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  • Do songbirds in wetlands show higher mercury bioaccumulation relative to conspecifics in non-wetland habitats?
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Rebecka Brasso, Katie Ann Rittenhouse, Virginia L. Winder

    Abstract Environmental conditions in wetlands facilitate favorable biogeochemical conditions for the conversion of inorganic mercury into methylmercury. For this reason, wetlands are increasingly classified as mercury hotspots, places where biota exhibit elevated mercury concentrations. While it is clear that wetlands play an important role in methylmercury production, factors such as geographic variation in mercury deposition, wetland type, and trophic dynamics can cause variation in mercury dynamics and bioaccumulation in biota occupying wetlands or connected to wetland trophic systems. Here, we use songbirds as bioindicators in a two-pronged approach aimed at evaluating the state of our understanding of mercury bioaccumulation by songbirds in wetland ecosystems. First, we use a case study in southeast Missouri to compare blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) occupying wetland and non-wetland habitats to test the hypothesis that songbirds in wetlands will have higher mercury bioaccumulation than those in non-wetlands. Adult tree swallows in wetlands had significantly higher blood mercury concentrations than those in non-wetlands; however, no difference between ecosystems was detected in eastern bluebirds. Second, we present a review of the current literature on mercury in songbirds in wetland ecosystems across North America. Mercury concentrations in songbirds varied among wetland types and with geographic location, often in an unpredictable manner. Mercury concentrations in songbird blood varied 3–10 fold at locations separated only by ~10 to several hundred kilometers. This magnitude of difference in blood mercury concentrations among wetlands exceeds documented differences between wetland and non-wetland ecosystems. Therefore, we caution against the automatic assumption that songbirds occupying wetlands will have higher mercury bioaccumulation than conspecifics living in other habitats.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of thermal evolution on the stoichiometric responses to nano-ZnO under warming are not general: insights from experimental evolution
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Chao Zhang, Luc De Meester, Robby Stoks

    A key challenge for ecological risk assessment of contaminants under global warming is to predict effects at higher levels of biological organisation. One approach to reach this goal is to study how contaminants and warming cause changes in body stoichiometry as these may potentially cascade through food webs. Furthermore, though contaminants typically interact with warming, how rapid adaptation to higher temperatures affects these interactions is poorly studied. Here, we examined the effects of an important contaminant (ZnO nanoparticles, nZnO) and mild warming (4 °C) on body stoichiometry (C, N, P and their ratios) of an aquatic keystone species, the water flea Daphnia magna. To evaluate whether thermal evolution impacts the effects of nZnO at higher temperatures, we compared two sets of clones from a thermal selection experiment where Daphnia were kept in outdoor mesocosms at ambient or ambient +4 °C temperatures for 2 years. Exposure to nZnO decreased key body stoichiometric ratios (C:N, C:P and a trend for N:P) while warming increased the body C:N ratio. The stoichiometric changes to nZnO and warming were mostly independent and could be partly explained by changes in the macromolecules sugars and fat. Exposure to nZnO decreased C-rich sugars contributing to a reduced %C. Warming reduced body %C due to decreased C-rich sugars and fat levels, yet warming decreased body N% even more resulting in a higher C:N ratio. The stoichiometric responses to nZnO at the higher temperature did not differ between the two sets of clones, indicating experimental thermal evolution did not change the effects of nZnO under warming. Studying the stoichiometric responses to nZnO and warming of this keystone species may provide novel insights on the toxic effects of contaminants under warming. Moreover, understanding the influence of thermal evolution on the toxicity of contaminants is important for ecological risk assessment especially in a warming world.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the thyroid status, vitellogenin, and oxidant–antioxidant balance in the Murray River rainbowfish
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ana F. Miranda, Charlene Trestrail, Sam Lekamge, Dayanthi Nugegoda

    Perfluorooctanoic acid’s (PFOA) widespread use, presence and persistence in the aquatic environment has led to an increasing number of studies focusing on its toxicological effects. In Australia, PFOA has been detected in the aquatic environment, however its effects on Australian native fauna are unknown. In this study, male Australian native fish Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) were exposed to four different concentrations of PFOA (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg L−1). Variations in thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine (T3)/Thyroxine (T4)) and the presence of vitellogenin were determined in plasma. Oxidative stress responses were evaluated in gills and liver. Exposure of male fish to PFOA resulted in altered T3/T4 ratios and the presence of vitellogenin in the plasma. Activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione- S-transferase (GST) were significantly increased in the gills and significantly reduced in the liver. Lipid peroxidation was observed in both tissues showing that vital organs could not neutralize the peroxides generated by oxidative stress resulting from exposure to PFOA. In natural populations exposed to PFOA, such hormonal disturbances can have negative effects, notably through altered capacity to respond to changes in environmental conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Quantum dots functionalized with gH625 attenuate QDs oxidative stress and lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans : a model system
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Emilia Galdiero, Antonietta Siciliano, Lucia Lombardi, Annarita Falanga, Stefania Galdiero, Francesca Martucci, Marco Guida

    Abstract Nanomaterials have revolutionized many scientific fields and are widely applied to address environmental problems and to develop novel health care strategies. However, their mechanism of action is still poorly understood. Several nanomaterials for medical applications are based on quantum dots (QDs). Despite their amazing physico-chemical properties, quantum dots display significant adverse effects. In the present study, the effects of QDs on the motor nervous system of nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans have been investigated as a non-mammalian alternative model. We also explored the possibility of modifying the toxicity of QDs by coating with a cell-penetrating peptide gH625 and thus we analysed the effects determined by QDs-gH625 complexes on the nematodes. With this work, we have demonstrated, by in vivo experiments, that the peptide gH625 is able to reduce the side effects of metallic nanoparticle making them more suitable for medical applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Compatibility of pesticides used in strawberry crops with predatory mites Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Cosmolaelaps brevistilis (Karg)
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Adriane da F. Duarte, Juliano de Bastos Pazini, Juliano Lessa Pinto Duarte, Lucas Raphael da Silva, Uemerson Silva da Cunha

    Abstract Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Cosmolaelaps brevistilis (Karg) (Acari: Laelapidae) are predatory mites of soil-inhabiting pests, mainly small insects. Fungus gnats fly species are found in greenhouse strawberry production and may be controlled with predatory mites, being important to know their compatibility with the pesticides used in strawberry crops. In this study, the compatibility of seven commercial pesticides used in strawberry cultivation with the predatory mites S. scimitus and C. brevistilis was assessed in laboratory conditions. Survival and oviposition rates were evaluated between 0.5 and 120 h after treatment (HAT). The results demonstrate that lambda-cyhalothrin treatment resulted in the lowest survival rate for both mites in the first evaluations, being moderately harmful, while spinetoran was slightly harmful to C. brevistilis. On the other hand, abamectin, azadirachtin, azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, iprodione and thiamethoxam were harmless for both mites and, oviposition rate was significantly different only at 72 and 120 HAT for S. scimitus and C. brevistilis respectively. These results may be used to develop guidelines for the adoption of selective pesticides in integrated pest management programs that conserves predatory mites.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Bald eagle mercury exposure varies with region and site elevation in New York, USA
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    C. R. DeSorbo, N. M. Burgess, P. E. Nye, J. J. Loukmas, H. A. Brant, M. E. H. Burton, C. P. Persico, D. C. Evers

    Freshwater fish in several regions of New York State (NYS) are known to contain concentrations of mercury (Hg) associated with negative health effects in wildlife and humans. We collected blood and breast feathers from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings throughout NYS, with an emphasis on the Catskill region to determine their exposure to Hg. We assessed whether habitat type (lake or river), region (Delaware–Catskill region vs. rest of NY) or sample site elevation influenced Hg concentrations in bald eagle breast feathers using ANCOVA. The model was significant and accounted for 41% of the variability in log10 breast feather Hg concentrations. Mercury concentrations in nestling breast feathers were significantly greater in the Delaware–Catskill Region (geometric mean: 14.5 µg/g dw) than in the rest of NY (7.4 µg/g, dw), and greater at nests located at higher elevations. Habitat type (river vs. lake) did not have a significant influence on breast feather Hg concentrations. Geometric mean blood Hg concentrations were significantly greater in Catskill nestlings (0.78 µg/g ww) than in those from the rest of NY (0.32 µg/g). Mercury concentrations in nestling breast feathers and especially blood samples from the Delaware–Catskill region were generally greater than those reported for most populations sampled elsewhere, including areas associated with significant Hg pollution problems. Bald eagles can serve as valuable Hg bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems of NYS, particularly given their broad statewide distribution and their tendency to nest across all major watersheds and different habitat types.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Temporal trends in fish mercury concentrations in an Adirondack Lake managed with a continual predator removal program
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Mariah S. Taylor, Charles T. Driscoll, Jesse M. Lepak, Daniel C. Josephson, Kurt J. Jirka, Clifford E. Kraft

    Abstract Mercury is a neurotoxic pollutant and contamination in remote ecosystems due to atmospheric mercury deposition coupled with watershed characteristics that influence mercury bioavailability. Biological interactions that affect mercury bioaccumulation are especially relevant as fish assemblages change in response to species introductions and lake management practices. We studied the influence of shifting food web dynamics on mercury in fisheries of Little Moose Lake in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA. Annual removal of non-native Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) has been used as a management strategy since 2000 to restore the native fish assemblage and food web in favor of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Changes in total mercury, stable carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) isotopes, and growth were evaluated for Lake Trout and Smallmouth Bass. Growth rates increased for both predators and trophic position increased for Lake Trout post-removal. Mercury concentrations in Lake Trout increased over the 16-year study period influenced by a diet shift from invertebrates to higher trophic level prey fish, regardless of increased growth. Smallmouth Bass mercury concentrations decreased with compensatory growth from a reduced population size. These contrasting trends indicate that changes in mercury deposition were not the primary driver for mercury bioaccumulation responses in Little Moose Lake. Stable isotope values changed for both predators and for several lower trophic level organisms, likely reflecting changes in nutrient cycling and/or inputs. Our findings emphasize the potential role of fisheries management on whole-lake and predatory fish responses to mercury contamination in temperate lakes.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Watershed influences on mercury in tributaries to Lake Ontario
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Joseph S. Denkenberger, Habibollah Fakhraei, Brian Branfireun, Mario Montesdeoca, Charles T. Driscoll

