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  • Associations between socio‐environmental factors and landscape‐scale biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating tropical and subtropical forests
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Renato Crouzeilles; Daniel Maurenza; Pablo V. Prieto; Felipe S. M. Barros; Catarina Jakovac; Mariana S. Ferreira; Robin L. Chazdon; David B. Lindenmayer; Pedro H. S. Brancalion; Eliane Ceccon; Cristina Adams; Elena Lazos‐Chavero; Lara Monteiro; André B. Junqueira; Bernardo B. N. Strassburg; Manuel R. Guariguata

    Natural regeneration is key for large‐scale forest restoration, yet it may lead to different biodiversity outcomes depending on socio‐environmental context. We combined the results of a global meta‐analysis to quantify how biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating forests deviates from biodiversity values in reference old‐growth forests, with structural equation modeling, to identify direct and

  • Does forest thinning reduce fire severity in Australian eucalypt forests?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Chris Taylor; Wade Blanchard; David B. Lindenmayer

    Forest thinning has been proposed to reduce fire severity. However, evidence to support this strategy in Australia is scant. We completed a detailed empirical analysis of stand history data from forests burned in wildfires in 2009 in south‐eastern Australia, to address the question: Does forest thinning reduce fire severity? The answer varied depending on fire type (Crown Burn vs. Crown Burn/Crown

  • Avian cultural services peak in tropical wet forests
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Alejandra Echeverri; Daniel S. Karp; Luke O. Frishkoff; Jaya Krishnan; Robin Naidoo; Jiaying Zhao; Jim Zook; Kai M. A. Chan

    The current biodiversity crisis involves major shifts in biological communities at local and regional scales. The consequences for Earth's life‐support systems are increasingly well‐studied, but knowledge of how community shifts affect cultural services associated with wildlife lags behind. We integrated bird census data (3 years across 150 point‐count locations) with questionnaire surveys (>400 people)

  • “Taking action for the Reef?”–Australians do not connect Reef conservation with individual climate‐related actions
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Angela J. Dean; Robyn E. Gulliver; Kerrie A. Wilson

    Climate change is the most significant threat to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). While Australians express appreciation and concern for the GBR, it is not clear whether they connect climate‐related action with reef conservation. An online survey of 4,285 Australians asked “…what types of actions could people like you do that would be helpful for the GBR?” Only 4.1% mentioned a specific action related

  • Exotic animal cafes are increasingly home to threatened biodiversity
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Sharne E. McMillan; Caroline Dingle; John A. Allcock; Timothy C. Bonebrake

    Exploitation of species for wildlife trade, including the demand for exotic pets (likely sourced from the wild or recent generations of captivity) is a major threat to biodiversity. Although not traditionally considered “pet keeping” countries, pet ownership is growing in Asia. Exotic animals are also appearing in cafes, which are growing in popularity and have the potential to impact wild populations

  • Protect or perish: Quantitative analysis of state‐level species protection supports preservation of the Endangered Species Act
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Caitlin C. Mothes; Leyna R. Stemle; Theresa N. Fonseca; Stephanie L. Clements; Hunter J. Howell; Christopher A. Searcy

    To combat biodiversity loss in the United States, imperiled species are protected under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is currently threatened by political initiatives seeking to weaken it and potentially transfer substantial authority to the states. To assess the conservation capacity of current state laws, we conducted a quantitative analysis of imperiled species protection within

  • Coupling property rights with responsibilities to improve conservation outcomes across land and seascapes
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Katie Moon; Dru Marsh; Christopher Cvitanovic

    Protecting biodiversity in the face of contemporary conservation challenges requires actions across all land and sea tenures. In seeking improved conservation outcomes across these tenures, we undertook a multidisciplinary review of the property law, conservation and environmental ethics literature. Our review revealed three major threats of property rights to conservation: a focus on tangible goods

  • How many bird and mammal extinctions has recent conservation action prevented?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Friederike C. Bolam; Louise Mair; Marco Angelico; Thomas M. Brooks; Mark Burgman; Claudia Hermes; Michael Hoffmann; Rob W. Martin; Philip J.K. McGowan; Ana S.L. Rodrigues; Carlo Rondinini; James R.S. Westrip; Hannah Wheatley; Yuliana Bedolla‐Guzmán; Javier Calzada; Matthew F. Child; Peter A. Cranswick; Christopher R. Dickman; Birgit Fessl; Diana O. Fisher; Stephen T. Garnett; Jim J. Groombridge; Christopher

