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  • A multidisciplinary framework to assess the sustainability and acceptability of wildlife tourism operations
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Lauren Meyer; Kirin Apps; Simon Bryars; Thomas Clarke; Barry Hayden; Grant Pelton; Brett Simes; Lewis M. Vaughan; Sasha K. Whitmarsh; Charlie Huveneers

    Wildlife tourism is growing in popularity, diversity of target species, and type of tours. This presents difficulties for management policy that must balance the complex trade‐offs between conservation, animal welfare, and pragmatic concerns for tourist satisfaction and economic value. Here, we provide a widely applicable, multidisciplinary framework to assess the impacts of wildlife tourism focusing

  • Measuring the intensity of conflicts in conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Jeremy J. Cusack; Tom Bradfer‐Lawrence; Zachary Baynham‐Herd; Sofia Castelló y Tickell; Isla Duporge; Håvard Hegre; Lara Moreno Zárate; Vincent Naude; Sahil Nijhawan; John Wilson; Dario Gerardo Zambrano Cortes; Nils Bunnefeld

    Conflicts between the interests of biodiversity conservation and other human activities pose a major threat to natural ecosystems and human well‐being, yet few methods exist to quantify their intensity and model their dynamics. We develop a categorization of conflict intensity based on the curve of conflict, a model originally used to track the escalation and deescalation of armed conflicts. Our categorization

  • Conservation genetics: 50 Years and counting
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    Cock van Oosterhout

    It has been 50 years since the landmark paper by Frankel highlighted the importance of genetic variation for continued evolution in the conservation of species. Despite major technological and theoretical advances in the analysis of genome data, we have failed to fully integrate genetics into conservation practice. The IUCN does not incorporate genetic data into their Red List assessment of species

  • Covert rewilding: Modelling the detection of an unofficial translocation of Tasmanian devils to the Australian mainland
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    Michael Bode

    Covert rewilding is the secret and illegal translocation of species in the pursuit of conservation objectives. Recent history contains multiple covert rewilding events, frequently occurring after official permission was denied. In order to better understand the phenomenon, I formulate covert rewilding as an optimisation problem, with the goal of creating a population that is too large to be eradicated

  • How to diminish the geographical bias in IPBES and related science?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-29
    András Báldi; Brigitta Palotás

    To tackle the current global environmental crisis, operational science‐policy interfaces are needed. The Intergovernmental Science‐policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) provides governments with policy advice via its assessment reports. To expand the evidence‐base and to support the uptake of IPBES products, participation needs to be balanced across the globe. We found imbalance

  • African Swine Fever threatens Southeast Asia's 11 endemic wild pig species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Matthew Scott Luskin; Erik Meijaard; Selly Surya; Sheherazade; Chris Walzer; Matthew Linkie

    The spread of the most recent African Swine Fever (ASF) outbreak in Asia since late 2018 poses a significant threat to endemic pig species and socioeconomic security. Within domestic pigs and free‐living Eurasian wild boars (both Sus scrofa) in Asia, ASF causes almost 100% case fatality. The ongoing ASF epidemic has so far caused the death of over one hundred million domestic pigs, causing unprecedented

  • Plastic ingestion is an underestimated cause of death for southern hemisphere albatrosses
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Lauren Roman; Richelle Grace Butcher; David Stewart; Stuart Hunter; Megan Jolly; Phil Kowalski; Britta Denise Hardesty; Baukje Lenting

    Albatrosses are among the world's most imperiled vertebrates, with 73% of species threatened with extinction. Ingestion of plastic is a well‐recognized threat among three North Pacific species, but lesser known in the southern hemisphere, where it is considered a minor threat. As plastic entering the ocean is increasing while albatross populations decline, the threat of ocean plastic to albatross populations

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-21

    Cover description: Indo‐Pacific origins of silky shark fins in major shark fin markets highlights supply chains and management bodies key for conservation.

