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  • Plant–plant facilitation increases with reduced phylogenetic relatedness along an elevation gradient
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Milen Duarte; Miguel Verdú; Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Ramiro O. Bustamante

    Environmental conditions can modify the intensity and sign of ecological interactions. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that facilitation becomes more important than competition under stressful conditions. To properly test this hypothesis, it is necessary to account for all (not a subset of) interactions occurring in the communities and consider that species do not interact at random but

  • Stochastic predation exposes prey to predator pits and local extinction
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    T.J. Clark; Jon S. Horne; Mark Hebblewhite; Angela D. Luis

    Understanding how predators affect prey populations is a fundamental goal for ecologists and wildlife managers. A well‐known example of regulation by predators is the predator pit, where two alternative stable states exist and prey can be held at a low density equilibrium by predation if they are unable to pass the threshold needed to attain a high density equilibrium. While empirical evidence for

  • First measurements of field metabolic rate in wild juvenile fishes show strong thermal sensitivity but variations between sympatric ecotypes
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Ming‐Tsung Chung; Kris‐Emil Mose Jørgensen; Clive N. Trueman; Halvor Knutsen; Per Erik Jorde; Peter Grønkjær

    The relationship between physiology and temperature has a large influence on population‐level responses to climate change. In natural settings, direct thermal effects on metabolism may be exaggerated or offset by behavioural responses influencing individual energy balance. Drawing on a newly developed proxy, we provide the first estimates of the thermal performance curve of field metabolism in a wild

  • Seasonal time constraints shape life history, physiology and behaviour independently, and decouple a behavioural syndrome in a damselfly
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Nedim Tüzün; Beste Başak Savaşçı; Robby Stoks

    The integration of traits into 'syndromes' has been suggested as a useful framework to advance insights in trait responses to environmental stressors. Yet, how stressors shape the consistency (‘repeatability’) of traits and their covariation at the individual level remains debated. We studied how seasonal time constraints shape trait repeatability and integration of life‐history, behavioural, and physiological

  • How competitive intransitivity and niche overlap affect spatial coexistence
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Yinghui Yang; Cang Hui

    Competitive intransitivity is mostly considered outside the main body of coexistence theories that rely primarily on the role of niche overlap and differentiation. How the interplay of competitive intransitivity and niche overlap jointly affects species coexistence has received little attention. Here, we consider a rock‐paper‐scissors competition system where interactions between species can represent

  • Environmental controls on African herbivore responses to landscapes of fear
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Andrew B. Davies; Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt; Craig J. Tambling; Elizabeth le Roux; Nicholas Vaughn; Dave J. Druce; David G. Marneweck; Gregory P. Asner

    Herbivores balance forage acquisition with the need to avoid predation, often leading to trade‐offs between forgoing resources to avoid areas of high predation risk, or tolerating increased risk in exchange for improved forage. The outcome of these decisions is likely to change with varying resource levels, with herbivores altering their response to predation risk across heterogeneous landscapes. Such

  • Below‐ and aboveground traits explain local abundance, and regional, continental and global occurrence frequencies of grassland plants
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Tom Lachaise; Joana Bergmann; Matthias C. Rillig; Mark van Kleunen

    Plants vary widely in how common or rare they are, but whether commonness of species is associated with functional traits is still debated. This might partly be because commonness can be measured at different spatial scales, and because most studies focus solely on aboveground functional traits.

