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  • Metabolomic Investigations of the Temporal Effects of Exposure to Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products and Their Mixture in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    David W. Brew; Marsha C. Black; Marina Santos; Jackson Rodgers; W. Matthew Henderson

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) supports a large aquaculture industry and is a keystone species along the Atlantic seaboard. Native oysters are routinely exposed to a complex mixture of contaminants that increasingly includes pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Unfortunately, the biological effects of chemical mixtures on oysters are poorly understood. Untargeted gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry metabolomics was utilized to quantify the response of oysters exposed to fluoxetine, N,N‐diethyl‐meta‐toluamide, 17α‐ethynylestradiol, diphenhydramine, and their mixture. Oysters were exposed to 1 µg/L of each chemical or mixture for 10 d, followed by an 8‐d depuration period. Adductor muscle (n = 14/treatment) was sampled at days 0, 1, 5, 10, and 18. Trajectory analysis illustrated that metabolic effects and class separation of the treatments varied at each time point and that, overall, the oysters were only able to partially recover from these exposures post‐depuration. Altered metabolites were associated with cellular energetics (i.e., Krebs cycle intermediates), as well as amino acid metabolism and fatty acids. Exposure to these PPCPs also affected metabolic pathways associated with anaerobic metabolism, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress, in addition to the physiological effects of each chemical's postulated mechanism of action. Following depuration, fewer metabolites were altered, but none of the treatments returned them to their initial control values, indicating that metabolic disruptions were long‐lasting. Interestingly, the mixture did not directly cluster with individual treatments in the scores plot from partial least squares discriminant analysis, and many of its affected metabolic pathways were not well predicted from the individual treatments. The present study highlights the utility of untargeted metabolomics in developing exposure biomarkers for compounds with different modes of action in bivalves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;00:1–18. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Key Considerations for Accurate Exposures in Ecotoxicological Assessments of Perfluorinated Carboxylates and Sulfonates
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Justin N. Rewerts; Emerson C. Christie; Alix E. Robel; Todd A. Anderson; Christopher McCarthy; Christopher J. Salice; Jennifer A. Field

    Toxicity reference values for PFAS vary even when the same test organism is studied. While the need to confirm dosing solution concentrations is widely accepted, there are no experimental data to inform best practices when preparing PFAS solutions. Laboratory data indicate that dissolution time of PFAS solids cause statistically significant deviations between nominal and measured concentrations. Mixing times for select PFAS varied between 2‐5 hours, depending on carbon fluorine chain‐length.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Do songbirds in wetlands show higher mercury bioaccumulation relative to conspecifics in non-wetland habitats?
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Rebecka Brasso, Katie Ann Rittenhouse, Virginia L. Winder

    Abstract Environmental conditions in wetlands facilitate favorable biogeochemical conditions for the conversion of inorganic mercury into methylmercury. For this reason, wetlands are increasingly classified as mercury hotspots, places where biota exhibit elevated mercury concentrations. While it is clear that wetlands play an important role in methylmercury production, factors such as geographic variation in mercury deposition, wetland type, and trophic dynamics can cause variation in mercury dynamics and bioaccumulation in biota occupying wetlands or connected to wetland trophic systems. Here, we use songbirds as bioindicators in a two-pronged approach aimed at evaluating the state of our understanding of mercury bioaccumulation by songbirds in wetland ecosystems. First, we use a case study in southeast Missouri to compare blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) occupying wetland and non-wetland habitats to test the hypothesis that songbirds in wetlands will have higher mercury bioaccumulation than those in non-wetlands. Adult tree swallows in wetlands had significantly higher blood mercury concentrations than those in non-wetlands; however, no difference between ecosystems was detected in eastern bluebirds. Second, we present a review of the current literature on mercury in songbirds in wetland ecosystems across North America. Mercury concentrations in songbirds varied among wetland types and with geographic location, often in an unpredictable manner. Mercury concentrations in songbird blood varied 3–10 fold at locations separated only by ~10 to several hundred kilometers. This magnitude of difference in blood mercury concentrations among wetlands exceeds documented differences between wetland and non-wetland ecosystems. Therefore, we caution against the automatic assumption that songbirds occupying wetlands will have higher mercury bioaccumulation than conspecifics living in other habitats.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of thermal evolution on the stoichiometric responses to nano-ZnO under warming are not general: insights from experimental evolution
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Chao Zhang, Luc De Meester, Robby Stoks

    A key challenge for ecological risk assessment of contaminants under global warming is to predict effects at higher levels of biological organisation. One approach to reach this goal is to study how contaminants and warming cause changes in body stoichiometry as these may potentially cascade through food webs. Furthermore, though contaminants typically interact with warming, how rapid adaptation to higher temperatures affects these interactions is poorly studied. Here, we examined the effects of an important contaminant (ZnO nanoparticles, nZnO) and mild warming (4 °C) on body stoichiometry (C, N, P and their ratios) of an aquatic keystone species, the water flea Daphnia magna. To evaluate whether thermal evolution impacts the effects of nZnO at higher temperatures, we compared two sets of clones from a thermal selection experiment where Daphnia were kept in outdoor mesocosms at ambient or ambient +4 °C temperatures for 2 years. Exposure to nZnO decreased key body stoichiometric ratios (C:N, C:P and a trend for N:P) while warming increased the body C:N ratio. The stoichiometric changes to nZnO and warming were mostly independent and could be partly explained by changes in the macromolecules sugars and fat. Exposure to nZnO decreased C-rich sugars contributing to a reduced %C. Warming reduced body %C due to decreased C-rich sugars and fat levels, yet warming decreased body N% even more resulting in a higher C:N ratio. The stoichiometric responses to nZnO at the higher temperature did not differ between the two sets of clones, indicating experimental thermal evolution did not change the effects of nZnO under warming. Studying the stoichiometric responses to nZnO and warming of this keystone species may provide novel insights on the toxic effects of contaminants under warming. Moreover, understanding the influence of thermal evolution on the toxicity of contaminants is important for ecological risk assessment especially in a warming world.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the thyroid status, vitellogenin, and oxidant–antioxidant balance in the Murray River rainbowfish
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ana F. Miranda, Charlene Trestrail, Sam Lekamge, Dayanthi Nugegoda

    Perfluorooctanoic acid’s (PFOA) widespread use, presence and persistence in the aquatic environment has led to an increasing number of studies focusing on its toxicological effects. In Australia, PFOA has been detected in the aquatic environment, however its effects on Australian native fauna are unknown. In this study, male Australian native fish Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) were exposed to four different concentrations of PFOA (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L−1). Variations in thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine (T3)/Thyroxine (T4)) and the presence of vitellogenin were determined in plasma. Oxidative stress responses were evaluated in gills and liver. Exposure of male fish to PFOA resulted in altered T3/T4 ratios and the presence of vitellogenin in the plasma. Activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) were significantly increased in the gills and significantly reduced in the liver. Lipid peroxidation was observed in both tissues showing that vital organs could not neutralize the peroxides generated by oxidative stress resulting from exposure to PFOA. In natural populations exposed to PFOA, such hormonal disturbances can have negative effects, notably through altered capacity to respond to changes in environmental conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Temporal Trends (1981–2013) of Per‐ and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Total Fluorine in Baltic cod (Gadus morhua)
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Lara Schultes; Oskar Sandblom; Katja Broeg; Anders Bignert; Jonathan P. Benskin
    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Bioconcentration, Metabolism, and Spatial Distribution of 14C‐Labeled Laurate in the Freshwater Amphipod Hyalella azteca
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Johannes Raths; Sebastian Kuehr; Christian Schlechtriem

    Regulatory assessment of the bioaccumulation from water is commonly based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs) derived from fish flow‐through tests. Such experiments require many laboratory animals and are time‐consuming and costly. An alternative test setup for organic, neutral compounds using the amphipod Hyalella azteca was recently suggested, resulting in BCF values which show a strong correlation with fish BCF data. In the present study, the bioconcentration potential of the ionic compound laurate was elucidated in H. azteca. The sodium salt of 1‐14C laurate was applied to H. azteca in a flow‐through and a semistatic approach. Because of rapid biodegradation, a semistatic approach with frequent medium replacements was required to ensure a stable medium concentration. Laurate was also rapidly metabolized by H. azteca. A large proportion of the total radioactivity measured in the amphipod tissue was not extractable, suggesting that mineralized laurate was accumulated in the calcified exoskeleton of H. azteca. This was confirmed in a further study using carbonate [14C]. A lipid‐normalized (5.0%) Hyalella BCF of 8.9 was calculated for laurate, measured as free fatty acids. The results of the bioconcentration studies with H. azteca confirm the low bioaccumulation potential of the test item previously observed in fish. However, more organic ionic compounds with various properties need to be tested to assess whether a general correlation between fish and Hyalella BCF data exists. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;00:1–13. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Quantum dots functionalized with gH625 attenuate QDs oxidative stress and lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans : a model system
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Emilia Galdiero, Antonietta Siciliano, Lucia Lombardi, Annarita Falanga, Stefania Galdiero, Francesca Martucci, Marco Guida

    Abstract Nanomaterials have revolutionized many scientific fields and are widely applied to address environmental problems and to develop novel health care strategies. However, their mechanism of action is still poorly understood. Several nanomaterials for medical applications are based on quantum dots (QDs). Despite their amazing physico-chemical properties, quantum dots display significant adverse effects. In the present study, the effects of QDs on the motor nervous system of nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans have been investigated as a non-mammalian alternative model. We also explored the possibility of modifying the toxicity of QDs by coating with a cell-penetrating peptide gH625 and thus we analysed the effects determined by QDs-gH625 complexes on the nematodes. With this work, we have demonstrated, by in vivo experiments, that the peptide gH625 is able to reduce the side effects of metallic nanoparticle making them more suitable for medical applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Compatibility of pesticides used in strawberry crops with predatory mites Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Cosmolaelaps brevistilis (Karg)
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Adriane da F. Duarte, Juliano de Bastos Pazini, Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte, Lucas Raphael da Silva, Uemerson Silva da Cunha