  • A robust goal is needed for species in the Post‐2020 Global Biodiversity Framework
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Brooke A. Williams; James E.M. Watson; Stuart H.M. Butchart; Michelle Ward; Thomas M. Brooks; Nathalie Butt; Friederike C. Bolam; Simon N. Stuart; Louise Mair; Philip J. K. McGowan; Richard Gregory; Craig Hilton‐Taylor; David Mallon; Ian Harrison; Jeremy S. Simmonds

    In 2010, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 to address the loss and degradation of nature. Subsequently, most biodiversity indicators continued to decline. Nevertheless, conservation actions can make a positive difference for biodiversity. The emerging Post‐2020 Global Biodiversity Framework has potential to catalyze efforts

  • Erasure of Indigenous Peoples risks perpetuating conservation's colonial harms and undermining its future effectiveness
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Philip A. Loring; Faisal Moola

    On September 15, 2020, major news outlets in Canada reported the extirpation of the Maligne caribou herd as well as the imminent elimination of two other subpopulations of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) living in Jasper National Park. This regrettable outcome, which happened despite the presence of multiple mainstream conservation measures, including the presumption of legal protection

  • Indo‐Pacific origins of silky shark fins in major shark fin markets highlights supply chains and management bodies key for conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Diego Cardeñosa; Andrew T. Fields; Elizabeth Babcock; Stanley K. H. Shea; Kevin A. Feldheim; Derek W. Kraft; Melanie Hutchinson; Maria A. Herrera; Susana Caballero; Demian D. Chapman

    The silky shark is the second most common shark in Southeast Asia's dried fin markets and is managed in the Atlantic Ocean by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) and by three Indo‐Pacific regional fisheries management organizations (RMFOs). The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna reports ∼ 7% of global silky landings but there is a moratorium

  • Integrating biobanking minimises inbreeding and produces significant cost benefits for a threatened frog captive breeding programme
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Lachlan G. Howell; Richard Frankham; John C. Rodger; Ryan R. Witt; Simon Clulow; Rose M. O. Upton; John Clulow

    Captive breeding is an integral part of global conservation efforts despite high costs and adverse genetic effects associated with unavoidably small population sizes. Supplementing captive‐bred populations with biobanked founder sperm to restore genetic diversity offers a solution to colony size, costs and inbreeding, yet is rarely done, partly due to a lack of concrete examples or awareness amongst

  • Plastic pollution is killing marine megafauna, but how do we prioritize policies to reduce mortality?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Lauren Roman; Qamar Schuyler; Chris Wilcox; Britta Denise Hardesty

    Pollution by plastic and other debris is a problem affecting the world's oceans and is increasing through time. The problem is so large that prioritizing solutions to effect meaningful change may seem overwhelming to the public and policy makers. Marine megafauna are known to mistakenly eat anthropogenic debris and die from consequent gastrointestinal blockages, perforations and malnutrition, as well

  • Analysis of fish population size distributions confirms cessation of fishing in marine protected areas
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    J. Wilson White; Mark T. Yamane; Kerry J. Nickols; Jennifer E. Caselle

    The number of protected areas that restrict or prohibit harvest of wild populations is growing. In general, protected areas are expected to increase the abundance of previously‐harvested species. Whether a protected area achieves this expectation is typically evaluated by assessing trends in abundance after implementation. However, the underlying assumption that harvest has actually ceased is rarely

  • Understanding and responding to the environmental human rights defenders crisis: The case for conservation action
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Peter Bille Larsen; Philippe Le Billon; Mary Menton; José Aylwin; Jörg Balsiger; David Boyd; Michel Forst; Fran Lambrick; Claudelice Santos; Hannah Storey; Susan Wilding

    Close to two thousand environmental human rights defenders have been killed in 57 countries since 2002, with about four losing their lives every week in 2019. Many of these defenders represent Indigenous Peoples and local communities protecting ecosystems from large‐scale environmentally destructive projects. As the positive contributions of Indigenous and local communities to biodiversity conservation

  • Traversing the food‐biodiversity nexus towards coexistence by manipulating social–ecological system parameters
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Silvio J. Crespin; Javier A. Simonetti

    Agroecological landscapes have the potential to simultaneously meet food security and biodiversity conservation goals but are hindered by emerging biodiversity conflicts. Here, we opt to view the social–ecological factors that decrease biodiversity impacts or increase tolerance of biodiversity in agroecological landscapes as system parameters for their potential capacity to move a social–ecological

  • Next steps in dismantling discrimination: Lessons from ecology and conservation science
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Aadita Chaudhury; Sheila Colla