    Aichi Target 12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) contains the aim to ‘prevent extinctions of known threatened species’. To measure the degree to which this was achieved, we used expert elicitation to estimate the number of bird and mammal species whose extinctions were prevented by conservation action in 1993–2020 (the lifetime of the CBD) and 2010–2020 (the timing of Aichi Target 12)

  • Nationwide revisitation reveals thousands of local extinctions across the ranges of 713 threatened and rare plant species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Anne Kempel; Christophe N. Bornand; Andreas Gygax; Philippe Juillerat; Michael Jutzi; Lionel Sager; Beat Bäumler; Stefan Eggenberg; Markus Fischer

    Despite increasing awareness of global biodiversity loss, we lack quantitative data on local extinctions for many species. This is especially true for rare species, which are typically assessed on the basis of expert judgment rather than data. Revisiting previously assessed populations enables estimation of local extinction rates and the identification of species characteristics and habitats with high

  • Consequences of information suppression in ecological and conservation sciences
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Don A. Driscoll; Georgia E. Garrard; Alexander M. Kusmanoff; Stephen Dovers; Martine Maron; Noel Preece; Robert L. Pressey; Euan G. Ritchie

    Suppressing expert knowledge can hide environmentally damaging practices and policies from public scrutiny. We surveyed ecologists and conservation scientists from universities, government, and industry across Australia to understand the prevalence and consequences of suppressing science communication. Government (34%) and industry (30%) respondents reported higher rates of undue interference by employers

  • How far have we come? A review of MPA network performance indicators in reaching qualitative elements of Aichi Target 11
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Mairi C. Meehan; Natalie C. Ban; Rodolphe Devillers; Gerald G. Singh; Joachim Claudet

    Effective networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are explicitly recognized and called for in international biodiversity conservation strategies such as the Aichi Targets. While various indicators have been proposed to assess effectiveness of individual MPAs, no comprehensive set of indicators exists for MPA networks, particularly for Aichi Target 11. The qualitative elements of this target recognize

  • The Panthalassa project: The future of ocean research for conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Andrew Forrest

    ‘Our business is to rectify Nature to what she was…’. John Donne, 1610 Unless you are standing in the Hajar Mountains in eastern Oman or on the Troodos Ophiolites in Cyprus, the ground beneath your feet was once, 250 million years ago, part of a single supercontinent surrounded by a single ocean, Panthalassa. The time it took the scientific community to accept that continents can move was, arguably

  • Implications of the World Bank's environmental and social framework for biodiversity
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Jonathan Morley; Graeme Buchanan; Edward T.A. Mitchard; Aidan Keane

    The World Bank is the single largest source of development finance, with wide‐reaching influence. The Bank's safeguards aim to minimize the negative impacts of the projects it funds. These policies have recently been updated in a new Environmental and Social Framework. For conservation, the key changes include a mechanism for the use of biodiversity offsets and borrowers’ own frameworks to manage impacts

  • Community management yields positive impacts for coastal fisheries resources and biodiversity conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Patrick F. Smallhorn‐West; Karen Stone; Daniela M. Ceccarelli; Siola'a Malimali; Tu'ikolongahau Halafihi; Tom C. L. Bridge; Robert L. Pressey; Geoffrey P. Jones

    Combining no‐take marine reserves with exclusive access by communities to unreserved waters could provide the required incentives for community management to achieve positive impacts. However, few protected areas have been critically evaluated for their impact, which involves applying counterfactual thinking to predict conditions within protected areas if management had never occurred. Here, we use

  • Are pangolins scapegoats of the COVID‐19 outbreak‐CoV transmission and pathology evidence?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Siew Woh Choo; Jinfeng Zhou; Xuechen Tian; Siyuan Zhang; Shen Qiang; Stephen J. O'Brien; Ka Yun Tan; Sara Platto; Klaus‐Peter Koepfli; Agostinho Antunes; Frankie Thomas Sitam

    The COVID‐19 outbreak has infected over 6 million people across the world. The origin of COVID‐19 coronavirus (CoV) remains unknown, although pangolins have been suggested as potential hosts. We investigated two pangolins seized in Guangdong Province, China. Molecular screening revealed CoV in one pangolin (“Dahu”), while another (“Meidong”) was infected by Ehrlichia ruminantium. Dahu exhibited difficulty