    Abstract Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Cosmolaelaps brevistilis (Karg) (Acari: Laelapidae) are predatory mites of soil-inhabiting pests, mainly small insects. Fungus gnats fly species are found in greenhouse strawberry production and may be controlled with predatory mites, being important to know their compatibility with the pesticides used in strawberry crops. In this study, the compatibility of seven commercial pesticides used in strawberry cultivation with the predatory mites S. scimitus and C. brevistilis was assessed in laboratory conditions. Survival and oviposition rates were evaluated between 0.5 and 120 h after treatment (HAT). The results demonstrate that lambda-cyhalothrin treatment resulted in the lowest survival rate for both mites in the first evaluations, being moderately harmful, while spinetoran was slightly harmful to C. brevistilis. On the other hand, abamectin, azadirachtin, azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, iprodione and thiamethoxam were harmless for both mites and, oviposition rate was significantly different only at 72 and 120 HAT for S. scimitus and C. brevistilis respectively. These results may be used to develop guidelines for the adoption of selective pesticides in integrated pest management programs that conserves predatory mites.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Impact of Hydroponic Oxygen Control in Sulfide Toxicity to Early Life‐Stages of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Douglas J. Fort; Michael B. Mathis; Kurt Anderson; Rob Beranek

    Low headspace oxygen was used in the hydroponic design to evaluate the toxicity of sulfide to wild rice (Zizania palustris). Oxygen levels in the headspace gas phase were maintained at <0.005 atm. Results from this study indicated that for the most sensitive endpoint (mesocotyl emergence), exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at concentrations ≥3.1 mg/L sulfide was toxic based on assessment of NOEC and LOEC values in the presence of 0.8 mg/L Fe. However, exposure of developing wild rice to sulfide at concentrations ≥7.8 mg/L was necessary to significantly reduce emergence in the presence of 2.8 mg Fe/L based on the mesocotyl emergence, and shoot weight and length. Overall, mesocotyl emergence was consistently the most sensitive endpoint in the study, while seed activation, seedling survival, root growth, leaf number and biomass, and phytotoxicity were less sensitive endpoints. Results were similar to previous studies in which atmospheric oxygen was maintained in the headspace gas phase demonstrating that the concentration of oxygen in the headspace gas phase during mesocotyl emergence and early growth was not a significant factor in the sensitivity of wild rice to sulfide.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Sensitivity of Boana pulchella (Anura: Hylidae) tadpoles to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos: effects at the individual and biochemical level
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Barreto Evelina; Salgado Costa Carolina; Demetrio Pablo; Lascano Cecilia; Venturino Andrés; Natale Guillermo S.

    We report sublethal effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CPF) at the individual (swimming alterations) and biochemical level (esterases activities and antioxidant enzymes) in the Montevideo treefrog Boana pulchella larvae. The LC50‐96h for CPF in stage‐29 B. pulchella tadpoles was 0.98 mg/L and was close to the 65th‐percentile of published anuran species sensitivity. CPF disrupted biochemical processes in B. pulchella: tadpoles showed a significant inhibition of esterases activity and a significant induction of antioxidant enzymes, indicating a response to an environmental challenge causing oxidative stress. Using Principal Components Analysis, we could associate CPF reduction in esterases activity with swimming alterations, at 0.5 mg/L of the toxicant. Biochemical biomarkers reported here respond at levels 20 times lower than the LC50‐96 h and were associated with a biologically important response– swimming behavior. The link of responses across different levels of biological organization was here demonstrated. The species is suited as a model for ecotoxicological studies at different levels, including the individual and biochemical level, and may be considered a good reference organism in environmental control programs.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Bald eagle mercury exposure varies with region and site elevation in New York, USA
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    C. R. DeSorbo, N. M. Burgess, P. E. Nye, J. J. Loukmas, H. A. Brant, M. E. H. Burton, C. P. Persico, D. C. Evers

    Freshwater fish in several regions of New York State (NYS) are known to contain concentrations of mercury (Hg) associated with negative health effects in wildlife and humans. We collected blood and breast feathers from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings throughout NYS, with an emphasis on the Catskill region to determine their exposure to Hg. We assessed whether habitat type (lake or river), region (Delaware–Catskill region vs. rest of NY) or sample site elevation influenced Hg concentrations in bald eagle breast feathers using ANCOVA. The model was significant and accounted for 41% of the variability in log10 breast feather Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations in nestling breast feathers were significantly greater in the Delaware–Catskill Region (geometric mean: 14.5 µg/g dw) than in the rest of NY (7.4 µg/g, dw), and greater at nests located at higher elevations. Habitat type (river vs. lake) did not have a significant influence on breast feather Hg concentrations. Geometric mean blood Hg concentrations were significantly greater in Catskill nestlings (0.78 µg/g ww) than in those from the rest of NY (0.32 µg/g). Mercury concentrations in nestling breast feathers and especially blood samples from the Delaware–Catskill region were generally greater than those reported for most populations sampled elsewhere, including areas associated with significant Hg pollution problems. Bald eagles can serve as valuable Hg bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems of NYS, particularly given their broad statewide distribution and their tendency to nest across all major watersheds and different habitat types.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Temporal trends in fish mercury concentrations in an Adirondack Lake managed with a continual predator removal program
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Mariah S. Taylor, Charles T. Driscoll, Jesse M. Lepak, Daniel C. Josephson, Kurt J. Jirka, Clifford E. Kraft

    Abstract Mercury is a neurotoxic pollutant and contamination in remote ecosystems due to atmospheric mercury deposition coupled with watershed characteristics that influence mercury bioavailability. Biological interactions that affect mercury bioaccumulation are especially relevant as fish assemblages change in response to species introductions and lake management practices. We studied the influence of shifting food web dynamics on mercury in fisheries of Little Moose Lake in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA. Annual removal of non-native Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) has been used as a management strategy since 2000 to restore the native fish assemblage and food web in favor of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Changes in total mercury, stable carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) isotopes, and growth were evaluated for Lake Trout and Smallmouth Bass. Growth rates increased for both predators and trophic position increased for Lake Trout post-removal. Mercury concentrations in Lake Trout increased over the 16-year study period influenced by a diet shift from invertebrates to higher trophic level prey fish, regardless of increased growth. Smallmouth Bass mercury concentrations decreased with compensatory growth from a reduced population size. These contrasting trends indicate that changes in mercury deposition were not the primary driver for mercury bioaccumulation responses in Little Moose Lake. Stable isotope values changed for both predators and for several lower trophic level organisms, likely reflecting changes in nutrient cycling and/or inputs. Our findings emphasize the potential role of fisheries management on whole-lake and predatory fish responses to mercury contamination in temperate lakes.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Watershed influences on mercury in tributaries to Lake Ontario
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Joseph S. Denkenberger, Habibollah Fakhraei, Brian Branfireun, Mario Montesdeoca, Charles T. Driscoll

    Abstract Mercury (Hg) concentrations and speciation were measured in nine tributaries to Lake Ontario as part of two independent field-sampling programs. Among the study tributaries, mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 2.6 ng/L; mean dissolved Hg (THgD) ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 ng/L; mean particulate Hg (THgP) ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 ng/L; and mean methylmercury (MeHg) ranged from 0.06 to 0.14 ng/L. Watershed land cover, total suspended solids (TSS), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were evaluated as potential controls of tributary Hg. Significant relationships between THgD and DOC were limited, whereas significant relationships between THgP and TSS were common across watersheds. Total suspended solids was strongly correlated with the percentage of agricultural land in watersheds. Particle enrichment of Hg (mass Hg/mass TSS) was highly variable, but distinctly higher in US tributaries likely due to higher TSS in Canadian tributaries associated with higher urban and agricultural land cover. MeHg was largely associated with the aqueous phase, and MeHg as a fraction of THg was positively correlated to percent open water coverage in the watershed. Wetland cover was positively correlated to THg and MeHg concentrations, while urban land cover was only related to higher THgP.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Up and down-regulation of mRNA in the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Plumbagin in HepG2/C3A
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Giovanna Vaz Crippa; Thalita Alves Zanetti; Bruna Isabela Biazi; Adrivânio Baranoski; Lilian Areal Marques; Giuliana Castello Coatti; Sandra Regina Lepri; Mário Sérgio Mantovani
    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Importance of Surface Coating to Accumulation Dynamics and Acute Toxicity of Copper Nanomaterials and Dissolved Copper in Daphnia magna
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Zuzanna Gajda‐Meissner; Konrad Matyja; David M. Brown; Mark G.J. Hartl; Teresa F. Fernandes
    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Impacts of Sex and Exposure Duration on Gene Expression in Zebrafish Following Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Exposure
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Manoochehr Khazaee; Mary Grace E. Guardian; Diana S. Aga; Carla A. Ng
    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Sensitivity to Copper and Development of Culturing and Toxicity Test Procedures for the Antarctic Terrestrial Nematode Plectus murrayi
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Kathryn E. Brown; Jane Wasley; Catherine K. King