    Abstract Mercury (Hg) concentrations and speciation were measured in nine tributaries to Lake Ontario as part of two independent field-sampling programs. Among the study tributaries, mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.9 to 2.6 ng/L; mean dissolved Hg (THgD) ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 ng/L; mean particulate Hg (THgP) ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 ng/L; and mean methylmercury (MeHg) ranged from 0.06 to 0.14 ng/L. Watershed land cover, total suspended solids (TSS), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were evaluated as potential controls of tributary Hg. Significant relationships between THgD and DOC were limited, whereas significant relationships between THgP and TSS were common across watersheds. Total suspended solids was strongly correlated with the percentage of agricultural land in watersheds. Particle enrichment of Hg (mass Hg/mass TSS) was highly variable, but distinctly higher in US tributaries likely due to higher TSS in Canadian tributaries associated with higher urban and agricultural land cover. MeHg was largely associated with the aqueous phase, and MeHg as a fraction of THg was positively correlated to percent open water coverage in the watershed. Wetland cover was positively correlated to THg and MeHg concentrations, while urban land cover was only related to higher THgP.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Wetland water-management may influence mercury bioaccumulation in songbirds and ducks at a mercury hotspot
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Virginia L. Winder, Michael J. Anteau, Mark R. Fisher, Mary Kate Wilcox, Lawrence D. Igl, Joshua T. Ackerman

    Abstract Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative behavioral, immunological, and reproductive effects in wildlife and human populations. We examined the role of wetland water-management on mercury bioaccumulation in songbirds and ducks at Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge Complex, near Grand Forks, North Dakota USA. We assessed mercury concentrations in blood of wetland-foraging songbirds (80 common yellowthroats [Geothlypis trichas] and 14 Nelson’s sparrows [Ammospiza nelsoni]) and eggs of upland-nesting ducks (28 gadwall [Mareca strepera], 19 blue-winged teal [Spatula discors], and 13 northern shoveler [S. clypeta]) across four wetland water-management classifications. Nelson’s sparrow blood mercury concentrations were elevated (mean: 1.00 µg/g ww; 95% CL: 0.76–1.31) and similar to those reported 6 years previously. Mercury in songbird blood and duck eggs varied among wetland water-management classifications. Songbirds and ducks had 67% and 49% lower mercury concentrations, respectively, when occupying wetlands that were drawn down with water flow compared to individuals occupying isolated-depressional wetlands with no outflow. Additionally, songbirds within impounded and partially drawn-down wetland units with water flow had mercury concentrations that were 26–28% lower, respectively, than individuals within isolated-depressional wetlands with no outflow. Our results confirm that mercury concentrations in songbirds at Kellys Slough continue to be elevated and suggest that water-management could be an important tool for wetland managers to reduce bioaccumulation of mercury in birds.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mercury increase in Lake Champlain fish: links to fishery dynamics and extreme climatic events
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Mark W. Swinton, Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer

    Abstract Mercury concentrations in Lake Champlain fish increased (2011–2017) for the first time in more than two decades. The increase, however, was not consistent among species or throughout the lake. Mercury concentrations in smallmouth bass and yellow perch from the three Main Lake segments increased significantly while concentrations in the eastern portions of the lake (Northeast Arm and Malletts Bay) remained unchanged or decreased; mercury concentrations in white perch remained unchanged. Factors examined to explain the increase included: atmospheric deposition, lake temperature, chlorophyll-a, fishery dynamics, lake flooding and loading of total suspended solids (TSS). This paper examines how each factor has changed between study periods and the spatial variability associated with the change. We hypothesize fishery dynamics, flooding and TSS loading may be partially responsible for the increase in fish mercury. Both growth efficiency and biomass of fish suggest mercury concentrations would increase in the Main Lake segments and decrease in the eastern portion of the lake. Additionally, two extreme climate events in 2011 resulted in extensive flooding and a four-fold increase in annual TSS loading, both potentially increasing biotic mercury with the impact varying spatially throughout the lake. Changes to the fishery and disturbance caused by extreme climatic events have increased biotic mercury and the processes responsible need further study to identify possible future scenarios in order to better protect human and wildlife health.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dragonfly larvae as biosentinels of Hg bioaccumulation in Northeastern and Adirondack lakes: relationships to abiotic factors
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Sarah J. Nelson, Celia Y. Chen, Jeffrey S. Kahl

    Abstract Mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant, widespread in northeastern US ecosystems. Resource managers’ efforts to develop fish consumption advisories for humans and to focus conservation efforts for fish-eating wildlife are hampered by spatial variability. Dragonfly larvae can serve as biosentinels for Hg given that they are widespread in freshwaters, long-lived, exhibit site fidelity, and bioaccumulate relatively high mercury concentrations, mostly as methylmercury (88% ± 11% MeHg in this study). We sampled lake water and dragonfly larvae in 74 northeastern US lakes that are part of the US EPA Long-Term Monitoring Network, including 45 lakes in New York, 43 of which are in the Adirondacks. Aqueous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total Hg (THg) were strongly related to MeHg in lake water. Dragonfly larvae total mercury ranged from 0.016–0.918 μg/g, dw across the study area; Adirondack lakes had the minimum and maximum concentrations. Aqueous MeHg and dragonfly THg were similar between the Adirondack and Northeast regions, but a majority of lakes within the highest quartile of dragonfly THg were in the Adirondacks. Using landscape, lake chemistry, and lake morphometry data, we evaluated relationships with MeHg in lake water and THg in dragonfly larvae. Lakewater DOC and lake volume were strong predictors for MeHg in water. Dragonfly THg Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs, calculated as [dragonfly THg]:[aqueous MeHg]) increased as lake volume increased, suggesting that lake size influences Hg bioaccumulation or biomagnification. BAFs declined with increasing DOC, supporting a potential limiting effect for MeHg bioavailability with higher DOC.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A mixture of fipronil and fungicides induces alterations on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Fernanda Bevilaqua, Adrieli Sachett, Rafael Chitolina, Cristiane Garbinato, Henrique Gasparetto, Matheus Marcon, Ricieri Mocelin, Eliane Dallegrave, Greicy Conterato, Angelo Piato, Anna M. Siebel

    Pesticide commercial mixtures, including the insecticide fipronil and the fungicides pyraclostrobin and methyl-thiophanate, have been used in concomitant pest control, facilitating agricultural management. Their widespread use can lead to soil and water contamination and potentially induce damages in the ecosystem, producing toxic effects in non-target organisms. Despite their toxicological potential, their effects on behavioral and biochemical parameters are not well understood. Here we investigated the effects of the mixture of fipronil and fungicides (MFF) pyraclostrobin and methyl- thiophanate on behavioral and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in adult zebrafish. Animals exposed to the highest MFF tested concentration showed a decrease in the total distance traveled and in the number of crossings in the different zones of the tank. Furthermore, animals exposed to highest MFF tested concentration spent more time in water surface. In addition, our data showed that the exposure to this preparation promoted a decrease in non-protein thiol content as well as in catalase activity. Finally, pesticide exposure induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase/catalase ratio. Our results indicate that alterations in behavioral and oxidative parameters are involved in MFF toxicity in zebrafish. The antioxidant mechanisms analyzed were altered in concentrations that did not affect zebrafish behavior. Therefore, the assessment of oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish brains could be very useful to detect the early effects of environmental exposure to the MFF.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The effects of climate, habitat, and trophic position on methylmercury bioavailability for breeding New York songbirds
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Evan M. Adams, Amy K. Sauer, Oksana Lane, Kevin Regan, David C. Evers

    Abstract Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that affects songbird populations across a variety of ecosystems following conversion to methylmercury (MeHg)—a form of Hg with high potential for bioaccumulation and bioavailability. The amount of bioavailable MeHg in an ecosystem is a function of the amount of total Hg present as well as Hg methylation rates, which vary across the landscape in space and time, and trophic transfer. Using songbirds as an indicator of MeHg bioavailability in terrestrial ecosystems, we evaluated the role of habitat, climate, and trophic level in dictating MeHg exposure risk across a variety of ecosystems. To achieve this objective, 2243 blood Hg samples were collected from 81 passerine and near-passerine species in New York State, USA, spanning 10 different sampling regions from Long Island to western New York. Using a general linear mixed modeling framework that accounted for regional variation in sampling species composition, we found that wetland habitat area within 100 m of capture location, 50-year average of summer maximum temperatures, and trophic position inferred using stable isotope analysis were all correlated with songbird blood Hg concentrations statewide. Moreover, these patterns had a large degree of spatial variability suggesting that the drivers of MeHg bioavailability differed significantly across the state. Mercury deposition, land cover, and climate are all expected to change throughout the northeastern United States in the coming decades. Terrestrial MeHg bioavailability will likely respond to these changes. Focused research and monitoring efforts will be critical to understand how exposure risk responds to global environmental change across the landscape.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Ricinus communis as a phytoremediator of soil mineral oil: morphoanatomical and physiological traits
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Larissa Saeki Rehn, Arthur Almeida Rodrigues, Sebastião Carvalho Vasconcelos-Filho, Douglas Almeida Rodrigues, Luciana Minervina de Freitas Moura, Alan Carlos Costa, Leandro Carlos, Juliana de Fátima Sales, Jacson Zuchi, Lucas Peres Angelini, Fernando Higino de Lima Silva, Caroline Müller