  • Three Key considerations for biodiversity conservation in multilateral agreements
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Michael J. Burgass; Cecilia Larrosa; Derek P. Tittensor; William N. S. Arlidge; Hernan Caceres; Abbey Camaclang; Shannon Hampton; Ciaran McLaverty; Emily Nicholson; Victor K. Muposhi; Carolina M. Pinto; Jessica A. Rowland; Simone L. Stevenson; Kate E. Watermeyer; E.J. Milner‐Gulland

    It is nearly three decades since the world recognized the need for a global multilateral treaty aiming to address accelerating biodiversity loss. However, biodiversity continues to decline at a concerning rate. Drawing on lessons from the implementation of the current strategic plan of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the 2010 Aichi Targets, we highlight three interlinked core areas, which

  • Simultaneously operating threats cannot predict extinction risk
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Aaron C. Greenville; Thomas M. Newsome; Glenda M. Wardle; Chris R. Dickman; William J. Ripple; Brad R. Murray

    Species afflicted by multiple threats are thought to face greater extinction risk. However, it is not known whether multiple threats operate antagonistically, additively, or synergistically, or whether they vary across different taxonomic and spatial scales. We addressed these questions by analyzing threats to 10,378 species in six vertebrate classes at global and regional spatial scales using network

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-27

    Cover description: Illicit Endangered Wildlife Trade in Möng La, Shan, Myanmar. In this issue Esmail and colleagues explore emerging illegal wildlife trade issue across the globe, and Tittensor and colleagues look at the relationship between illegal and legal wildlife trade. Photo credit: Dan Bennett https://www.flickr.com/photos/38518750@N00/4572625188 Creative Commons Attribution 2.0.

  • Conservation behavior and effects of economic and environmental message frames
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Sheila M.W. Reddy; Chloe Wardropper; Collin Weigel; Yuta J. Masuda; Seth Harden; Pranay Ranjan; Jackie M. Getson; Laura A. Esman; Paul Ferraro; Linda Prokopy

    Emphasizing the economic and environmental benefits of conservation is business‐as‐usual for environmental organizations seeking to influence conservation behavior, but these message frames are rarely tested. We embedded a large message framing experiment into the recruitment for a conservation agriculture program targeting farmland owners in the Mississippi River Basin. We found that framed messages

  • Use of the nucleotide diversity in COI mitochondrial gene as an early diagnostic of conservation status of animal species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Natalia Petit‐Marty; Maite Vázquez‐Luis; Iris E. Hendriks

    Species assessed as threatened by the International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) show evidence of declining population sizes. Genetic diversity is lost by this decline, which reduces the adaptive potential of the species and increases its extinction risk in a changing environment. In this study, we collected an extensive dataset of nucleotide diversities in the COI (Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit

  • Protected areas are now the last strongholds for many imperiled mammal species
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Michela Pacifici; Moreno Di Marco; James E. M. Watson

    The global network of terrestrial protected areas (PAs) has experienced a fourfold expansion since the 1970s. Yet, there is increasing debate around the role of the global PA estate in covering and sustaining threatened species, with serious ramifications for current PA financing and the setting of post‐2020 global conservation targets. By comparing “past” (1970s) and current distribution range of

  • A green new deal for the oceans must prioritize social justice beyond infrastructure
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Andrés M. Cisneros‐Montemayor; Katherine M. Crosman; Yoshitaka Ota

    In a recent and very timely contribution, Dundas et al. (2020) highlight the importance of extending the values and proposed strategies of the Green New Deal (GND) proposed in the U.S. Congress (https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-resolution/109/text) to the oceans. Dundas et al. (2020) convincingly argue that investing in infrastructure, renewable energy, food security, and habitat

  • Recurrent neural network reveals overwhelming sentiment against 2017 review of US monuments from humans and bots
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Caitlin McDonough MacKenzie; Tony Chang; Mallika A. Nocco; Rebecca S. Barak; Molly C. Bletz; Sara E. Kuebbing; Michael Dombeck

    In the United States, the conservation of federal lands reflects a social history of public advocacy, public policy, and public comments. US federal agencies solicit public comments to scope for ideas, solve problems, and use the best available science for policy‐making, legislation, and management. Online comment submission has led to staggering numbers of comments that are challenging to summarize

  • Policy interactions in large‐scale marine protected areas
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Rebecca L. Gruby; Noella J. Gray; Luke Fairbanks; Elizabeth Havice; Lisa M. Campbell; Alan Friedlander; Kirsten L.L. Oleson; King Sam; Lillian Mitchell; Quentin Hanich

