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  • Spread of Impatiens glandulifera from riparian habitats to forests and its associated impacts: insights from a new invasion
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    J Čuda; H Skálová; P Pyšek

    Impatiens glandulifera is a globally successful invader that primarily spreads along riparian habitats; however, during the last ~20 years, it has started to colonise forests, but little has been published on impacts of this recent spread. Several factors may have contributed to this phenomenon: (i) high propagule pressure from large and widespread riparian populations, (ii) extensive anthropogenic and natural disturbances in the forest ecosystems, (iii) increased use of forest machinery efficiently spreading the seeds together with (iv) a wide environmental tolerance of the species. The impacts of I. glandulifera on native communities in forests are manifold. Contrasting effects are reported on native plant species diversity, richness and growth of saplings of co‐occurring species, as well as negative effects on soil mycorrhizal fungi. We suggest that the eradication of I. glandulifera populations in forests is more feasible than along watercourses because the recolonisation in forests is limited and, in some cases, populations are outcompeted by woody species during succession.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Weed hosts of Meloidogyne spp. and the effect of aqueous weed extracts on egg hatching
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    A P M Lopes; M R C Soares; L P S Chidichima; C R Dias‐Arieira

    Weeds have a great economic impact on agricultural production because they compete with crops for resources and are alternative hosts for pests, microbial pathogens and plant‐parasitic nematodes. This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of weeds to the root‐knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita and assess the effect of aqueous weed extracts on M. javanica egg hatching. Four experiments were conducted, two for each nematode species. Weeds were inoculated with 2000 nematode eggs and grown for 60 days under greenhouse conditions. Soyabean cv. Monsoy 7110 was used as control. The weeds Ipomoea grandifolia, Solanum americanum, Digitaria horizontalis, Amaranthus deflexus, Sorghum halepense and Commelina benghalensis were susceptible to M. javanica and M. incognita in at least one experiment (reproduction factor, RF >1). Crotalaria juncea and Eleusine indica were susceptible to M. incognita in one experiment, and Digitaria insularis, Sida rhombifolia, Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens, Crotalaria breviflora, Cenchrus echinatus, Crotalaria ochroleuca and Crotalaria spectabilis were immune or resistant (RF <1 or RF = 0). Alternanthera tenella, C. juncea, S. rhombifolia, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, C. breviflora, B. pilosa, E. indica, U. decumbens and C. echinatus were resistant or immune to M. javanica (RF <1 or RF = 0). Compared with the control (water), all weed extracts reduced M. javanica egg hatch. Our results highlight the importance of weed control in agricultural systems, as nematodes can survive and multiply in weed roots during the off‐season. Weed leaves and shoots, however, may be an interesting source of compounds with nematicidal activity.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Endophytic fungi in the invasive weed Impatiens glandulifera: a barrier to classical biological control?
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    A F Currie; A C Gange; N Ab Razak; C A Ellison; N Maczey; S V Wood

    The rust fungus, Puccinia komarovii var. glanduliferae, has been introduced into the UK for biological control of the invasive weed, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam). However, establishment of the pathogen has differed across the country, which may be partly explained by variation in plant genotype. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is a further layer of phenotypic resistance, provided by indigenous foliar endophytic fungi. Culturable endophytes were isolated from a number of different balsam populations, and the commonest species were inoculated into ‘clean’ balsam plants, to test their interactions with the rust. We found that endophyte communities within balsam are low in diversity and become more dissimilar with increasing distance between populations. Three endophytes (Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium oxysporum) were common and appeared to be antagonistic to the rust, reducing pustule number and mitigating the effect of the pathogen on plant biomass. I. glandulifera thus partially conforms to the endophyte‐enemy release hypothesis, in that as an introduced species, it has an impoverished endophyte complement, acquired from the local environment. However, these endophytes represent a potential barrier to effective biological control and future weed control strategies need to find strains of rust that can overcome plant genetic resistance and the overlaying phenotypic resistance, conferred by endophytes. Future classical biological control programmes of weeds must therefore take into account the fungal bodyguards that invasive species may acquire in their introduced ranges.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Genetic variation in tolerance to defoliation in Cirsium arvense
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    M G Cripps; C A Dowsett; S D Jackman; C van Koten; D F Goeke; G J Houliston