  • Limits to compensatory responses to altered phenology in amphibian larvae
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Pablo Burraco; Anssi Laurila; Germán Orizaola

    Changes in phenology are among the most pervasive effects of current climate change. Modifications in the timing of life‐cycle events can affect the behavior, physiology and life‐history of wildlife. However, organisms can develop compensatory strategies in order to reduce the costs of phenological alterations. Here, we examine the extent and limits of compensatory developmental responses in amphibian

  • Antipredator tactics: a kin‐selection benefit for defensive spines in coral catfish?
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Richard Shine; Vinay Udyawer; Claire Goiran

    Morphological features that impair a predator's ability to consume a prey item may benefit individual prey; but what of features that prolong prey‐handling but do not enhance prey survival? For example, a striped eel catfish Plotosus lineatus will be fatally envenomated if struck by its specialist predator, the greater sea snake Hydrophis major. Nonetheless, the catfish typically erects long, toxic

  • Positive indirect effects of top‐predators on the behaviour and survival of juvenile fishes
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Maria del Mar Palacios; Mark I. McCormick

    Top‐predators can suppress mesopredator behaviour through risk effects. However, there is limited understanding of whether such behavioural suppression can dampen the lethal and sub‐lethal effects of mesopredators on bottom level prey. Here, we document a field experiment that examines whether the presence of top‐predator cues (visual and chemical stimuli from a coral trout) can cascade to indirectly

  • Competition as a demolition derby: why tolerating competitors is more important than suppressing them
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Daniel Z. Atwater; Ragan M. Callaway; Sa Xiao

    Tolerance and suppression are distinct components of competition among plants, and recognizing how they affect competitive outcomes is important for understanding the mechanisms and consequences of competition. We used simulations informed by experimental trials to ask whether tolerance or suppression of competitors was more important for the survival of native plants experiencing competition with

  • Ecological and evolutionary responses of an arctic plant to variation in microclimate and soil
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Niklas J. Wickander; Pil U. Rasmussen; Bryndís Marteinsdóttir; Johan Ehrlén; Ayco J. M. Tack

    The arctic and alpine regions are predicted to experience some of the highest rates of climate change, and the arctic vegetation is expected to be especially sensitive to such changes. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary responses of arctic plant species to changes in climate is therefore a key objective. Geothermal areas, where natural temperature gradients occur over small spatial scales

  • Interplay between the paradox of enrichment and nutrient cycling in food webs
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Pierre Quévreux; Sébastien Barot; Élisa Thébault

    Nutrient cycling is fundamental to ecosystem functioning. Despite recent major advances in the understanding of complex food web dynamics, food web models have so far generally ignored nutrient cycling. However, nutrient cycling is expected to strongly impact food web stability and functioning. To make up for this gap, we built an allometric and size structured food web model including nutrient cycling

  • Small invertebrate consumers produce consistent size spectra across reef habitats and climatic zones
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    K. M. Fraser; R. D. Stuart‐Smith; S. D. Ling; G. J. Edgar

    Changes in invertebrate body size‐distributions that follow loss of habitat‐forming species can potentially affect a range of ecological processes, including predation and competition. In the marine environment, small crustaceans and other mobile invertebrates (‘epifauna') represent a basal component in reef food webs, with a pivotal secondary production role that is strongly influenced by their body

  • Host–parasite dynamics set the ecological theatre for the evolution of state‐ and context‐dependent dispersal in hosts
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-26
    Jhelam N. Deshpande; Oliver Kaltz; Emanuel A. Fronhofer

    While host–parasite interactions are ubiquitous, the large‐scale consequences of parasite infections are mainly driven by the spatial context. One trait of pivotal importance for the eco‐evolutionary dynamics of such metapopulations is the spatial behaviour of hosts, that is, their dispersal. It is well established that dispersal is not a random process, rather dispersal is informed and may depend

  • Robustness of a meta‐network to alternative habitat loss scenarios
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Micaela Santos; Luciano Cagnolo; Tomas Roslin; Emmanuel F. Ruperto; María Laura Bernaschini; Diego P. Vázquez

    Studying how habitat loss affects the tolerance of ecological networks to species extinction (i.e. their robustness) is key for our understanding of the influence of human activities on natural ecosystems. With networks typically occurring as local interaction networks interconnected in space (a meta‐network), we may ask how the loss of specific habitat fragments affects the overall robustness of the

  • Exploring intraspecific variation in migratory destinations to investigate the drivers of migration
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Anne‐Sophie Bonnet‐Lebrun; Marius Somveille; Ana S.L. Rodrigues; Andrea Manica