    Large‐scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs) have proliferated in recent years, now accounting for most of the world's MPA coverage. However, little is known about LSMPA outcomes and the factors that affect them. Here we argue that policy interactions—the cumulative effect of co‐existing policies for an issue and/or geographical area—can play a critical, but under‐recognized, role in influencing LSMPA

  • Squeezed by a habitat split: Warm ocean conditions and old‐forest loss interact to reduce long‐term occupancy of a threatened seabird
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Matthew G. Betts; Joseph M. Northrup; Jennifer A. Bailey Guerrero; Lindsay J. Adrean; S. Kim Nelson; Jennifer L. Fisher; Brian D. Gerber; Marie‐Sophie Garcia‐Heras; Zhiqiang Yang; Daniel D. Roby; James W. Rivers

    Theory predicts that species requiring multiple habitat types simultaneously should have heightened sensitivity to anthropogenic pressures, yet tests of this prediction are especially rare. We tested whether breeding site occupancy of the threatened marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was driven by the synergistic effects of nesting habitat loss in forests, and changing ocean conditions. We

  • Designing effective incentives for living shorelines as a habitat conservation strategy along residential coasts
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Steven B. Scyphers; Michael W. Beck; Kelsi L. Furman; Judy Haner; Andrew G. Keeler; Craig E. Landry; Kiera L. O'Donnell; Bret M. Webb; Jonathan H. Grabowski

    Shoreline armoring is a pervasive driver of habitat loss and ecosystem decline along coastlines. Nature‐based strategies for coastal protection, such as “living shorelines,” offer potential alternatives to armoring and are rapidly gaining traction among conservation scientists and practitioners. However, along residential coasts where armoring has often occurred at high rates, transitioning away from

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-07-01

    Cover description : Forest fragment amongst industrial Acacia plantations on the Kampar Peninsula, Indonesia. In this issue Deere et al look at the effectiveness, and limits to it, of the protection of High Carbon Stock forest patches in fragmented tropical landscapes. Photo credit: Caine Delacy.

  • Incentivizing co‐management for impact: mechanisms driving the successful national expansion of tonga's special management area program
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Patrick F. Smallhorn‐West; Jason Sheehan; Siola'a Malimali; Tuikolongahau Halafihi; Tom C. L. Bridge; Robert L. Pressey; Geoffrey P. Jones

    The expansion of coastal marine protected areas can suffer from two key drawbacks: (a) the difficulty of incentivizing local communities to manage areas for conservation when their livelihoods also depend on resource use; and (b) that many protected areas get situated residually, or in locations with limited value for either biodiversity conservation or livelihoods. Here, we discuss and analyze key

  • Private rhino conservation: Diverse strategies adopted in response to the poaching crisis
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Hayley S. Clements; Mike Knight; Pelham Jones; Dave Balfour

    Private landowners in South Africa conserve roughly 40% of white rhinos globally. Given concerns that escalating poaching has caused private‐rhino owners to disinvest, we used a national survey to assess 171 private‐rhino owners’ responses to the crisis. Twenty‐eight percent of rhino owners are disinvesting in rhino, 57% are pursuing business‐as‐usual (largely ecotourism), and 15% are investing in

  • Land‐use history determines ecosystem services and conservation value in tropical agroforestry
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-06-14
    Dominic Andreas Martin; Kristina Osen; Ingo Grass; Dirk Hölscher; Teja Tscharntke; Annemarie Wurz; Holger Kreft

    Agroforestry is widely promoted as a potential solution to address multiple UN Sustainable Development Goals, including Zero Hunger, Responsible Consumption and Production, Climate Action, and Life on Land. Nonetheless, agroforests in the tropics often result from direct forest conversions, displacing rapidly vanishing and highly biodiverse forests with large carbon stocks, causing undesirable trade‐offs

  • Improving scientific rigour in conservation evaluations and a plea deal for transparency on potential biases
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Jonas Josefsson; Matthew Hiron; Debora Arlt; Alistair G. Auffret; Åke Berg; Mathieu Chevalier; Anders Glimskär; Göran Hartman; Ineta Kačergytė; Julian Klein; Jonas Knape; Ane T. Laugen; Matthew Low; Matthieu Paquet; Marianne Pasanen‐Mortensen; Zuzanna M. Rosin; Diana Rubene; Michał Żmihorski; Tomas Pärt

    The delivery of rigorous and unbiased evidence on the effects of interventions lay at the heart of the scientific method. Here we examine scientific papers evaluating agri‐environment schemes, the principal instrument to mitigate farmland biodiversity declines worldwide. Despite previous warnings about rudimentary study designs in this field, we found that the majority of studies published between