    The perennial weed, Cirsium arvense (creeping, Canada or Californian thistle), is notorious for its ability to tolerate defoliation by mowing, herbivores or herbicides. The tolerance of 36 genotypes of C. arvense was examined by establishing pairs of clonal replicates that were assigned to a clipped or unclipped treatment. Three clippings were applied from spring to early summer to simulate repeated mowing. The average final percentage reduction caused by the repeated clipping was 18%, 72%, 32% and 50% for shoot biomass, root biomass, number of shoots and shoot height respectively. While nearly all genotypes were negatively affected by clipping, some overcompensated, and achieved greater shoot biomass, number of shoots, or increased height than their unclipped counterparts. No genotype was able to overcompensate, or fully tolerate, the lost root biomass due to repeated clipping. Genetic variation for tolerance to defoliation was detected for the number of shoots, maximum shoot height and for relative height growth rate. For relative growth rate, significant genetic variation was not detected until after the third clipping event, indicating that genotypes were equally tolerant to a moderate degree of defoliation, but upon more severe defoliation, genetic differences were evident. Since repeated defoliation is a recommended control technique, selection for more tolerant genotypes is possible and should be considered for the management of this weed.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Evidence of sedimentation inequality along riparian areas colonised by Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam)
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    P Greenwood; A C Gange; N J Kuhn

    Soil loss from riparian areas supporting the annual invasive weed, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam), was measured and compared with equivalent values recorded at nearby, topographically similar areas supporting perennial vegetation over a cumulative seven‐year period, along sections of two separate river systems; one in Switzerland, and one in the UK. Soil loss from colonised locations was significantly greater than from reference locations in four of the seven measurement periods. Despite contrasting results, standard deviations, based on soil losses and gains, were predominantly higher for colonised areas at both rivers over most monitoring periods. These findings indicated that areas colonised by Himalayan balsam experience higher sediment flux in comparison with areas free of invasion. Here, we test those original interpretations by reinterrogating the datasets using a more robust analysis of inequality. Nine datasets were tested, five of which (i.e. 56%) showed that sediment flux was significantly greater at Himalayan balsam‐invaded areas than at reference areas. Three datasets showed no difference in sediment flux between invaded and reference areas (33%), and one (11%) showed higher sediment flux at reference areas. Most results uphold our original interpretations and support our hypothesis that hydrochory probably dictates where colonisation initially occurs, by depositing Himalayan balsam seeds in slack or depressional areas along river margins. Once Himalayan balsam becomes established and sufficient perennial vegetation is displaced, seasonal die‐off and depleted vegetation cover may increase the risk that some areas will experience significantly higher sediment flux.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Vegetative propagation of Solidago canadensis – do fragment size and burial depth matter?
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    L Rosef; H H Ingebrigtsen; E Heegaard

    Clonal species may benefit from human disturbance because their vegetative fragments may be distributed via soil. Solidago canadensis is an invasive rhizomatous perennial frequently found in ruderal environments. When creating new infrastructure, digging and cutting are two main factors that may influence the spread of S. canadensis into new areas. To have a better understanding of the invasive potential of S. canadensis, we investigated whether S. canadensis was able to survive and grow from stem cuttings as well as from rhizomes. Rhizomes and cuttings were collected from three populations in Eastern Norway. The rhizomes and cuttings were planted in a pot experiment to assess their vegetative ability to propagate. Rhizome fragments (5 and 10 cm long) were buried at 0.5, 10 and 30 cm depths. The cuttings were planted as 15 cm stems, with the bottom 5 cm pushed into the soil. The results showed that rhizome length did not have an effect on survival. Although some sprouting occurred at all burial depths, increasing depth had a negative effect on rhizome survival. In general, development of the cuttings was good, but there were differences between population performance and survival. These results imply that care must be taken when (i) constructing new sites, because digging and transport of soil masses may spread S. canadensis into new areas by rhizomes or cuttings, and (ii) mowing road verges and other ruderal areas to prevent the spread of stem cuttings from one area to another.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Shade‐induced plasticity in invasive Impatiens glandulifera populations
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    M Gruntman; U Segev; K Tielbörger

    Phenotypic plasticity, which confers a fitness advantage under heterogeneous and novel environments, has been commonly suggested to contribute to the success of invasive plants in their introduced range. For example, plasticity in response to changes in light availability could facilitate invasiveness by allowing plants to both rapidly establish in unshaded, disturbed habitats, and tolerate shaded or crowded environments. The plastic responses of invasive plants to shade were mostly studied in morphological traits. However, plasticity in physiological traits might provide more rapid and reversible responses and thus be more effective in environments with rapid temporal variations. Here, we compared plasticity in a range of morphological and physiological traits that provide shade avoidance or tolerance between two native and six introduced populations of Impatiens glandulifera. In a common garden, we subjected second‐generation siblings of native and invasive plants to two light availability treatments and measured their morphological, physiological and performance responses. Impatiens glandulifera from invasive populations exhibited greater phenotypic plasticity in response to light availability in four out of 12 measured traits. Moreover, this greater plasticity was mostly limited to physiological traits associated with photosynthetic acclimation. These results suggest high phenotypic plasticity in response to light availability could have facilitated I. glandulifera's spread in both disturbed habitats and woodlands or under intense light competition. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering physiological traits when studying the role of plasticity in the success of invasive plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Fungal‐based bioherbicides for weed control: a myth or a reality?
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    M Triolet; J‐P Guillemin; O Andre; C Steinberg