    Environmental quality guideline values and remediation targets, specific to Antarctic ecosystems, are required for the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated sites in Antarctica. Ecotoxicological testing with Antarctic soil organisms is fundamental in determining reliable contaminant effect threshold concentrations. The present study describes the development of optimal culturing techniques and aqueous toxicity test procedures for an endemic Antarctic soil nematode, Plectus murrayi, which lives within interstitial waters between soil particles. Toxicity tests were of extended duration to account for the species’ physiology and life‐history characteristics. Plectus murrayi was sensitive to aqueous copper with a 50% effective concentration for egg‐hatching success of 139 µg/L. Hatched juveniles that were first exposed to copper as eggs appeared to be less sensitive than those first exposed at the hatched J2 stage, indicating a potential protective effect of the egg. Sensitivity of juveniles to copper increased with exposure duration, with 50% lethal concentrations of 478 and 117 µg/L at 21 and 28 d, respectively. The present study describes new methods for the application of an environmentally relevant test species to the risk assessment of contaminants in Antarctic soil and provides the first estimates of sensitivity to a toxicant for an Antarctic terrestrial microinvertebrate. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;00:1–10. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Development of a Novel Equilibrium Passive Sampling Device for Methylmercury in Sediment and Soil Porewaters
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    James P. Sanders; Alyssa McBurney; Cynthia C. Gilmour; Grace E. Schwartz; Spencer Washburn; Susan B. Kane Driscoll; Steven S. Brown; Upal Ghosh
    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of action of borneol on photodynamic therapy of acne
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Jin Ji; Ruohua Zhang; Hongmin Li; Jie Zhu; Yongzheng Pan; Qin Guo

    This study aims to explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of borneol, a traditional Chinese medicine, on photodynamic treatment of acne. Here, we found that borneol significantly decreased the auricular swelling rate and pain threshold of rats. We also showed that borneol noticeably reduced macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration. The number of Th cells was significantly higher in the control PDT group than in the PDT plus borneol treatment group (P < 0.05). The expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 mRNA and proteins were noticeably lower in the treatment group in comparison to those of the PDT control group, while PDT plus borneol activated the p38-COX-2-PGE2 signaling pathway, increasing expression in the treatment group. Borneol has significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects on PDT of acne, and enhances the healing of acne by activating p38-COX-2-PGE2 signaling pathway.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Evaluation of the Rhizosphere Contribution to the Environmental Fate of the Herbicide Prometryn
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Laurence H. Hand; Christos Gougoulias; Irene Bramke; Kevin A. Thomas; Robin G. Oliver
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Bioaccumulation And Toxicity Of Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, And Zinc And Their Mixtures To Aquatic Insect Communities
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Christopher A. Mebane; Travis S. Schmidt; Janet L. Miller; Laurie S. Balistrieri

    We describe two artificial stream experiments that exposed aquatic insect communities to Zn, Cu, and Cd (year 2014) and to Zn, Cu, and Ni (year 2015). The testing strategy was to concurrently expose insect communities to single metals and mixtures. Single metals tests were repeated to evaluate reproducibility of the methods and year‐to‐year variability. Metals were strongly accumulated in sediments, periphyton, and insect (caddisfly) tissues, with the highest concentrations occurring in periphyton. Sensitive mayflies declined in metals treatments and effects concentrations could be predicted effectively from metals concentrations in either periphyton or in water. Most responses were similar in the replicated tests, but EC50 values for the mayfly Rhithrogena sp. varied 20‐fold between the tests, emphasizing the difficulty comparing sensitivities across studies and the value of repeated testing. Relative to the single metal responses, the toxicity of the mixtures was either approximately additive or less than additive when calculated as the product of individual responses (response addition). However, even less‐than‐additive relative responses were sometimes greater than responses to similar concentrations tested singly. The ternary mixtures resulted in mayfly declines at concentrations that caused no declines in the concurrent single‐metal tests. When updating species‐sensitivity distributions (SSDs) with these results, the mayfly responses were among the most sensitive 10th percentile of available data for all 4 metals, refuting older literature placing mayflies in the insensitive portion of metals SSDs. The approach of testing translocated aquatic insect communities in 30‐day artificial streams is an efficient approach to generate multiple species effects values under quasi‐natural conditions that are relevant to natural streams.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Effect of α-Lipoic acid on spatial memory and structural integrity of developing hippocampal neurons in rats subjected to sodium arsenite exposure
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Shilpi Dixit; Raj D. Mehra; Pushpa Dhar

    Background Exposure to arsenic has been reported to affect the nervous system in a number of ways. Various epidemiological studies suggest cognitive impairment in subjects following exposure to environmental arsenic. The goal of the present study was to determine if supplementation of exogenous α-lipoic acid (ALA) could ameliorate sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced adverse effects on learning and memory and synaptic connectivity in rat hippocampus. Methods Accordingly, NaAsO2 alone (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw) or NaAsO2 along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw) was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route from postnatal day (PND) 4 – 17 to Wistar rat pups (experimental groups) and the Control groups received either distilled water or no treatment at all. After carrying out Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) test, the fresh brain tissues were collected on PND 18 and processed for Golgi Cox staining. Results Observations of MWM test revealed impaired learning and memory in iAs alone treated animals as against those co-exposed to iAs and ALA. In Golgi stained hippocampal sections of iAs alone treated animals, decreased dendritic arborization and reduced number of spines in pyramidal neurons (CA1) and granule cells (DG) was observed whereas neuronal morphology was preserved in the controls and ALA supplemented groups Conclusions These observations are suggestive of beneficial effects of ALA on iAs induced effects on learning and memory as well as on hippocampal neuronal morphology.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Short‐term guideline for chlorine in marine waters
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Graeme E. Batley; Stuart L. Simpson

    Chlorination is commonly used to control biofouling organisms, however, chlorine rapidly hydrolyses in seawater to hypochlorite which undergoes further reaction with bromide, then with organic matter. These reaction products collectively termed chlorine‐produced oxidants (CPOs) can be toxic the marine biota. Because the lifetime of the most toxic forms is limited to several days, appropriate guideline values (GVs) need to be based on short‐term (acute) toxicity tests, rather than chronic tests. Flow‐through toxicity tests that provide continuous CPO exposure are the most appropriate, whereas static‐renewal tests generate variable exposure and effects dependent on the renewal rate. Literature data for acute CPO toxicity from flow‐through tests together with values from two sensitive 15‐min static tests, comprised 30 species from 9 taxonomic groups. These values were used in a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) to derive GVs that were protective of 99, 95 and 90% of species of 2.2, 7.2 and 13 µg CPO/L respectively. These are the first marine GVs for chlorine to be derived using SSDs, with all other international GVs being of unknown reliability being based on the use of assessment factors applied to data for the most sensitive species. In applying these conservative GVs in field situations, it would need to be demonstrated that concentrations of CPOs would be reduced to below the GV within an acceptable mixing zone both through dilution and dissociation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Cobalt to Freshwater Organisms: Using a Species Sensitivity Distribution Approach to Establish International Water Quality Standards
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    William A. Stubblefield; Eric Van Genderen; Allison S. Cardwell; Dagobert G. Heijerick; Colin R. Janssen; Karel De Schamphelaere

    Water quality standards for cobalt (Co) have not been developed for the European Union or United States. The objective of this research was to produce freshwater Co toxicity data that could be used by both the EU and US to develop appropriate regulatory standards (i.e., Environmental Quality Standards [EQS] or Predicted No Effect Concentration [PNEC] in Europe and Ambient Water Quality Criteria [AWQC] or State Water Quality Standards (WQS) in the US). Eleven species, including algae, an aquatic plant, and several invertebrate and fish species, were used in the performance of acute and chronic Co toxicity tests. Acute median‐lethal or median effective concentration (LC50 or EC50) values ranged from 90.1 µg Co/L for the duckweed (Lemna minor), to 157,000 µg Co/L for the midge (Chironomus tentans). Chronic 10% effect concentration (EC10) values ranged from 4.9 µg Co/L for the duckweed, to 2,170 µg Co/L for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Chronic 20% effect concentration (EC20) values ranged from 11.1 µg Co/L for the water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), to 2,495 µg Co/L for O. mykiss. Results indicated that invertebrate and algae/plant species are more sensitive to chronic Co exposures than fish. Acute‐chronic ratios (derived as acute LC50s divided by chronic EC20s) were lowest for juvenile O. mykiss (0.6) and highest for the snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (2,670). Following the European‐based approach and using EC10 values, species sensitivity distributions (SSD) were developed and a median hazardous concentration for 5% of the organisms (HC5,50%) of 1.80 µg Co/L was derived. Chronic EC20 values were used, also in a SSD approach, to derive a US EPA‐style final chronic value (FCV) of 7.13 µg Co/L.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Wetland water-management may influence mercury bioaccumulation in songbirds and ducks at a mercury hotspot
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Virginia L. Winder, Michael J. Anteau, Mark R. Fisher, Mary Kate Wilcox, Lawrence D. Igl, Joshua T. Ackerman

    Abstract Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative behavioral, immunological, and reproductive effects in wildlife and human populations. We examined the role of wetland water-management on mercury bioaccumulation in songbirds and ducks at Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge Complex, near Grand Forks, North Dakota USA. We assessed mercury concentrations in blood of wetland-foraging songbirds (80 common yellowthroats [Geothlypis trichas] and 14 Nelson’s sparrows [Ammospiza nelsoni]) and eggs of upland-nesting ducks (28 gadwall [Mareca strepera], 19 blue-winged teal [Spatula discors], and 13 northern shoveler [S. clypeta]) across four wetland water-management classifications. Nelson’s sparrow blood mercury concentrations were elevated (mean: 1.00 µg/g ww; 95% CL: 0.76–1.31) and similar to those reported 6 years previously. Mercury in songbird blood and duck eggs varied among wetland water-management classifications. Songbirds and ducks had 67% and 49% lower mercury concentrations, respectively, when occupying wetlands that were drawn down with water flow compared to individuals occupying isolated-depressional wetlands with no outflow. Additionally, songbirds within impounded and partially drawn-down wetland units with water flow had mercury concentrations that were 26–28% lower, respectively, than individuals within isolated-depressional wetlands with no outflow. Our results confirm that mercury concentrations in songbirds at Kellys Slough continue to be elevated and suggest that water-management could be an important tool for wetland managers to reduce bioaccumulation of mercury in birds.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mercury increase in Lake Champlain fish: links to fishery dynamics and extreme climatic events
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Mark W. Swinton, Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer

