosion resistance of a new low alloyed experimental FeCrAl steel, with the potential use as corrosion barrier in high temperature lead based energy applications. The exposures were conducted in liquid lead at 800 °C and 900 °C, with controlled oxygen environment, for up to 1760 h. The results demonstrate that the new experimental alloy had formed a protective oxide in both exposures, with no indications of lead penetration. The alloy showed better corrosion properties than that of the reference materials: Kanthal APM™, Kanthal APMT™ and AISI 316L. This indicates that the ductile Fe–10Cr–4Al-RE steel can be used as a corrosion barrier in liquid lead based clean energy applications, operating at very high temperatures.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Controllable growth of hierarchical MoSe2 hollow microspheres for enhanced sodium storage
    Mater. Lett. (IF 3.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Q.Q. Xiong; Z.X. Xue; X.J. Teng; H.Z. Chi; X.X. Lu; G.X. Pan; Z.G. Ji

    Molybdenum selenide has attracted considerable attention for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to its excellent reactivity and large capacity compared to other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Herein, a facile template-free hydrothermal process is conducted to synthesize hierarchical MoSe2 hollow microspheres with the diameters of ∼1.5 μm. The as-prepared MoSe2 hollow microspheres consist of cross-linked nanosheets. As an anode of SIBs, the hierarchical MoSe2 hollow microspheres exhibit a high initial discharge capacity of 710.2 mAh g-1. When the current density is as high as 1000 mA g-1, the specific capacity can still maintain at 290 mAh g-1. The excellent cycling performance and rate capability are due to the hollow microspherical architecture, which shortens the diffusion length of Na+, promotes the penetration of electrolyte into active materials and accommodates the volume stress. It is a successful case to obtain hollow architectures to shed some lights on the high-performance SIBs.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Deprotonation promoted high oxygen evolution activity of plasma functionalized carbon cloth
    Mater. Lett. (IF 3.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Quande Che; Qian Ma; Junpeng Wang; Gang Wang; Yuanna Zhu; Ruixia Shi; Ping Yang

    This paper reports a simple and facile method to prepare surface functionalized commercial carbon cloth via a plasma treatment and its application in electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It is observed that abundant oxygen containing functional groups formed on the surface of the treated carbon cloth. The functionalized carbon cloth (FCC) exhibits a remarkable of OER activity. Specifically, it can drive a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at a fairly low overpotential of 360 mV and a correspondent small Tafel slope of 66.7 mV dec-1. More unexpectedly, it was found that the OER activity of FCC follows the non-concerted proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism. A possible explanation was proposed that the surface carboxyl groups improve the proton-transfer kinetics, accelerating the deprotonation from –OOH to –OO* during the OER process.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Rapid Fabrication of Efficient P-Type Perovskite-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Hot-Air Drying Method
    Mater. Lett. (IF 3.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Hussain Alessa; Inzamam Nawas Nawas Mumthas; Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad Noh; Jagdeep Sagu; K.G.U. Wijayantha; Mohd Asri Mat Teridi

    The successful development of organic-inorganic perovskite materials mainly based on CH3NH3PbI3 has improved the PCE of solar cells significantly and reduced the fabrication cost relatively. The majority of the researches focused on studying different ways of improving the performance and stability of perovskite devices with less attention paid to minimizing the time of fabrication. The reduction of fabrication time can simultaneously reduce the fabrication cost and boost the industrial manufacturing capability. In this work, we report a simple and rapid method of making CH3NH3PbI3 layer at ambient laboratory conditions and applying it for advancing the photon-to-electricity conversion efficiency of liquid-state CuO-based perovskite-sensitized solar cells. The whole fabrication process starting from electrodepositing CuO to sandwiching counter electrode entails less than 10 minutes and the device efficiency reaches up to 0.35% under one sun illumination.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Combustion aided in situ consolidation of high strength porous ceramic structures with a minimum thermal budget
    Mater. Lett. (IF 3.019) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Pavan Pujar; Abhishesh Pal; Saumen Mandal

    The exothermic reaction between a pair of combustible pore formers (urea-ammonium nitrate) is the driving force in realizing low-temperature consolidation of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles. The particles are allowed to sinter in the proximity to the combustible pore formers. The exothermic (ΔH°rea = -898 kJ/mol) redox reaction between combustible pore formers is successfully utilized in deriving high compressive strength (∼ 24 MPa) of HA at 300 °C. The evolution of gaseous products of combustion results in an interconnected porous network of HA. The estimated compressive strength of sintered HA at 300 °C is comparable with high temperature (1100 °C) conventionally sintered HA, at a fixed open porosity (∼ 40 %); which depicts nearly ∼ 82 % achievement with a reduction of sintering temperature by ∼ 72 %. Also, the pellets sintered at 600 °C have shown ∼ 90 % achievement in compressive strength of sintered HA. Further, the saturated pore area of 15 % requires a sintering time of 9.58 h at a sintering temperature of 600 °C. Thus, combustion-assisted sintering is an alternative technique proves its potentiality in achieving remarkable compressive strength and paves the way for low-cost porous ceramics.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Deep SAR-Net: Learning objects from signals
    ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (IF 6.942) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Zhongling Huang; Mihai Datcu; Zongxu Pan; Bin Lei
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Association Between the Release of Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why and Suicide Rates in the United States: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-04-28
    Jeffrey A. Bridge; Joel B. Greenhouse; Donna Ruch; Jack Stevens; John Ackerman; Arielle H. Sheftall; Lisa M. Horowitz; Kelly J. Kelleher; John V. Campo

    Objective To estimate the association between the release of the Netflix series 13 Reasons Why and suicide rates in the United States. Method Using segmented quasi-Poisson regression and Holt-Winters forecasting models, we assessed monthly rates of suicide among individuals aged 10 to 64 years grouped into 3 age categories (10–17, 18–29, and 30–64 years) between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2017, before and after the release of 13 Reasons Why on March 31, 2017. We also assessed the impact of the show’s release on a control outcome, homicide deaths. Results After accounting for seasonal effects and an underlying increasing trend in monthly suicide rates, the overall suicide rate among 10- to 17-year-olds increased significantly in the month immediately following the release of 13 Reasons Why (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09–1.53); Holt-Winters forecasting revealed elevated observed suicide rates in the month after release and in two subsequent months, relative to corresponding forecasted rates. Contrary to expectations, these associations were restricted to boys. Among 18- to 29-year-olds and 30- to 64-year-olds, we found no significant change in level or trend of suicide after the show’s release, both overall and by sex. The show’s release had no apparent impact in the control analyses of homicide deaths within any age group. Conclusion The release of 13 Reasons Why was associated with a significant increase in monthly suicide rates among US youth aged 10 to 17 years. Caution regarding the exposure of children and adolescents to the series is warranted.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Treatment Gains Are Sustainable in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Three-Year Follow-Up From the NordLOTS
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Karin Melin; Gudmundur Skarphedinsson; Per Hove Thomsen; Bernhard Weidle; Nor Christian Torp; Robert Valderhaug; Davíð R.M.A. Højgaard; Katja A. Hybel; Judith Becker Nissen; Sanne Jensen; Kitty Dahl; Ingela Skärsäter; Bente Storm Haugland; Tord Ivarsson