  • Dams and protected areas: Quantifying the spatial and temporal extent of global dam construction within protected areas
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Michele L. Thieme, Dmytro Khrystenko, Siyu Qin, Rachel E. Golden Kroner, Bernhard Lehner, Shalynn Pack, Klement Tockner, Christiane Zarfl, Natalie Shahbol, Michael B. Mascia

    Protected areas (PAs) are an essential tool for freshwater biodiversity conservation. Given past and expected future global increases in dams and impacts of dams on freshwater ecosystems, we document the number of dams existing or planned within PAs, their history, and the extent of PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) proximally caused by dams. Globally, at least 1,249 large dams

  • Public attitudes toward biodiversity‐friendly greenspace management in Europe
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Leonie K. Fischer, Lena Neuenkamp, Jussi Lampinen, Maria Tuomi, Josu G. Alday, Anna Bucharova, Laura Cancellieri, Izaskun Casado‐Arzuaga, Natálie Čeplová, Lluïsa Cerveró, Balázs Deák, Ove Eriksson, Mark D. E. Fellowes, Beatriz Fernández de Manuel, Goffredo Filibeck, Adrián González‐Guzmán, M. Belen Hinojosa, Ingo Kowarik, Belén Lumbierres, Ana Miguel, Rosa Pardo, Xavier Pons, Encarna Rodríguez‐García

    Increasing urbanization worldwide calls for more sustainable urban development. Simultaneously, the global biodiversity crisis accentuates the need of fostering biodiversity within cities. Policies supporting urban nature conservation need to understand people's acceptance of biodiversity‐friendly greenspace management. We surveyed more than 2,000 people in 19 European cities about their attitudes

  • Evaluating the relationships between the legal and illegal international wildlife trades
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Derek P. Tittensor; Michael Harfoot; Claire McLardy; Gregory L. Britten; Katalin Kecse‐Nagy; Bryan Landry; Willow Outhwaite; Becky Price; Pablo Sinovas; Julian Blanc; Neil D. Burgess; Kelly Malsch

    The international legal trade in wildlife can provide economic and other benefits, but when unsustainable can be a driver of population declines. This impact is magnified by the additional burden of illegal trade, yet how it covaries with legal trade remains little explored. We combined law‐enforcement time‐series of seizures of wildlife goods imported into the United States (US) and the European Union

  • Life below water: Fish spawning aggregations as bright spots for a sustainable ocean
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Simon J. Pittman; William D. Heyman

    Transient fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are critical life‐cycle events for many commercially important species, in which fish congregate in huge numbers to spawn at predictable times and places. This behavior makes them exceptionally vulnerable to fishing. The “illusion of plenty” and poor access to monitoring tools and techniques has resulted in some FSAs being overfished or unwittingly eliminated

  • Motivations for (non‐)compliance with conservation rules by small‐scale resource users
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Rodrigo Oyanedel; Stefan Gelcich; E.J. Milner‐Gulland

    Understanding compliance with conservation rules is key for biodiversity conservation. Here, we assess compliance and its underlying motivations in a small‐scale fishery in Chile. We adapt a framework originally developed for forestry to unpack compliance motivations at within‐individual and between‐individuals levels while accounting for contextual factors. We find that 92–100% fishers comply with

  • Issue Information
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-29

    Cover description: Wild populations of the western honeybee Apis mellifera were widely assumed as extinct in Europe. However, recent fieldwork studies revealed the use of tree cavities by wild honeybee colonies in European forests. Here is presented a honeybee colony in an old black woodpecker cavity in the beech forests of the Biosphere Reserve Swabian Alb (Germany). This highlights the conservation

  • We have a steak in it: Eliciting interventions to reduce beef consumption and its impact on biodiversity
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Matthew J. Selinske; Fiona Fidler; Ascelin Gordon; Georgia E. Garrard; Alexander M. Kusmanoff; Sarah A. Bekessy

    Beef production is a major driver of biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions globally, and multiple studies recommend reducing beef production and consumption. Although there have been significant efforts from the biodiversity conservation sector toward reducing beef‐production impacts, there has been comparatively much less engagement in reducing beef consumption. As a first step to address

  • Coloring and size influence preferences for imaginary animals, and can predict actual donations to species‐specific conservation charities
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Polly Curtin, Sarah Papworth