    Abstract Mercury concentrations in Lake Champlain fish increased (2011–2017) for the first time in more than two decades. The increase, however, was not consistent among species or throughout the lake. Mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and yellow perch from the three Main Lake segments increased significantly while concentrations in the eastern portions of the lake (Northeast Arm and Malletts Bay) remained unchanged or decreased; mercury concentrations in white perch remained unchanged. Factors examined to explain the increase included: atmospheric deposition, lake temperature, chlorophyll-a, fishery dynamics, lake flooding and loading of total suspended solids (TSS). This paper examines how each factor has changed between study periods and the spatial variability associated with the change. We hypothesize fishery dynamics, flooding and TSS loading may be partially responsible for the increase in fish mercury. Both growth efficiency and biomass of fish suggest mercury concentrations would increase in the Main Lake segments and decrease in the eastern portion of the lake. Additionally, two extreme climate events in 2011 resulted in extensive flooding and a four-fold increase in annual TSS loading, both potentially increasing biotic mercury with the impact varying spatially throughout the lake. Changes to the fishery and disturbance caused by extreme climatic events have increased biotic mercury and the processes responsible need further study to identify possible future scenarios in order to better protect human and wildlife health.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dragonfly larvae as biosentinels of Hg bioaccumulation in Northeastern and Adirondack lakes: relationships to abiotic factors
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Sarah J. Nelson, Celia Y. Chen, Jeffrey S. Kahl

    Abstract Mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant, widespread in northeastern US ecosystems. Resource managers’ efforts to develop fish consumption advisories for humans and to focus conservation efforts for fish-eating wildlife are hampered by spatial variability. Dragonfly larvae can serve as biosentinels for Hg given that they are widespread in freshwaters, long-lived, exhibit site fidelity, and bioaccumulate relatively high mercury concentrations, mostly as methylmercury (88% ± 11% MeHg in this study). We sampled lake water and dragonfly larvae in 74 northeastern US lakes that are part of the US EPA Long-Term Monitoring Network, including 45 lakes in New York, 43 of which are in the Adirondacks. Aqueous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total Hg (THg) were strongly related to MeHg in lake water. Dragonfly larvae total mercury ranged from 0.016–0.918 μg/g, dw across the study area; Adirondack lakes had the minimum and maximum concentrations. Aqueous MeHg and dragonfly THg were similar between the Adirondack and Northeast regions, but a majority of lakes within the highest quartile of dragonfly THg were in the Adirondacks. Using landscape, lake chemistry, and lake morphometry data, we evaluated relationships with MeHg in lake water and THg in dragonfly larvae. Lakewater DOC and lake volume were strong predictors for MeHg in water. Dragonfly THg Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs, calculated as [dragonfly THg]:[aqueous MeHg]) increased as lake volume increased, suggesting that lake size influences Hg bioaccumulation or biomagnification. BAFs declined with increasing DOC, supporting a potential limiting effect for MeHg bioavailability with higher DOC.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A mixture of fipronil and fungicides induces alterations on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Fernanda Bevilaqua, Adrieli Sachett, Rafael Chitolina, Cristiane Garbinato, Henrique Gasparetto, Matheus Marcon, Ricieri Mocelin, Eliane Dallegrave, Greicy Conterato, Angelo Piato, Anna M. Siebel

    Pesticide commercial mixtures, including the insecticide fipronil and the fungicides pyraclostrobin and methyl-thiophanate, have been used in concomitant pest control, facilitating agricultural management. Their widespread use can lead to soil and water contamination and potentially induce damages in the ecosystem, producing toxic effects in non-target organisms. Despite their toxicological potential, their effects on behavioral and biochemical parameters are not well understood. Here we investigated the effects of the mixture of fipronil and fungicides (MFF) pyraclostrobin and methyl- thiophanate on behavioral and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in adult zebrafish. Animals exposed to the highest MFF tested concentration showed a decrease in the total distance traveled and in the number of crossings in the different zones of the tank. Furthermore, animals exposed to highest MFF tested concentration spent more time in water surface. In addition, our data showed that the exposure to this preparation promoted a decrease in non-protein thiol content as well as in catalase activity. Finally, pesticide exposure induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase/catalase ratio. Our results indicate that alterations in behavioral and oxidative parameters are involved in MFF toxicity in zebrafish. The antioxidant mechanisms analyzed were altered in concentrations that did not affect zebrafish behavior. Therefore, the assessment of oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish brains could be very useful to detect the early effects of environmental exposure to the MFF.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The effects of climate, habitat, and trophic position on methylmercury bioavailability for breeding New York songbirds
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Evan M. Adams, Amy K. Sauer, Oksana Lane, Kevin Regan, David C. Evers

    Abstract Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects songbird populations across a variety of ecosystems following conversion to methylmercury (MeHg)—a form of Hg with high potential for bioaccumulation and bioavailability. The amount of bioavailable MeHg in an ecosystem is a function of the amount of total Hg present as well as Hg methylation rates, which vary across the landscape in space and time, and trophic transfer. Using songbirds as an indicator of MeHg bioavailability in terrestrial ecosystems, we evaluated the role of habitat, climate, and trophic level in dictating MeHg exposure risk across a variety of ecosystems. To achieve this objective, 2243 blood Hg samples were collected from 81 passerine and near-passerine species in New York State, USA, spanning 10 different sampling regions from Long Island to western New York. Using a general linear mixed modeling framework that accounted for regional variation in sampling species composition, we found that wetland habitat area within 100 m of capture location, 50-year average of summer maximum temperatures, and trophic position inferred using stable isotope analysis were all correlated with songbird blood Hg concentrations statewide. Moreover, these patterns had a large degree of spatial variability suggesting that the drivers of MeHg bioavailability differed significantly across the state. Mercury deposition, land cover, and climate are all expected to change throughout the northeastern United States in the coming decades. Terrestrial MeHg bioavailability will likely respond to these changes. Focused research and monitoring efforts will be critical to understand how exposure risk responds to global environmental change across the landscape.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Ricinus communis as a phytoremediator of soil mineral oil: morphoanatomical and physiological traits
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Larissa Saeki Rehn, Arthur Almeida Rodrigues, Sebastião Carvalho Vasconcelos-Filho, Douglas Almeida Rodrigues, Luciana Minervina de Freitas Moura, Alan Carlos Costa, Leandro Carlos, Juliana de Fátima Sales, Jacson Zuchi, Lucas Peres Angelini, Fernando Higino de Lima Silva, Caroline Müller

    Rapid growth in the oil industry has been accompanied concomitant increases in risks of spills or leaks triggered by natural or anthropogenic causes that cause soil changes and plant damage. Bio-scavenging and phytoremediation plants are important tools for identifying pollutants and mitigating environmental damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis cultivated in soils contaminated with mineral oil, and to determine the possible visual, anatomical and physiological effects. R. communis seeds were pre-germinated in individual pots containing Red Latosol contaminated with Lubrax Essential SL (15W-40) mineral oil at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 g kg−1. After exposure to treatments, emergency evaluations were performed, and after 45 days of cultivation, visual, morphoanatomical, physiological and oil removal effects were evaluated. There was no difference in emergence showed between treatments. Visual effects were characterized by necrosis and chlorosis formation in R. communis, evidenced on the 45th day of cultivation in all treatments tested, followed by parenchymal tissue alterations with collapsed cell formation and damage to photosynthesis with increasing doses. We found that R. communis removed up to 81% of hydrocarbons in soils, classifying it as potential phytoremediator of contaminated soils. The strong correlation between the variables suggests that R. communis can be used as an indicator of pollutant action.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Toxicity of insecticides on Neotropical stingless bees Plebeia emerina (Friese) and Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    A. C. Padilha, B. Piovesan, M. C. Morais, J. de B. Pazini, M. J. Zotti, M. Botton, A. D. Grützmacher

    Abstract Use of pesticides in agroecosystems is considered a major cause of bees diversity losses in the Neotropics, where Plebeia emerina (Friese) and Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) are wild pollinators of native and crop plants. The aim of this study was to know the acute lethal toxicity of acetamiprid, malathion, phosmet and spinosad insecticides on P. emerina and T. fiebrigi. We obtained the mean concentration and mean lethal dose (LC50 and LD50) and the mean survival of workers after oral and topical exposure to insecticides, respectively. The LC50 values (ng a.i./μl of diet) and the decreasing order of toxicity for P. emerina was spinosad (4.96) > malathion (18.75) > phosmet (97.33) > acetamiprid (4204.06), and for T. fiebrigi also was spinosad (5.65) > malathion (8.39) > phosmet (53.91) > acetamiprid (9841.32), when orally exposed. The LD50 values (ng a.i./bee) and the decreasing order of toxicity for P. emerina was spinosad (1.90) > malathion (10.90) > phosmet (19.54) > acetamiprid (6216.55) and for T. fiebrigi was malathion (29.29) ≥ spinosad (29.79) > phosmet (41.95) > acetamiprid (1421.23), when topically exposed. The mean survival (hours) of contaminated bees by malathion, phosmet, and spinosad, was 11.81, 7.20, and 12.32 for P. emerina and 8.55, 7.20, and 13.34 for T. fiebrigi when orally exposed; and was 4.87, 9.87 and 11.17 for P. emerina, and 4.87, 4.76, and 19.05 for T. fiebrigi when topically exposed. Malathion, phosmet, and spinosad were highly toxic, while acetamiprid was moderately toxic. Our results indicated that the insecticides tested, mainly malathion, phosmet, and spinosad may be harmful to P. emerina and T. fiebrigi, making it essential to propose measures to minimize their impact on wild pollinators.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Melatonin alleviates lead-induced oxidative damage in safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Shahram Namdjoyan, Ali Abolhasani Soorki, Nazli Elyasi, Nader Kazemi, Mehdi Simaei