    The use of bioherbicides containing fungal active ingredients or natural fungal molecules is one of the possible solutions to reduce the use of chemical products. This paper focuses on studies of bioherbicides, including both living fungi and natural fungal molecules, published in the last 45 years, and their associated weed targets; current problems in the development of bioherbicides are also discussed. Bibliometric methods based on the Web of Science database were used to analyse relevant articles published between 1973 and 2018. Overall analysis suggested that interest in bioherbicides extends over the preceding thirty years, when many potential microorganisms and natural fungal molecules were proposed. Furthermore, analysis of about 229 articles indicated an encouraging exploitable potential, although there is a real gap between the number of experimental studies and the small number of products currently on the market. A dozen fungal‐based bioherbicides are on the market in the United States and Canada, while countries, such as China and South Africa, have one, and none is available in Europe. The active ingredients in these bioherbicides are living fungi, but no fungal molecule‐based product is thus far on the market. Reasons for this gap include production hurdles, formulation process, ecological fitness, duration of herbicidal effects, and costly and time‐consuming registration procedures. However, it is clear that analysis of fungus–plant interactions provides a promising source of bioherbicides that may be applied to appropriate cropping systems for environment‐friendly, sustainable weed control.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Digitaria sanguinalis seed dormancy release and seedling emergence are affected by crop canopy and stubble
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    F H Oreja; D Batlla; E B de la Fuente

    Digitaria sanguinalis is a troublesome annual weed that causes important yield losses in different crops. Despite this, there is scarce information about different aspects of its biology under field conditions. New knowledge about the establishment process of this species will be of paramount importance in order to maximise the effectiveness of weed management. The aims of this paper were to evaluate the effect of stubble found on the surface on seed dormancy levels through the season, the effects of stubble and soyabean crop canopy on seedling emergence and to determine the field emergence pattern as a consequence of seed dormancy level at dispersal time. Seeds on the soil surface, which showed a high dormancy level at the beginning of autumn, were released from dormancy by low winter temperatures and germinated during spring as temperatures rose, showing a transient surface seedbank. Seeds covered by stubbles had delayed the emergence in the field due to lower alternating temperatures perceived by the surface seedbank. On the other hand, the presence of a soyabean crop and stubble together reduced the number of seedlings. Seeds with a high dormancy level at dispersal time showed a delayed emergence in the next season when compared with seeds with a lower dormancy level. However, the final number of seedlings was similar. Both stubble on surface and crop canopy are useful factors to lessen and delay the seedling emergence allowing the design of weed management strategies in order to diminish the population levels of this species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Increased crop diversity reduces the functional space available for weeds
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    R J Pakeman; R W Brooker; A J Karley; A C Newton; C Mitchell; R L Hewison; J Pollenus; D C Guy; C Schöb

    There is a drive to improve the sustainability of agricultural systems including the biodiversity component. Cultivar mixtures offer yield benefits from the same land area, but the mechanisms behind this overyielding have not been completely worked out. One potential mechanism is improved competition with weeds. We use an experimental approach of varying barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypic and phenotypic diversity to test the hypothesis that increases in diversity have an impact on weed growth strategies and community assembly, or if responses are driven by barley performance. There was no effect of increasing barley mixture diversity on weed traits, either in terms of species means or the community‐weighted mean. However, Functional Richness of the weed community decreased with increasing barley mixture diversity mainly as a result of reduced specific leaf area Functional Richness. This pattern was driven by a reduction in species richness of the weed community rather than by reduced variation within species. Whilst barley phenotype had different impacts on weed traits, there were no specific mixtures of phenotypes or genotypes that had consistent effects on community assembly or weed species responses. The competitive exclusion of weed species could have agronomic and environmental benefits, through better targeting or less frequent use of herbicides. Growing crop mixtures is one of many strategies available to improve agricultural sustainability and resilience, and one that has clear benefits.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Risk analysis of alien plants recorded in thermal waters of Serbia
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    B K Zlatković; S S Bogosavljević