    As conservation has limited funds, numerous studies have identified aesthetic characteristics of successful flagship species which generate donations and conservation. However, prior information about species can also impact human preferences, and may covary with animal appearance, leading to different conclusions about which species will be most effective. To separate these two factors, we use images

  • Emerging illegal wildlife trade issues: A global horizon scan
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Nafeesa Esmail, Bonnie C. Wintle, Michael t Sas‐Rolfes, Andrea Athanas, Colin M. Beale, Zara Bending, Ran Dai, Michael Fabinyi, Sarah Gluszek, Cathy Haenlein, Lauren A. Harrington, Amy Hinsley, Kennedy Kariuki, Jack Lam, Matthew Markus, Kumar Paudel, Sofiya Shukhova, William J. Sutherland, Diogo Verissimo, Yifu Wang, John Waugh, Jon H. Wetton, Catherine Workman, Joss Wright, Eleanor J. Milner‐Gulland

    Illegal wildlife trade is gaining prominence as a threat to biodiversity, but addressing it remains challenging. To help inform proactive policy responses in the face of uncertainty, in 2018 we conducted a horizon scan of significant emerging issues. We built upon existing iterative horizon scanning methods, using an open and global participatory approach to evaluate and rank issues from a diverse

  • The need for a more inclusive science of elephant conservation
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Lin Cassidy; Jonathan Salerno

    Largely absent from the current scientific dialog is recognition of which voices should contribute to decisions on the future of Africa's elephants, particularly those living in the Kavango‐Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area. We argue that elephant conservation policy must take into account the voices of the people bearing the cost of living with wildlife, as well as the nations with the responsibility

  • Integrating oceans into climate policy: Any green new deal needs a splash of blue
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Steven J. Dundas; Arielle S. Levine; Rebecca L. Lewison; Angee N. Doerr; Crow White; Aaron W. E. Galloway; Corey Garza; Elliott L. Hazen; Jacqueline Padilla‐Gamiño; Jameal F. Samhouri; Ana Spalding; Adrian Stier; J. Wilson White

    Recent warnings from scientists suggest there is limited time to enact policies to avert wide‐ranging ecological and social damage from climate change. In the United States, discussions about comprehensive national policies to avert climate change have begun, with “Green New Deal” proposals and climate plans put forth by members of Congress and presidential candidates. Oceans are largely absent or

  • The past and future role of conservation science in saving biodiversity
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    David R Williams, Andrew Balmford, David S Wilcove

    Global biodiversity losses continue despite tremendous growth in the volume of conservation science and many local successes. Research that can achieve conservation science's aims—arresting declines in biodiversity and preventing extinctions—is therefore of ever greater importance. Here, we ask whether conservation science, as currently performed, is progressing in such a way as to maximize its impact

  • Biodiversity policy beyond economic growth
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Iago Otero, Katharine N. Farrell, Salvador Pueyo, Giorgos Kallis, Laura Kehoe, Helmut Haberl, Christoph Plutzar, Peter Hobson, Jaime García‐Márquez, Beatriz Rodríguez‐Labajos, Jean‐Louis Martin, Karl‐Heinz Erb, Stefan Schindler, Jonas Nielsen, Teuta Skorin, Josef Settele, Franz Essl, Erik Gómez‐Baggethun, Lluís Brotons, Wolfgang Rabitsch, François Schneider, Guy Pe'er

    Increasing evidence—synthesized in this paper—shows that economic growth contributes to biodiversity loss via greater resource consumption and higher emissions. Nonetheless, a review of international biodiversity and sustainability policies shows that the majority advocate economic growth. Since improvements in resource use efficiency have so far not allowed for absolute global reductions in resource

  • Toward a climate‐informed North American protected areas network: Incorporating climate‐change refugia and corridors in conservation planning
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Diana Stralberg, Carlos Carroll, Scott E. Nielsen

    Global and national commitments to slow biodiversity loss by expanding protected area networks also provide opportunities to evaluate conservation priorities in the face of climate change. Using recently developed indicators of climatic macrorefugia, environmental diversity, and corridors, we conducted a systematic, climate‐informed prioritization of conservation values across North America. We explicitly

  • The elephant in the room: Madagascar's rosewood stocks and stockpiles
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Lucienne Wilmé, John L. Innes, Derek Schuurman, Bruno Ramamonjisoa, Marion Langrand, Charles V. Barber, Rhett A. Butler, George Wittemyer, Patrick O. Waeber