    Rapid growth in the oil industry has been accompanied concomitant increases in risks of spills or leaks triggered by natural or anthropogenic causes that cause soil changes and plant damage. Bio-scavenging and phytoremediation plants are important tools for identifying pollutants and mitigating environmental damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of Ricinus communis cultivated in soils contaminated with mineral oil, and to determine the possible visual, anatomical and physiological effects. R. communis seeds were pre-germinated in individual pots containing Red Latosol contaminated with Lubrax Essential SL (15W-40) mineral oil at concentrations of 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 g kg−1. After exposure to treatments, emergency evaluations were performed, and after 45 days of cultivation, visual, morphoanatomical, physiological and oil removal effects were evaluated. There was no difference in emergence showed between treatments. Visual effects were characterized by necrosis and chlorosis formation in R. communis, evidenced on the 45th day of cultivation in all treatments tested, followed by parenchymal tissue alterations with collapsed cell formation and damage to photosynthesis with increasing doses. We found that R. communis removed up to 81% of hydrocarbons in soils, classifying it as potential phytoremediator of contaminated soils. The strong correlation between the variables suggests that R. communis can be used as an indicator of pollutant action.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Toxicity of insecticides on Neotropical stingless bees Plebeia emerina (Friese) and Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    A. C. Padilha, B. Piovesan, M. C. Morais, J. de B. Pazini, M. J. Zotti, M. Botton, A. D. Grützmacher

    Abstract Use of pesticides in agroecosystems is considered a major cause of bees diversity losses in the Neotropics, where Plebeia emerina (Friese) and Tetragonisca fiebrigi (Schwarz) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) are wild pollinators of native and crop plants. The aim of this study was to know the acute lethal toxicity of acetamiprid, malathion, phosmet and spinosad insecticides on P. emerina and T. fiebrigi. We obtained the mean concentration and mean lethal dose (LC50 and LD50) and the mean survival of workers after oral and topical exposure to insecticides, respectively. The LC50 values (ng a.i./μl of diet) and the decreasing order of toxicity for P. emerina was spinosad (4.96) > malathion (18.75) > phosmet (97.33) > acetamiprid (4204.06), and for T. fiebrigi also was spinosad (5.65) > malathion (8.39) > phosmet (53.91) > acetamiprid (9841.32), when orally exposed. The LD50 values (ng a.i./bee) and the decreasing order of toxicity for P. emerina was spinosad (1.90) > malathion (10.90) > phosmet (19.54) > acetamiprid (6216.55) and for T. fiebrigi was malathion (29.29) ≥ spinosad (29.79) > phosmet (41.95) > acetamiprid (1421.23), when topically exposed. The mean survival (hours) of contaminated bees by malathion, phosmet, and spinosad, was 11.81, 7.20, and 12.32 for P. emerina and 8.55, 7.20, and 13.34 for T. fiebrigi when orally exposed; and was 4.87, 9.87 and 11.17 for P. emerina, and 4.87, 4.76, and 19.05 for T. fiebrigi when topically exposed. Malathion, phosmet, and spinosad were highly toxic, while acetamiprid was moderately toxic. Our results indicated that the insecticides tested, mainly malathion, phosmet, and spinosad may be harmful to P. emerina and T. fiebrigi, making it essential to propose measures to minimize their impact on wild pollinators.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Melatonin alleviates lead-induced oxidative damage in safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Shahram Namdjoyan, Ali Abolhasani Soorki, Nazli Elyasi, Nader Kazemi, Mehdi Simaei

    Application of signaling molecules has gained immense importance in improving the phytoremediative capacity of plants. This study investigated the possible role of melatonin (MEL) as a signaling molecule in ameliorating lead (Pb)-induced oxidative injury in safflower seedlings. Pot grown 10-day-old safflower seedlings were exposed to 50 μM Pb (NO3)2 alone and in combination with different MEL concentrations (0–300 μM). Exposure to Pb, resulted in a severe oxidative stress, which was indicated by reducing biomass production and enhancing the level of oxidative stress markers (e.g. MDA and H2O2). Addition of exogenous MEL considerably decreased Pb uptake and its root-to-shoot translocation while, biomass production of roots, stems and leaves increased significantly. With MEL application a marked increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves and roots was noted as compared with Pb treatment alone. In leaves the activity of enzymes involved in glyoxalase system increased markedly by adding MEL to Pb-sressed plants. In response to increasing MEL treatments, the phytochelatin content of leaves increased substantially in comparison with Pb treatment alone. These findings confirmed that MEL can alleviate Pb toxicity by reducing Pb uptake and its root-to-shoot translocation along with modulating different antioxidant systems. The results also showed that despite the insignificant effect of melatonin on the improvement of Pb phytoremediation potential, the application of this signaling molecule can improve the survival of safflower in Pb-contaminated soils by stimulating antioxidant defense mechanisms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Unique diversity and functions of the arsenic-methylating microorganisms from the tailings of Shimen Realgar Mine
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Janet Victoria Ngegla, Xing Zhou, Xiaoming Chen, Xianbin Zhu, Ziwei Liu, Jilong Feng, Xian-Chun Zeng

    Microbial arsenic (As) methylation plays important roles in the As biogeochemical cycle. However, little is known about the diversity and functions of As-methylating microorganisms from the tailings of a Realgar Mine, which is characterized as containing extremely high concentrations of As. To address this issue, we collected five samples (T1–T5) from the tailings of Shimen Realgar Mine. Microcosm assays without addition of exogenous As and carbon indicated that all the five samples possess significant As-methylating activities, producing 0.8–5.7 μg/L DMAsV, and 1.1–10.7 μg/L MMAsV with an exception of T3, from which MMAsV was not detectable after 14.0 days of incubation. In comparison, addition of 20.0 mM lactate to the microcosms significantly enhanced the activities of these samples; the produced DMAsV and MMAsV are 8.0–39.7 μg/L and 5.8–38.3 μg/L, respectively. The biogenic DMAsV shows significant positive correlations with the Fe concentrations and negative correlations with the total nitrogen concentrations in the environment. A total of 63 different arsM genes were identified from the five samples, which code for new or new-type ArsM proteins, suggesting that a unique diversity of As-methylating microbes are present in the environment. The microbial community structures of the samples were significantly shaped by the environmental total organic carbon, total As contents and NO3− contents. These data help to better understand the microorganisms-catalyzed As methylation occurred in the environment with extremely high contents of As.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Honeybee survival and flight capacity are compromised by insecticides used for controlling melon pests in Brazil
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Ingrid Naiara Gomes, Kamilla Ingred Castelan Vieira, Lessando Moreira Gontijo, Helder Canto Resende

    Abstract The extensive use of insecticides can cause adverse side effects on pollinators, which negatively impact crop productivity. The pollination carried out by the honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is crucial in increasing the productivity of the melon (Cucumis melo L.). The main objective of this study was to assess if insecticides applied in the cultivation of cantaloupe melon exhibit significant levels of toxicity toward A. mellifera. We tested the toxicity of azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen, chlorantraniliprole, and imidacloprid, which are commonly sprayed to manage melon pests such as the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), the pickleworm Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) and the melonworm Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Three treatments were carried out, 0.0×, 0.1x and 1.0x the concentration recommended by the manufacturer for the control of those pests. Repellency tests, analysis of mortality through contact and ingestion, and flight tests were performed. The insecticide imidacloprid caused mortality rates above 90% in all tested exposure pathways, displaying high residue persistence on plants. Although not causing significant mortality in the ingestion test, pyriproxyfen caused significant mortality after exposure through contact, and change in flight ability. Azadirachtin caused mortality in the ingestion test and impaired the flight ability of bees, while chlorantraniliprole only impaired the flight ability. Moreover, bees were not repelled by these insecticides, suggesting that they may collect contaminated food in the field while foraging. Altogether, ecofriendly, alternative pest control options should be developed, as well as the adoption of more selective insecticides, in order to reduce the non-target effects on honeybees and guarantee their pollination services.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mercury concentrations in fish and invertebrates of the Finger Lakes in central New York, USA
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    N. Roxanna Razavi, John D. Halfman, Susan F. Cushman, Trevor Massey, Robert Beutner, John Foust, Bruce Gilman, Lisa B. Cleckner

    Deleterious health effects in humans and wildlife are associated with the consumption of fish contaminated by mercury (Hg). This study was conducted to assess Hg concentrations in biota of the Finger Lakes (New York, USA), a region where fisheries are important for the economy but where no assessment of the drivers of food web Hg dynamics exists to date. Additionally, this region is of interest for the study of Hg bioaccumulation because of the importance of agricultural land cover, which can affect lake trophic status and thus the bioavailability of methyl Hg (MeHg). The study objectives were to (1) assess if fish Hg concentrations were of concern to humans and wildlife, (2) determine if differences in biota Hg concentrations exist among lakes, and (3) assess models developed for New York State as predictors of present day Finger Lakes fish Hg concentrations. Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess predictors of fish Hg concentrations using lower trophic level MeHg concentrations, water quality, and lake and land cover characteristics. Fish concentrations were above the EPA criterion (300 ng/g wet weight, ww) in 24% of fish, but only Walleye (Sander vitreus) from Owasco Lake exceeded New York State Department of Health consumption guidelines (1000 ng/g ww). The threshold indicating biological changes within fish (500 ng/g ww) was exceeded in 11% of the individuals sampled. Significant differences were found among lakes for all fish species except Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). Notably, Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) had significantly lower Hg concentrations in Cayuga Lake compared to other Finger Lakes. This trend was not mirrored in the lower food web, as benthic invertebrates had higher MeHg concentrations in Cayuga Lake. Using models developed for New York State in 2003–2005, observed concentrations in 90% of fish were different (±200 ng/g ww) than expected. Findings from this study suggest Hg dynamics in the Finger Lakes require consideration of fish age, growth rates, and food web structure to accurately predict fish Hg concentrations among lakes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Explaining variation in Colorado songbird blood mercury using migratory behavior, foraging guild, and diet
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Carley J. Knutsen, Claire W. Varian-Ramos