    Objective This study evaluated the long-term outcomes of a stepped care treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and investigated whether response to first-step cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an important indicator of 3-year outcomes. Method This study is a part of the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study (NordLOTS), in which 269 children and adolescents were treated with CBT. Nonresponders to CBT were randomized to extended treatment with continued CBT or pharmacotherapy with sertraline. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores no higher than 15 and no higher than 10 were defined as treatment response and remission, respectively. Participants were assessed 2 and 3 years after first-step CBT. Linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze the outcomes. Results Intent-to-treat analyses showed a significant decrease in CY-BOCS total score from baseline (24.6) to 3-year follow-up (5.0; p = .001), with a mean decrease of 5.9 from after treatment to 3-year follow-up. Three years after treatment, 90% (n = 242) of participants were rated as responders and 73% were in clinical remission. The duration of treatment did not influence the symptom level at 3-year follow-up (p = .998) and no significant difference was found (p = .169) between the extended treatment conditions. Conclusion The results suggest that evidence-based treatment for pediatric OCD has long-term positive effects, whether a first step of manual-based CBT or extended treatment with CBT or sertraline. The improvements were maintained, and the symptoms decreased further during follow-up and were, after 3 years, similarly independent of treatment duration and form of extended treatment. Clinical trial registration information Nordic Long-term Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study; www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN66385119.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Out of Control: Examining the Association Between Family Conflict and Self-Control in Adolescence in a Genetically Sensitive Design
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-03-13
    Yayouk E. Willems; Eveline L. de Zeeuw; Catharina E.M. van Beijsterveldt; Dorret I. Boomsma; Meike Bartels; Catrin Finkenauer

    Objective Family conflict is associated with low self-control in adolescence. Thus far research about the direction of this association is inconclusive. In this study, we sort out whether this association reflects a causal effect or whether it is explained by a common underlying cause, including genetic factors. Method In twin data, we fitted a series of causal models, and compared models for the association of family conflict and self-control including reciprocal causation, unidirectional causation from family conflict to low self-control, unidirectional causation from low self-control to family conflict, and common genetic susceptibility. We included data from a large sample of twins aged 14 years (N = 9,173), all enrolled in the Netherlands Twin Register. Results The results suggested a unidirectional pathway model in which family conflict leads to low self-control in adolescence, with genetic factors also playing a role in explaining the association. Conclusion Adolescents experiencing family conflict are at risk for showing hampered self-control capacities, with family conflict being a robust predictor of low self-control through common genetic factors but also through direct causal influences.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Investigating Sex Differences in Emotion Recognition, Learning, and Regulation Among Youths With Conduct Disorder
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Gregor Kohls; Sarah Baumann; Malou Gundlach; Wolfgang Scharke; Anka Bernhard; Anne Martinelli; Katharina Ackermann; Linda Kersten; Martin Prätzlich; Helena Oldenhof; Lucres Jansen; Lisette van den Boogaard; Areti Smaragdi; Karen Gonzalez-Madruga; Harriet Cornwell; Jack C. Rogers; Ruth Pauli; Roberta Clanton; Kerstin Konrad

    Objective Conduct disorder (CD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder marked by notably higher prevalence rates for boys than girls. Converging evidence suggests that CD is associated with impairments in emotion recognition, learning, and regulation. However, it is not known whether there are sex differences in the relationship between CD and emotion dysfunction. Prior studies on emotion functioning in CD have so far been underpowered for investigating sex differences. Therefore, our primary aim was to characterize emotion processing skills in a large sample of girls and boys with CD compared to typically developing controls (TDCs) using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Method We included 542 youths with CD (317 girls) and 710 TDCs (479 girls), 9 to 18 years of age, from a European multisite study (FemNAT-CD). Participants completed three experimental tasks assessing emotion recognition, learning, and regulation, respectively. Data were analyzed to test for effects of group and sex, and group-by-sex interactions, while controlling for potentially confounding factors. Results Relative to TDCs, youths with CD showed impaired emotion recognition (that was related to more physical and proactive aggression, and higher CU traits), emotional learning (specifically from punishment), and emotion regulation. Boys and girls with CD, however, displayed similar impairments in emotion processing. Conclusion This study provides compelling evidence for a relationship between CD and deficient neurocognitive functioning across three emotional domains that have previously been linked to CD etiology. However, there was no support for sex-specific profiles of emotion dysfunction, suggesting that current neurocognitive models of CD apply equally to both sexes.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Time-Dependent Effects of Exposure to Physical and Sexual Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Late Childhood: In Search of Sensitive Periods in Development
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
    Erin C. Dunn; Kristen Nishimi; Alexander Neumann; Alice Renaud; Charlotte A.M. Cecil; Ezra S. Susser; Henning Tiemeier

    Objective Exposure to interpersonal violence is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether there are sensitive periods when exposure is most deleterious. We aimed to determine whether there were time periods when physical or sexual violence exposure was associated with greater child psychopathology. Method This study (N = 4,580) was embedded in Generation R, a population-based prospective birth cohort. Timing of violence exposure, reported through maternal reports (child age, 10 years) was categorized by age at first exposure, defined as: very early (0−3 years), early (4−5 years), middle (6−7 years), and late (8+ years) childhood. Using Poisson regression, we assessed the association between timing of first exposure and levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, using the Child Behavior Checklist at age 10 years. Results Violence exposure at any age was associated with higher internalizing (physical violence: risk ratio [RR] = 1.46, p < 0.0001; sexual violence: RR = 1.30, p < .0001) and externalizing symptoms (physical violence: RR = 1.52, p < 0.0001; sexual violence: RR = 1.31, p = 0.0005). However, the effects of violence were time dependent: compared to children exposed at older ages, children first exposed during very early childhood had greater externalizing symptoms. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these time-based differences emerged slowly across ages 1.5, 3, 6, and 10 years, showing a latency between onset of violence exposure and emergence of symptoms, and were unlikely to be explained by co-occurring adversities. Conclusion Interpersonal violence is harmful to childhood mental health regardless of when it occurs. However, very early childhood may be a particularly sensitive period when exposure results in worse psychopathology outcomes. Results should be replicated in fully prospective designs.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • The Influence of Maternal Parenting Style on the Neural Correlates of Emotion Processing in Children
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-03-13
    Elena Pozzi; Julian G. Simmons; Chad A. Bousman; Nandita Vijayakumar; Katherine O. Bray; Orwa Dandash; Sally Richmond; Orli Schwartz; Marc Seal; Lisa Sheeber; Marie B.H. Yap; Nicholas B. Allen; Sarah L. Whittle

    Objective The importance of parenting in influencing mental health outcomes, particularly depression, during childhood and adolescence is well known. However, the mechanisms are unclear. Emotion processing impairments in children are believed to be influenced by negative parenting behaviors and fundamental to depression. As such, investigating the association between parenting behavior and the neural underpinnings of emotion processing in children could provide fundamental clues as to the link between parenting and depression. Method Eighty-six children (49 girls, mean age 10.1 years), as part of a longitudinal study, participated. Observational measures of maternal behavior were collected during 2 mother–child interactions. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an implicit emotion-processing task, and measures of child internalizing symptoms were collected. Results Maternal negative behavior exhibited during an event-planning interaction was associated with decreased activation in the lingual gyrus in girls, whereas maternal negative behavior during a problem-solving interaction was associated with increased amygdala activation in the entire sample during processing of angry and fearful faces. Maternal communicative behavior during the 2 mother–child interactions was associated with increased activity in the bilateral middle orbitofrontal cortex in the entire sample. Negative behavior during the problem-solving interaction was associated with connectivity between the amygdala and superior parietal lobe. Brain activity/connectivity was not related to internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Results suggest that, in children, maternal behavior could be associated with activity in brain regions involved in emotion processing. However, more research is needed to elucidate the link among parenting, emotion processing, and depressive symptoms in young people.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Saliva MicroRNA Differentiates Children With Autism From Peers With Typical and Atypical Development
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-03-27
    Steven D. Hicks; Randall L. Carpenter; Kayla E. Wagner; Rachel Pauley; Mark Barros; Cheryl Tierney-Aves; Sarah Barns; Cindy Dowd Greene; Frank A. Middleton