    This paper presents an overview of introduced alien plant species inhabiting natural thermal waters of Serbia. We recorded the presence of six naturalised aquatic plant species, also recognised as weeds in several regions of the world. This was the first time that Heteranthera zosterifolia (Pontederiaceae), Lemna minuta (Araceae) and Rotala rotundifolia (Lythraceae) were recorded in the aquatic ecosystems of Serbia. In addition, the presence of H. zosterifolia and R. rotundifolia was previously unknown in other countries of Southeastern Europe. The study includes detailed habitat descriptions and impact assessments for all introduced aquatic species in thermal waters in Serbia. All species were prioritised for pest risk analysis using a modified version of the EPPO prioritisation process within the framework of the EU regulation for invasive species. As a result, four alien species may be considered invasive (three at EU and one at national level), while two other species did not show strong invasiveness, but still need to be monitored. In addition, risk management measures were proposed for all invasive species from this study, and they may provide implications for the theory and practical management of weeds.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Functional diversity of cover crop mixtures enhances biomass yield and weed suppression in a Mediterranean agroecosystem
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-20
    M Ranaldo; S Carlesi; A Costanzo; P Bàrberi

    Functional diversity of cover crop mixtures is thought to improve biomass production and weed suppression, two key agroecosystem services in organic systems. To test this hypothesis, we selected eight cover crop species belonging to four functional groups: (i) vining growing large‐seeded legumes (field pea, common vetch), (ii) erect growing small‐seeded legumes (crimson clover, squarrosum clover), (iii) grasses (barley, oats) and (iv) Brassicaceae (radish, black mustard). Nine cover crop mixtures were designed to create a gradient of diversity in terms of number of species and number of functional groups. A control treatment and all monocrops were included in the trial. Regarding cover crop biomass, mixtures outyielded monocrops by an average of 37%. Both functional identity and composition (i.e. trait complementarity) influenced biomass production and weed suppression provided by cover crops. Regression analysis showed that increase in both species diversity and functional diversity in cover crop mixtures improved the provision of agroecosystem services. Results from this study show that complementarity of species functional traits in cover crop mixtures can be used as a strategy to ensure high biomass production and good weed suppression in changing agroecosystems.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Intraspecific seasonal variation of dormancy and mortality of Phelipanche ramosa seeds
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    O Pointurier; S Gibot‐Leclerc; V Le Corre; C Reibel; F Strbik; N Colbach

    Phelipanche ramosa (Branched broomrape) is an obligate root parasitic plant that is a major pest of oilseed rape in France. Knowledge on seed viability and dormancy under field conditions is crucial to understand how to control P. ramosa, but is as yet unknown. Our study aimed to quantify these processes with a 2‐year seed burial experiment. Two genetically distinct populations of P. ramosa were studied, collected on winter oilseed rape (population O) and hemp (population H). Seed mortality was very low in both populations (4–7% per year). Although obligate parasitic seeds are assumed to germinate only after exposure to germination stimulants from host root exudates, a high proportion of population H seeds germinated spontaneously (up to 90%). Seeds of both populations displayed seasonal dormancy, with timing and magnitude depending on the population. Dormancy was low at the time each native host crop is usually sown. Populations differed in germination dynamics, with seeds of population H germinating faster. The difference in behaviour that we observed between populations is consistent with reported adaptations of pathovars to their preferred hosts. The results indicate that the parasitic plant management requires targeting at the populations concerned. For example, delayed sowing is more promising against population O than against population H.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Comparative performance of the highly invasive Mimosa invisa and its less invasive subspecies under different nutrient and light conditions
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Y Wang; Z W Fan; Y D Shen; X X Li; Y Liu; Q Q Huang

    Invasive plants may be more plastic than non‐invasive plants and maintain high fitness under various environmental conditions. Previous studies mainly focused on the comparisons between invasive and native plants, and comparisons between highly invasive and less invasive exotic species are still relatively rare, especially for comparisons at the subspecies level. This study examined the effects of nutrient addition and shading on the performance of the highly invasive Mimosa invisa and its less invasive subspecies M. invisa var. inermis under either isolated or competitive conditions. Nutrient addition increased biomass and plant height and decreased root‐to‐shoot ratio (R/S). Shading decreased biomass and R/S and increased plant height. Under isolated conditions, the two invaders did not differ in R/S, plant height and plasticity of these traits in response to nutrient addition or shading, and the two invaders also did not differ in biomass production under each of the nutrient and light treatments. When the two invaders competed with each other, M. invisa outcompeted M. invisa var. inermis under high soil nutrient conditions, and the two invaders did not differ in performance under other growth conditions. Thus, only considering competition may we find out the difference between highly invasive species and their closely related, less invasive subspecies. Management of M. invisa should focus on habitats with high soil nutrient availability, in which M. invisa is more likely to dominate.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Influence of hairy vetch seed germination and maturation on weediness in subsequent crops
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    K B Pittman; J N Barney; C W Cahoon; M L Flessner