    Abstract Methylmercury is a contaminant of growing global concern that has been shown to accumulate in a variety of taxa, including songbirds. Birds in the same area can accumulate mercury to strikingly different levels. While diet and trophic level clearly play an important role in mercury bioaccumulation and biomagnification, other factors including foraging guilds and migratory behavior may influence mercury levels as well. Here we examine interspecific variation in blood mercury levels in songbirds living in the Fountain Creek watershed on the Front Range of Colorado. We found that the species with the highest mercury had blood mercury concentrations over 75 times higher than the species with the lowest levels. Carnivores had the highest blood mercury levels, but ground foraging and long distance migration also were correlated with higher mercury concentrations. This information may shed light on what species are most at risk from mercury pollution and help to target conservation resources at contaminated sites.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • High heavy metal load does not inhibit nitrogen fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Hasna Akther,Kathrin Rousk

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation by moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of new N input in pristine ecosystems such as boreal forests and arctic tundra. Given the non-vascular physiology of mosses, they are especially sensitive to e.g. increased N input and heavy metal deposition. While the effects of increased N input on moss-associated N2 fixation has been comprehensively assessed, hardly any reports exist on the effects of increased heavy metal load on this key ecosystem function. To address this knowledge gap, we made use of an extreme metal pollution gradient in boreal forests of Northern Sweden originating from a metal mine and its associated smelters. We collected the common moss Pleurozium schreberi, known to host cyanobacteria, along a distance gradient away from the metal source of pollution and measured moss-metal content (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) as well as N2 fixation. We found a strong distance gradient in moss-metal content for all investigated metals: a sharp decline in metal content with distance away from the metal pollution source. However, we found a similarly steep gradient in moss-associated N2 fixation, with highest activity closest to the metal source of pollution. Hence, while mosses may be sensitive to increased heavy metal inputs, the activity of colonising cyanobacteria seem to be unaffected by heavy metals, and consequently, ecosystem function may not be compromised by elevated metal input.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Rice busk biochar treatment to cobalt-polluted fluvo-aquic soil: speciation and enzyme activities.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Borui Liu,Qing Huang,Yuefeng Su,Liuye Sun,Tong Wu,Guange Wang,Ryan M Kelly

    Rice busk biochar was mixed with cobalt (Co)-polluted soil to examine the efficacy of biochar for Co immobilization and detoxification in fluvo-aquic soil. The Co speciation (modified BCR sequential extraction), fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and soil enzyme activities were investigated. In soil, the Co ions (acid-soluble fraction) could be uptake by biochar due to the microporous structure on the surface, as well as the oxygen-containing functional groups and conjugated structure in the molecular structure. Therefore, when the biochar concentration was lower than the optimum concentration (~6 g·kg-1), there was transformation of Co from the acid-soluble fraction to the oxidizable fraction, resulting in lower environmental risk. However, if the biochar concentration continued increasing, the distribution coefficient of Co in the acid-soluble fraction increased (P < 0.05). The biochar could also reduce the toxicity of Co, resulting in the negative correlations between soil enzyme activities (FDA hydrolysis, urease and alkaline phosphatases) and Co in the acid-soluble fraction (r = -0.816, -0.928 and -0.908, respectively, P < 0.01). When the biochar concentration ranged from 5.83 to 6.76 g·kg-1, the efficacy for Co immobilization and detoxification reached the maxima. To conclude, in fluvo-aquic soil, rice busk biochar is an effective amendment for immobilizing Co ions and reducing the toxicity of Co. The biochar concentration in soil should range from 5.83 to 6.76 g·kg-1 to reach the optimum efficacy.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Variation in Hg accumulation between demersal and pelagic fish from Puruzinho Lake, Brazilian Amazon.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Lucas Silva Azevedo,Inácio Abreu Pestana,Adriely Ferreira da Costa Nery,Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos,Cristina Maria Magalhães Souza

    Aquatic ecosystems in the Amazon are exposed to mercury, mostly from natural sources. Hg accumulation in fish tissues poses a risk to the local population since fish is one of the main sources of protein in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate Hg distribution in demersal and pelagic carnivorous fish between seasons in Puruzinho Lake in the Brazilian Amazon. Total Hg was quantified in 221 individuals of 8 species obtained during the high water and low water seasons. Two-way ANOVA indicated an interaction between foraging habitat and season. During high water, total Hg concentrations were similar between demersal and pelagic fish, while in low water, total Hg levels were higher in demersal fish. Pelagic and demersal fishes' Hg levels were similar between the two seasons.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Population recovery of peregrine falcons in central Norway in the 4 decades since the DDT-ban.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Torgeir Nygård,Brett K Sandercock,Tore Reinsborg,Kjell Einvik

    The breeding population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Norway was almost exterminated by the early 1970's. Long-term monitoring of breeding pairs has been conducted since 1976 up to present. Peregrine falcons were first established at breeding sites in coastal habitats, where they remained at stable low numbers until the early 1990's. Starting around 2000, numbers began to increase steadily, and current numbers have now reached historical population levels from the pre-DDT era. We documented a range expansion with increasing numbers of peregrines nesting in the fjords and inland valleys. We found that once a territory was colonized, the probability that a territory remained occupied was high (S > 0.958). During early stages of population recovery, the transitional probabilities of becoming or remaining a breeding territory were high (ψN-B > 0.40, ψB-B > 0.65) but declined over time, especially in coastal habitats. Moreover, the productivity per nest has also decreased over time at sites in coastal habitats in the former stronghold of the population. The levels of environmental pollutants in eggs of the peregrines have dropped sharply over the last few decades, and contaminant levels now seem to be below critical levels. Eggshells were relatively thin throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, but have increased to almost normal levels during the last 2 decades. Reductions in levels of organochlorine pollutants, especially DDT, appear to have been the main factor in explaining the population recovery. The territory dynamics are consistent with density-dependence and the low breeding success of the coastal-breeding peregrines is believed to be caused by declining numbers of colonial seabirds and other prey species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Historical control data for the interpretation of ecotoxicity data: are we missing a trick?
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Amy C Brooks,Manousos Foudoulakis,Hanna S Schuster,James R Wheeler

    Wildlife can be exposed to chemicals in the environment from various anthropogenic sources. Ecotoxicity studies, undertaken to address the risks from potential exposure to chemicals, vary in their design e.g. duration of exposure, effect types and endpoints measured. Ecotoxicity studies measure biological responses to test item exposure. Responses can be highly variable, with limited opportunity for control of extrinsic sources of variability. It is critical to distinguish between treatment-related effects and background 'normal variability' when interpreting results. Historical control data (HCD) can be a valuable tool in contextualising results from single studies against previous studies performed under similar conditions. This paper discusses the case for better use of HCD in ecotoxicology assessments, illustrating with case studies the value and difficulties of using HCD in interpretation of results of standard and higher-tier study designs. HCD are routinely used in mammalian toxicology for human health assessments, but not directly in ecotoxicology. The possible reasons for this are discussed e.g., different data types, the potential to mask effects, and the lack of guidance. These concerns are real but not insurmountable and we would like to see organisations such as OECD, EFSA and USEPA develop guidance on the principles of HCD collection. Hopefully, this would lead to greater use of HCD and regulatory acceptance. We believe this is not only a scientifically valid approach but also an ethical issue that is in line with societally driven legal mandates to minimise the use of vertebrate testing in chemical regulatory decision making.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Responses of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to the combined effects of Mn and pH.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jun Yin,Pei Fan,Guidi Zhong,Zhonghua Wu

    Aquatic plants play a vital role in maintaining the health and stability of ecosystems and in ecological restoration of contaminated water bodies. Herein, a 21-day-long laboratory-scale experiment was designed to explore the growth and physiological responses of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara (V. natans) to the combined effects of manganese (Mn, 5, 20, and 80 mg L-1) and pH (pH 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0). Our results showed the combined toxicity intensity was closely related to Mn concentration and the toxicity exhibited by Mn gradually strengthened with the decrease of pH level. High concentration of Mn stress significantly reduced plants leaf area, final leaf number, photosynthetic pigment content, RGR (relative growth rate) and biomass accumulation, but significantly increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At the same time, V. natans plants can resist the adverse stress by activating the antioxidant defense system, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities. Besides, V. natans tended to adjust the biomass allocation strategy and transferred more energy to the subsurface and the ramets and stolons parts under the combined stress. This experiment also showed that the increasing pH within a certain range could largely improve the removal rate of Mn (at highest by 84.28%). This may indicate the V. natans plant species can act as a promising tool for the Mn phytoremediation in aquatic environments which needs to be further explored by longer cycle field studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Secondary metabolites that could contribute to the monodominance of Erythrina fusca in the Brazilian Pantanal.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Darlene Gris,Amanda Galdi Boaretto,Maria Rita Marques,Geraldo Alves Damasceno-Junior,Carlos Alexandre Carollo