    Objective Clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) relies on time-consuming subjective assessments. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of salivary microRNAs for differentiating children with ASD from peers with typical development (TD) and non-autism developmental delay (DD). The secondary purpose was to explore microRNA patterns among ASD phenotypes. Method This multicenter, prospective, case-control study enrolled 443 children (2–6 years old). ASD diagnoses were based on DSM-5 criteria. Children with ASD or DD were assessed with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule II and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II. MicroRNAs were measured with high-throughput sequencing. Differential expression of microRNAs was compared among the ASD (n = 187), TD (n = 125), and DD (n = 69) groups in the training set (n = 381). Multivariate logistic regression defined a panel of microRNAs that differentiated children with ASD and those without ASD. The algorithm was tested in a prospectively collected naïve set of 62 samples (ASD, n = 37; TD, n = 8; DD, n = 17). Relations between microRNA levels and ASD phenotypes were explored. Result Fourteen microRNAs displayed differential expression (false discovery rate < 0.05) among ASD, TD, and DD groups. A panel of 4 microRNAs (controlling for medical/demographic covariates) best differentiated children with ASD from children without ASD in training (area under the curve = 0.725) and validation (area under the curve = 0.694) sets. Eight microRNAs were associated (R > 0.25, false discovery rate < 0.05) with social affect, and 10 microRNAs were associated with restricted/repetitive behavior. Conclusion Salivary microRNAs are “altered” in children with ASD and associated with levels of ASD behaviors. Salivary microRNA collection is noninvasive, identifying ASD-status with moderate accuracy. A multi-“omic” approach using additional RNA families could improve accuracy, leading to clinical application. Clinical trial registration information A Salivary miRNA Diagnostic Test for Autism; https://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02832557.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Development of Three Web-Based Computerized Versions of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Child Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview: Preliminary Validity Data
    J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry (IF 6.391) Pub Date : 2019-05-18
    Lisa Townsend; Kenneth Kobak; Catherine Kearney; Michael Milham; Charissa Andreotti; Jasmine Escalera; Lindsay Alexander; Mary Kay Gill; Boris Birmaher; Raeanne Sylvester; Dawn Rice; Alison Deep; Joan Kaufman

    Objective To present initial validity data on three web-based computerized versions of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS-COMP). Method The sample for evaluating the validity of the clinician-administered KSADS-COMP included 511 youths 6–18 years of age who were participants in the Child Mind Institute Healthy Brain Network. The sample for evaluating the parent and youth self-administered versions of the KSADS-COMP included 158 youths 11-17 years of age recruited from three academic institutions. Results Average administration time for completing the combined parent and youth clinician-administered KSADS-COMP was less time than previously reported for completing the paper-and-pencil K-SADS with only one informant (91.9 ± 50.1 minutes). Average administration times for the youth and parent self-administered KSADS-COMP were 50.9 ± 28.0 minutes and 63.2 ± 38.3 minutes, respectively, and youths and parents rated their experience using the web-based self-administered KSADS-COMP versions very positively. Diagnoses generated with all three KSADS-COMP versions demonstrated good convergent validity against established clinical rating scales and dimensional diagnostic-specific ratings derived from the KSADS-COMP. When parent and youth self-administered KSADS-COMP data were integrated, good to excellent concordance was also achieved between diagnoses derived using the self-administered and clinician-administered KSADS-COMP versions (area under the curve = 0.89–1.00). Conclusion The three versions of the KSADS-COMP demonstrate promising psychometric properties, while offering efficiency in administration and scoring. The clinician-administered KSADS-COMP shows utility not only for research, but also for implementation in clinical practice, with self-report preinterview ratings that streamline administration. The self-administered KSADS-COMP versions have numerous potential research and clinical applications, including in large-scale epidemiological studies, in schools, in emergency departments, and in telehealth to address the critical shortage of child and adolescent mental health specialists. Clinical trial registration information Computerized Screening for Comorbidity in Adolescents With Substance or Psychiatric Disorders; https://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01866956.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 9.530) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xingwei Ren; Zeyu Guo; Fulong Ning; Shuzhi Ma

    Natural gas hydrate is one of the most potential carbon energy resources because of its tremendous reserves. Gas and water permeability of natural gas hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) directly affects gas recovery from hydrate reservoirs and gas production efficiency. In this paper, we review the permeability of HBS with respect to its relevant factors and development in characterization. Hydrate morphology and distribution inherently affect the permeability, and are identified in both coarse- and fine-grained sediments. Measurement and estimation methods of permeability are discussed in four aspects: theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, laboratory experiment, and filed test. Research challenges to this subject are comprehensively discussed, and future prospects of research are addressed. We suggest that future research should focus on understanding hydrate formation and dissociation mechanism and their effect on the permeability in fine-grained sediments, obtaining reliable measurement results of the permeability, bridging the gap of permeability between laboratory samples and natural sediments, and highlighting multi-scale analysis on the permeability with appropriate parameters as well as developing models for safe and economically feasible gas production from HBS eventually.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • The Rio Apa Terrane reviewed: UPb zircon geochronology and provenance studies provide paleotectonic links with a growing Proterozoic Amazonia
    Earth Sci. Rev. (IF 9.530) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    W. Teixeira; U.G. Cordani; F.M. Faleiros; K. Sato; V.C. Maurer; A.S. Ruiz; E.J.P. Azevedo
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Hepatitis flare-related decompensation is associated with better outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Ming-Ling Chang; Jur-Shan Cheng; Rong-Nan Chien; Yun-Fan Liaw

    Background & Aims The effects of baseline hepatitis flares (alanine transaminase level >5 times the upper limit of normal) on the outcomes of cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with decompensation treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (Nucs) remain elusive; thus, we aimed to investigate these effects. Methods This 16-year cohort study monitored 511 consecutive cirrhotic CHB patients treated with Nucs for decompensation. Results Of the 511 patients, 399 (78.1%) were males, and 300 (58.7%) had baseline flares. Patients with flares had higher baseline levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (6.44±1.52 vs. 6.08±1.46 log10 IU/mL, p=0.003), quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen, total bilirubin (bili-t), prolonged prothrombin time (δPT), platelet counts (108.0±42.9 vs. 83.6±44.7 103/μL, p<0.001) and genotype B infection rates but lower neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLRs) (6.14±9.18 vs. 9.12±1.36, p=0.019), rates of hepatitis B e antigen positivity, ascites, esophageal varices (EVs), and splenomegaly and cumulative incidence of mortality or liver transplantation (46.5 vs. 73.2%, p<0.001) than the patients without flares despite their similar short-term (<3 months) outcomes. EVs [95% confidence interval (CI) of odds ratio: 0.067-0.406], ascites (0.178-0.969), levels of bili-t (1.041-1.269) and δPT (1.033-1.168) and platelet counts (1.00-1.018) were independently associated with baseline flares. After matching patients with and without baseline flares through propensity score matching method, flares (95% CI hazard ratio: 0.317-0.76) and levels of NLR (1.027-1.591) and δPT (1.052-1.423) were independently associated with the cumulative incidence of mortality or liver transplantation. Conclusions In decompensated, cirrhotic CHB patients treated with Nucs, a baseline hepatitis flare was independently associated with favorable long-term (>3 months) outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • RECURRENCE IS RARE FOLLOWING COMPLETE ERADICATION OF INTESTINAL METAPLASIA IN PATIENTS WITH BARRETT’S ESOPHAGUS AND PEAKS AT 18 MONTHS
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Sachin Wani; Samuel Han; Vladimir Kushnir; Dayna Early; Daniel Mullady; Hazem Hammad; Brian Brauer; Adarsh Thaker; Violette Simon; Eze Ezekwe; Thomas Hollander; Mariah Wood; Amit Rastogi; Steven Edmundowicz; V. Raman Muthusamy; Srinadh Komanduri