    Hairy vetch is a widely adopted cover crop in the United States. However, hairy vetch can become weedy in subsequent crops as seeds germinate after the cover crop growing season, which is largely attributed to seed dormancy. We conducted two field experiments to determine seed germination, viability and seed production phenology of two common hairy vetch cultivars in Blacksburg and Blackstone, Virginia, US. ‘Groff’ and ‘Purple Bounty’ seed were sown in October 2015 and May 2016 and germination was tracked until June 2017. Subsequently, ungerminated seeds were tested for viability. Both cultivars had <2% germination after the initial germination period, and <1% of seed recovered was still viable at the end of the experiments. We also conducted experiments to determine when these cultivars produce viable seed. Hairy vetch seeds were counted and tested for germination in the spring. Both cultivars produced seed beginning in late‐May, but most seed were not viable until mid‐June in Virginia. Our results indicate that seed dormancy is not the primary cause of hairy vetch weediness in subsequent crops as nearly all germination, 99% of the total germinated seed, occurred during the cover crop growing season. Also, if complete termination occurs before mid‐June in Virginia, it is unlikely viable seed will be added to the seed bank. To better utilise this cover crop species, cultivar selection and proper termination are important to prevent weediness.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Using panicle dry weight to estimate seed production in Echinochloa crus‐galli
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    H Pannwitt; P R Westerman; F De Mol; B Gerowitt

    A better understanding of weed seed production is a key element for any long‐term management allowing some weeds to shed seeds. The challenge with measuring seed production in weeds is the large effort required in terms of time and labour. For the weed species Echinochloa crus‐galli, it was tested whether the number of seeds per panicle dry weight or per panicle length can be used to estimate seed production. Experiments were conducted in three maize fields in north‐eastern Germany. The effect of factors that could influence this relationship, such as the time of seedling emergence, the density of E. crus‐galli, the control intensity of other weeds, seed predation and field, was included. A few days before maize harvest, all panicles were removed and weighed, panicle length was measured, and for a subsample of 178 panicles, the number of seeds was counted manually. Panicle dry weight predicted the number of seeds per panicle better (R2 = 0.92) than did panicle length (R2 = 0.69). The other factors except for ‘field’ and ‘seed predation’ had no effect on these relationships. The relationships between seed number and panicle dry weight found in this study closely resembled those reported in an earlier study. Based on our results, we conclude that both plant traits are appropriate for the estimatation of seed production, depending on required level of precision and availablilty of resources for the evaluation of sustainable weed management strategies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Miscanthus x giganteus crop fields hide a genotype of the invasive M. sacchariflorus
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    A Perrier; L Hardion; A Rozan; C Staentzel; I Combroux

    Despite their putative invasive potential, Miscanthus taxa have been increasingly viewed as promising crops for bioenergy production. Miscanthus x giganteus is cultivated worldwide due to its high productivity, and its non‐spreading growth limits its risk of invasion. However, the genetic uniformity of its unique cultivated clone has recently been questioned. We used morphometry, nuclear microsatellites, AFLP fingerprints and nrDNA ITS barcoding to assess Miscanthus genotypes cultivated in eastern France. As expected, the globally cultivated clone was the main morphotype and genotype of our samplings; however, we also identified a second genotype, assigned to M. sacchariflorus, in the sampled fields. Morphological differentiation partially overlaps genotypic assignation, probably due to disturbance at the crop edges. We also show that Miscanthus taxa are misidentified in commercial nurseries. Our study confirms previous reports of the occurrence of other accessions in fields of M. x giganteus. These taxonomic confusions limit the certainty that a single clone of M. x giganteus is cultivated. In this context, M. x giganteus crop fields may actually promote the dispersal of invasive Miscanthus taxa.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • First report of alien Drosera rotundifolia in a high conservation value Patagonian peat bog
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    R Vidal‐Russell; G Fernández Cánepa; C I Nuñez; C Ezcurra

    Drosera L. (Droseraceae) is a genus of insectivorous plants distributed worldwide with 240 species, 40 of which are found in South America. In the temperate forests of Chile and Argentina the only species present is D. uniflora. In a peat bog in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina, a new species of Drosera was found in February 2018. To identify the species, we used morphological characters, and in addition, we sequenced two individuals for the nuclear region ITS and the chloroplast gene rbcL. Other Drosera sequences for these molecular regions were downloaded from GenBank, and a phylogenetic analysis was done to confirm the morphological identification of the Patagonian individuals. Morphologically and genetically, the species found in Nahuel Huapi is D. rotundifolia, a mostly Northern Hemisphere species. This is an alien species to the region and is thought to have been transported to the bog by tourists that visit the area. The presence of an exotic species represents a threat to this particular ecosystem with high conservation value. Currently, the National Park is taking control actions order to remove all individuals of the recently detected species. This study represents the first report of an alien species of Drosera in southern South America growing in the wild. This potentially invasive species may not only have negative impacts on the natural peat bog habitats in southern Argentina and Chile, but may also reach bogs in other temperate parts of the world.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Distribution of Parthenium hysterophorus and one of its biological control agents (Coleoptera: Zygogramma bicolorata) in Nepal
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    B B Shrestha; K Pokhrel; N Paudel; S Poudel; A Shabbir; S W Adkins