    Various benefits (e.g. tracking of resources and of climate niche) and costs (e.g. distance travelled) are hypothesized to drive seasonal animal migrations. Until now, these potential factors have been investigated together at the species level, but migratory movements are made at the individual level, leading to intraspecific variability. Here, we use ringing/recovery data from 1308 individuals belonging

  • Mechanistic models can reveal infection pathways from prevalence data: the mysterious case of polar bears Ursus maritimus and Trichinella nativa
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Stephanie R. Penk; Korryn Bodner; Juan S. Vargas Soto; Emily S. Chenery; Alexander Nascou; Péter K. Molnár

    Parasites exhibit a diverse range of life history strategies. Transmission to a host is a key component of each life cycle but the difficulty of observing host–parasite contacts has often led to confusion surrounding transmission pathways. Given limited data on most host–parasite systems, flexible approaches are needed for disentangling the obscure transmission dynamics of these systems. Here, we develop

  • Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Julia Cooke; Yoseph Araya; Karen L. Bacon; Joanna M. Bagniewska; Lesley C. Batty; Tom R. Bishop; Moya Burns; Magda Charalambous; David R. Daversa; Liam R. Dougherty; Miranda Dyson; Adam M. Fisher; Dan Forman; Cristina Garcia; Ewan Harney; Thomas Hesselberg; Elizabeth A. John; Robert J. Knell; Kadmiel Maseyk; Alice L. Mauchline; Julie Peacock; Angelo P. Pernetta; Jeremy Pritchard; William J. Sutherland;

    We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and the role of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences.

  • Shift from short‐term competition to facilitation with drought stress is due to a decrease in long‐term facilitation
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Ghassen Chaieb; Xiangtai Wang; Chedly Abdelly; Richard Michalet

    Disentangling short‐ and long‐term neighbour effects, using both removal and observational methods within a single experiment, has strongly improved our understanding of the driving mechanisms of plant–plant interactions. However, there has been no attempt to assess two important underlying processes of their changes along gradients, either environmental‐severity (changes in target performance without

  • A latent process model approach to improve the utility of indicator species
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Jill Fleming; Chris Sutherland; Sean C. Sterrett; Evan H. Campbell Grant

    The state of an ecosystem is governed by dynamic biotic and abiotic processes, which can only be partially observed. Costs associated with measuring each component limit the feasibility of comprehensive assessments of target ecosystems. Instead, indicator species are recommended as a surrogate index. While this is an attractive concept, indicator species have rarely proven to be an effective tool for

  • Tracking dispersal across a patchy landscape reveals a dynamic interaction between genotype and habitat structure
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Allan H. Edelsparre; Mark J. Fitzpatrick; Marco A. Rodríguez; Marla B. Sokolowski

    Theoretical and empirical studies often show that within populations, individuals vary in their propensity to disperse. We aspired to understand how this behavioural variation is impacted by the distribution and pattern of food patches across a landscape. In a series of experiments we examined how inter‐patch distance and the distribution of food patches influenced dispersal in wild‐type strains of

  • Individual differences in risk‐taking affect foraging across different landscapes of fear
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Philip O. M. Steinhoff; Bennet Warfen; Sissy Voigt; Gabriele Uhl; Melanie Dammhahn

    One of the strongest determinants of behavioural variation is the tradeoff between resource gain and safety. Although classical theory predicts optimal foraging under risk, empirical studies report large unexplained variation in behaviour. Intrinsic individual differences in risk‐taking behaviour might contribute to this variation. By repeatedly exposing individuals of a small mesopredator to different

  • Ant foraging strategies vary along a natural resource gradient
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Udi Segev; Katja Tielbörger; Yael Lubin; Jaime Kigel

    Food selection by foragers is sensitive to the availability of resources, which may vary along geographical gradients. Hence, selectivity of food types by foragers is expected to track these resource gradients. Here we addressed this hypothesis and asked if foraging decisions of seed‐eating ants differ along a geographic gradient of habitat productivity. The study was carried out for two years at five