    Background & Aims There have been few studies of the long-term durability of complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (BE)-related neoplasia who received endoscopic eradication therapy (EET). Data are needed to guide surveillance interval protocols and identify patients at risk for recurrence. We assessed the rate of recurrence of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, histologic features, and outcomes after recurrence of CE-IM, and identified factors associated with recurrence. Methods We performed a prospective study of 807 patients with BE who underwent EET, which produced CE-IM, at 4 tertiary-care referral centers, from January 2013 to October 2018. Kaplan-Meier estimates of cumulative incidence rates (IR) of recurrence were calculated for up to 5 years following CE-IM and were stratified by baseline level of histology. Density estimates of recurrence were used to determine the change in the rate of recurrence over time. We conducted logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with recurrence. Results Intestinal metaplasia recurred in 121 patients (15%; IR, 5.2/100 person-years), and dysplasia recurred in 36 patients (4.5%; IR, 1.6/100 person-years), after a median follow-up time of 2317 person-years. The rate of recurrence was not constant and the time to any recurrence converged to a normal distribution; recurrences peaked at 1.6 y after patients had CE-IM. Baseline high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.19), presence of reflux symptoms (aOR, 12.1) or hiatal hernia (aOR, 13.8), and number of sessions required to achieve CE-IM (aOR, 1.8) were associated with recurrence. Conclusions In a prospective study of a large cohort of patients with BE undergoing EET, we found a low rate of recurrence after CE-IM. The rate of recurrence peaked at 1–2 y after CE-IM. These findings indicate that aggressive surveillance might not be necessary more than 1 y after CE-IM and should be considered in surveillance guidelines. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02634645

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Positioning therapies in ulcerative colitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Silvio Danese; Gionata Fiorino; Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the large intestine. Several therapeutic drug classes are available for the treatment of UC: salicylates, corticosteroids, thiopurines, calcineurin inhibitors, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, anti-adhesion molecules, and, more recently, small molecules directed against the Janus kinase (JAK) pathways, and ustekinumab (anti IL12/23). Other drugs are currently in development, and they will be probably available for UC patients in the near future. Several therapeutic algorithms have been proposed for the treatment of UC patients, yet these are predominantly based on expert opinions rather than high-quality evidence, mainly due to the lack of head-to-head trials, especially for monoclonal antibody and small molecule therapies. The optimal position of therapies in these algorithms remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted this review of the literature to provide an up-to-date overview of the available evidence on this topic.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A Guide to Management of Sleepiness in ESKD
    Am. J. Kidney Dis. (IF 6.653) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jennifer Y. So; Karen M. Warburton; Ilene M. Rosen

    Daytime sleepiness, also known as hypersomnolence, is common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis and following successful kidney transplantation. Sleepiness may be secondary to medical comorbid conditions, medication side effect, insufficient sleep syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing or the result of a primary central disorder of hypersomnolence, such as narcolepsy. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among patients with end-stage kidney disease. Effective management of hypersomnolence can improve quality of life in patients with kidney disease. This review focuses on the principal causes of sleepiness in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Awareness of these disorders by treating nephrologists is crucial. This review provides a systematic approach to guide providers through the recognition, early diagnosis, and treatment of hypersomnolence, which is commonly encountered in this patient population. Areas of future research are also suggested.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mirogabalin prevents repeated restraint stress-induced dysfunction in mice
    Behav. Brain Res. (IF 2.770) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Takashi Iwai; Akinori Kikuchi; Misa Oyama; Shun Watanabe; Mitsuo Tanabe

    Gabapentinoids, which are the common analgesics, are also thought to be an effective treatment for anxiety disorder, which is one of several psychiatric disorders triggered and exacerbated by stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether mirogabalin, a recently launched gabapentinoid, protects multiple brain functions against repeated restraint stress. Adult male ddY mice were restrained for 7 days (repeated restraint stress: 2 h/day) or for 30 min (single restraint stress). Mirogabalin (intraperitoneal, intracerebroventricular or intrahippocampal injection) was administered prior to the restraint stress. Y-maze, elevated-plus maze and c-Fos immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate learning function, anxiety levels and hippocampal neuronal activities, respectively, after the 7th day of the repeated restraint stress. Intestinal function was evaluated in terms of defecation, which was scored after the 5th day of repeated restraint stress and by the number of fecal pellets excreted after a single session of restraint stress. Repeated restraint stress induced memory dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, an abnormal defecation score and increased hippocampal c-Fos expression. These changes were prevented by systemic administration of mirogabalin. Abnormal defecation was also induced by single restraint stress, and was inhibited by both systemic and central administration of mirogabalin, suggesting that the effect on the intestinal function was also mediated via the central nervous system. Enhancement of c-Fos expression by repeated stress was decreased by intrahippocampal injection of mirogabalin. Together, these observations suggest that mirogabalin protects multiple brain functions from repeated stress, which may be mediated by inhibition of hippocampal neuron hyperactivation.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Electrochemical characterization of the artificial metalloenzyme papain-[(η6-arene)Ru(1,10-phenanthroline)Cl]+
    J. Electroanal. Chem. (IF 3.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Štěpánka Nováková Lachmanová; Lubomír Pospíšil; Jakub Šebera; Barisa Talbi; Michèle Salmain; Magdaléna Hromadová
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • IR spectroelectrochemistry as efficient technique for elucidation of reduction mechanism of chlorine substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines
    J. Electroanal. Chem. (IF 3.218) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jakub Wantulok; Ilaria Degano; Miroslav Gal; Jacek E. Nycz; Romana Sokolova
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A new unsupervised data mining method based on the stacked autoencoder for chemical process fault diagnosis
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.334) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Shaodong Zheng; Jinsong Zhao

    Process monitoring plays an important role in chemical process safety management, and fault diagnosis is a vital step of process monitoring. Among fault diagnosis researches, supervised ones are inappropriate for industrial applications due to the lack of labeled historical data in real situations. Thereby, unsupervised methods which are capable of dealing with unlabeled data should be developed for fault diagnosis. In this work, a new unsupervised data mining method based on deep learning is proposed for isolating different conditions of chemical process, including normal operations and faults, and thus labeled database can be created efficiently for constructing fault diagnosis model. The proposed method mainly consists of three steps: feature extraction by the convolutional stacked autoencoder (SAE), feature visualization by the t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) algorithm, and clustering. The benchmark Tennessee Eastman process (TEP) and an industrial hydrocracking instance are utilized to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed data mining method.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Optimisation of multi effect distillation based desalination system for minimum production cost for freshwater via repetitive simulation
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.334) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    O.M.A. Al-hotmani; M.A. Al-Obaidi; G. Filippini; F. Manenti; R. Patel; I.M. Mujtaba

    The shortage of fresh water resources is a global problem which requires a prompt solution. Thus, the multi effect distillation (MED) was successfully used for the production of fresh water from seawater. Despite the use of MED desalination system extensively, the influence of the number of effects on the fresh water production cost has not been covered in the open literature. Thus, this paper tries to rectify this specific challenge via simulation at given operating conditions of seawater salinity and temperature. The study is performed using a detailed mathematical model contains the suitable cost correlations. gPROMS model builder suite has been used to carry out an extensive simulation. The results of the study show that the lowest fresh water production cost can be achieved at an optimal number of effects of 17 for a certain operating conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Novel MINLP Formulations for Flexibility Analysis for Measured and Unmeasured Uncertain Parameters
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.334) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    M. Paz Ochoa; Ignacio E. Grossmann

    In this work, we formulate the extended flexibility analysis, which takes into account two different types of uncertain parameters: measured (θm) and unmeasured (θu), as a rigorous multi-level optimization problem. We recursively reformulate the inner optimization problems by the KKT conditions and with a mixed-integer representation of the complementarity conditions to solve the resulting multilevel optimization problem. Special cases are identified, where models are comprised of convex constraints or constraints with monotonic variation of the uncertain parameters. In these cases, a vertex enumeration can be performed to solve the flexibility test. We propose two MINLP reformulations for the more general case yielding to similar results but different model sizes. The formulations are tested and compared with several examples.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Bisphenol A exposure inhibits contrast sensitivity in cats involving increased response noise and inhibitory synaptic transmission
    Brain Res. Bull. (IF 3.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Fan Hu; Jiachen Liu; Guangwei Xu; Huan Wang; Jiawei Shen; Yifeng Zhou