    Ecology, conservation, and other scientific disciplines have histories built on the oppression of marginalized groups of people. Modern day discrimination continues in these fields and there is renewed interest in dismantling these system of oppression. In this paper, we offer some examples of historical events which have shaped the field and argue that reckoning with colonial histories is part of

  • Working landscapes need at least 20% native habitat
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-25
    Lucas A. Garibaldi; Facundo J. Oddi; Fernando E. Miguez; Ignasi Bartomeus; Michael C. Orr; Esteban G. Jobbágy; Claire Kremen; Lisa A. Schulte; Alice C. Hughes; Camilo Bagnato; Guillermo Abramson; Peter Bridgewater; Dulce Gomez Carella; Sandra Díaz; Lynn V. Dicks; Erle C. Ellis; Matías Goldenberg; Claudia A. Huaylla; Marcelo Kuperman; Harvey Locke; Zia Mehrabi; Fernanda Santibañez; Chao‐Dong Zhu

    International agreements aim to conserve 17% of Earth's land area by 2020 but include no area‐based conservation targets within the working landscapes that support human needs through farming, ranching, and forestry. Through a review of country‐level legislation, we found that just 38% of countries have minimum area requirements for conserving native habitats within working landscapes. We argue for

  • Transformative scenarios for biodiversity conservation and sustainability
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Carolyn Lundquist; Shizuka Hashimoto; Machteld Schoolenberg;

    Increasing evidence shows that fundamental societal changes are essential to halt biodiversity loss. We therefore optimistically support the paper by Otero et al. (2020), which assesses how international biodiversity and sustainability policies frame economic growth in their conservation goals. Otero et al. (2020) highlight the work of the former IPBES expert group (now task force) on Scenarios and

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-20

    Cover description: A marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) nests in the canopy of a Douglas fir. In this issue, Betts et al. show how accelerated ocean warming and the loss of old‐growth forest interact to further imperil this threatened species. Photo credit: Brett Lovelace.

  • Designing effective incentives for living shorelines as a habitat conservation strategy along residential coasts
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Steven B. Scyphers; Michael W. Beck; Kelsi L. Furman; Judy Haner; Andrew G. Keeler; Craig E. Landry; Kiera L. O'Donnell; Bret M. Webb; Jonathan H. Grabowski

    Shoreline armoring is a pervasive driver of habitat loss and ecosystem decline along coastlines. Nature‐based strategies for coastal protection, such as “living shorelines,” offer potential alternatives to armoring and are rapidly gaining traction among conservation scientists and practitioners. However, along residential coasts where armoring has often occurred at high rates, transitioning away from

  • Squeezed by a habitat split: Warm ocean conditions and old‐forest loss interact to reduce long‐term occupancy of a threatened seabird
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Matthew G. Betts; Joseph M. Northrup; Jennifer A. Bailey Guerrero; Lindsay J. Adrean; S. Kim Nelson; Jennifer L. Fisher; Brian D. Gerber; Marie‐Sophie Garcia‐Heras; Zhiqiang Yang; Daniel D. Roby; James W. Rivers

    Theory predicts that species requiring multiple habitat types simultaneously should have heightened sensitivity to anthropogenic pressures, yet tests of this prediction are especially rare. We tested whether breeding site occupancy of the threatened marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was driven by the synergistic effects of nesting habitat loss in forests, and changing ocean conditions. We

  • A green new deal for the oceans must prioritize social justice beyond infrastructure
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Andrés M. Cisneros‐Montemayor; Katherine M. Crosman; Yoshitaka Ota

    In a recent and very timely contribution, Dundas et al. (2020) highlight the importance of extending the values and proposed strategies of the Green New Deal (GND) proposed in the U.S. Congress (https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-resolution/109/text) to the oceans. Dundas et al. (2020) convincingly argue that investing in infrastructure, renewable energy, food security, and habitat

  • How pastoralists weight future environmental benefits when managing natural resources
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Amanda A. Hyman; Orou G. Gaoue; Charles Tamou; Paul R. Armsworth

    Natural resource management involves balancing benefits and costs that accrue through time. How individuals and local communities weight such tradeoffs can profoundly influence how they use and conserve resources. Our goal was to understand time preferences of future benefits for goods that are relevant for developing effective conservation strategies. We surveyed >500 Fulani in Benin about their time