    Application of signaling molecules has gained immense importance in improving the phytoremediative capacity of plants. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin (MEL) as a signaling molecule in ameliorating lead (Pb)-induced oxidative injury in safflower seedlings. Pot grown 10-day-old safflower seedlings were exposed to 50 μM Pb (NO3)2 alone and in combination with different MEL concentrations (0–300 μM). Exposure to Pb, resulted in a severe oxidative stress, which was indicated by reducing biomass production and enhancing the level of oxidative stress markers (e.g. MDA and H2O2). Addition of exogenous MEL considerably decreased Pb uptake and its root-to-shoot translocation while, biomass production of roots, stems and leaves increased significantly. With MEL application a marked increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves and roots was noted as compared with Pb treatment alone. In leaves the activity of enzymes involved in glyoxalase system increased markedly by adding MEL to Pb-sressed plants. In response to increasing MEL treatments, the phytochelatin content of leaves increased substantially in comparison with Pb treatment alone. These findings confirmed that MEL can alleviate Pb toxicity by reducing Pb uptake and its root-to-shoot translocation along with modulating different antioxidant systems. The results also showed that despite the insignificant effect of melatonin on the improvement of Pb phytoremediation potential, the application of this signaling molecule can improve the survival of safflower in Pb-contaminated soils by stimulating antioxidant defense mechanisms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Unique diversity and functions of the arsenic-methylating microorganisms from the tailings of Shimen Realgar Mine
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Janet Victoria Ngegla, Xing Zhou, Xiaoming Chen, Xianbin Zhu, Ziwei Liu, Jilong Feng, Xian-Chun Zeng

    Microbial arsenic (As) methylation plays important roles in the As biogeochemical cycle. However, little is known about the diversity and functions of As-methylating microorganisms from the tailings of a Realgar Mine, which is characterized as containing extremely high concentrations of As. To address this issue, we collected five samples (T1–T5) from the tailings of Shimen Realgar Mine. Microcosm assays without addition of exogenous As and carbon indicated that all the five samples possess significant As-methylating activities, producing 0.8–5.7 μg/L DMAsV, and 1.1–10.7 μg/L MMAsV with an exception of T3, from which MMAsV was not detectable after 14.0 days of incubation. In comparison, addition of 20.0 mM lactate to the microcosms significantly enhanced the activities of these samples; the produced DMAsV and MMAsV are 8.0–39.7 μg/L and 5.8–38.3 μg/L, respectively. The biogenic DMAsV shows significant positive correlations with the Fe concentrations and negative correlations with the total nitrogen concentrations in the environment. A total of 63 different arsM genes were identified from the five samples, which code for new or new-type ArsM proteins, suggesting that a unique diversity of As-methylating microbes are present in the environment. The microbial community structures of the samples were significantly shaped by the environmental total organic carbon, total As contents and NO3− contents. These data help to better understand the microorganisms-catalyzed As methylation occurred in the environment with extremely high contents of As.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Honeybee survival and flight capacity are compromised by insecticides used for controlling melon pests in Brazil
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Ingrid Naiara Gomes, Kamilla Ingred Castelan Vieira, Lessando Moreira Gontijo, Helder Canto Resende

    Abstract The extensive use of insecticides can cause adverse side effects on pollinators, which negatively impact crop productivity. The pollination carried out by the honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is crucial in increasing the productivity of the melon (Cucumis melo L.). The main objective of this study was to assess if insecticides applied in the cultivation of cantaloupe melon exhibit significant levels of toxicity toward A. mellifera. We tested the toxicity of azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen, chlorantraniliprole, and imidacloprid, which are commonly sprayed to manage melon pests such as the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the pickleworm Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) and the melonworm Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Three treatments were carried out, 0.0×, 0.1x and 1.0x the concentration recommended by the manufacturer for the control of those pests. Repellency tests, analysis of mortality through contact and ingestion, and flight tests were performed. The insecticide imidacloprid caused mortality rates above 90% in all tested exposure pathways, displaying high residue persistence on plants. Although not causing significant mortality in the ingestion test, pyriproxyfen caused significant mortality after exposure through contact, and change in flight ability. Azadirachtin caused mortality in the ingestion test and impaired the flight ability of bees, while chlorantraniliprole only impaired the flight ability. Moreover, bees were not repelled by these insecticides, suggesting that they may collect contaminated food in the field while foraging. Altogether, ecofriendly, alternative pest control options should be developed, as well as the adoption of more selective insecticides, in order to reduce the non-target effects on honeybees and guarantee their pollination services.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mercury concentrations in fish and invertebrates of the Finger Lakes in central New York, USA
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    N. Roxanna Razavi, John D. Halfman, Susan F. Cushman, Trevor Massey, Robert Beutner, John Foust, Bruce Gilman, Lisa B. Cleckner

    Deleterious health effects in humans and wildlife are associated with the consumption of fish contaminated by mercury (Hg). This study was conducted to assess Hg concentrations in biota of the Finger Lakes (New York, USA), a region where fisheries are important for the economy but where no assessment of the drivers of food web Hg dynamics exists to date. Additionally, this region is of interest for the study of Hg bioaccumulation because of the importance of agricultural land cover, which can affect lake trophic status and thus the bioavailability of methyl Hg (MeHg). The study objectives were to (1) assess if fish Hg concentrations were of concern to humans and wildlife, (2) determine if differences in biota Hg concentrations exist among lakes, and (3) assess models developed for New York State as predictors of present day Finger Lakes fish Hg concentrations. Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess predictors of fish Hg concentrations using lower trophic level MeHg concentrations, water quality, and lake and land cover characteristics. Fish concentrations were above the EPA criterion (300 ng/g wet weight, ww) in 24% of fish, but only Walleye (Sander vitreus) from Owasco Lake exceeded New York State Department of Health consumption guidelines (1000 ng/g ww). The threshold indicating biological changes within fish (500 ng/g ww) was exceeded in 11% of the individuals sampled. Significant differences were found among lakes for all fish species except Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). Notably, Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) had significantly lower Hg concentrations in Cayuga Lake compared to other Finger Lakes. This trend was not mirrored in the lower food web, as benthic invertebrates had higher MeHg concentrations in Cayuga Lake. Using models developed for New York State in 2003–2005, observed concentrations in 90% of fish were different (±200 ng/g ww) than expected. Findings from this study suggest Hg dynamics in the Finger Lakes require consideration of fish age, growth rates, and food web structure to accurately predict fish Hg concentrations among lakes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Explaining variation in Colorado songbird blood mercury using migratory behavior, foraging guild, and diet
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Carley J. Knutsen, Claire W. Varian-Ramos

    Abstract Methylmercury is a contaminant of growing global concern that has been shown to accumulate in a variety of taxa, including songbirds. Birds in the same area can accumulate mercury to strikingly different levels. While diet and trophic level clearly play an important role in mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification, other factors including foraging guilds and migratory behavior may influence mercury levels as well. Here we examine interspecific variation in blood mercury levels in songbirds living in the Fountain Creek watershed on the Front Range of Colorado. We found that the species with the highest mercury had blood mercury concentrations over 75 times higher than the species with the lowest levels. Carnivores had the highest blood mercury levels, but ground foraging and long distance migration also were correlated with higher mercury concentrations. This information may shed light on what species are most at risk from mercury pollution and help to target conservation resources at contaminated sites.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • High heavy metal load does not inhibit nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Hasna Akther,Kathrin Rousk

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation by moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of new N input in pristine ecosystems such as boreal forests and arctic tundra. Given the non-vascular physiology of mosses, they are especially sensitive to e.g. increased N input and heavy metal deposition. While the effects of increased N input on moss-associated N2 fixation has been comprehensively assessed, hardly any reports exist on the effects of increased heavy metal load on this key ecosystem function. To address this knowledge gap, we made use of an extreme metal pollution gradient in boreal forests of Northern Sweden originating from a metal mine and its associated smelters. We collected the common moss Pleurozium schreberi, known to host cyanobacteria, along a distance gradient away from the metal source of pollution and measured moss-metal content (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) as well as N2 fixation. We found a strong distance gradient in moss-metal content for all investigated metals: a sharp decline in metal content with distance away from the metal pollution source. However, we found a similarly steep gradient in moss-associated N2 fixation, with highest activity closest to the metal source of pollution. Hence, while mosses may be sensitive to increased heavy metal inputs, the activity of colonising cyanobacteria seem to be unaffected by heavy metals, and consequently, ecosystem function may not be compromised by elevated metal input.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Rice busk biochar treatment to cobalt-polluted fluvo-aquic soil: speciation and enzyme activities.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Borui Liu,Qing Huang,Yuefeng Su,Liuye Sun,Tong Wu,Guange Wang,Ryan M Kelly

    Rice busk biochar was mixed with cobalt (Co)-polluted soil to examine the efficacy of biochar for Co immobilization and detoxification in fluvo-aquic soil. The Co speciation (modified BCR sequential extraction), fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and soil enzyme activities were investigated. In soil, the Co ions (acid-soluble fraction) could be uptake by biochar due to the microporous structure on the surface, as well as the oxygen-containing functional groups and conjugated structure in the molecular structure. Therefore, when the biochar concentration was lower than the optimum concentration (~6 g·kg-1), there was transformation of Co from the acid-soluble fraction to the oxidizable fraction, resulting in lower environmental risk. However, if the biochar concentration continued increasing, the distribution coefficient of Co in the acid-soluble fraction increased (P < 0.05). The biochar could also reduce the toxicity of Co, resulting in the negative correlations between soil enzyme activities (FDA hydrolysis, urease and alkaline phosphatases) and Co in the acid-soluble fraction (r = -0.816, -0.928 and -0.908, respectively, P < 0.01). When the biochar concentration ranged from 5.83 to 6.76 g·kg-1, the efficacy for Co immobilization and detoxification reached the maxima. To conclude, in fluvo-aquic soil, rice busk biochar is an effective amendment for immobilizing Co ions and reducing the toxicity of Co. The biochar concentration in soil should range from 5.83 to 6.76 g·kg-1 to reach the optimum efficacy.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Variation in Hg accumulation between demersal and pelagic fish from Puruzinho Lake, Brazilian Amazon.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Lucas Silva Azevedo,Inácio Abreu Pestana,Adriely Ferreira da Costa Nery,Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos,Cristina Maria Magalhães Souza