    Contrast sensitivity (CS) is one of the primary fundamental factors determining how well we can see, and it directly influences object recognition. Whether bisphenol-A (BPA, an environmental xenoestrogen) can perturb contrast detection in the visual system has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we analyzed CS of single neurons in the primary visual cortex (area 17, A17) of cats before and after BPA exposure using a multiple-channel recording technique. The results showed that CS of A17 neurons was markedly depressed with an increased contrast threshold after two hour of intravenous BPA administration, which had a positive correlation with decreased firing rates of A17 neurons. Additionally, responses of these neurons presented an overt increase in the trial-to-trail response variability (a kind of neuronal noise), which could disturb the information-filtering function of single neurons. We also found that neuronal CS in the visual relay station was not disturbed after BPA administration, which rules out the contribution of CS alteration in the optical pathway. Importantly, acute BPA treatment obviously increased the inhibitory innervation to the visual pyramidal neurons. This implies that alteration of intracortical inhibitory regulation contributes to the compromised contrast detection in the visual system after BPA treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Strategies for management of strongyloidiasis in migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa recently arrived in Italy: A cost-effectiveness analysis
    Travel Med. Infect. Dis. (IF 4.868) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Lorenzo Zammarchi; Marta Tilli; Annarita Botta; Dora Buonfrate; Alessandro Bartoloni; Sara Boccalini

    Background The Italian and the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines both recommend a systematic serological screening for strongyloidiasis in sub-Saharan migrants (SSA), however, studies on clinical and economic impact of this strategy in the Italian and European settings are lacking. Methods A population of 100,000 migrants from SSA to Italy was considered and a Markov decision tree model was developed to assess the clinical and economic impact of two interventions for strongyloidiasis compared with the current practice (passive diagnosis of symptomatic cases): a) universal serological screening and treatment with ivermectin in case of positive test b) universal presumptive treatment with ivermectin. One and 10-year time horizon in the health-care perspective were considered. Results The costs for passive diagnosis, screening option and presumptive treatment in the one and 10-year time horizon respectively were €1,164,169 and €9,735,908, € 2,856,011 and € 4,959,638, and €3,538,474 and € 4,883,272. Considering the cost per cured subject in the one-year time horizon, screening appears more favorable (€209.53), than the other two options (€232.55 per presumptive treatment and €10,197.29 per current strategy). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs) of screening strategy and presumptive treatment were respectively 265.27 and 333.19. The sensitivity analysis identified strongyloidiasis’ prevalence as the main driver of ICER. Conclusions Compared to the current practice (passive diagnosis) both screening and presumptive treatment strategies are more favorable from a cost-effectiveness point of view, with a slight advantage of the screening strategy.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Predicting carbon sequestration of woody biomass following land restoration
    Forest Ecol. Manag. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Keryn I. Paul; Stephen H. Roxburgh

    Land restoration through planting native species or facilitating natural regeneration may provide opportunities for sequestration of biomass carbon in many regions where woody vegetation has been cleared or largely supressed. Australia provides a good case study of how sequestration from these activities may be simulated at national- and project-scales using an empirical full carbon accounting model; FullCAM. Recent work has resulted in 1.6-fold increase in calibration sites available, while the underlying input layer of site productivity has also been recently refined. These developments provided an opportunity to expand the domain of application and capability of the model. We collated 2340 observations of above-ground biomass in planted or naturally regenerated stands across Australia and applied a novel technique to correct these observations for a baseline biomass of existing remnant trees or shrubs within these stands (typically < 5 Mg DM ha−1 and < 10% of individuals). Five different sets of parameters were estimated based on five categories of stands for the FullCAM model, based on landscape position, land use, and configuration and/or density of the stand: (i) stands accessing water in addition to rainfall; (ii) belt plantings of high (>1500 stems per hectare) stand density; (iii) belt plantings of lower stand density; (iv) blocks of plantings or natural regeneration on land used to deliver environmental services, and; (v) blocks of natural regeneration occurring on land used for livestock production. Compared to blocks of plantings or natural regeneration, yields of biomass after 30 years of growth were 1.3- to 2.2-times higher in belt plantings, and stands of mesic regions accessing ground or surface water, e.g. riparian or floodplain zones. After 30 years of natural regeneration, when compared to stands fenced-off for conservation, yields of biomass were 1.5-times lower on stands that continued to be managed for livestock production. In revising the model calibrations, the trade-off between model accuracy and utility was considered. By accounting for only stand age, site productivity and the five stand categories, the overall model efficiency of biomass prediction was 68%. Additional explanatory variables such as stocking densities of stands with a block configuration, stand establishment method, species or species mix, and belt width were also tested, but their addition to the model was considered unwarranted, given the additional resources required to account for these inputs would be substantial, and they would deliver <10% improvement in prediction efficiencies. Although predictions were unbiased overall, they may nonetheless provide erroneous predictions at a given site. Nonetheless, given the absence of bias, individual over- and under-predictions will tend to cancel out for carbon accounting at the national-scale; while at the project-scale where carbon offsets are monetarised, discounting for uncertainty may be implemented.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mixed-effects generalized height–diameter model for young silver birch stands on post-agricultural lands
    Forest Ecol. Manag. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Karol Bronisz; Lauri Mehtätalo

    The purpose of creating regression equations is often to predict unmeasured features based upon more easily obtainable ones. Species-specific height–diameter (H–D) models of trees are an example of this situation and can be defined as either simple or generalized. Simple H–D models express height as a function of tree diameter at the breast height. They are easily applicable without additional measurement but do not take properly into account the variability in H-D relationship between stands. Meanwhile, generalized models also include stand-level predictors. The H-D data sets are often characterized by a grouped structure. The mixed-effects modeling approach is a mainstream method employed for these types of forestry data. In this study, we created a mixed-effects generalized H–D model for young silver birch stands on post-agricultural lands in central Poland. This model was chosen from among 11 simple nonlinear models based on the goodness of fit and residual behavior. We accounted for two stand-level predictors that did not require additional measurements beyond tree diameter at the breast height: quadratic mean diameter at the breast height and basal area. Fixed- and random-effect predictions were then calculated to illustrate that increases in the number of measured trees improves height predictions. Moreover, the gain in predictive power is the largest if extreme trees (i.e., from the extrema of the diameter range) are used for random-effect prediction.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Integration of principal component analysis and artificial neural network to modeling productive capacity of eucalypt stands from biophysical attributes
    Forest Ecol. Manag. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Cícero Jorge Fonseca Dolácio; Rudson Silva Oliveira; Nelson Yoshihiro Nakajima; Ivaldo da Silva Tavares Júnior; Jonas Elias Castro da Rocha; Ângelo Augusto Ebling; Marcos André Piedade Gama