  • Safeguarding freshwater life beyond 2020: Recommendations for the new global biodiversity framework from the European experience
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Charles B. van Rees; Kerry A. Waylen; Astrid Schmidt‐Kloiber; Stephen J. Thackeray; Gregor Kalinkat; Koen Martens; Sami Domisch; Ana I. Lillebø; Virgilio Hermoso; Hans‐Peter Grossart; Rafaela Schinegger; Kris Decleer; Tim Adriaens; Luc Denys; Ivan Jarić; Jan H. Janse; Michael T. Monaghan; Aaike De Wever; Ilse Geijzendorffer; Mihai C. Adamescu; Sonja C. Jähnig

    Plans are currently being drafted for the next decade of action on biodiversity—both the post‐2020 Global Biodiversity Framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Biodiversity Strategy of the European Union (EU). Freshwater biodiversity is disproportionately threatened and underprioritized relative to the marine and terrestrial biota, despite supporting a richness of species and ecosystems

  • Human adaptation strategies are key to cobenefits in human–wildlife systems
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Alexander K. Killion; Julianna M. Ramirez; Neil H. Carter

    Sustainable development goals such as global food security and biodiversity conservation can conflict because these efforts create situations where humans and wildlife share landscapes, often leading to interactions that detrimentally affect both groups. Therefore, coexistence between humans and wildlife is more likely when adaptation strategies produce and sustain cobenefits, rather than benefitting

  • Field sizes and the future of farmland biodiversity in European landscapes
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Yann Clough; Stefan Kirchweger; Jochen Kantelhardt

    Lower diversity of plant and animal farmland species are usually reported where cropland has been aggregated into larger fields, which raises prospects of curbing declines in European farmland biodiversity and associated ecosystem services by halting trends to field size increases associated to agricultural intensification, without having to set aside arable land for conservation. Here, we consider

  • Associations between socio‐environmental factors and landscape‐scale biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating tropical and subtropical forests
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Renato Crouzeilles; Daniel Maurenza; Pablo V. Prieto; Felipe S. M. Barros; Catarina Jakovac; Mariana S. Ferreira; Robin L. Chazdon; David B. Lindenmayer; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; Eliane Ceccon; Cristina Adams; Elena Lazos‐Chavero; Lara Monteiro; André B. Junqueira; Bernardo B. N. Strassburg; Manuel R. Guariguata

    Natural regeneration is key for large‐scale forest restoration, yet it may lead to different biodiversity outcomes depending on socio‐environmental context. We combined the results of a global meta‐analysis to quantify how biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating forests deviates from biodiversity values in reference old‐growth forests, with structural equation modeling, to identify direct and

  • Does forest thinning reduce fire severity in Australian eucalypt forests?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Chris Taylor; Wade Blanchard; David B. Lindenmayer

    Forest thinning has been proposed to reduce fire severity. However, evidence to support this strategy in Australia is scant. We completed a detailed empirical analysis of stand history data from forests burned in wildfires in 2009 in south‐eastern Australia, to address the question: Does forest thinning reduce fire severity? The answer varied depending on fire type (Crown Burn vs. Crown Burn/Crown

  • Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Alejandra Echeverri; Daniel S. Karp; Luke O. Frishkoff; Jaya Krishnan; Robin Naidoo; Jiaying Zhao; Jim Zook; Kai M. A. Chan

    The current biodiversity crisis involves major shifts in biological communities at local and regional scales. The consequences for Earth's life‐support systems are increasingly well‐studied, but knowledge of how community shifts affect cultural services associated with wildlife lags behind. We integrated bird census data (3 years across 150 point‐count locations) with questionnaire surveys (>400 people)

  • “Taking action for the Reef?”–Australians do not connect Reef conservation with individual climate‐related actions
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Angela J. Dean; Robyn E. Gulliver; Kerrie A. Wilson

    Climate change is the most significant threat to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). While Australians express appreciation and concern for the GBR, it is not clear whether they connect climate‐related action with reef conservation. An online survey of 4,285 Australians asked “…what types of actions could people like you do that would be helpful for the GBR?” Only 4.1% mentioned a specific action related