  • Effect of experimental DNA demethylation on phytohormones production and palatability of a clonal plant after induction via jasmonic acid
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Vít Latzel; Zuzana Münzbergová; Jiří Skuhrovec; Ondřej Novák; Miroslav Strnad

    Many plant species protect themselves against herbivores through mechanical or chemical so‐called inducible defences (ID). These are regulated via a hormonal cascade which may be under epigenetic control and in which jasmonic acid (JA) plays a prominent role. In this study, we indirectly tested the role of DNA methylation in the production of ID and the synthesis of hormones involved in the ID signalling

  • Wave energy alters biodiversity by shaping intraspecific traits of a habitat‐forming species
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Maria L. Vozzo; Vivian R. Cumbo; Joseph R. Crosswell; Melanie J. Bishop

    The role of habitat‐forming species in promoting biodiversity is widely acknowledged to vary across environmental gradients according to the extent to which they modify resources and environmental conditions. Population‐ and individual‐level traits of habitat‐forming species that influence species interactions may vary across gradients, but the importance of this indirect effect of environmental context

  • Hormonal adjustments to future expectations impact growth and survival in juvenile fish
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Camilla Håkonsrud Jensen; Jacqueline Weidner; Jarl Giske; Sergey Budaev; Christian Jørgensen; Sigrunn Eliassen

    Evolutionary ecology often studies how environmental factors define optimal phenotypes without considering the bodily mechanisms involved in their regulation. Here we used a dynamic optimisation model to investigate optimally concerted hormonal control of the phenotype. We studied a semi‐realistic situation where hormonal control of appetite, metabolism and growth acts to prepare juvenile fish for

  • Coordination in parental effort decreases with age in a long‐lived seabird
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Samantha C. Patrick; Alexandre Corbeau; Denis Réale; Henri Weimerskirch

    Biparental care is widespread in avian species. Individuals may match the contribution of their partner, resulting in equal parental effort, or may exploit their partner, to minimise their own investment. These two hypotheses have received much theoretical and empirical attention in short‐lived species, that change mates between seasons. However, in species with persistent pair bonds, where divorce

  • Hyaenas and lions: how the largest African carnivores interact at carcasses
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Mar Amorós; José M. Gil‐Sánchez; Beatriz de las N. López‐Pastor; Marcos Moleón

    The study of the competitive interactions between predators has traditionally been approached within the context of predatory behavior. By using a quasi‐experimental, non‐intrusive approach, we go beyond the classical view that predators only compete for living prey and disentangle the mechanisms of exploitative and interference competition between two charismatic apex predators, lions Panthera leo

  • Local and regional drivers influence how aquatic community diversity, resistance and resilience vary in response to drying
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Romain Sarremejane; Judy England; Catherine E. M. Sefton; Simon Parry; Michael Eastman; Rachel Stubbington

    Disturbance events govern how the biodiversity of ecological communities varies in both space and time. In freshwater ecosystems, there is evidence that local and regional‐scale drivers interact to influence ecological responses to drying disturbances. However, most research provides temporal snapshots at the local scale, whereas few studies encompass a gradient of drying severity spanning multiple

  • Positive tree diversity effect on fine root biomass: via density dependence rather than spatial root partitioning
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Weixian Zeng; Wenhua Xiang; Bo Zhou; Shuai Ouyang; Yelin Zeng; Liang Chen; Grégoire T. Freschet; Oscar J. Valverde‐Barrantes; Alexandru Milcu

    The importance of species richness to ecosystem functioning and services is a central tenet of biological conservation. However, most of our theory and mechanistic understanding is based on diversity found aboveground. Our study sought to better understand the relationship between diversity and belowground function by studying root biomass across a plant diversity gradient. We collected soil cores