    Aquatic ecosystems in the Amazon are exposed to mercury, mostly from natural sources. Hg accumulation in fish tissues poses a risk to the local population since fish is one of the main sources of protein in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate Hg distribution in demersal and pelagic carnivorous fish between seasons in Puruzinho Lake in the Brazilian Amazon. Total Hg was quantified in 221 individuals of 8 species obtained during the high water and low water seasons. Two-way ANOVA indicated an interaction between foraging habitat and season. During high water, total Hg concentrations were similar between demersal and pelagic fish, while in low water, total Hg levels were higher in demersal fish. Pelagic and demersal fishes' Hg levels were similar between the two seasons.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Population recovery of peregrine falcons in central Norway in the 4 decades since the DDT-ban.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Torgeir Nygård,Brett K Sandercock,Tore Reinsborg,Kjell Einvik

    The breeding population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Norway was almost exterminated by the early 1970's. Long-term monitoring of breeding pairs has been conducted since 1976 up to present. Peregrine falcons were first established at breeding sites in coastal habitats, where they remained at stable low numbers until the early 1990's. Starting around 2000, numbers began to increase steadily, and current numbers have now reached historical population levels from the pre-DDT era. We documented a range expansion with increasing numbers of peregrines nesting in the fjords and inland valleys. We found that once a territory was colonized, the probability that a territory remained occupied was high (S > 0.958). During early stages of population recovery, the transitional probabilities of becoming or remaining a breeding territory were high (ψN-B > 0.40, ψB-B > 0.65) but declined over time, especially in coastal habitats. Moreover, the productivity per nest has also decreased over time at sites in coastal habitats in the former stronghold of the population. The levels of environmental pollutants in eggs of the peregrines have dropped sharply over the last few decades, and contaminant levels now seem to be below critical levels. Eggshells were relatively thin throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, but have increased to almost normal levels during the last 2 decades. Reductions in levels of organochlorine pollutants, especially DDT, appear to have been the main factor in explaining the population recovery. The territory dynamics are consistent with density-dependence and the low breeding success of the coastal-breeding peregrines is believed to be caused by declining numbers of colonial seabirds and other prey species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Historical control data for the interpretation of ecotoxicity data: are we missing a trick?
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Amy C Brooks,Manousos Foudoulakis,Hanna S Schuster,James R Wheeler

    Wildlife can be exposed to chemicals in the environment from various anthropogenic sources. Ecotoxicity studies, undertaken to address the risks from potential exposure to chemicals, vary in their design e.g. duration of exposure, effect types and endpoints measured. Ecotoxicity studies measure biological responses to test item exposure. Responses can be highly variable, with limited opportunity for control of extrinsic sources of variability. It is critical to distinguish between treatment-related effects and background 'normal variability' when interpreting results. Historical control data (HCD) can be a valuable tool in contextualising results from single studies against previous studies performed under similar conditions. This paper discusses the case for better use of HCD in ecotoxicology assessments, illustrating with case studies the value and difficulties of using HCD in interpretation of results of standard and higher-tier study designs. HCD are routinely used in mammalian toxicology for human health assessments, but not directly in ecotoxicology. The possible reasons for this are discussed e.g., different data types, the potential to mask effects, and the lack of guidance. These concerns are real but not insurmountable and we would like to see organisations such as OECD, EFSA and USEPA develop guidance on the principles of HCD collection. Hopefully, this would lead to greater use of HCD and regulatory acceptance. We believe this is not only a scientifically valid approach but also an ethical issue that is in line with societally driven legal mandates to minimise the use of vertebrate testing in chemical regulatory decision making.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Responses of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to the combined effects of Mn and pH.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jun Yin,Pei Fan,Guidi Zhong,Zhonghua Wu

    Aquatic plants play a vital role in maintaining the health and stability of ecosystems and in ecological restoration of contaminated water bodies. Herein, a 21-day-long laboratory-scale experiment was designed to explore the growth and physiological responses of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara (V. natans) to the combined effects of manganese (Mn, 5, 20, and 80 mg L-1) and pH (pH 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0). Our results showed the combined toxicity intensity was closely related to Mn concentration and the toxicity exhibited by Mn gradually strengthened with the decrease of pH level. High concentration of Mn stress significantly reduced plants leaf area, final leaf number, photosynthetic pigment content, RGR (relative growth rate) and biomass accumulation, but significantly increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At the same time, V. natans plants can resist the adverse stress by activating the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities. Besides, V. natans tended to adjust the biomass allocation strategy and transferred more energy to the subsurface and the ramets and stolons parts under the combined stress. This experiment also showed that the increasing pH within a certain range could largely improve the removal rate of Mn (at highest by 84.28%). This may indicate the V. natans plant species can act as a promising tool for the Mn phytoremediation in aquatic environments which needs to be further explored by longer cycle field studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Secondary metabolites that could contribute to the monodominance of Erythrina fusca in the Brazilian Pantanal.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Darlene Gris,Amanda Galdi Boaretto,Maria Rita Marques,Geraldo Alves Damasceno-Junior,Carlos Alexandre Carollo

    Erythrina fusca is a dominant species in the Brazilian Pantanal. We hypothesized that E. fusca possess allelopathic potential and we evaluated effects of extracts on germination and development of Lactuca sativa, a bioindicator species. We tested the effect of leaves, bark, roots, and seeds extracts of E. fusca on germination and speed index, using high, moderate and low concentration (0.2, 1 and 5 mg mL-1). To evaluate effects on development, we subjected seedlings of L. sativa to the same treatments and measured root and aerial part length. High concentration of extracts reduced L. sativa germination; leaves extract caused the maximum reduction on germination of L. sativa, similar to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); this extract has flavonoids and saponins as main compounds, classes that also occur in the bark and roots extracts in lower concentrations; bark and roots (5 mg mL-1), leaves and roots (1 mg mL-1) decreased these traits as well, but in lower magnitude. A significant reduction in root length was induced by highest concentration of all extracts (5 mg mL-1); the results suggest that erythrinic alkaloids should interfere in the root length once the seeds accumulate almost exclusively this class of compounds. Our results showed that all parts of E. fusca had adverse effects on germination or development of L. sativa, showing that different class of compounds secondary metabolites is involved in this activity. Possibly, this phytotoxicity influences monodominance of E. fusca in Pantanal, but studies are essential to evaluate effects of it on other native species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Evaluation of the sensitivity of Microhyla fissipes tadpoles to aqueous cadmium.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Ying-Chao Hu,Yun Tang,Zhi-Qiang Chen,Jing-Yi Chen,Guo-Hua Ding

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure is harmful to amphibians in natural environments and the Cd concentration is a key parameter in water monitoring. Cd pollution has been a severe issue in the Yangtze River and its southern reaches in recent years. Acute toxicity assays were employed to determine the tolerance limits of Cd for Microhyla fissipes tadpoles and five different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μg/L) were involved to detect its chronic effects on metamorphosis, growth, locomotion, genotoxicity and enzymatic activities of M. fissipes tadpoles. The results showed that the 24-h and 48-h LC50 values of Cd on M. fissipes tadpoles were 2591.3 μg/L and 1567.9 μg/L, respectively, and the presumable non-lethal concentration obtained was 172.2 μg/L. During the 70-day chronic toxicity assays, Cd showed negative impacts on survival, growth, metamorphosis and the frequency of erythrocytes nuclear abnormality of M. fissipes tadpoles. However, the Cd exposure caused the increased body size and condition of tadpoles at complete metamorphosis (GS46). The tadpoles exposed to 200 μg/L of Cd exhibited degraded locomotor performance at GS46. Weight increments of tadpoles were inhibited at Day 14 and massive deaths were observed over the next 14 days. The enzymatic activities of tadpoles experienced a shock response stage (GS30-GS35) and a complete recovery stage (GS36-GS41) in all treatments. However, the enzymatic activities (except alkaline phosphatase) of tadpoles at GS46 increased after Cd exposure, especially at high concentrations. In summary, Cd is a threat to M. fissipes tadpoles as that causes reduced fitness.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Selenium Bioaccumulation Across Trophic Levels and Along a Longitudinal Gradient in Headwater Streams
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Thomas R. Cianciolo; Daniel L. McLaughlin; Carl E. Zipper; Anthony J. Timpano; David J. Soucek; Keridwen M. Whitmore; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    Toxic effects of selenium (Se) contamination in freshwaters have been well‐documented. However, study of Se contamination has focused on lentic and larger‐order lotic systems, whereas headwater streams have received little scrutiny. In central Appalachia, surface coal mining is a common Se source to headwater streams, thus providing a useful system to investigate Se bioaccumulation in headwater food chains and possible longitudinal patterns in Se concentrations. Toward that end, we assessed Se bioaccumulation in 2 reference and 4 mining‐influenced headwater streams. At each stream, we sampled ecosystem media, including streamwater, particulate matter (sediment, biofilm, leaf detritus), benthic macroinvertebrates, salamanders, and fish, every 400 m along 1.2 and 1.6 km reaches. We compared media Se concentrations within and among streams and evaluated longitudinal trends in media Se concentrations. Selenium concentrations in sampled media were higher in mining‐influenced streams compared to reference streams. We found the highest Se concentrations in benthic macroinvertebrates; however, salamanders and fish bioaccumulated Se to potentially harmful levels in mining‐influenced streams. Only one stream demonstrated dilution of streamwater Se with distance downstream, and few longitudinal patterns in Se bioaccumulation occurred along our study reaches. Collectively, our work provides a field‐based assessment of Se bioaccumulation in headwater food chains, from streamwater to fish, and highlights the need for future assessments of Se effects in headwater streams and receiving downstream waters.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Terrestrial toxicity of synthetic gas‐to‐liquid (GTL) versus crude oil‐derived drilling fluids in soil
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Lisa Arneson Westbrook; Darcy A. Chase; Joseph Mudge; Sarah A. Hughes; Delina Lyon; Meijun Dong; Deborah Carr; Todd A. Anderson