    Erythrina fusca is a dominant species in the Brazilian Pantanal. We hypothesized that E. fusca possess allelopathic potential and we evaluated effects of extracts on germination and development of Lactuca sativa, a bioindicator species. We tested the effect of leaves, bark, roots, and seeds extracts of E. fusca on germination and speed index, using high, moderate and low concentration (0.2, 1 and 5 mg mL-1). To evaluate effects on development, we subjected seedlings of L. sativa to the same treatments and measured root and aerial part length. High concentration of extracts reduced L. sativa germination; leaves extract caused the maximum reduction on germination of L. sativa, similar to 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); this extract has flavonoids and saponins as main compounds, classes that also occur in the bark and roots extracts in lower concentrations; bark and roots (5 mg mL-1), leaves and roots (1 mg mL-1) decreased these traits as well, but in lower magnitude. A significant reduction in root length was induced by highest concentration of all extracts (5 mg mL-1); the results suggest that erythrinic alkaloids should interfere in the root length once the seeds accumulate almost exclusively this class of compounds. Our results showed that all parts of E. fusca had adverse effects on germination or development of L. sativa, showing that different class of compounds secondary metabolites is involved in this activity. Possibly, this phytotoxicity influences monodominance of E. fusca in Pantanal, but studies are essential to evaluate effects of it on other native species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Evaluation of the sensitivity of Microhyla fissipes tadpoles to aqueous cadmium.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Ying-Chao Hu,Yun Tang,Zhi-Qiang Chen,Jing-Yi Chen,Guo-Hua Ding

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure is harmful to amphibians in natural environments and the Cd concentration is a key parameter in water monitoring. Cd pollution has been a severe issue in the Yangtze River and its southern reaches in recent years. Acute toxicity assays were employed to determine the tolerance limits of Cd for Microhyla fissipes tadpoles and five different concentrations of Cd (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μg/L) were involved to detect its chronic effects on metamorphosis, growth, locomotion, genotoxicity and enzymatic activities of M. fissipes tadpoles. The results showed that the 24-h and 48-h LC50 values of Cd on M. fissipes tadpoles were 2591.3 μg/L and 1567.9 μg/L, respectively, and the presumable non-lethal concentration obtained was 172.2 μg/L. During the 70-day chronic toxicity assays, Cd showed negative impacts on survival, growth, metamorphosis and the frequency of erythrocytes nuclear abnormality of M. fissipes tadpoles. However, the Cd exposure caused the increased body size and condition of tadpoles at complete metamorphosis (GS46). The tadpoles exposed to 200 μg/L of Cd exhibited degraded locomotor performance at GS46. Weight increments of tadpoles were inhibited at Day 14 and massive deaths were observed over the next 14 days. The enzymatic activities of tadpoles experienced a shock response stage (GS30-GS35) and a complete recovery stage (GS36-GS41) in all treatments. However, the enzymatic activities (except alkaline phosphatase) of tadpoles at GS46 increased after Cd exposure, especially at high concentrations. In summary, Cd is a threat to M. fissipes tadpoles as that causes reduced fitness.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Genotoxicity response of Vicia faba seedlings to cadmium in soils as characterized by direct soil exposure and micronucleus test.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Lang Chen,Shankui Yuan,Xingang Liu,Xinxin Zhou,Yanming Zhou,Yufang Song

    To overcome the drawbacks of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test in soil using the solution extract method, we conducted a potting experiment by direct soil exposure. Cadmium was spiked into 3 typical soils (brown soil, red soil, and black soil) to simulate environmental concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg kg-1). Multiple Vicia faba tissues (primary root tips, secondary root tips, and leaf tips) were sampled, and mitotic index (MI), chromosome aberration frequency (CA), and micronucleus frequency (MN) were used as endpoints after a seedling period of 5 days. The results showed a response between Cd concentrations and multiple sampling tissues of Vicia faba, and the secondary root tips responded to Cd stress the most, followed by primary root tips and leaf tips. Soil physicochemical properties (e.g., pH, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, etc.) influenced the genotoxicity of Cd, and pH was the dominant factor, which resulted in the genetic toxicity response of Cd in soils in the order: red soil > brown soil > black soil. The lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of Cd was 1.25 mg kg-1 for both brown soil and red soil and 2.5 mg kg-1 for black soil. In view of this, we suggested that soil properties should be considered in evaluating genotoxicity risk of Cd in soil, especially with soil pH range, and the secondary root tips should be taken as suitable test tissues in the MN test due to its more sensible response feature to Cd stress in soil.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced impairment of in vitro pollen performance of Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. Heyne.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    S Dutta Gupta,N Saha,A Agarwal,V Venkatesh

    Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in myriad applications including electronics, medicines and agriculture has led to serious concerns regarding its release to plant ecosystems. Over the years, numerous studies have demonstrated the toxic impact of AgNPs in a variety of cell and tissue systems involved in vegetative growth across a wide range of plant species. However, assessing their impact on haploid phase of plant life cycle was restricted only to a study with Kiwifruit. In this study, in vitro pollen performance of Peltophorum pterocarpum at two endpoints i.e., germination and tube growth was assessed to evaluate the impact of nanoparticulate or ionic form of silver. Increasing concentrations of AgNO3/AgNPs significantly reduced the pollen germination and retarded the tube growth. The EC 50 values indicated a more potent toxic effect of AgNPs than AgNO3 on pollen germination as well as tube growth. Impairment of pollen performance was more pronounced at the stage of emergence of pollen tube. Extensive alterations in the muri and lumen of exine as revealed through SEM analysis and subsequent blockage of germpore might disrupt the emergence of pollen tube. The dynamics of pollen tube growth was analyzed with polynomial models of different degrees. A high degree of polynomial, the quintic model was able to approximate the real data points with highest coefficient of determination and smallest RMSE, compared to other models. An oscillating pattern of tube growth was portrayed with the passage of time in all the treatments that fits well with the established mechanistic oscillatory model of tube growth. It appears that exposure to AgNO3/AgNPs inhibited pollen germination and retarded tube growth without affecting the oscillatory behavior of tip-growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spatial and taxonomic variation of mercury concentration in low trophic level fauna from the Mediterranean Sea.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2018-10-14
    Kate L Buckman,Oksana Lane,Jože Kotnik,Arne Bratkic,Francesca Sprovieri,Milena Horvat,Nicola Pirrone,David C Evers,Celia Y Chen

    Studies of mercury (Hg) in the Mediterranean Sea have focused on pollution sources, air-sea mercury exchange, abiotic mercury cycling, and seafood. Much less is known about methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the lower food web. Zooplankton and small fish were sampled from the neuston layer at both coastal and open sea stations in the Mediterranean Sea during three cruise campaigns undertaken in the fall of 2011 and the summers of 2012 and 2013. Zooplankton and small fish were sorted by morphospecies, and the most abundant taxa (e.g. euphausiids, isopods, hyperiid amphipods) analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg) concentration. Unfiltered water samples were taken during the 2011 and 2012 cruises and analyzed for MeHg concentration. Multiple taxa suggested elevated MeHg concentrations in the Tyrrhenian and Balearic Seas in comparison with more eastern and western stations in the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial variation in zooplankton MeHg concentration is positively correlated with single time point whole water MeHg concentration for euphausiids and mysids and negatively correlated with maximum chlorophyll a concentration for euphausiids, mysids, and "smelt" fish. Taxonomic variation in MeHg concentration appears driven by taxonomic grouping and feeding mode. Euphausiids, due to their abundance, relative larger size, importance as a food source for other fauna, and observed relationship with surface water MeHg are a good candidate biotic group to evaluate for use in monitoring the bioavailability of MeHg for trophic transfer in the Mediterranean and potentially globally.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ecotoxicological characteristics and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in the bottom sediments of the Rożnów reservoir (Poland).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : null
    Magdalena Szara,Agnieszka Baran,Agnieszka Klimkowicz-Pawlas,Marek Tarnawski

    The bottom sediments in catchment areas behind dams play a significant role in water ecosystems. On the other hand, the structure of sediments makes them a natural geosorbent, in which pollutants introduced to the aquatic environment accumulate. The use of biotests is recognised as an important approach for the assessment of the quality of bottom sediments, as the chemical analysis of sediment samples alone does not provide evidence of the impact of contaminants on biota. The aim of the study was to apply the chemical and ecological indices to determine the potential risk posed by trace elements in the bottom sediments and to evaluate sediment toxicity using organisms belonging to two taxonomic groups, i.e., plants (Phytotoxkit) and crustaceans (Rapidtoxkit). The 46 sediment samples were taken from the Rożnów Dam Reservoir in Southern Poland. The mean concentration of the trace elements in the sediments was 5.22 mg As; 0.26 mg Cd; 63.23 mg Cr; 28.65 mg Cu; 37.11 mg Ni; 11.15 mg Pb; 69.69 mg Zn and 0.09 mg Hg ∙ kg-1 d.m. The mean probable effect concentration quotient (PECq) value among different sampling sites ranged between 0.04 and 0.33 suggested moderate potential toxicity to the biological communities in bottom sediments. The Ni was potentially the most toxic element for biota in the Rożnów Reservoir. The sensitivity of organisms formed the following order: Thamnocephalus platyurus >Lepidium sativum >Sinapis alba >Sorghum saccharatum. For the plants, the stimulating effect of bottom sediments on root growth was often indicated, while a toxic effect was demonstrated for T. platyurus in 80% of the samples. However, the correlation analysis and PCA results showed that trace elements that originated from similar sources were associated to the toxicity of sediments towards T. platyurus, while ecotoxicity for plants could not be explained by the content of trace elements in bottom sediments. T. platyurus is a good indicator for predicting the toxicity of bottom sediments from the Rożnów Reservoir. However, our study found that both chemical and ecotoxicological analyses are important for a comprehensive evaluation of the quality of bottom sediments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mercury in the fish of New York's Great Lakes: A quarter century of near stability.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : null
    Wayne Richter,Lawrence C Skinner