  • Exotic animal cafes are increasingly home to threatened biodiversity
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Sharne E. McMillan; Caroline Dingle; John A. Allcock; Timothy C. Bonebrake

    Exploitation of species for wildlife trade, including the demand for exotic pets (likely sourced from the wild or recent generations of captivity) is a major threat to biodiversity. Although not traditionally considered “pet keeping” countries, pet ownership is growing in Asia. Exotic animals are also appearing in cafes, which are growing in popularity and have the potential to impact wild populations

  • Protect or perish: Quantitative analysis of state‐level species protection supports preservation of the Endangered Species Act
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Caitlin C. Mothes; Leyna R. Stemle; Theresa N. Fonseca; Stephanie L. Clements; Hunter J. Howell; Christopher A. Searcy

    To combat biodiversity loss in the United States, imperiled species are protected under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is currently threatened by political initiatives seeking to weaken it and potentially transfer substantial authority to the states. To assess the conservation capacity of current state laws, we conducted a quantitative analysis of imperiled species protection within

  • Coupling property rights with responsibilities to improve conservation outcomes across land and seascapes
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Katie Moon; Dru Marsh; Christopher Cvitanovic

    Protecting biodiversity in the face of contemporary conservation challenges requires actions across all land and sea tenures. In seeking improved conservation outcomes across these tenures, we undertook a multidisciplinary review of the property law, conservation and environmental ethics literature. Our review revealed three major threats of property rights to conservation: a focus on tangible goods

  • How many bird and mammal extinctions has recent conservation action prevented?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Friederike C. Bolam; Louise Mair; Marco Angelico; Thomas M. Brooks; Mark Burgman; Claudia Hermes; Michael Hoffmann; Rob W. Martin; Philip J.K. McGowan; Ana S.L. Rodrigues; Carlo Rondinini; James R.S. Westrip; Hannah Wheatley; Yuliana Bedolla‐Guzmán; Javier Calzada; Matthew F. Child; Peter A. Cranswick; Christopher R. Dickman; Birgit Fessl; Diana O. Fisher; Stephen T. Garnett; Jim J. Groombridge; Christopher

    Aichi Target 12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) contains the aim to ‘prevent extinctions of known threatened species’. To measure the degree to which this was achieved, we used expert elicitation to estimate the number of bird and mammal species whose extinctions were prevented by conservation action in 1993–2020 (the lifetime of the CBD) and 2010–2020 (the timing of Aichi Target 12)

  • Consequences of information suppression in ecological and conservation sciences
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Don A. Driscoll; Georgia E. Garrard; Alexander M. Kusmanoff; Stephen Dovers; Martine Maron; Noel Preece; Robert L. Pressey; Euan G. Ritchie

    Suppressing expert knowledge can hide environmentally damaging practices and policies from public scrutiny. We surveyed ecologists and conservation scientists from universities, government, and industry across Australia to understand the prevalence and consequences of suppressing science communication. Government (34%) and industry (30%) respondents reported higher rates of undue interference by employers

  • Nationwide revisitation reveals thousands of local extinctions across the ranges of 713 threatened and rare plant species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Anne Kempel; Christophe N. Bornand; Andreas Gygax; Philippe Juillerat; Michael Jutzi; Lionel Sager; Beat Bäumler; Stefan Eggenberg; Markus Fischer

    Despite increasing awareness of global biodiversity loss, we lack quantitative data on local extinctions for many species. This is especially true for rare species, which are typically assessed on the basis of expert judgment rather than data. Revisiting previously assessed populations enables estimation of local extinction rates and the identification of species characteristics and habitats with high

  • How far have we come? A review of MPA network performance indicators in reaching qualitative elements of Aichi Target 11
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Mairi C. Meehan; Natalie C. Ban; Rodolphe Devillers; Gerald G. Singh; Joachim Claudet

    Effective networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are explicitly recognized and called for in international biodiversity conservation strategies such as the Aichi Targets. While various indicators have been proposed to assess effectiveness of individual MPAs, no comprehensive set of indicators exists for MPA networks, particularly for Aichi Target 11. The qualitative elements of this target recognize

  • Implications of the World Bank's environmental and social framework for biodiversity
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Jonathan Morley; Graeme Buchanan; Edward T.A. Mitchard; Aidan Keane