    Unlike most other conventional petroleum products that are derived from crude oil, gas‐to‐liquids (GTLs) are petroleum products that are synthesized from natural gas (methane). This process results in GTL products having no sulfur and low aromatic content, so they should have less impact on human health and the environment compared to crude oil‐derived products. GTLs have been registered for use as non‐aqueous base fluids (NABFs) in drilling muds, which aid in the process of drilling wells for oil and gas extraction; it is through these uses and others that they enter terrestrial environments. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether GTLs were less toxic to terrestrial soil biota than conventional NABFs used for land‐based drilling, such as diesel and low toxicity mineral oil (LTMO). A second objective was to understand the fate and impact of these fluids under more realistic soil and aging conditions of a common west Texas (USA) oil producing region (i.e. sandy loam soil with low organic matter, hot arid climate). Acute terrestrial toxicity studies were conducted on the soft‐bodied terrestrial invertebrate earthworm (Eisenia fetida) along with three plant species ‐ alfalfa (Medicago stavia), thickspike wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), and fourwing saltbrush (Atriplex canescens). We also assessed changes in microbial community structure of the soils following additions of NABF. Overall, the GTL NABFs had lower toxicity compared to conventional NABFs like diesel and LTMO, as measured by invertebrate toxicity, plant seed germination, and impact on the microbial community.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Determining the exposure pathway and impacts of Microcystis on Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, in San Francisco Estuary
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Shawn Acuña; Dolores Baxa; Peggy Lehman; Foo‐Ching Teh; Dong‐Fang Deng; Swee Teh

    Blooms of the cyanobacterium Microcystis spp. could affect fish health through the ingestion of colonies as well as exposure to dissolved microcystins in the water column. The goal of this study was to evaluate the dietary exposure pathway through which Microcystis spp. blooms may affect the liver function and nutritional status using a novel approach involving multiple analytical methods to assess the potential risk. This study was conducted using Threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense, (TFS) is a pelagic fish commonly exposed to Microcystis spp. blooms in the upper San Francisco Estuary (SFE). The approach incorporated published and optimized methods that offer multiple lines of evidence including in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, histopathology, condition factor indices, and nutritional profiles. Measurements of TFS health and tissue condition were conducted at sites where Microcystis was present or absent during the 2007 bloom season. The results showed that dietary exposure to fish from Microcystis blooms resulted in the accumulation of microcystin in the gut and liver tissues of TFS collected from the sites with blooms. Although toxicity endpoints were likely confounded by antecedent conditions, our findings demonstrate dietary exposure of Microcystis toxins to fish using a novel approach with multiple lines of evidence.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Evaluation of softwood and hardwood sawmill wastes impact on the common carp "Cyprinus carpio" and its aquatic environment: an oxidative stress study
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Maryam EL Hajam; Gabriel-Ionuţ Plavan; Noureddine Idrissi Kandri; Gabriela Dumitru; Mircea Nicuşor Nicoara; Abdelaziz Zerouale; Caterina Faggio

    The aquatic pollution due to sawmill wood wastes constitutes a major threat to hydro-chemical and fauna characteristics of the aquatic ecosystems. When this kind of organics wastes enter aquatic environment it can be taken up by aquatic organisms through respiration and/or through their diet. This could concurrently result in oxidative stress and later having adverse effect on physiological and biochemical function. The importance of fish in the society cannot be over emphasized, hence there is the need to know the influence of sawmill wood wastes on the water quality and fish. Therefore, this work aims to study the impact of five species of wood wastes on a type of fish named common carp (Cyprinus carpio) known as the most widely cultured fish species in the world and on its aquatic environment. The monitoring of water parameters showed deterioration in water quality. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were investigated to evaluate the degree of oxidative stress. According to t-student, there was a significant difference compared to control (P < 0.05) in the level of SOD, CAT, GPx and MDA activities in fish exposed to 5 g·l-1 of each sawdust except for GPx, a non-significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted in the case of Beech and Dibetou. When the dispersed amount was about 0.375 g·l-1 we noted a significant difference in the level of SOD and GPx, except for GPx a non-significant difference was detected in the case of Cedar. The level of CAT was significantly difference just in the case of Cedar and Dibetou and that of MDA was significantly difference just in the case of Beech and Mahogany. We conclude therefore that sawmill wood waste not only impact the water quality adversely but also alters the levels of different enzymes activities in Cyprinus Carpio fish by the inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activities and by the production of MDA, which reflects response to oxidative stress. This study provides a rational use of these enzymes as suitable biomarkers with different degrees of specificity and as important tool for environmental monitoring.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effects of prednisolone on behavior and hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal axis activity in zebrafish
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Ning Xin; Yu Jiang; Sha Liu; Yanlong Zhou; Yanbo Cheng

    Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid used clinically for treating allergies, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Long-term prednisolone use has been shown to have negative effects on physiology and mood. We aimed to study the pharmacology and toxicology of glucocorticoid-like drugs by investigating behavioral and hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal (HPI) axis effects in a zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos 24 h post fertilization were exposed to 25 μM prednisolone. Their behavior was investigated 5 days post fertilization (dpf), and their HPI axis-related activity and related neurotransmitter levels were investigated 3, 4, 5, and 6 dpf. The behavior results showed that exposure to prednisolone resulted in decreased autonomic activity and low sensitivity to light. qRT-PCR and ELISA results showed decreased activity of the HPI axis and increased secretion of dopamine and serotonin after exposure to prednisolone. This study provides us with new insights into understanding the effects of glucocorticoids on the HPI axis.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Impacts of herbicide pendimethalin on sex steroid level, plasma vitellogenin concentration and aromatase activity in teleost Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus)
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Priyanka Gupta; Sushant Kumar Verma

    Pendimethalin (PM) is a selective herbicide, widely present in aquatic environment. It causes detrimental effects in fishes, but little is known regarding its reproductive toxicity. The present study was carried out in Clarias batrachus exposed to sub lethal concentrations of PM for 30, 45 and 60 days. Male fish showed a significant increase in plasma 17-βestradiol (E2) however plasma E2 in females was not affected. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased in both sexes. In male plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonadal aromatase activity was increased irrespective of herbicide concentration and exposure duration. In females concentration and time dependent reduction in plasma VTG but no significant change in the gonadal aromatase activity were observed. Results indicated that PM act as endocrine disruptor but act differentially in male and female fishes and plasma E2, T and VTG levels and aromatase activity can be considered as reliable biomarkers for PM toxicity in fishes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dermatotoxicity of oral cadmium is strain-dependent and related to differences in skin stress response and inflammatory/immune activity
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. (IF 3.061) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Dina Tucovic; Ivana Mirkov; Jelena Kulas; Milica Zeljkovic; Dusanka Popovic; Lidija Zolotarevski; Sladjana Djurdjic; Jelena Mutic; Milena Kataranovski; Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov

    Adverse effects of non-occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd) are increasingly acknowledged. Since our previous study has showed that orally acquired Cd affects skin, the contribution of genetic background to dermatotoxicity of oral cadmium was examined in two rat strains, Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA), which differed in response to chemicals. While similar accumulation of Cd in the skin of both strains was noted, the skin response to the metal differed. DA rat individuals mounted antioxidant enzyme defense in the skin already at lower Cd dose, in contrast to AO rats which reacted to higher metal dose solely (and less pronounced), implying higher susceptibility of DA strain to Cd dermatotoxicity. Epidermal cells from both strains developed stress response, but higher intensity of antioxidant response in AO rats implied this strain`s better ability to defend against Cd insult. Cd induced epidermal cells` proinflammatory cytokine response only in DA rats. Increased IL-10 seems responsible for the lack of response in AO rats. Differences in the pattern of skin/epidermal cell responsiveness to cadmium give a new insight into repercussion of genetic variability to dermatotoxicity of orally acquired cadmium, bearing relevance for variations in the link between dietary cadmium and inflammation-based skin pathologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Heavy Metal, Arsenic, and Selenium Concentrations in Bird Feathers from a Region in Southern China Impacted by Intensive Mining of Nonferrous Metals
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Chao He; Tongping Su; Shilong Liu; Aiwu Jiang; Eben Goodale; Guangle Qiu

    Heavy metal pollution is widespread in China, particularly in its mining regions. Mercury (Hg) concentrations in birds from Guizhou Province were recently reported to be above adverse effect levels, even in nonmining areas. We sampled birds to investigate whether Hg might be a threat near lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and tin (Sn) mines in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. We measured concentrations of 8 metals/metalloids in feathers of 627 resident birds representing 60 species sampled across 14 sites on 5 rivers. We found that Hg concentrations (mean ± standard deviation, 1.27 ± 2.02 ppm) were lower than in the recent Guizhou study. Mercury had the fewest correlations with other metals/metalloids; the mined metals (Pb, Sn, Zn) had the most such correlations. Levels of cadmium (Cd; 1.12 ± 2.64 ppm), arsenic (As; 4.78 ± 17.11 ppm), and Pb (17.18 ± 24.49 ppm) were closer to thresholds of adverse effects or relatively high compared to other studies. With the exception of a few hot spots for Hg, Cd, and As near mines, metal/metalloid levels were fairly evenly distributed among sites, consistent with the regional occurrence of mineable ore deposits. It appears that Hg is not threatening to all avian species in China, although it may be problematic for some species near Hg mines. In addition to Hg, however, other metals/metalloids may pose wildlife health hazards. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–10. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Fish Performance Indicators Adjacent to Oil Sands Activity: Response in Performance Indicators of Slimy Sculpin in the Steepbank River, Alberta, Adjacent to Oil Sands Mining Activity
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Gerald R. Tetreault; Charles J. Bennett; Thomas W. Clark; Heather Keith; Joanne L. Parrott; Mark E. McMaster