    We collected 849 fish of 16 species from New York portions of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the intervening Niagara River and its tributary Cayuga Creek, and analyzed fillets from individual fish for total mercury. Concentrations ranged from 0.029 to 1.090 ppm wet weight, with 92% below the EPA tissue residue criterion of 0.3 ppm, and thus not posing an undue risk from human consumption. We compared these 2010-2017 results to historical data spanning 40 years to assess temporal changes. The temporal pattern was generally consistent among water bodies and species: Mercury concentrations differed little between the most recent collections and fish taken from 1999-2008 and 1988-1996, while concentrations in all three of these periods were generally lower than in 1970. Smallmouth Bass from Lake Ontario were an exception with a continued decline, likely due to diet change following the introduction of exotic prey. Overall, though, fish tissue mercury concentrations from these large water bodies, which integrate regional influences, appear to have changed little in the last quarter century. We also report a consistent spatial pattern for multiple species having lower mercury concentrations in Lake Erie than in Lake Ontario over the period of record.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toxicity and effects of four insecticides on Na+, K+-ATPase of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : null
    Tianbo Ding,Sifang Wang,Yulin Gao,Changyou Li,Fanghao Wan,Bin Zhang

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, has become an important pest of vegetables worldwide, due to its economic damage to crop production. In order to control WFT, chemical insecticides are widely used. However, WFT has developed a high resistance against many kinds of insecticides. Na+, K+-ATPase, playing an important role in the ionic transmission across the membrane, is commonly considered to be the target of several xenobiotic compounds. However, whether the Na+, K+-ATPase can be used as one of the target sites for controlling WFT is still unknown. In this study, resistance levels of WFT to four insecticides (chlorpyrifos, beta cypermethrin, abamectin, and thiamethoxam) were measured. It was found that all four insecticides exhibited significant inhibitory effects on WFT, especially on nymphs. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase was estimated after the treatment of four insecticides. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of three Na+, K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms (X1, X2 and X3) were detected using RT-qPCR. The transcription profile of three Na+, K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms were diverse after treatment by these four insecticides, which indicated that these isoforms might play different roles in the tolerance to insecticides. The results suggested that Na+, K+-ATPase can obviously be inhibited by these four classes of insecticide, and may serve as the new target for controlling WFT.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effect of azadirachtin on mortality and immune response of leaf-cutting ants.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Karina D Amaral,Lailla C Gandra,Marco Antonio de Oliveira,Danival J de Souza,Terezinha M C Della Lucia

    Leaf-cutting ants are difficult pests to control because they have numerous defense strategies and are highly selective in their plant harvesting choices. The search for effective pest control methods that have minimal negative effects on the environment has been continuous. Azadirachtin, a compound extracted from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), is a promising alternative for the control of various pests, as it is toxic to some insects but readily degrades in the environment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of azadirachtin on the mortality, through topical exposure to the compound, and immune response, by introducing an artificial antigen into leaf-cutting ants Atta sexdens and Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus. Azadirachtin caused death to minor and major workers of both species in a concentration-dependent manner. Topical application of the compound did not diminish the immune response of ants in a microfilament encapsulation assay. Azadirachtin showed no effect on the immune response of workers but increased worker mortality, which indicates its potential as an ant control agent.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impacts of seven insecticides on Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Thaís Fagundes Matioli,Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi,Pedro Takao Yamamoto

    The endoparasitoid wasp Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is inundatively released in Brazilian sugarcane plantations to control the sugarcane borers Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and Diatraea flavipennella (Box) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). In conjunction with these releases, several synthetic insecticides are used to control the neonate larvae of these pests. We assessed the lethal and transgenerational sublethal effects of seven of these insecticides on C. flavipes. Leaf discs were sprayed at the highest field concentrations of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole, chlorfluazuron, triflumuron, lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, tebufenozide, and novaluron. Distilled water was used as a negative control. Newly emerged females (24 h old) were placed in Petri dishes containing the treated leaves, and the lethal and transgenerational sublethal effects were assessed for the next two generations. Lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam caused 100% mortality of the parasitoid and were highly persistent, causing more than 30% mortality at 30 days after spraying. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfluazuron, novaluron, and triflumuron did not cause significant mortality compared to the negative control, but did have transgenerational sublethal effects. The length of the tibia of the right posterior leg, used as a growth measurement, was reduced in the progeny (F1 generation) of exposed female parasitoids. In addition, chlorantraniliprole increased and chlorfluazuron reduced the proportion of females in the F1 generation, whereas novaluron reduced the proportion of females in the F2 generation. Overall, only tebufenozide was considered harmless to C. flavipes. The results of this study suggest that lambda-cyhalothrin + chlorantraniliprole and lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam are harmful to C. flavipes, although field studies are needed to obtain results for actual sugarcane crops.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Esterase-mediated spinosad resistance in house flies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : null
    Yi Zhang,Mingcheng Guo,Zhuo Ma,Chunmei You,Xiwu Gao,Xueyan Shi

    Although esterase-mediated spinosad resistance has been proposed for several insects, the associated molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of esterase-based spinosad resistance in house flies using a susceptible strain (SSS) and a spinosad-resistant, near-isogenic line (N-SRS). Combined with the synergistic effect of DEF on spinosad in the N-SRS strain, decreased ali-esterase activity in the spinosad-resistant strain has implicated the involvement of mutant esterase in spinosad resistance in house flies. Examination of the carboxylesterase gene MdαE7 in the two strains revealed that four non-synonymous mutations (Trp251-Leu, Asp273-Glu, Ala365-Val, and Ile396-Val) may be associated with spinosad resistance in house flies. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis further indicated a strong relationship between these four mutations and spinosad resistance. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a female-linked MdαE7 expression pattern in the N-SRS strain, which may contribute to sex-differential spinosad resistance in house flies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Embryonic Fundulus heteroclitus responses to sediment extracts from differentially contaminated sites in the Elizabeth River, VA.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Savannah J Volkoff,Joshua S Osterberg,Nishad Jayasundara,Ellen Cooper,Heileen Hsu-Kim,Laura Rogers,Gretchen E Gehrke,Saro Jayaraman,Richard T Di Giulio

    Sites along the Elizabeth River are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from historical creosote production and other industrial processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that Atlantic killifish collected from sites throughout the Elizabeth River display resistance to the teratogenic effects of PAH-exposure in a manner commensurate with sediment PAH concentrations. The current study characterized various chemical pollutants in sediment and investigated the effects of aqueous sediment extracts from sites along the Elizabeth River to the cardiac development of Atlantic killifish embryos from fish collected from an uncontaminated reference site. Embryonic cardiac deformities were more prevalent after exposure to extracts from sites with high PAH loads. However, activation of cytochrome P4501A, a gene up-regulated by PAH-induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and measured using an in ovo EROD assay, did not consistently increase with PAH concentrations. This work further characterizes sediments in the Elizabeth River, as well as provides insight into the evolutionary pressures at each ER site.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impact of insect growth regulators on biology and behavior of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Mubasshir Sohail,Syed Saboor Khan,Raza Muhammad,Qadeer Ahmed Soomro,Muhammad Usman Asif,Bhai Khan Solangi

    This study investigated the effects of four insect growth regulators (IGRs) on biology and behavior of Chrysoperla carnea. IGRs were sprayed on eggs, larvae (~24-h old), and pupae at recommended doses along with their relatively low and high dose. Eggs, larval, and pupal survival were assessed along with effects on fecundity and fertility of C. carnea adults emerged when pupae were treated. IOBC (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control) proposed toxicity scale was used to categorize the IGRs. Concerning the eggs lufenuron, pyriproxyfen, and diflubenzuron were categorized as slightly harmful (class 2), whereas buprofezin was categorized as moderately harmful (class 3). Lufenuron and diflubenzuron were classified as slightly harmful (class 2) to C. carnea larvae, while pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were categorized as harmless (class 1). Buprofezin did not affect the locomotion behavior of the larvae as time proportion spent in the treated and untreated zone was equal, while all others were affected significantly. Regarding the pupae, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were found slightly harmful (class 2) and moderately harmful (class 3), respectively, and considerably reduced fecundity and fertility of the C. carnea adults. Lufenuron and diflubenzuron did not affect significantly when pupae were treated. Based on combined effect, the IGRs lufenuron and diflubenzuron did nott influence the significantly on population parameters comparatively. This could be helpful for the use of IGRs in integration with C. carnea towards their conservation in agroecosystem.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toxic effects of pyrethroids in tadpoles of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Guilherme V Vanzetto,Jéssica G Slaviero,Paola F Sturza,Camila F Rutkoski,Natani Macagnan,Cassiane Kolcenti,Paulo A Hartmann,Claudia M Ferreira,Marilia T Hartmann

    Pyrethroid insecticides are one of the most commonly used pesticide groups, but these compounds have brought risks to non-target species, such as amphibians. This study evaluated the toxicological effects (mortality, swimming activity and oral morphology) caused to a South American species of anuran amphibian, Physalaemus gracilis, exposed to the pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Total spawnings of this anuran were collected in the natural environment and transported to the laboratory where they were kept under controlled conditions. Chronic assays were defined between 0.1 and 0.01 mg L-1 of cypermethrin, and 0.009 and 0.001 mg L-1 of deltamethrin. For cypermethrin, a further chronic toxicity test was performed at 0.05 and 2.0 mg L-1, with hatchlings at stages S.20-S.25. Cypermethrin and deltamethrin were lethal enough to kill over 70% of exposed tadpoles in 1 week at concentrations that can be found in nature (0.01-0.1 mg L-1). The exposure effects also influenced swimming activity and caused changes in oral morphology, which would make it difficult for the animals to survive in their natural habitat. Both pyrethroids presented a risk for P. gracilis, so they should be re-evaluated for non-target wild species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evaluation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a co-solvent for toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Jakub J Modrzyński,Jan H Christensen,Kristian K Brandt