    Parthenium hysterophorus is a noxious invasive weed of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, spreading aggressively in Nepal. Management of this weed in Nepal has been limited, mainly because of the lack of geo‐referenced data concerning the weed's distribution. We conducted a nationwide survey of P. hysterophorus and its coleopteran biological control agent Zygogramma bicolorata from 2013 to 2016 to determine their spatial distribution. Both were widespread, with the distribution of Z. bicolorata lagging behind the invasion front of P. hysterophorus. The weed was present in 21.2% of the 4838 locations examined, including several isolated satellite populations. The weed was found in the Tarai, Siwalik, Middle Mountains and High Mountains regions, reaching up to 2000 m asl. It has invaded natural and modified ecosystems including all six protected areas in the Tarai and Siwalik regions. Road access appears to be the major pathway for its long‐distance dispersal. Zygogramma bicolorata had spread from the east to the west and was present in 15.4% of the weed occurrence locations, inflicting a low amount of damage. A CLIMEX modelling projection revealed the presence of additional geographic areas in Nepal which are climatically suitable for both P. hysterophorus and Z. bicolorata. Eradication of satellite populations of the weed by physical and chemical measures, and the release of Z. bicolorata into new, but climatically suitable, locations should be prioritised for P. hysterophorus management in Nepal. In conclusion, P. hysterophorus has rapidly become widespread in Nepal and the currently available biological control agent has not been able to prevent further spread of the weed.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Development of herbicide resistance in weeds in a crop rotation with acetolactate synthase‐tolerant sugar beets under varying selection pressure
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    A Löbmann; O Christen; J Petersen

    The development of acetolactate synthase (ALS) tolerant sugar beet provides new opportunities for weed control in sugar beet cultivation. The system consists of an ALS−inhibiting herbicide (foramsulfuron + thiencarbazone‐methyl) and a herbicide‐tolerant sugar beet variety. Previously, the use of ALS‐inhibitors in sugar beet was limited due to the susceptibility of the crop to active ingredients from this mode of action. The postulated benefits of cultivation of the ALS‐tolerant sugar beet are associated with potential risks. Up to now, with no relevant proportion of herbicide‐tolerant crops in Germany, ALS‐inhibitors are used in many different crops. An additional use in sugar beet cultivation could increase the selection pressure for ALS‐resistant weeds. To evaluate the impact of varying intensity of ALS‐inhibitor use on two weed species (Alopecurus myosuroides and Tripleurospermum perforatum) in a crop rotation, field trials were conducted in Germany in two locations from 2014 to 2017. Weed densities, genetic resistance background and crop yields were annually assessed. The results indicate that it is possible to control ALS‐resistant weeds with an adapted herbicide strategy in a crop rotation including herbicide‐tolerant sugar beet. According to the weed density and species, the herbicide strategy must be extended to graminicide treatment in sugar beet, and a residual herbicide must be used in winter wheat. The spread of resistant biotypes in our experiments could not be attributed to the integration of herbicide‐tolerant cultivars, although the application of ALS‐inhibitors promoted the development of resistant weed populations. Annual use of ALS‐inhibitors resulted in significant high weed densities and caused seriously yield losses. Genetic analysis of surviving weed plants confirmed the selection of ALS‐resistant biotypes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Impacts of soil moisture level and organic matter content on growth of two Juncus species and Poa pratensis grown under acid soil conditions
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2019-10-20
    W Kaczmarek‐Derda; M Helgheim; J Netland; H Riley; K Wærnhus; S Øpstad; L Østrem; L O Brandsæter

    The abundance of Juncus effusus (soft rush) and Juncus conglomeratus (compact rush) has increased in coastal grasslands in Norway over recent decades, and their spread has coincided with increased precipitation in the region. Especially in water‐saturated, peaty soils, it appears from field observations that productive grasses cannot compete effectively with such rapidly growing rush plants. In autumn–winters of 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, a four‐factor, randomised block greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate the effect of different soil moisture regimes and organic matter contents on competition between these rush species and smooth meadow‐grass (Poa pratensis). The rush species were grown in monoculture and in competition with the meadow‐grass, using the equivalent of full and half the recommended seed rate for the latter. After about three months, above‐ and below‐ground dry matter was measured. J. effusus had more vigorous growth, producing on average 23–40% greater biomass in both fractions than J. conglomeratus. The competitive ability of both rush species declined with decreasing soil moisture; at the lowest levels of soil moisture, growth reductions were up to 93% in J. conglomeratus and 74% in J. effusus. Increasing water level in peat–sand mixture decreased competivitiveness of meadow‐grass, while pure peat, when moist, completely impeded its below‐ground development. These results show that control of rush plants through management may only be achieved if basic soil limitations have been resolved.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Interpopulation variability and adaptive potential for reduced glyphosate sensitivity in Alopecurus myosuroides.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2017-10-11
    L R Davies,P Neve