    The World Bank is the single largest source of development finance, with wide‐reaching influence. The Bank's safeguards aim to minimize the negative impacts of the projects it funds. These policies have recently been updated in a new Environmental and Social Framework. For conservation, the key changes include a mechanism for the use of biodiversity offsets and borrowers’ own frameworks to manage impacts

  • Three Key considerations for biodiversity conservation in multilateral agreements
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Michael J. Burgass; Cecilia Larrosa; Derek P. Tittensor; William N. S. Arlidge; Hernan Caceres; Abbey Camaclang; Shannon Hampton; Ciaran McLaverty; Emily Nicholson; Victor K. Muposhi; Carolina M. Pinto; Jessica A. Rowland; Simone L. Stevenson; Kate E. Watermeyer; E.J. Milner‐Gulland

    It is nearly three decades since the world recognized the need for a global multilateral treaty aiming to address accelerating biodiversity loss. However, biodiversity continues to decline at a concerning rate. Drawing on lessons from the implementation of the current strategic plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the 2010 Aichi Targets, we highlight three interlinked core areas, which

  • The Panthalassa project: The future of ocean research for conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Andrew Forrest

    ‘Our business is to rectify Nature to what she was…’. John Donne, 1610 Unless you are standing in the Hajar Mountains in eastern Oman or on the Troodos Ophiolites in Cyprus, the ground beneath your feet was once, 250 million years ago, part of a single supercontinent surrounded by a single ocean, Panthalassa. The time it took the scientific community to accept that continents can move was, arguably

  • Community management yields positive impacts for coastal fisheries resources and biodiversity conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Patrick F. Smallhorn‐West; Karen Stone; Daniela M. Ceccarelli; Siola'a Malimali; Tu'ikolongahau Halafihi; Tom C. L. Bridge; Robert L. Pressey; Geoffrey P. Jones

    Combining no‐take marine reserves with exclusive access by communities to unreserved waters could provide the required incentives for community management to achieve positive impacts. However, few protected areas have been critically evaluated for their impact, which involves applying counterfactual thinking to predict conditions within protected areas if management had never occurred. Here, we use

  • Are pangolins scapegoats of the COVID‐19 outbreak‐CoV transmission and pathology evidence?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Siew Woh Choo; Jinfeng Zhou; Xuechen Tian; Siyuan Zhang; Shen Qiang; Stephen J. O'Brien; Ka Yun Tan; Sara Platto; Klaus‐Peter Koepfli; Agostinho Antunes; Frankie Thomas Sitam

    The COVID‐19 outbreak has infected over 6 million people across the world. The origin of COVID‐19 coronavirus (CoV) remains unknown, although pangolins have been suggested as potential hosts. We investigated two pangolins seized in Guangdong Province, China. Molecular screening revealed CoV in one pangolin (“Dahu”), while another (“Meidong”) was infected by Ehrlichia ruminantium. Dahu exhibited difficulty

  • Simultaneously operating threats cannot predict extinction risk
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Aaron C. Greenville; Thomas M. Newsome; Glenda M. Wardle; Chris R. Dickman; William J. Ripple; Brad R. Murray

    Species afflicted by multiple threats are thought to face greater extinction risk. However, it is not known whether multiple threats operate antagonistically, additively, or synergistically, or whether they vary across different taxonomic and spatial scales. We addressed these questions by analyzing threats to 10,378 species in six vertebrate classes at global and regional spatial scales using network

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-27

    Cover description: Illicit Endangered Wildlife Trade in Möng La, Shan, Myanmar. In this issue Esmail and colleagues explore emerging illegal wildlife trade issue across the globe, and Tittensor and colleagues look at the relationship between illegal and legal wildlife trade. Photo credit: Dan Bennett https://www.flickr.com/photos/38518750@N00/4572625188 Creative Commons Attribution 2.0.