    To prevent the illegal trade in wild species, stock management is critical given stocks function as a buffer to supply chains during lean periods or as a mechanism for market speculation. The Madagascar government with backing by the World Bank recently promoted the sale of confiscated rosewood to reach a zero‐stocks situation. To better assess options, we contrast the risks and rewards of four stock

  • Marine biodiversity offsets: Pragmatic approaches toward better conservation outcomes
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Céline Jacob, Jan‐Willem van Bochove, Suzanne Livingstone, Thomas White, John Pilgrim, Leon Bennun

    Increasing exploitation of marine natural resources and expansion of energy infrastructure, shipping, and aquaculture across the oceans are placing increased pressure on marine life. Biodiversity offsets, as the last stage of the mitigation hierarchy, provide an opportunity to promote a more sustainable basis for development by addressing residual impacts and achieving “no net loss” for biodiversity

  • Achieving cost‐effective landscape‐scale forest restoration through targeted natural regeneration
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Renato Crouzeilles, Hawthorne L. Beyer, Lara M. Monteiro, Rafael Feltran-Barbieri, Ana C. M. Pessôa, Felipe S. M. Barros, David B. Lindenmayer, Eric D. S. M. Lino, Carlos E. V. Grelle, Robin L. Chazdon, Marcelo Matsumoto, Marcos Rosa, Agnieszka E. Latawiec, Bernardo B. N. Strassburg

    High costs of tree planting are a barrier to meeting global forest restoration targets. Natural forest regeneration is more cost‐effective than tree planting, but its potential to foster restoration at scale is poorly understood. We predict, map, and quantify natural regeneration potential within 75.5 M ha of deforested lands in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Of 34.1 M ha (26.4%) of current forest

  • Accelerating the monitoring of global biodiversity: Revisiting the sampled approach to generating Red List Indices
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Sérgio Henriques, Monika Böhm, Ben Collen, Jennifer Luedtke, Michael Hoffmann, Craig Hilton‐Taylor, Pedro Cardoso, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Robin Freeman

    Given the current biodiversity crisis, pragmatic approaches to detect global conservation trends across a broad range of taxa are critical. A sampled approach to the Red List Index (RLI) was proposed, as many groups are highly speciose. However, a decade after its conception, the recommended 900 species sample has only been implemented in six groups and trend data are available for none, potentially

  • The impact of paying for forest conservation on perceived tenure security in Ecuador
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Kelly W Jones, Nicolle Etchart, Margaret Holland, Lisa Naughton-Treves, Rodrigo Arriagada

    We study the impact of Ecuador's national forest conservation incentives program on reported land conflicts. Data come from a survey of >900 households located within 49 indigenous and Afro‐Ecuadorian communities holding communal conservation contracts. We use quasi‐experimental methods to test for relationships between program participation and changes in land conflicts. Respondents reported that

  • Shark fin trade bans and sustainable shark fisheries
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Francesco Ferretti, David M. P. Jacoby, Mariah O. Pfleger, Timothy D. White, Felix Dent, Fiorenza Micheli, Andrew A. Rosenberg, Larry B. Crowder, Barbara A. Block

    The U.S. Congress is currently discussing the Shark Fin Sales Elimination Act to eliminate shark fin trade at the federal level. This bill was introduced in 2017 and has been proceeding very slowly in Congress because of mixed reviews from the scientific community. Debate exists on whether shark conservation and management are effectively addressed with tightened trade controls for imported shark products

  • Low fuel cost and rising fish price threaten coral reef wilderness
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Fraser A. Januchowski‐Hartley, Laurent Vigliola, Eva Maire, Michel Kulbicki, David Mouillot

    Wilderness areas offer unparalleled ecosystem conditions. However, growing human populations and consumption are among factors that drive encroachment on these areas. Here, we explore the threat of small‐scale fisheries to wilderness reefs by developing a framework and modeling fluctuations in fishery range with fuel costs and fish prices. We modeled biomass of four fishery groups across the New Caledonian

  • Integral chain management of wildlife diseases
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    An Martel, Mireia Vila‐Escale, Daniel Fernández‐Giberteau, Albert Martinez‐Silvestre, Stefano Canessa, Sarah Van Praet, Pep Pannon, Koen Chiers, Albert Ferran, Moira Kelly, Mariona Picart, Dolors Piulats, Zhimin Li, Viviana Pagone, Laia Pérez‐Sorribes, Carolina Molina, Aïda Tarragó‐Guarro, Roser Velarde‐Nieto, Francesc Carbonell, Elena Obon, Diego Martínez‐Martínez, Daniel Guinart, Ricard Casanovas