    Glyphosate use in the United Kingdom has more than doubled in the last 20 years. Much of this increase is driven by efforts to control herbicide resistant weeds, particularly Alopecurus myosuroides, prior to crop drilling. There is precedent for evolution of glyphosate resistance in similar situations, raising concerns over the sustainability of glyphosate use in the UK. We used dose-response experiments to examine variation in glyphosate sensitivity amongst 40 field-collected A. myosuroides populations. No populations were resistant to glyphosate, but ED 90 values ranged between 354 and 610 g a.i. ha-1. Five populations had ED 90 values significantly higher than the unexposed control population collected from a site at Rothamsted Research with no previous glyphosate exposure. Recurrent selection experiments were performed to determine whether variation in glyphosate sensitivity had a heritable basis. Following two rounds of selection, five of six field populations evolved significantly reduced sensitivity to glyphosate, with R/S ratios, based on estimated ED 50 values, ranging from 1.2 to 1.5. These results confirm that there is a heritable basis to variation in glyphosate sensitivity. The response to selection was modest. Evolved populations were not highly resistant to glyphosate, although some twice-selected individuals survived recommended field rates. These results do not represent definitive proof of the potential of A. myosuroides to evolve glyphosate resistance, although they do indicate caution is needed when considering the sustainability of increased glyphosate use to control this herbicide resistance-prone species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2015-06-01
    I K S Andrew,J Storkey,D L Sparkes

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • What good is weed diversity?
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2018-09-04
    J Storkey,P Neve

    Should the declining diversity of weed communities in conventionally managed arable fields be regarded as a problem? The answer to this question has tended to divide researchers into those whose primary focus is on conserving farmland biodiversity and those whose goals are dictated by weed control and maximising yield. Here, we argue that, regardless of how weeds are perceived, there are common ecological principles that should underpin any approach to managing weed communities, and, based on these principles, increasing in-field weed diversity could be advantageous agronomically as well as environmentally. We hypothesise that a more diverse weed community will be less competitive, less prone to dominance by highly adapted, herbicide-resistant species and that the diversity of the weed seedbank will be indicative of the overall sustainability of the cropping system. Common to these hypotheses is the idea that the intensification of agriculture has been accompanied by a homogenisation of cropping systems and landscapes, accounting for both declines in weed diversity and the reduced resilience of cropping systems (including the build-up of herbicide resistance). As such, weed communities represent a useful indicator of the success of rediversifying systems at multiple scales, which will be a central component of making agriculture and weed control more sustainable.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reviewing research priorities in weed ecology, evolution and management: a horizon scan.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    P Neve,J N Barney,Y Buckley,R D Cousens,S Graham,N R Jordan,A Lawton-Rauh,M Liebman,M B Mesgaran,M Schut,J Shaw,J Storkey,B Baraibar,R S Baucom,M Chalak,D Z Childs,S Christensen,H Eizenberg,C Fernández-Quintanilla,K French,M Harsch,S Heijting,L Harrison,D Loddo,M Macel,N Maczey,A Merotto,D Mortensen,J Necajeva,D A Peltzer,J Recasens,M Renton,M Riemens,M Sønderskov,M Williams

    Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologists and social scientists convened a workshop to explore current and future perspectives and approaches in weed ecology and management. A horizon scanning exercise ranked a list of 124 pre-submitted questions to identify a priority list of 30 questions. These questions are discussed under seven themed headings that represent areas for renewed and emerging focus for the disciplines of weed research and practice. The themed areas considered the need for transdisciplinarity, increased adoption of integrated weed management and agroecological approaches, better understanding of weed evolution, climate change, weed invasiveness and finally, disciplinary challenges for weed science. Almost all the challenges identified rested on the need for continued efforts to diversify and integrate agroecological, socio-economic and technological approaches in weed management. These challenges are not newly conceived, though their continued prominence as research priorities highlights an ongoing intransigence that must be addressed through a more system-oriented and transdisciplinary research agenda that seeks an embedded integration of public and private research approaches. This horizon scanning exercise thus set out the building blocks needed for future weed management research and practice; however, the challenge ahead is to identify effective ways in which sufficient research and implementation efforts can be directed towards these needs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Defining the habitat niche of Alopecurus myosuroides at the field scale.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2018-06-26
    H Metcalfe,A E Milne,R Webster,R M Lark,A J Murdoch,L Kanelo,J Storkey