  • Use of the nucleotide diversity in COI mitochondrial gene as an early diagnostic of conservation status of animal species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Natalia Petit‐Marty; Maite Vázquez‐Luis; Iris E. Hendriks

    Species assessed as threatened by the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) show evidence of declining population sizes. Genetic diversity is lost by this decline, which reduces the adaptive potential of the species and increases its extinction risk in a changing environment. In this study, we collected an extensive dataset of nucleotide diversities in the COI (Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit

  • Conservation behavior and effects of economic and environmental message frames
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Sheila M.W. Reddy; Chloe Wardropper; Collin Weigel; Yuta J. Masuda; Seth Harden; Pranay Ranjan; Jackie M. Getson; Laura A. Esman; Paul Ferraro; Linda Prokopy

    Emphasizing the economic and environmental benefits of conservation is business‐as‐usual for environmental organizations seeking to influence conservation behavior, but these message frames are rarely tested. We embedded a large message framing experiment into the recruitment for a conservation agriculture program targeting farmland owners in the Mississippi River Basin. We found that framed messages

  • Protected areas are now the last strongholds for many imperiled mammal species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Michela Pacifici; Moreno Di Marco; James E. M. Watson

    The global network of terrestrial protected areas (PAs) has experienced a fourfold expansion since the 1970s. Yet, there is increasing debate around the role of the global PA estate in covering and sustaining threatened species, with serious ramifications for current PA financing and the setting of post‐2020 global conservation targets. By comparing “past” (1970s) and current distribution range of

  • Policy interactions in large‐scale marine protected areas
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Rebecca L. Gruby; Noella J. Gray; Luke Fairbanks; Elizabeth Havice; Lisa M. Campbell; Alan Friedlander; Kirsten L.L. Oleson; King Sam; Lillian Mitchell; Quentin Hanich

    Large‐scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs) have proliferated in recent years, now accounting for most of the world's MPA coverage. However, little is known about LSMPA outcomes and the factors that affect them. Here we argue that policy interactions—the cumulative effect of co‐existing policies for an issue and/or geographical area—can play a critical, but under‐recognized, role in influencing LSMPA

  • Recurrent neural network reveals overwhelming sentiment against 2017 review of US monuments from humans and bots
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Caitlin McDonough MacKenzie; Tony Chang; Mallika A. Nocco; Rebecca S. Barak; Molly C. Bletz; Sara E. Kuebbing; Michael Dombeck

    In the United States, the conservation of federal lands reflects a social history of public advocacy, public policy, and public comments. US federal agencies solicit public comments to scope for ideas, solve problems, and use the best available science for policy‐making, legislation, and management. Online comment submission has led to staggering numbers of comments that are challenging to summarize

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-07-01

    Cover description : Forest fragment amongst industrial Acacia plantations on the Kampar Peninsula, Indonesia. In this issue Deere et al look at the effectiveness, and limits to it, of the protection of High Carbon Stock forest patches in fragmented tropical landscapes. Photo credit: Caine Delacy.

  • Incentivizing co‐management for impact: mechanisms driving the successful national expansion of Tonga's Special Management Area program
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Patrick F. Smallhorn‐West; Jason Sheehan; Siola'a Malimali; Tuikolongahau Halafihi; Tom C. L. Bridge; Robert L. Pressey; Geoffrey P. Jones

    The expansion of coastal marine protected areas can suffer from two key drawbacks: (a) the difficulty of incentivizing local communities to manage areas for conservation when their livelihoods also depend on resource use; and (b) that many protected areas get situated residually, or in locations with limited value for either biodiversity conservation or livelihoods. Here, we discuss and analyze key

  • Private rhino conservation: Diverse strategies adopted in response to the poaching crisis
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Hayley S. Clements; Mike Knight; Pelham Jones; Dave Balfour

    Private landowners in South Africa conserve roughly 40% of white rhinos globally. Given concerns that escalating poaching has caused private‐rhino owners to disinvest, we used a national survey to assess 171 private‐rhino owners’ responses to the crisis. Twenty‐eight percent of rhino owners are disinvesting in rhino, 57% are pursuing business‐as‐usual (largely ecotourism), and 15% are investing in

  • Land‐use history determines ecosystem services and conservation value in tropical agroforestry
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-06-14
    Dominic Andreas Martin; Kristina Osen; Ingo Grass; Dirk Hölscher; Teja Tscharntke; Annemarie Wurz; Holger Kreft

    Agroforestry is widely promoted as a potential solution to address multiple UN Sustainable Development Goals, including Zero Hunger, Responsible Consumption and Production, Climate Action, and Life on Land. Nonetheless, agroforests in the tropics often result from direct forest conversions, displacing rapidly vanishing and highly biodiverse forests with large carbon stocks, causing undesirable trade‐offs