  • Data collected by fruit body‐ and DNA‐based survey methods yield consistent species‐to‐species association networks in wood‐inhabiting fungal communities
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Sonja Saine; Otso Ovaskainen; Panu Somervuo; Nerea Abrego

    Inferring interspecific interactions indirectly from community data is of central interest in community ecology. Data on species communities can be surveyed using different methods, each of which may differ in the amount and type of species detected, and thus produce varying information on interaction networks. Since fruit bodies reflect only a fraction of the wood‐inhabiting fungal diversity, there

  • Interaction of climate change with effects of conspecific and heterospecific density on reproduction
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Anders Pape Møller; Javier Balbontín; André A. Dhondt; Frank Adriaensen; Alexandr Artemyev; Jerzy Bańbura; Emilio Barba; Clotilde Biard; Jacques Blondel; Jean‐Charles Bouvier; Jordi Camprodon; Francesco Cecere; Motti Charter; Mariusz Cichoń; Camillo Cusimano; Anna Dubiec; Marcel Eens; Tapio Eeva; Peter N. Ferns; Jukka T. Forsman; Aya Goldshtein; Anne E. Goodenough; Andrew G. Gosler; Lars Gustafsson;

    We studied the relationship between temperature and the coexistence of great tit Parus major and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, breeding in 75 study plots across Europe and North Africa. We expected an advance in laying date and a reduction in clutch size during warmer springs as a general response to climate warming and a delay in laying date and a reduction in clutch size during warmer winters due

  • Marine regime shifts impact synchrony of deep‐sea fish growth in the northeast Atlantic
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Susanne E. Tanner; Eva Giacomello; Gui M. Menezes; Alice Mirasole; João Neves; Vera Sequeira; Rita P. Vasconcelos; Ana Rita Vieira; John R. Morrongiello

    The complexity and spatio–temporal scale of populations’ dynamics influence how populations respond to large‐scale ecological pressures. Detecting and attributing synchrony (i.e. temporally coincident fluctuations in populations’ parameters) is key as synchronous populations can become more vulnerable to stochastic events that can affect the viability of harvest and have profound consequences to community

  • Substantial plasticity of reproduction and parental care in response to local resource availability in a wild clownfish population
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Tina A. Barbasch; Theresa Rueger; Maya Srinivasan; Marian Y. L. Wong; Geoffrey P. Jones; Peter M. Buston

    Plasticity, the capacity of individuals to respond to changing environments by modifying traits, may be critically important for population persistence by allowing for adaptive responses on shorter timescales than genetic change. Here, we use the clown anemonefish Amphiprion percula, whose access to resources is constrained by their anemones, to test the role of plasticity in generating variation in

  • Tropical cyclones and island area shape species abundance distributions of local tree communities
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Thomas Ibanez; Gunnar Keppel; Cláudia Baider; Chris Birkinshaw; F. B. Vincent Florens; Melinda Laidlaw; Christophe Menkes; Narayanaswamy Parthasarathy; Muthu Rajkumar; Fidy Ratovoson; Ladan Rasingam; Ludovic Reza; Shin‐ichiro Aiba; Edward L. Webb; Runguo Zang; Philippe Birnbaum

    Species abundance distributions (SADs) characterise the distribution of individuals among species. SADs have rarely been explored on islands and the ecological processes shaping SADs are still not fully understood. Notably, the relative importance of disturbance regime in shaping plant SADs remains poorly known. We investigate the relative importance of disturbance regime and island geography on the

  • Ecosystem size shapes antipredator trait evolution in estuarine threespine stickleback
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Ben A. Wasserman; Antoine Paccard; Travis M. Apgar; Simone Des Roches; Rowan D. H. Barrett; Andrew P. Hendry; Eric P. Palkovacs

    Ecosystem size is known to influence both community structure and ecosystem processes. Less is known about the evolutionary consequences of ecosystem size. A few studies have shown that ecosystem size shapes the evolution of trophic diversity by shaping habitat heterogeneity, but the effects of ecosystem size on antipredator trait evolution have not been explored. Ecosystem size may impact antipredator