    Toxicity testing of hydrophobic compounds with low aqueous solubility remains challenging. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used as a co-solvent for toxicity testing of hydrophobic chemicals, but it may modulate chemical toxicity patterns. In this study, we critically evaluated the suitability of DMSO as a co-solvent for toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds in aqueous solutions. As the toxicity measure, we used growth inhibition of a natural bacterial community, and the test toxicants included phenol, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) and transformation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We found that dose-response curves for phenol were unaffected by DMSO concentrations up to 10% (v/v) and that DMSO (5% v/v) did not affect the degree of bacterial growth inhibition for any of the other test compounds in short-term experiments (3.5 h). By contrast, marked co-solvent effects of DMSO were observed in the long-term assay (25 and 27 h). We therefore conclude that DMSO has excellent co-solvent properties for short-term (≤3.5 h) toxicity testing of sparingly water-soluble compounds and its application provides a simple, inexpensive approach for screening of various environmentally relevant hydrophobic chemicals. Importantly, the use of DMSO allows for generation of full dose-responses that may otherwise not be attained.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Immune function in Trachemys scripta following exposure to a predominant brevetoxin congener, PbTx-3, as a model for potential health impacts for sea turtles naturally exposed to brevetoxins.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Catherine J Walsh,Courtney Cocilova,Jessica Restivo,Leanne Flewelling,Sarah Milton

    Many species of marine life in southwestern Florida, including sea turtles, are impacted by blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Sublethal exposure to toxins produced by K. brevis has been shown to impact sea turtle health. Since all sea turtles in the Gulf of Mexico have protected status, a freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta, was used as a model for immune system effects following experimental exposure to a predominant brevetoxin congener in K. brevis blooms, PbTx-3. Exposure to PbTx-3 was oral or intratracheal and health effects were assessed using a suite of immune function parameters: innate immune function (phagocytosis, plasma lysozyme activity), adaptive immune function (lymphocyte proliferation), and measures of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in plasma). Inflammation was also measured using plasma protein electrophoresis. In addition, differential expression of genes in peripheral blood leukocytes was determined using suppression subtractive hybridization followed by real-time PCR of specific genes. The primary immune effects of sublethal brevetoxin exposure in T. scripta following PbTx-3 administration, appear to be an increase in oxidative stress, a decrease in lysozyme activity, and modulation of immune function through lymphocyte proliferation responses. Plasma protein electrophoresis showed a decreased A:G ratio which may indicate potential inflammation. Genes coding for oxidative stress, such as thioredoxin and GST, were upregulated in exposed animals. That sublethal brevetoxin exposures impact immune function components suggests potential health implications for sea turtles naturally exposed to toxins. Knowledge of physiological stressors induced by brevetoxins may contribute to the ultimate goal of developing directed treatment strategies in exposed animals for reduced mortality resulting from red tide toxin exposure in sea turtles.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effect of copper exposure and recovery period in reared Diplodus sargus.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Cristiana Vaz,Fernando Afonso,Marisa Barata,Laura Ribeiro,Pedro Pousão-Ferreira,Florbela Soares

    The aquaculture growth can be followed by the occurrence of more and new pathogenic agents, since the production leads to higher fish densities in confined areas more appropriate to the appearance and propagation of pathologies. Copper sulfate has been widely used in preventing and controlling fish parasites. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of copper treatments in the fish tissues (bioaccumulation and histological changes in different organs), mortality and evaluate what happens during the recovery period. White sea bream (Diplodus sargus) were exposed to copper sulfate (0.25 and 0.5 mg L-1) during 60 days followed with a 75-day recovery period. The results showed that the concentration of copper in fish liver was significantly higher in the 0.5 mg L-1 treatment than in the 0.25 mg L-1 treatment. Conversely, copper load in the muscle did not differ significantly between treatments and control. Copper levels in muscle, and especially in liver, increased during copper exposure (up to 60 days). In summary, at higher concentrations copper sulfate treatment (0.5 mg L-1) might be toxic to fish, which showed histological alterations and copper accumulation in their tissues, mainly in the liver. Nevertheless, individuals returned to their original state after a 75-day recovery period and the tested copper concentrations does not represents risk for food safety.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hormesis under oil-induced stress in Leersia hexandra Sw. used as phytoremediator in clay soils of the Mexican humid tropic.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    José Alberto Orocio-Carrillo,María Del Carmen Rivera-Cruz,Emilio Manuel Aranda-Ibañez,Antonio Trujillo-Narcía,Geovanni Hernández-Galvez,María Remedios Mendoza-López

    The oil industry has inherent risks of spills or leaks due to natural or anthropogenic causes, which cause alterations in the soil and damage to the plant. An experiment was carried to investigate the effect of oil on the growth, biomass production, biosynthesis of crude protein of Leersia hexandra grass and the remove of oil from the soil. The results showed different responses by L. hexandra depending on the age, low concentrations of oil induced a significant increase in stolon length, in relative growth rate, in dry matter production and in the biosynthesis of crude protein. The same parameters decreased at high concentrations of oil. However, at the end of the evaluation period of 180 days, high concentrations of oil induced a significant increase in the number of young plants and secondary roots, the terminal third of the main root and root dry matter. The dose response curves had the shape of an inverted U, showing that at days 15, 45, 90 and 180, in stolon length, aerial dry matter production, crude protein (day 90) and young plants (days 45 and 90) exhibited a typical biphasic response. The increase in oil concentration correlated with increases in young plants, number of secondary roots, number of roots at the middle, terminal third and root dry matter. After 180 days exposure the rhizosphere of L. hexandra a total oil removal of oil of 76.7 ± 4 was achieved; 61.7, 51, 44.6, 38 and 52% in soils that initially contained 7.9, 54, 102, 126, 145 and 238 g oil.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acute exposure to urban air pollution impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Ryan J Leonard,Thomas J Pettit,Peter Irga,Clare McArthur,Dieter F Hochuli

    While the ecological effects of pesticides have been well studied in honeybees, it is unclear to what extent other anthropogenic contaminants such as air pollution may also negatively affect bee cognition and behaviour. To answer this question, we assessed the impacts of acute exposure to four ecologically relevant concentrations of a common urban air pollutant-diesel generated air pollution on honeybee odour learning and memory using a conditioned proboscis extension response assay. The proportion of bees that successfully learnt odours following direct air pollution exposure was significantly lower in bees exposed to low, medium and high air pollutant concentrations, than in bees exposed to current ambient levels. Furthermore, short- and long-term odour memory was significantly impaired in bees exposed to low medium and high air pollutant concentrations than in bees exposed to current ambient levels. These results demonstrate a clear and direct cognitive cost of air pollution. Given learning and memory play significant roles in foraging, we suggest air pollution will have increasing negative impacts on the ecosystem services bees provide and may add to the current threats such as pesticides, mites and disease affecting colony fitness.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cadmium toxicity and its relationship with disturbances in the cytoskeleton, cell cycle and chromosome stability.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Daniel Pizzaia,Marina Lima Nogueira,Mateus Mondin,Marcia Eugenia Amaral Carvalho,Fernando Angelo Piotto,Millor Fernandes Rosario,Ricardo Antunes Azevedo

    This study aimed to investigate the mode of action of cadmium (Cd) toxicity at cell level, especially at early stages of plant exposure. Tomato seedlings were cultivated in growth media containing from 0.1 to 70 µM CdCl2 for 24 h. Mitotic index, chromosome abnormality, DNA integrity and organization of tubulin-based structures were assessed in root cells. As higher the Cd concentration in the growth media, higher was the DNA damage intensity and the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that included chromosome lost, bridges, stickiness, C-metaphase and polyploidy. The profile of chromosomal aberrations also varied with elevated Cd concentration, being observed increases in the frequency of chromosome stickiness. The mitotic index was reduced at the lowest Cd concentration, but such reduction was statistically similar to that detected at the highest concentration, suggesting that mitotic depression is a rapid outcome and, at same time, a Cd-induced effect that is limited at the first 24 h of direct root exposure to this metal. Under exposure to 20 µM CdCl2, heterogenous distribution of the spindle fibers, formation of two spindle complexes in both of the cell poles, absence of centrosome center, polarization of the spindle fibers during cell division, and non-uniform tubulin deposition in microtubule and phragmoplast were noticed. The results indicate that the tubulin-dependent components of cytoskeleton are Cd targets, and the sensitivity of tubulin-based structures to Cd exposure depends on cell cycle phase. Moreover, DNA damage intensity and chromosomal abnormality profile can be employed as markers of Cd toxicity level.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modulation of brain serotonin by benzyl butyl phthalate in Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-07
    A M Deegan,R B Steinhauer,Richard S Feinn,Matthew C Moeller,H M Pylypiw,M Nabel,C J Kovelowski,L A E Kaplan