    Modeling the productive capacity of forest sites from biophysical factors is important when site-dominant height data is not available. For this reason, we aim with this study to model the mean annual volume increment at age 7 (MAI7) of Eucalyptus clonal plantations, to evaluate the accuracy of the modeling, and to fit an empirical equation. For this, we used data from twenty-two variables collected in 51 plots distributed randomly in three classes of MAI7 predicted. Initially, Spearman’s rank correlation was used for primary mining of these variables, then principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create orthogonal latent variables that were used as input in the artificial neural network (ANN) to MAI7 predict. Spearman’s and PCA analysis proved to be excellent for data mining because when used together were enabled to reduce the number of variables and create a variable that represented the maximum variance of the variables which were significantly associated with the MAI7. All ANN trained exhibited high learning capability when using as input to the latent variables created in conjunction with the classes of MAI7, but the ANN trained with architecture 6-9-1 made prediction with greater precision for the test set and too showed high accuracy to the train set. Therefore, combining PCA with ANN was an excellent approach to developing an empirical equation to accurately predict MAI7 of clonal plantings of hybrid of Eucalyptus located in the southeast of Pará State, Brazil from biophysical variables.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Differentiation in phenology among and within natural populations of a South American Nothofagus revealed by a two-year evaluation in a common garden trial
    Forest Ecol. Manag. (IF 3.126) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    V.G. Duboscq-Carra; J.A. Arias-Rios; V.A. El Mujtar; P. Marchelli; M.J. Pastorino

    Phenological traits are crucial for understanding adaptation to climate change due to their genetic control and association with abiotic factors. However, few data on phenology patterns are available for South American Nothofagus species, in particular for Nothofagus alpina, a key species of the temperate forests of Patagonia. Therefore, our aim was to analyze the variation among and within natural populations of N. alpina in two phenological traits (bud burst and foliar senescence), in growing season length and in relative growth height. We registered phenology in 65 open pollinated families of eight Argentinean natural populations installed in a common garden trial. Apical buds and foliar senescence were observed every three days in 6-year-old plants and again three years later in the same plants (N = 373). Day of the year until bud burst (DOY) and until the beginning (DOY10) and the end (DOY90) of foliar senescence were measured. Height was measured twice in a year in order to calculate the annual growth in both seasons. Growing degree days (GDD) and chilling hours (CH) until bud burst were also calculated, with two possible basal temperatures (5 °C and 7 °C) to evaluate their role in DOY. Significant differences among populations and years in DOY and growing season length were found using a linear mixed model (LMM), with the family factor explaining around 30% and 12% of the total variance respectively. The LMM for foliar senescence (DOY10 and DOY90) and the relative growth height (RGH) showed significant differences between years but not among populations. The family factor was significant for foliar senescence, although it only explained a small part of the total variance (DOY10: 4%; DOY90: 2%) and was not significant for relative growth height. A tight relationship between GDD and CH with DOY was found, and LMM showed significant differences among populations and years for both variables. The correlation between the altitude of natural populations and the mean DOY and GDD was high and positive. Our results reveal (i) the genetic control of bud burst and foliar senescence, and phenotypic plasticity of all analyzed traits, (ii) that GDD and CH are implicated in the DOY, and (iii) that altitude is probably conditioning thermal requirement of bud burst. This information suggests good perspectives to face the climate change scenario and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate populations and families for domestication and breeding of N. alpina at particular sites.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A view on the key research issues that the CGIAR should lead on 2020–2030
    Food Policy (IF 3.788) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Lawrence Haddad

    How should the CGIAR's research programme be focused to make it as impactful as possible given the changes being faced by the world's population over the next 10 years? This viewpoint suggests a firm emphasis on research needed to unlock the potential of food systems to deliver improved nutrition, environmental sustainability and stronger livelihoods, with a focus on the tradeoffs and synergies therein.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Molecular mechanisms in Cognitive Frailty: potential therapeutic targets for oxygen-ozone treatment
    Mech. Ageing Dev. (IF 3.603) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Catia Scassellati; Miriam Ciani; Antonio Carlo Galoforo; Roberta Zanardini; Cristian Bonvicini; Cristina Geroldi

    In the last decade, cognitive frailty has gained great attention from the scientific community. It is characterized by high inflammation and oxidant state, endocrine and metabolic alterations, mitochondria dysfunctions and slowdown in regenerative processes and immune system, with a complex and multifactorial aetiology. Although several treatments are available, challenges regarding the efficacy and the costs persist. Here, we proposed an alternative non-pharmacological, non-side-effect, low cost therapy based on anti-inflammation, antioxidant, regenerative and anti-pathogens properties of ozone (O3), through the activation of several molecular mechanisms (Nrf2-ARE, NF-κB, NFAT, AP-1, HIFα). We highlighted how these specific processes could be implicated in cognitive frailty to identify putative therapeutic targets for its treatment. The O2-O3 therapy has never been tested for cognitive frailty. This work provides thus wide scientific background to build a consistent rationale for testing for the first time this therapy, that could modulate the immune, inflammatory, oxidant, metabolic, endocrine, microbiota and regenerative processes impaired in cognitive frailty. Although insights are needed, the O2-O3 therapy could represent a faster, easier, inexpensive monodomain intervention, working in absence of side effects, for cognitive frailty.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Context sensitive policy instruments: A multi-criteria decision analysis for safeguarding forest habitats in Southwestern Finland
    Land Use Policy (IF 3.573) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Susanna Sironen; Eeva Primmer; Pekka Leskinen; Jukka Similä; Pekka Punttila

    Environmental and conservation decisions are often complex, which results in complexity also in policy assessments. Conservation decisions have implications for different stakeholders and typically draw on multidisciplinary knowledge bases, incorporating natural, physical and social sciences, politics and ethics. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is a potentially important tool for supporting conservation policy decisions. This article reports a spatially referenced MCDA of policy instrument scenarios for conserving forest biodiversity in Southwestern Finland. The effects of the realistic policy instruments designed in dialogue with stakeholders included voluntary permanent conservation, enforced spatially concentrated permanent conservation, voluntary permanent conservation with active nature management, and voluntary temporary conservation. These instruments were compared by combining forest-owner survey, MCDA and ex ante impact evaluation. The main objective was to find the forest biodiversity conservation instrument that would produce the highest total benefit. The effects of the different instruments were evaluated with ecological, economic, social, and institutional criteria after a 20-year time period. The results showed minor differences between the instruments, with voluntary permanent and voluntary temporary conservation producing the largest total benefit. Despite the small differences, the analysis was robust in showing that voluntary instruments were more favourable than enforced permanent conservation.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • New material for transforming degraded sandy land into productive farmland
    Land Use Policy (IF 3.573) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Yongsheng Wang; Yansui Liu

    China has achieved the most remarkable success in fighting desertification. Unsustainable measures and practices gave rise to continued desertification expansion in some places. Sand land structural consolidation engineering was conducted in Mu Us Sandy Land using physical complementarity between sand particle and clay particle. Degraded sandy land was transformed into productive farmland for developing modern agriculture after soil reconstruction, crop optimization and precision management. Red clay can significantly increase crop yields by improving sandy land structure. Enhanced land productivity, increased land transfer rent and extra wage income provide a stainable and stable increase in households’ income for escaping from poverty. Spatial overlap between red clay with sandy land makes red clay as a new available material for sand land consolidation and utilization from China to global scale. China’s sandy land structural consolidation engineering and sustainable utilization practices will contribute prescriptions to global desertification fighting and rural poverty alleviation. Regional water resource carrying capacity should be evaluated before engineering popularization.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Analysis of Neutral Electrolyzed Water anti-bacterial activity on contaminated eggshells with Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli
    Int. J. Food Microbiol. (IF 4.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jocelyn Medina-Gudiño; Andres Rivera-Garcia; Liliana Santos-Ferro; Juan C. Ramirez-Orejel; Lourdes T. Agredano-Moreno; Luis F. Jimenez-Garcia; David Paez-Esquiliano; Sandra Martinez-Vidal; Eduardo Andrade-Esquivel; Jose A. Cano-Buendia