  • Habitat deterioration relaxes resource competition and sexual selection in the threespine stickleback
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Eva Henriksson; Ulrika Candolin

    The operation of sexual selection depends on ecological conditions. Thus, changes in environmental conditions because of human activities can alter the strength and direction of sexual selection, with implications for evolutionary trajectories and the viability of populations. We show that aquatic algal blooms can relax the operation of sexual selection by influencing which males are available to attract

  • Extreme and variable environmental temperatures are linked to reduction of social network cohesiveness in a highly social passerine
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Margaux Rat; Hugo Mathe‐Hubert; Andrew E. McKechnie; Cedric Sueur; Susan J. Cunningham

    Organisms living in hot, arid environments face important risks associated with hyperthermia and dehydration which are expected to become more severe with climate change. To mitigate these risks, individuals often modify behaviour, e.g. reducing activity and seeking shade. These behavioural modifications may affect interactions between individuals, with consequences for the social structure of groups

  • The degree of spatial variation relative to temporal variation influences evolution of dispersal
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Charlotte Sophie Sieger; Thomas Hovestadt

    In the face of ongoing global climate and land use change, organisms have multiple possibilities to cope with the modification of their environment. The two main possibilities are to either adapt locally or disperse to a more suitable habitat. The evolution of both local adaptation and dispersal interacts and can be influenced by the spatial and temporal variation (of e.g. temperature or precipitation)

  • Infected or informed? Social structure and the simultaneous transmission of information and infectious disease
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Julian C. Evans, Matthew J. Silk, Neeltje J. Boogert, David J. Hodgson

    Social interactions present opportunities for both information and infection to spread through populations. Social learning is often proposed as a key benefit of sociality, while infectious disease spread are proposed as a major cost. Multiple empirical and theoretical studies have demonstrated the importance of social structure for the transmission of either information or harmful pathogens and parasites

  • The island syndrome hypothesis is only partially validated in two rodent species in an inland–island system
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-25
    Tristan Juette; Dany Garant; Joël W. Jameson; Denis Réale

    According to the island syndrome and island rule hypotheses, island isolation and reduced area lead to phenotypic shifts in ecologically relevant traits in insular populations compared to mainland ones. These hypotheses have been built up with oceanic islands in mind or islands where isolation is high and colonization rate relatively limited. This set of hypotheses, however, may not be applicable to

  • Community‐wide seed dispersal distances peak at low levels of specialisation in size‐structured networks
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Marjorie C. Sorensen; Isabel Donoso; Eike Lena Neuschulz; Matthias Schleuning; Thomas Mueller

    Network approaches provide insight into the complex web of interspecific interactions that structure ecological communities. However, because data on the functional outcomes of ecological networks are very rarely available, the effect of network structure on ecosystem functions, such as seed dispersal, is largely unknown. Here, we develop a new approach that is able to link interaction networks to

  • Central place foraging drives niche partitioning in seabirds
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Mark Jessopp; Gavin E. Arneill; Milaja Nykänen; Ashley Bennison; Emer Rogan

    When species coexist, it is expected that they will reduce competition through niche partitioning or spatial segregation. We investigated the importance of niche partitioning versus spatial segregation across a seabird community where food and foraging constraints vary seasonally. Spatial clustering of seabird density in the western Irish Sea occurred in both seasons, with hotspots of seabird occurrence

  • Non‐trophic key players in aquatic ecosystems: a mesocosm experiment
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Eric Puche; Ferenc Jordán; María A. Rodrigo; Carmen Rojo

    The trophic network (TN) has been well stablished, and recently knowledge concerning non‐trophic relationships (NTRs) is receiving increasing attention. Although NTRs can influence trophic ones, network models, including both types of interactions (multi‐interaction network, IN) and changes in the role of nodes when NTRs are added to TN, are scarce. To evaluate the role of NTRs in freshwater shallow