  • Improving scientific rigour in conservation evaluations and a plea deal for transparency on potential biases
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Jonas Josefsson; Matthew Hiron; Debora Arlt; Alistair G. Auffret; Åke Berg; Mathieu Chevalier; Anders Glimskär; Göran Hartman; Ineta Kačergytė; Julian Klein; Jonas Knape; Ane T. Laugen; Matthew Low; Matthieu Paquet; Marianne Pasanen‐Mortensen; Zuzanna M. Rosin; Diana Rubene; Michał Żmihorski; Tomas Pärt

    The delivery of rigorous and unbiased evidence on the effects of interventions lay at the heart of the scientific method. Here we examine scientific papers evaluating agri‐environment schemes, the principal instrument to mitigate farmland biodiversity declines worldwide. Despite previous warnings about rudimentary study designs in this field, we found that the majority of studies published between

  • Dams and protected areas: Quantifying the spatial and temporal extent of global dam construction within protected areas
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Michele L. Thieme, Dmytro Khrystenko, Siyu Qin, Rachel E. Golden Kroner, Bernhard Lehner, Shalynn Pack, Klement Tockner, Christiane Zarfl, Natalie Shahbol, Michael B. Mascia

    Protected areas (PAs) are an essential tool for freshwater biodiversity conservation. Given past and expected future global increases in dams and impacts of dams on freshwater ecosystems, we document the number of dams existing or planned within PAs, their history, and the extent of PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) proximally caused by dams. Globally, at least 1,249 large dams

  • Public attitudes toward biodiversity‐friendly greenspace management in Europe
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Leonie K. Fischer, Lena Neuenkamp, Jussi Lampinen, Maria Tuomi, Josu G. Alday, Anna Bucharova, Laura Cancellieri, Izaskun Casado‐Arzuaga, Natálie Čeplová, Lluïsa Cerveró, Balázs Deák, Ove Eriksson, Mark D. E. Fellowes, Beatriz Fernández de Manuel, Goffredo Filibeck, Adrián González‐Guzmán, M. Belen Hinojosa, Ingo Kowarik, Belén Lumbierres, Ana Miguel, Rosa Pardo, Xavier Pons, Encarna Rodríguez‐García

    Increasing urbanization worldwide calls for more sustainable urban development. Simultaneously, the global biodiversity crisis accentuates the need of fostering biodiversity within cities. Policies supporting urban nature conservation need to understand people's acceptance of biodiversity‐friendly greenspace management. We surveyed more than 2,000 people in 19 European cities about their attitudes

  • Evaluating the relationships between the legal and illegal international wildlife trades
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Derek P. Tittensor; Michael Harfoot; Claire McLardy; Gregory L. Britten; Katalin Kecse‐Nagy; Bryan Landry; Willow Outhwaite; Becky Price; Pablo Sinovas; Julian Blanc; Neil D. Burgess; Kelly Malsch

    The international legal trade in wildlife can provide economic and other benefits, but when unsustainable can be a driver of population declines. This impact is magnified by the additional burden of illegal trade, yet how it covaries with legal trade remains little explored. We combined law‐enforcement time‐series of seizures of wildlife goods imported into the United States (US) and the European Union

  • Life below water: Fish spawning aggregations as bright spots for a sustainable ocean
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Simon J. Pittman; William D. Heyman

    Transient fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are critical life‐cycle events for many commercially important species, in which fish congregate in huge numbers to spawn at predictable times and places. This behavior makes them exceptionally vulnerable to fishing. The “illusion of plenty” and poor access to monitoring tools and techniques has resulted in some FSAs being overfished or unwittingly eliminated

  • Motivations for (non‐)compliance with conservation rules by small‐scale resource users
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Rodrigo Oyanedel; Stefan Gelcich; E.J. Milner‐Gulland

    Understanding compliance with conservation rules is key for biodiversity conservation. Here, we assess compliance and its underlying motivations in a small‐scale fishery in Chile. We adapt a framework originally developed for forestry to unpack compliance motivations at within‐individual and between‐individuals levels while accounting for contextual factors. We find that 92–100% fishers comply with

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