    The distribution of Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass) in fields is patchy. The locations of these patches can be influenced by the environment. This presents an opportunity for precision management through patch spraying. We surveyed five fields on various types of soil using a nested sampling design and recorded both A. myosuroides seedlings in autumn and seed heads in summer. We also measured soil properties at those sampling locations. We found that the patches of seed heads within a field were smaller than the seedling patches, suggesting that techniques for patch spraying based on maps of heads in the previous season could be inherently risky. We also found that the location of A. myosuroides patches within fields can be predicted through their relationship with environmental properties and that these relations are consistent across fields on different soil types. This improved understanding of the relations between soil properties and A. myosuroides seedlings could allow farmers to use pre-existing or suitably supplemented soil maps already in use for the precision application of fertilisers as a starting point in the creation of herbicide application maps.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evaluating the potential of Unmanned Aerial Systems for mapping weeds at field scales: a case study with Alopecurus myosuroides.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2018-03-13
    J P T Lambert,H L Hicks,D Z Childs,R P Freckleton

    Mapping weed densities within crops has conventionally been achieved either by detailed ecological monitoring or by field walking, both of which are time-consuming and expensive. Recent advances have resulted in increased interest in using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to map fields, aiming to reduce labour costs and increase the spatial extent of coverage. However, adoption of this technology ideally requires that mapping can be undertaken automatically and without the need for extensive ground-truthing. This approach has not been validated at large scale using UAS-derived imagery in combination with extensive ground-truth data. We tested the capability of UAS for mapping a grass weed, Alopecurus myosuroides, in wheat crops. We addressed two questions: (i) can imagery accurately measure densities of weeds within fields and (ii) can aerial imagery of a field be used to estimate the densities of weeds based on statistical models developed in other locations? We recorded aerial imagery from 26 fields using a UAS. Images were generated using both RGB and Rmod (Rmod 670-750 nm) spectral bands. Ground-truth data on weed densities were collected simultaneously with the aerial imagery. We combined these data to produce statistical models that (i) correlated ground-truth weed densities with image intensity and (ii) forecast weed densities in other fields. We show that weed densities correlated with image intensity, particularly Rmod image data. However, results were mixed in terms of out of sample prediction from field-to-field. We highlight the difficulties with transferring models and we discuss the challenges for automated weed mapping using UAS technology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Designing a sampling scheme to reveal correlations between weeds and soil properties at multiple spatial scales.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2016-02-16
    H Metcalfe,A E Milne,R Webster,R M Lark,A J Murdoch,J Storkey

    Weeds tend to aggregate in patches within fields, and there is evidence that this is partly owing to variation in soil properties. Because the processes driving soil heterogeneity operate at various scales, the strength of the relations between soil properties and weed density would also be expected to be scale-dependent. Quantifying these effects of scale on weed patch dynamics is essential to guide the design of discrete sampling protocols for mapping weed distribution. We developed a general method that uses novel within-field nested sampling and residual maximum-likelihood (reml) estimation to explore scale-dependent relations between weeds and soil properties. We validated the method using a case study of Alopecurus myosuroides in winter wheat. Using reml, we partitioned the variance and covariance into scale-specific components and estimated the correlations between the weed counts and soil properties at each scale. We used variograms to quantify the spatial structure in the data and to map variables by kriging. Our methodology successfully captured the effect of scale on a number of edaphic drivers of weed patchiness. The overall Pearson correlations between A. myosuroides and soil organic matter and clay content were weak and masked the stronger correlations at >50 m. Knowing how the variance was partitioned across the spatial scales, we optimised the sampling design to focus sampling effort at those scales that contributed most to the total variance. The methods have the potential to guide patch spraying of weeds by identifying areas of the field that are vulnerable to weed establishment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities.
    Weed Res. (IF 1.857) Pub Date : 2015-07-21
    J Storkey,N Holst,O Q Bøjer,F Bigongiali,G Bocci,N Colbach,Z Dorner,M M Riemens,I Sartorato,M Sønderskov,A Verschwele

    A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, populated and analysed, initially using data for 19 common European weeds, to begin to consolidate trait data in a single repository. The initial choice of traits was driven by the requirements of empirical models of weed population dynamics to identify correlations between traits and model parameters. These relationships were used to build a generic model, operating at the level of functional traits, to simulate the impact of increasing herbicide and fertiliser use on virtual weeds along gradients of seed weight and maximum height. The model generated 'fitness contours' (defined as population growth rates) within this trait space in different scenarios, onto which two sets of weed species, defined as common or declining in the UK, were mapped. The effect of increasing inputs on the weed flora was successfully simulated; 77% of common species were predicted to have stable or increasing populations under high fertiliser and herbicide use, in contrast with only 29% of the species that have declined. Future development of the WTDB will aim to increase the number of species covered, incorporate a wider range of traits and analyse intraspecific variability under contrasting management and environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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