  • Determinants of ecosystem stability in a diverse temperate forest
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Jiri Dolezal; Pavel Fibich; Jan Altman; Jan Leps; Shigeru Uemura; Koichi Takahashi; Toshihiko Hara

    Understanding how diversity affects ecosystem stability is crucial for predicting the consequences of continued habitat and biodiversity loss on ecosystem functions and services. Long‐term productivity stability in plant communities is often associated with greater species, phylogenetic or functional diversity, more complex size and age structures, or higher asynchrony in species fluctuations (compensatory

  • Urbanization drives an early spring for plants but not for pollinators
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Alessandro Fisogni; Nina Hautekèete; Yves Piquot; Marion Brun; Cédric Vanappelghem; Denis Michez; François Massol

    Urbanization is one of the major threats to wild plants and pollinators, and its global increase demands a better understanding of the mechanism driving its negative impact. Urban warming and altered local environmental conditions have the potential to affect the timing of flowering and of pollinator activity. While previous evidence has shown that plant phenology tends to advance in urban areas, little

  • Relationship between individual metabolic rate and patch departure behaviour: evidence from aquatic gastropods
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Francesco Cozzoli; Milad Shokri; Giovanna Ligetta; Mario Ciotti; Vojsava Gjoni; Vanessa Marrocco; Fabio Vignes; Alberto Basset

    Individual energy requirements are tightly related to individual resource use and by extension of space‐use patterns and other traits at higher levels of the ecological hierarchy. However, there is still little experimental evidence linking individual energetics and space‐use behaviour. Individual energy requirements scale mainly with body size and temperature, but these do not explain all individual

  • Fifty years of European ungulate dietary studies: a synthesis
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Robert Spitzer; Annika Felton; Marietjie Landman; Navinder J. Singh; Fredrik Widemo; Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt

    Over recent decades, ungulate populations across Europe have undergone a rapid recovery. While this constitutes a conservation success, there is increasing concern about their impacts on shared resources with humans. Understanding ungulate food choices is crucial for predicting such impacts. Numerous studies have focused on single species or communities at narrow spatial scales. Here, we used 265 published

  • Thermodynamics of soil organic matter decomposition in semi‐natural oak (Quercus) woodland in southwest Ireland
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-04
    Nieves Barros; Irene Fernandez; Ken A. Byrne; A. Jonay Jovani‐Sancho; Eva Ros‐Mangriñan; Lee D. Hansen

    The evolution of soil terrestrial ecosystems is a subject with difficulties to define their maturity and evolutionary state. In the last century, thermodynamics was one of the options considered by ecologists for that goal. Difficulties in quantifying the thermodynamic parameters needed by the evolutionary theories caused that this subject has been practically locked since the end of the last century

  • Long‐term mechanistic hindcasts predict the structure of experimentally‐warmed intertidal communities
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-04
    Diana E. LaScala‐Gruenewald; Mark W. Denny

    Increases in global temperatures are expected to have dramatic effects on the abundance and distribution of species in the coming years. Intertidal organisms, which already experience temperatures at or beyond their thermal limits, provide a model system in which to investigate these effects. We took advantage of a previous study in which experimental plates were deployed in the intertidal zone and

  • Spatial scale, neighbouring plants and variation in plant volatiles interactively determine the strength of host–parasitoid relationships
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yavanna Aartsma, Silvia Pappagallo, Wopke van der Werf, Marcel Dicke, Felix J. J. A. Bianchi, Erik H. Poelman

    Species‐specific responses to the environment can moderate the strength of interactions between plants, herbivores and parasitoids. However, the ways in which characteristics of plants, such as genotypic variation in herbivore induced volatiles (HIPVs) that attract parasitoids, affect trophic interactions in different contexts of plant patch size and plant neighbourhood is not well understood. We conducted

  • Clonal integration enhances performance of an invasive grass
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    James A. Estrada; Chris H. Wilson; S. Luke Flory