    Since 2009, the Canadian and Alberta governments have been developing monitoring plans for surface water quality and quantity of the lower Athabasca River and its tributaries (2010–2013). The objectives of the present study to the fish monitoring program were to 1) assess the current status of fish in a tributary of the lower Athabasca River, 2) identify existing differences between upstream reference and within the oil sands deposit exposure sites, and 3) identify trends/changes in fish performance indicators relative to historical studies. The present study examines the fish performance indicators in slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) in the Steepbank River, Alberta, in terms of growth, gonad size, condition, and hepatic 7‐ethoxyresorufin‐O‐deethylase (EROD) activity as an indicator of exposure to oil‐sands‐related compounds. The sampling program followed historical sampling methods (1999–2000) to provide comparable data over time with an additional upstream site (n = 2) added as development progressed. Consistent changes were documented in sculpin collected from downstream sections of the Steepbank River within the oil sands deposit (n = 2) in 2010 through 2013. Sculpin demonstrated increased liver size with corresponding induction of EROD activity consistent with historical data and reductions in energy investment relative to reproductive development and gonadal steroid production capacity. There was no consistent evidence of changes in fish performance indicators with increased surface mining development, particularly adjacent to the Steepbank River Mid site. Although physical development in the Steepbank watershed has increased over the last 15 yr, these results are consistent with historical data suggesting that the magnitude of the response in the aquatic environment adjacent to the development has not changed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–14. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Toxicity in Neonicotinoids to Folsima candida and Eisenia andrei
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Cláudia de Lima e Silva; Winona de Rooij; Rudo A. Verweij; Cornelis A.M. van Gestel

    We compared the toxicity of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, and clothianidin in terms of the survival and reproduction of 2 species of soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei. Tests were performed using LUFA 2.2 natural soil, following standard protocols aimed at answering 2 questions: 1) Is there a difference in the toxicity between pure compound and its formulation? and 2) Is there a difference in the sensitivity of the species exposed to the same compound? For E. andrei, formulations and pure compounds had similar toxicity to both endpoints tested. For F. candida, acetamiprid and imidacloprid had different toxicities, with acetamiprid being 4 times more toxic to survival (median lethal concentration [LC50] 0.12 mg active substance [a.s.]/kg dry soil) and imidacloprid being 4 times more toxic to reproduction of the springtail (median effect concentration [EC50] 0.25 mg a.s./kg dry soil) than their commercial formulations. The most toxic compound to E. andrei was acetamiprid (LC50 0.80 and EC50 0.35–0.40 mg a.s./kg), and the most toxic to F. candida was clothianidin (LC50 0.07 and EC50 0.05 mg a.s./kg). Estimated risk ratios indicated that only one application/yr of clothianidin in the formulation Poncho® may pose a threat to the populations of springtails and earthworms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–8. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Tissue Distribution, Growth Dilution, and Species‐Specific Bioaccumulation of Organic Ultraviolet Absorbents in Wildlife Freshwater Fish in the Pearl River Catchment, China
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Xianzhi Peng; Zewen Zhu; Songsong Xiong; Yujuan Fan; Guangshi Chen; Caiming Tang

    Tissue distributions and body‐size dependent and species‐specific bioaccumulation of 12 organic ultraviolet absorbents (UVAs) were investigated in 9 species of wildlife freshwater fish from the Pearl River catchment, South China. The concentrations of the 12 UVAs were from 109 to 2320 ng/g lipid weight in the fish tissue samples. The UVAs 2‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxybenzophenone (BP‐3), octocrylene (OCR), UV531, and 5 benzotriazole UV stabilizers (UVP, UV329, UV234, UV328, and UV327) were detected in more than half of the fish tissue samples. The UVA UV531 showed an obvious potential for bioaccumulation in the wild freshwater fish, with an estimated bioaccumulation factor (log BAF) and a biota–sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 4.54 ± 0.55 and 4.88 ± 6.78, respectively. Generally, liver (989 ± 464 ng/g lipid wt) contained the highest level of UVAs, followed in decreasing order by belly fat (599 ± 318 ng/g lipid wt), swimming bladder (494 ± 282 ng/g lipid wt), dorsal muscle (470 ± 240 ng/g lipid wt), and egg (442 ± 238 ng/g lipid wt). The bioaccumulation of UVAs in the freshwater wild fish was species specific and compound dependent. Bottom‐dwelling detritus‐ingesting omnivorous fish contained obviously higher UVA concentrations, suggesting that detritus/sediment ingestion is a significant pathway for exposure of the wild freshwater fish to the UVAs. The UVAs UV531 and BP‐3 demonstrated a potential for growth dilution. Metabolism might play a significant role in elimination of the UVAs in the fish tissues, with the highest rate of metabolism in the liver. The UVAs did not demonstrate obvious trophic magnification in the freshwater ecosystem of the Pearl River catchment. More research is warranted to elucidate maternal transfer of the UVAs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–9. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Source Identification and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon‐Enriched PM2.5 in Tangshan, China
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Lei Zhang; Houjun Xu; Bo Fang; Hongwei Wang; Ze Yang; Wenqi Yang; Yulan Hao; Xuesheng Wang; Qian Wang; Manman Wang

    Tangshan city in Hebei Province is one of the most heavily polluted cities in China, with substantial industrial emissions. The development of effective air pollution emission reduction policies requires knowledge of the sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)‐enriched fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We investigated the seasonal variation and source apportionment of 16 priority PAH‐enriched PM2.5 samples in Tangshan during 2014 and 2015, and we assessed the health risks associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. The PM2.5 samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. We analyzed the concentrations of PM2.5 and PAH‐enriched PM2.5, and used principal component analysis and molecular diagnostic ratios to identify potential sources. We explored the relationship between distribution and meteorological conditions, and used an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model to quantitatively evaluate exposure from the inhalation risk of PAHs. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 196 µg/m3, with a range 34.0 to 586 µg/m3. The median ∑16PAH values in PM2.5 were 190 ng/m3, with a range of 60.2 to 862 ng/m3 over the sampling period. The order of ∑16PAHs concentration was winter > autumn > summer > spring. The results show that the primary sources of PAH‐enriched PM2.5 are coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and biomass burning. The annual mean of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was 8.37 ng/m3, more than 8‐fold greater than the BaP annual standard (1 ng/m3) set by the Chinese State Environmental Protection Agency. The ILCR values for 3 groups (children, teenagers, and adults) over the 4 seasons were between 10–6 and 10–4, indicating a potential health risk from PAHs in Tangshan. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–10. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Proposed Indoor Test Procedure to Quantify Pesticide Treatment Effects on Seed Consumption by Birds
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Alexandra Esther; Felix von Blanckenhagen; Angela an der Heiden; Joanna Dürger; Dominika Kozyczkowska‐Kneffel; Jan‐Dieter Ludwigs; Jan Sadowski; Maisam Shadid; Doreen Gabriel

    Pesticides used in seed coatings can influence seed consumption by birds and, therefore, actual exposure risk for them. A quantification of such effects on consumption is currently not regarded as a refinement factor in environmental risk assessments, although it is a possible option and should be considered, for example, for comparing exposure risk of different pesticides. It can highlight avoidance behavior, preventing birds from taking up lethal or sublethal pesticide doses. To formulate a standard, we developed an indoor test procedure based on established pen test methods, including 2‐ and no‐choice phases with hunger periods. During testing, the highest standards of animal welfare were applied. Statistical approaches were used to determine the most appropriate number of replicates and for analysis. The effect on consumption of seeds is expressed as the ratio of consumed treated to untreated seeds. This consumption factor can be applied in avian risk assessments for seed treatments equivalent to an avoidance factor. We present, as an example, an application of the procedure to obtain a seed‐ and species‐specific consumption factor for oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus) provided untreated and treated with fungicides to greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Overall, bird constitution was not negatively affected by the test procedure in either species. The test procedure was suitable for showing differences in expected consumption patterns, such as greater avoidance of treated seeds in 2‐choice than in no‐choice tests. However, the consumption differed between species and fungicide treatments, allowing us to rank avoidance effects of different fungicides. Using the presented standard procedure to generate comparable pesticide‐ and species‐specific consumption factors for more species and seed treatments may result in refinement of default values and reduce animal trials in different designs in the future. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–12. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Norm Index–Based QSAR Model for Acute Toxicity of Pesticides Toward Rainbow Trout
    Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (IF 3.421) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Qingzhu Jia; Ting Liu; Fangyou Yan; Qiang Wang

    The aquatic ecological environment is being threatened from overuse of pesticides, and the aquatic toxicity toward rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) plays a significant role in environmental risk assessment of agrochemicals. In the present study, 2 norm index formulas were developed, from which several norm descriptors were derived. A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model was established for the prediction of acute toxicity (median lethal concentration) toward rainbow trout of various pesticides. Results indicated that the present QSAR model presented an R2 of 0.8053. Meanwhile, internal validation (QLOO2 = 0.7606), external validation (Rtraining2 = 0.8011, Rtesting2 = 0.8108), Y‐randomization test, and applicability domain analysis further demonstrated the stability, reliability, and wide application domain of the present QSAR model. Accordingly, these norm descriptors might be applicable to the structures of pesticides for predicting the acute toxicity to aquatic organism. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;00:1–7. © 2019 SETAC

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • 更新日期:2019-12-29
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