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has caused the most prominent loss of vertebrate diversity ever recorded, which peaked in the 1980s. Recent incursion by its sister species B. salamandrivorans in Europe raised the alarm for a new wave of declines and extinctions in western Palearctic urodeles. The European Commission has responded by restricting amphibian trade. However, private amphibian

  • Fishing restrictions and remoteness deliver conservation outcomes for Indonesia's coral reef fisheries
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Stuart J. Campbell, Emily S. Darling, Shinta Pardede, Gabby Ahmadia, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Amkieltiela, Estradivari, Eva Maire

    Coral reef fisheries depend on reef fish biomass to support ecosystem functioning and sustainable fisheries. Here, we evaluated coral reefs across 4,000 km of the Indonesian archipelago to reveal a large gradient of biomass, from <100 kg/ha to >17,000 kg/ha. Trophic pyramids characterized by planktivore dominance emerged at high biomass, suggesting the importance of pelagic pathways for reef productivity

  • Fish distributions reveal discrepancies between zonal attachment and quota allocations
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Paul G. Fernandes, Niall G. Fallon

    The oceans’ fisheries contribute to human wellbeing by providing essential nutrients, employment, and income. Changes in fish distribution, due to climate change or stock expansion, jeopardize conservation objectives because fishers catch more than is allocated as quota. Quotas, or catch shares, should, therefore, correspond to the share of the fish stock biomass present within a country's Exclusive

  • Subsidizing extinction?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Jessica Dempsey, Tara G Martin, U. Rashid Sumaila

    In 2010 world governments agreed to eliminate, phase out or reform incentives that harm biodiversity by 2020. Yet few governments have even identified such incentives, never mind taking action on them. While some subsidies are well studied, such as in fisheries and fossil fuel production, there is an urgent need for the conservation community to study the potential effects a broader array of subsidies

  • Implications of zero‐deforestation commitments: Forest quality and hunting pressure limit mammal persistence in fragmented tropical landscapes
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Nicolas J. Deere, Gurutzeta Guillera‐Arroita, Philip J. Platts, Simon L. Mitchell, Esther L. Baking, Henry Bernard, Jessica K. Haysom, Glen Reynolds, Dave J. I. Seaman, Zoe G. Davies, Matthew J. Struebig

    Zero‐deforestation commitments seek to decouple agricultural production and forest loss to improve prospects for biodiversity. However, the effectiveness of methods designed to meet these commitments is poorly understood. In a highly fragmented tropical landscape dominated by oil palm, we tested the capacity for the High Carbon Stock (HCS) Approach to prioritize forest remnants that sustain mammal

  • How feasible are global forest restoration commitments?
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Matthew E. Fagan, J. Leighton Reid, Margaret B. Holland, Justin G. Drew, Rakan A. Zahawi

    Numerous countries have made voluntary commitments to conduct forest landscape restoration over millions of hectares of degraded land in the coming decade. We consider the relative likelihood these countries will achieve their restoration commitments. Across countries, the area committed to restoration increased with existing forest and plantation area, but was inversely related to development status

  • Digital conservation in biosphere reserves: Earth observations, social media, and nature's cultural contributions to people
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ana Sofia Vaz, Ricardo A. Moreno‐Llorca, João F. Gonçalves, Joana R. Vicente, Pablo F. Méndez, Eloy Revilla, Luis Santamaria, Francisco J. Bonet‐García, João P. Honrado, Domingo Alcaraz‐Segura

    In the “digital conservation” age, big data from Earth observations and from social media have been increasingly used to tackle conservation challenges. Here, we combined information from those two digital sources in a multimodel inference framework to identify, map, and predict the potential for nature's cultural contributions to people in two contrasting UNESCO biosphere reserves: Doñana and Sierra

  • Synthesis of wild orchid trade and demography provides new insight on conservation strategies
    Conserv. Lett. (IF 6.766) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Tamara Ticktin, Demetria Mondragón, Leonel Lopez‐Toledo, Daniela Dutra‐Elliott, Ernesto Aguirre‐León, Mariana Hernández‐Apolinar

    Illegal wildlife trade represents a global conservation priority, but the booming illegal trade in wild plants remains understudied. We use the Mexican orchid trade to illustrate an interdisciplinary approach to provide novel insight on conservation strategies and policies. We synthesize studies of orchid markets, national orchid confiscation records, CITES registers, and global population dynamics

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