    While many clonal plants are highly successful invaders, the contribution of clonal integration (i.e. the translocation of resources among ramets) to invasion is often unknown. We used model simulations to ask if clonal integration would facilitate photosynthate translocation, if the performance of daughter ramets might be enhanced by clonal integration, and if shaded ramets benefited relatively more

  • Primary determinants of communities in deadwood vary among taxa but are regionally consistent
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Jörg Müller; Mike Ulyshen; Sebastian Seibold; Marc Cadotte; Anne Chao; Claus Bässler; Sebastian Vogel; Jonas Hagge; Ingmar Weiß; Petr Baldrian; Vojtěch Tláskal; Simon Thorn

    The evolutionary split between gymnosperms and angiosperms has far‐reaching implications for the current communities colonizing trees. The inherent characteristics of dead wood include its role as a spatially scattered habitat of plant tissue, transient in time. Thus, local assemblages in deadwood forming a food web in a necrobiome should be affected not only by dispersal ability but also by host tree

  • Selective disappearance of frail juveniles: consequences for understanding social dominance in adult male elephant seals
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Kyle J. Lloyd; W. Chris Oosthuizen; Rémi Fay; Marthán N. Bester; P. J. Nico de Bruyn

    Individual heterogeneity is variation in trait expression observed among individuals of a population. Individual heterogeneity in the pre‐breeder stage of development is of importance given its eventual contribution to the breeding population's overall reproductive performance. Yet most studies do not consider the role of individual heterogeneity in pre‐breeders when investigating population processes

  • Leaf traits can be used to predict rates of litter decomposition
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Marc V. Rosenfield; Jason K. Keller; Catrina Clausen; Kimberlee Cyphers; Jennifer L. Funk

    Strong relationships exist between litter chemistry traits and rates of litter decomposition. However, leaf traits are more commonly found in online trait databases than litter traits and fewer studies have examined how well leaf traits predict litter decomposition rates. Furthermore, while bulk leaf nitrogen (N) content is known to regulate litter decomposition, few studies have explored the importance

  • The stronger, the better – trait hierarchy is driving alien species interaction
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Viktoria Ferenc; Christine S. Sheppard

    Multiple invaders commonly co‐occur in native ecosystems and in some cases have been shown to facilitate each other thus exacerbating impacts on native species, while in other cases one invader may reduce the impact of another due to competition. We therefore aimed at identifying mechanisms driving alien species interactions. We conducted a common garden experiment investigating all pairwise combinations

  • Predator‐dependent functional responses alter the coexistence and indirect effects among prey that share a predator
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Kyle E. Coblentz, John P. DeLong

    Predator functional responses describe predator feeding rates as a function of prey abundance and are central to predator–prey theory. Despite ample evidence that functional responses also depend on predator abundance, theory incorporating predator‐dependent functional responses has focused almost exclusively on specialist predator–prey pairs or linear food chains. This leaves a large gap in our knowledge

  • Bacterial phylogeny predicts volatile organic compound composition and olfactory response of an aphid parasitoid
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Tim Goelen, Islam S. Sobhy, Christophe Vanderaa, Felix Wäckers, Hans Rediers, Tom Wenseleers, Hans Jacquemyn, Bart Lievens

    There is increasing evidence that microorganisms emit a wide range of volatile compounds (mVOCs, microbial volatile organic compounds) that act as insect semiochemicals, and therefore play an important role in insect behaviour. Although it is generally believed that phylogenetically closely related microbes tend to have similar phenotypic characteristics and therefore may elicit similar responses in

  • Which mechanisms are responsible for population patterns across different quality habitats? A new approach
    Oikos (IF 3.37) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Benjamin A. Belgrad; Blaine D. Griffen

    Spatial patterns in the abundance, distribution and characteristics of organisms are a fundamental feature of all ecosystems. However, achieving a mechanistic understanding of the forces behind these population patterns is a major challenge for ecologists due to the number and diversity of variables and relationships involved. Here, we developed a spatially‐explicit agent‐based model to determine the

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