    Neutral Electrolyzed Water (NEW) was tested in vitro and on artificially contaminated eggs against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica or Escherichia coli. The antibacterial effect was measured 30 s after treatment. NEW microbicide activity results were compared against 2% citric acid and 0.9% saline solutions. NEW caused an in vitro decrease in Salmonella titers by ˃5.56 Log10 CFU mL−1 and in artificially contaminated eggs by ˃1.45 Log10 CFU/egg. When it was tested against E. coli, it decreased in vitro bacterial titers by ˃3.28 Log10 CFU mL−1 and on artificially contaminated eggs by ˃6.39 Log10 CFU/egg. The 2% citric acid solution caused an in vitro decrease of 0.4 Log10 CFU mL−1 of Salmonella and E. coli and on eggs artificially contaminated with E. coli or Salmonella there was a decrease of 0.06 and 0.62 Log10 CFU/egg respectively. We evaluated egg cuticle integrity by scanning electron microscopy after treatments with evaluated solutions; the 2% citric acid solution caused damage to the cuticle and exposed eggshell pores and no interaction of NEW or NaCl with the cuticle was observed. NEW treatment showed a fast-bactericidal effect in vitro and table eggs.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A hybrid statistical model for ecological risk integral assessment of PAHs in sediments
    J. Hydrol. (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Wenyue Liu; Dong Wang; Vijay P. Singh; Yuankun Wang; Xiankui Zeng; Lingling Ni; Yuwei Tao; Jichun Wu; Jiufu Liu; Ying Zou; Ruimin He; Jianyun Zhang

    For integral ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the interdependence is always ignored by assuming concentration additivity (CA) and independent action (IA). This paper proposed a hybrid assessment model, named hierarchical Archimedean copula integral assessment (HACIA), to treat inherent relations and assess the multi-dimensional holistic ecological risks of exposure concentrations of 16 PAHs. The HACIA model couples with hierarchical Archimedean copulas (HACs) and ecological evaluation criteria, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), which depends on copulas to construe the connotations of correlations among exposure concentrations of PAHs. The two case studies, the exposure concentrations of 16 PAHs from Taihu Lake in China and the Bay of Bengal coast in Bangladesh, respectively, are used to verify the adaptability and feasibility of HACIA model and evaluate their comprehensive environmental risk. In addition, a theoretical and empirical comparison with three frequently-used methods was provided objectively, which focused on presuppositions, principles, evaluations and consequences. The results indicated that the HACIA model has good feasibility and applicability to evaluate the synthetic ecological risk according to PAHs exposure concentrations, remedies for the situation that the interdependence among other methods is neglected, and can produce more deliberate classification of hazards theoretically and better demonstrations of assessment results than the other three. Although the more accurate risk assessments rely on detecting quantity of samples, the integral ecological risk assessment based on the proposed HACIA model is reliable and robust because of its reasonable structure.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mapping the response of volumetric soil water content to an intense rainfall event at the field scale using GPR
    J. Hydrol. (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Qi Cao; Xiaodong Song; Huayong Wu; Lei Gao; Feng Liu; Shunhua Yang; Ganlin Zhang

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a convenient tool for volumetric soil water content (VSWC) estimation in hydrological and agricultural studies. Although case studies have been widely carried out, little attention has been paid to subsoil moisture estimates. In this research, we investigated three-dimensional soil moisture variation down to a depth of 1 m and the effect of rainfall events on spatial soil moisture dynamics. GPR surveying lines were conducted both before and after a heavy rainfall event to map the VSWC. Soil sampling and time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe data at different depths (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm) were acquired. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between the dielectric constants and VSWCs at all depths. The established relationships for the different depth ranges had a low VSWC discrepancy when the dielectric constants ranged from 10 to 15. The effective range of each variogram was larger than 20 m, except for that of the 0∼100 cm VSWC map after rainfall. In addition, the validation diagrams using corrected TDR values demonstrated relatively reliable VSWC maps. Approximately 89% of the variation in VSWC could be explained by the dielectric constants in the depth range of 0∼40 cm, and VSWC predictions at this soil depth outperformed those at other depth ranges, with an overall RMSE of 0.027 m3 m-3 and R2 of 0.725. Furthermore, we also monitored the effect of precipitation on the accuracy of the VSWC prediction on shallow surfaces. Our study shows that three-dimensional soil moisture dynamics can be accurately estimated at the field scale by integrating GPR interpretation and spatial extrapolation methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Geochemical evolution and Boron sources of the groundwater affected by urban and volcanic activities of Puebla Valley, South central Mexico
    J. Hydrol. (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    P.F. Rodriguez-Espinosa; S. Chidambaram; K.M Ochoa-Guerrero; E. Martínez-Tavera; Banajarani Panda
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Non-rainfall water contributions to dryland jujube plantation evapotranspiration in the Hilly Loess Region of China
    J. Hydrol. (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Zhiyong GAO; Wenjuan Shi; Xing Wang; Youke Wang

    Non-rainfall water inputs (NRWIs) provide crucial water resources for dryland ecosystems in arid and semi-arid regions. However, little is known about the quantitative characteristics and formation of NRWIs, and the relative importance of NRWIs as water sources in a dryland jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) plantation in the Hilly Loess Region of China. The objectives of this study were to determine the characteristics of NRWIs during the jujube growing season with regard to amount, duration, and contributions to transpiration, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. Dew intensity and duration were monitored using dielectric leaf wetness sensors, Also sap flow, soil water content, soil temperature, and meteorological variables were measured during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. NRWIs were found to be composed of canopy dew (CD) and water vapor adsorption (WVAS) in the 0-5 cm soil layer, amounting to 75.218 mm in 2017 and 75.309 mm in 2018 (CD accounted for about 81% of NRWI). Daily average CD was significantly greater than WVAS (P<0.05), and CD duration was 2.09-9.14 h more than WVAS duration (P<0.05). The CD rate and frequency generally exceeded that of WVAS. CD occurred from 19:00 to 9:00. WVAS mainly occurred from 6:30 to 9:00. CD reduced nocturnal sap flow by 7.36-55.64%, but increased soil water storage (in the 5-100 cm root zone) by 0.274-0.717 mm. WVAS had no effect on soil water evaporation. Over the entire growing season, the ratio of CD to total transpiration was 0.218 in 2017 and 0.258 in 2018, and the ratio of WVAS to soil water evaporation was 0.082 in both years. NRWIs occurred more frequently and were quantitatively more stable than rainfall events. Their contributions to evapotranspiration reached a maximum value of 0.184 in 2018. NRWIs are important components of the hydrological cycle in this region, and probably have potential positive ecological effects on dryland jujube plantations in the Hilly Loess Region of China.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • IL-36α contributes to enhanced T helper 17 type responses in allergic rhinitis
    Cytokine (IF 3.078) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xiaowei Qin; Tianhong Zhang; Chunrui Wang; Huijun Li; Ming Liu; Yanan Sun

    Background T helper 17 (Th17) cell subsets, belongs to CD4+ T cell lineage, are proved to be closely related to pathophysiology of AR recently. The interleukin-36 (IL-36) had been reported to promote the up-regulation of Th17 cytokines in psoriasis. We investigated the regulation of Th17 inflammation by IL-36 family cytokines in allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods Twenty-one patients with AR and 20 healthy controls were enrolled. The expression of serum protein and mRNA of IL-36 family cytokines between AR and control group were detected and compared. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified and stimulated by IL-36 cytokines. The transcription factor and production of Th17 cytokines by Th17 cells were evaluated. Mouse model with AR was established to confirm the in vitro results. Results The serum expression of IL-36 cytokines and Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-23) of AR patients were up-regulated significantly compared with controls. The IL-36α promoted the differentiation and function of Th17 cells. The anti-IL-36α treatment could alleviate the Th17 response in AR mice, presented with alleviated symptoms, decreased infiltration of Th17 cells and down-regulated Th17 cytokines expression. Conclusions IL-36α was involved in the regulation of Th17 responses in allergic rhinitis.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Progranulin as a novel biomarker in diagnosis of early-onset neonatal sepsis
    Cytokine (IF 3.078) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Lubei Rao; Zhixin Song; Xiaoyan Yu; Qianqian Tu; Yu He; Yetao Luo; Yibing Yin; Dapeng Chen

    Background Infections are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates and may also have severe long-term consequences. As early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis improves prognosis, identification of new or complementary biomarkers is of great importance. In this study, we have evaluated the diagnostic value of progranulin (PGRN) in early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) and compare its effectiveness with other commonly used biomarkers, such as procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A total of 121 infants with gestational age of >34 weeks admitted with suspected EOS were included in this study. Before initiating therapy, blood samples for whole blood count, CRP, PCT and PGRN were obtained from all neonates. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Serum PGRN level of infected group was significantly higher than uninfected group (median 47.72 vs. 37.86 ng/ml, respectively; Mann-Whitney p < 0.0001). The ROC area under the curve (AUC) was 0.786 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.706–0.867; p < 0.0001] for PGRN, 0.699 (95% CI 0.601–0.797; p = 0.0001) for age adjusted PCT, and 0.673 (95% CI 0.573–0.773; p = 0.0007) for CRP. With a cut-off value of 37.89 ng/ml, the diagnostic sensitivity and negative predictive value of PGRN were 94.34% and 91.7%, respectively. PGRN could significantly predict EOS independently of PCT (p < 0.0001), and the combined use of PGRN and PCT could significantly improve diagnostic performance for EOS (0.806; 95% CI 0.73–0.88; p < 0.0001), with a specificity of 89.06% and a positive predictive value of 81.10%. Conclusions PGRN may be used as a promising biomarker for the diagnosis of EOS, and the combined use of PGRN and PCT could improve the diagnosis of sepsis.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • ‘Food allergy? Ask before you eat’: Current food allergy training and future training needs in food services
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    J.M. Soon

    The incidence of allergic reactions to food occurring in eating out situations is becoming increasingly prevalent amongst susceptible consumers. Previous studies repeatedly identified food allergy knowledge gaps among foodservice staff. This highlights the importance of food safety and food allergy training in foodservices to minimise risk of food allergic reactions. This study aims to determine the current food allergy training practices, challenges and future food allergy training needs of foodservices in England. A postal survey was conducted among 500 foodservice operators in North West England. The questionnaire is divided into 5 sections: (i) demographics; (ii) current food allergy training practices; (iii) importance of food allergy training topics; (iv) challenges faced by restaurants when training foodservice staff; and (v) future food allergy training. Out of the 30 restaurants, only one restaurant did not carry out food allergy training. More than 70% of the restaurants frequently trained newly hired staff and whenever changes or updates occurred in the food hygiene regulations (60%). Most of the training were on-the-job training and took between 1 and 2 h to complete. Identification of food allergens in menu, prevention of cross contact and communication were identified as the most important topics in food allergy training. High staff turnover and lack of time contributed to the difficulty in training foodservice staff. There was considerable interest in the types of future food allergy training and most preferred on-site training by authorised staff or training at local councils. Further work is needed in the evaluation of future food allergy training needs to develop effective training materials and delivery methods to ensure the safety of food allergic individuals.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Ergosterol as a marker for the use of degraded olives in the production of olive oil
    Food Control (IF 4.248) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Maria Chiara Boarelli; Maurus Biedermann; Martin Peier; Dennis Fiorini; Koni Grob

    The quality of olive oil depends, among other factors, on the quality of the olives used. Ergosterol is proposed as a marker for olives degraded by yeast or mold, since yeast as well as mold produce ergosterol, whereas olives do not. Ergosterol was determined in olive oil by on-line HPLC-GC-MS, using the high efficiency of HPLC to separate ergosterol from the sterols that are present at far higher concentrations. The detection limit was around 0.1 mg kg-1 oil. Among 50 extra virgin olive oils, 5 contained less than 0.1 mg kg-1 ergosterol, 18 were in the range 0.1-2 mg kg-1 and the highest concentration was 39 mg kg-1. Oil extracted from degraded olives contained ergosterol in a range of 21 - 289 mg kg-1, with higher values in the samples with a high number of yeast and mold cells. Being a marker for degraded olives, the ergosterol concentration should be related to fatty acid ethyl esters, formed by ethanol from fermentation by yeast, but the ergosterol concentration is considered more pertinent, since the ethyl esters only detect activity of yeast and their concentration depends on the conversion of the ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters by transesterification in the olives.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • TXNIP deficiency mitigates podocyte apoptosis via restraining the activation of mTOR or p38 MAPK signaling in diabetic nephropathy
    Exp. Cell Res. (IF 3.329) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Shan Song; Duojun Qiu; Yuhan Wang; Jinying Wei; Haijiang Wu; Ming Wu; Shuai Wang; Xinbo Zhou; Yonghong Shi; Huijun Duan
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Investigation of PEMFC performance for cruising hybrid powered fixed-wing electric UAV in different temperatures
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.084) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Zehra Ural Bayrak; Ufuk Kaya; Eyyup Oksuztepe

    In this paper, the performance of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) for cruising hybrid powered fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is investigated in different temperatures. The hybrid powered UAV has two power sources: FC and battery. In this regard, Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) and Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) are selected as battery types. The PEMFC performance is analysed in three scenarios determined as FC, FC & Li-ion and FC & Ni-MH. The linearized UAV model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and only cruise phase of flight considered. Simulation results shown that the UAV model with pure FC has the longest endurance. The endurance has influenced from total weight of the UAV and hybrid system characterization. Furthermore, temperature changes also affect fuel consumption. This paper provides a general description of the proposed UAV model with three types of hybrid power source and describes the design methods and simulation cases for long endurance.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Modelling sugarcane vinasse processing in an acidogenic reactor to produce hydrogen with an ADM1-based model
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.084) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    P.T. Couto; F. Eng; W. Naessens; I. Nopens; M. Zaiat; R. Ribeiro

    Biohydrogen can be produced by dark fermentation of sugarcane vinasse, wastewater from the sugar-alcohol industry, in acidogenic anaerobic bioreactors. In this work, a model based on ADM1 was constructed to model anaerobic processing of sugarcane vinasse in an acidogenic batch reactor. Based on experimental data, hypotheses were put forward. Two new pathways were assumed: Acetate+Lactate→Butyrate+Hydrogen and Glycerol→Butyrate+Hydrogen. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to reduce the number of free parameters, after which the model was calibrated with the experimental data. The proposed model was able to adequately describe sugar and glycerol consumption, acetate and lactate production and consumption and hydrogen and butyrate production over the operational time at an initial concentration of vinasse of 30kgCODm−3. Nevertheless more improvements can be carried out to make the model more realistic and to cover intermediate metabolic pathways under conditions of lower vinasse concentration, such as 15kgCODm−3 and 20kgCODm−3.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Multi-agent direct current systems using renewable energy sources and hydrogen fuel cells
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.084) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    R.N. Shulga; I.V. Putilova

    Direct current provides accumulation of electricity and is therefore necessary when using renewable energy sources. Hydrogen energy storage devices in the form of fuel cells are the most effective and environmentally friendly way of energy storage and conservation. Shortcomings of electric power networks compared with DC networks in terms of stability, controllability, reliability and redundancy are noted. The necessity of transition from digitalization in the form of automated process control systems to smart grids, and subsequently to multi-agent DC networks with a high degree of redundancy, is revealed. Besides, the paper deals with application of distributed generation consisting of traditional and renewable energy sources, as well as accumulators and static converters. Characteristics of the above mentioned elements are given for simulating the modes in order to select the structure and control algorithms that provide increased power supply reliability.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Effects of hydrogen enrichment on CH4/Air turbulent swirling premixed flames in a cuboid combustor
    Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (IF 4.084) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Joonhwi Park; Yuki Minamoto; Masayasu Shimura; Mamoru Tanahashi
    更新日期:2020-01-23
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