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been known to alter important animal behaviors by modulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and dopamine. F. heteroclitus (mummichog) brain serotonin and dopamine levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following a 28-day exposure regimen involving daily doses of either 0.1 mg l-1 benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) dissolved in acetone or acetone alone (0.1 mg l-1). No differences in mean brain mass or total protein homogenate were induced by exposure to the acetone vehicle or BBP in acetone. The acetone vehicle had no effect on dopamine, serotonin, or tyrosine hydroxylase levels, but acetone did decrease tryptophan hydroxylase levels (p = 0.011). Exposure to BBP in acetone decreased dopamine (p = 0.024), increased serotonin (p < 0.001), reduced tryptophan hydroxylase as compared to the acetone vehicle alone (p < 0.001), and had no significant effect on tyrosine hydroxylase levels. This study is the first to report modulation of F. heteroclitus brain serotonin and its enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase following sub-lethal exposure to BBP in an acetone vehicle. In addition, modulation of brain dopamine in F. heteroclitus, sans simultaneous modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, was also observed. These findings support the use of F. heteroclitus for assessing sub-lethal BBP exposure.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acute toxicity of copper to the larval stage of three species of ambystomatid salamanders.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-07
    Scott M Weir,Shuangying Yu,David E Scott,Stacey L Lance

    Copper (Cu) appears to be consistently more toxic to anuran species relative to other vertebrate taxa. There are limited Cu toxicity data for salamanders; of the few studies conducted on salamanders, most examined Cu effects on the embryonic, but not the larval, stage. We performed acute toxicity experiments, to quantify LC50s, on Harrison stage 46 larvae (free swimming hatchlings with egg yolk completely absorbed) of three ambystomatid salamander species. Each LC50 experiment used exposure concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 µg/L with 10 replicates per concentration each containing one larva. We found very high toxicity for all species compared to previously published research on the embryo stage. Specifically, the 4-d LC50s for Ambystoma tigrinum and A. opacum were 35.3 and 18.73 µg/L, respectively. The same Cu concentrations caused similar toxicity to A. talpoideum (LC50 = 47.88 µg/L), but exposures required up to 48 d to elicit the same level of mortality. A time-to-event analysis indicated that time to mortality was significantly affected by Cu concentration. Additionally, for A. talpoideum, we observed that elevated levels of Cu decreased growth rate. Comparisons with previously reported Cu toxicity for embryos suggest that, as with fish, Cu may be more toxic to larval salamander stages than for embryos. Further, our data suggest that Cu is an important environmental contaminant that deserves increased scrutiny on the potential for population-level effects where contamination has occurred in wetlands and streams inhabited by salamanders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Behavioral and immunotoxic effects of Prograf® (tacrolimus) in the male Siamese fighting fish.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-09-07
    Arash Javanshir Khoei,Mohammad Navid Forsatkar,Culum Brown

    Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) has been extensively exploited in the behavioral and physiological toxicology studies of drugs. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug largely used in liver and renal transplantations. Here we found that a 7-day exposure of male B. splendens to concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 µg/mL Prograf® (tacrolimus) caused alterations in aggression and immunity indexes. Tacrolimus exposed fish presented lower opercular display in a mirror test which is indicative of reduced aggression. In addition, serum levels of lysozyme, IgM, alternative complement, and bactericidal activity of subjects exposed to 0.1 µg/mL tacrolimus were lower than those from the control treatment. These results showed the behavioral impairment and immunotoxic impacts of tacrolimus in a model of aquatic toxicology. The results suggest fishes provide a possible model for better understanding of the drug action in vertebrates, and possible consequences for the environment via its effects on non-target organisms in an ecotoxicology context.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evaluation of arsenic induced toxicity based on arsenic accumulation, translocation and its implications on physio-chemical changes and genomic instability in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : null
    Barsha Majumder,Susmita Das,Baidyanath Pal,Asok K Biswas

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice is a principal route of As exposure for rice based population. We have tested physiochemical and molecular parameters together to identify low As accumulating rice cultivars with normal growth and vigor. The present study examined potential toxicity caused by arsenate (AsV) among four rice cultivars tested that varied with respect to accumulation of total arsenic, arsenite (AsIII) and their differential translocation rate which had deleterious impact on growth and metabolism. Intracellular homeostasis of rice cultivars viz., TN-1, IR-64, IR-20 and Tulaipanji was hampered by 21 days long As(V) treatment due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inadequate activity of catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6). Upregulation of oxidative stress markers viz., H2O2, proline and MDA along with alteration in enzymatic antioxidants profile were conspicuously pronounced in cv. Tulaipanji while cv. TN-1 was least affected under As(V) challenged environment. In addition to that genomic template stability and band sharing indices were qualitatively measured by DNA profiling of all tested cultivars treated with 25 μM, 50 μM, and 75 μM As(V). In rice cv. Tulaipanji genetic polymorphism was significantly detected with the application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) tool and characterized as susceptible cultivar of As compared to cvs. TN-1, IR-64 and IR-20 that is in correlation with data obtained from cluster analysis. Hence, identified As tolerant cultivars viz., TN-1, IR64 and IR-20 especially TN-1 could be used in As contaminated agricultural field after appropriate field trial. This study could help to gather information regarding cultivar-specific tolerance strategy to avoid pollutant induced toxicity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Selenium and mercury in the hair of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from Germany and Luxembourg.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Danuta Kosik-Bogacka,Natalia Osten-Sacken,Natalia Łanocha-Arendarczyk,Karolina Kot,Bogumiła Pilarczyk,Agnieszka Tomza-Marciniak,Joanna Podlasińska,Mateusz Chmielarz,Mike Heddergott,Alain C Frantz,Peter Steinbach

    This study examined the concentration of total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se), as well as the molar ratio of Se:THg in hair samples of terrestrial animals. THg and Se concentrations were measured from the hair of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from Germany and Luxembourg. Median THg concentrations in hair from raccoons and wildcats were 0.369 and 0.273 mg kg-1 dry weight (dw), respectively. Se concentrations were higher in the hair of raccoons than of wildcats (0.851 and 0.641 mg kg-1 dw, respectively). Total mercury concentration in hair of raccoons from Luxembourg was almost 5× higher that found in hair of raccoons from Germany; however, Se concentration was similar. Thus, molar ratio of Se:THg was ~4× higher in the hair of raccoons from Germany than those from Luxembourg. Significant negative correlation was found between THg concentration and Se:THg molar ratio in both wildcats and raccoons.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reconstructing avian mercury concentrations through time using museum specimens from New York State.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : null
    Sarah A Dzielski,N Roxanna Razavi,Cornelia W Twining,Lisa B Cleckner,Vanya G Rohwer

    We examined how variation in MeHg concentrations through time is reflected in birds, a taxon commonly used as a biological indicator of ecosystem health. Using museum specimens collected from 1880 to 2016, we measured feather MeHg concentrations in six species of birds that breed in New York State and have distinct dietary and habitat preferences. We predicted that MeHg concentrations in feathers would mirror Hg emission patterns in New York State and increase through time until 1980 then decrease thereafter in response to increased regulation of anthropogenic Hg emissions. We found that MeHg concentrations increased with δ15N, and that MeHg feather concentrations for some individuals from four of the six species examined exceeded concentrations known to cause negative sublethal effects in birds. In contrast to our prediction, MeHg concentrations in feathers did not parallel global or local Hg emissions through time and varied by species, even after controlling for possible changes in diet and habitat. MeHg concentrations varied substantially within species and individual specimens, suggesting that high within-individual variation in feather MeHg concentrations caused by spatiotemporal variation in molt, environmental Hg exposure, or mobility decoupling Hg uptake from breeding sites, may obscure trends in MeHg through time. Our study provides a unique assessment of feather MeHg in six species not typically analyzed using this retrospective approach.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Insecticides and arable weeds: effects on germination and seedling growth.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    M E Hanley,M D Whiting

    The decline of many arable weed species in Northern Europe has been attributed to the intensification of modern agriculture and in particular, increasing pesticide use. In this study, we examined the effect of two insecticides, dimethoate and deltamethrin, on the germination and seedling growth of six arable weed species. Although germination was unaffected by insecticide application, seedling growth of four species was decreased by exposure to deltamethrin (Capsella bursa-pastoris and Poa annua), dimethoate (Agrostemma githago), or by both insecticides together (Urtica urens). While increased herbicide use, seed cleaning, and changing sowing times may be of primary importance in explaining the reduction of northern Europe's arable weed flora, our results indicate that insecticide use may also be a contributory factor. Moreover, those species that exhibit apparent tolerance of the insecticides tested, particularly the grass Avena fatua, may benefit from continued insecticide use. The ability to tolerate these agrochemicals, in tandem with reduced herbivory and competition from plants, whose growth is reduced by insecticide application, is likely to confer a significant competitive advantage on insecticide-resistant weed species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of three organic wastewater contaminants on American toad, Bufo americanus, tadpoles.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    Geoffrey R Smith,Amber A Burgett

    Recent surveys of aquatic habitats suggest that organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) may be common in aquatic ecosystems. However, relatively little is known about the impacts of OWCs on amphibians. We studied the lethal and sublethal effects of three OWCs (acetaminophen, caffeine, and triclosan) on American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. High concentrations of triclosan increased activity, whereas acetaminophen had a significant effect on activity but there was no discernable pattern or trend with concentration. Caffeine did not affect activity in B. americanus tadpoles. None of the OWCs we studied had a significant effect on growth. Caffeine had no effect on survivorship. Higher concentrations of acetaminophen increased mortality. Intermediate concentrations of triclosan had a negative effect on survivorship, but the highest concentration apparently had a positive effect on survivorship. Our results suggest that there is variation in the toxicity of the three OWCs we studied.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metal concentrations in the radula of the common limpet, Patella vulgata L., from 10 sites in the UK.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    Mark S Davies,Donna J Proudlock,A Mistry

    Metal (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Zn) levels in the feeding organ or radula of the common limpet Patella vulgata L. were surveyed in 10 populations over a approximately 150-km stretch of coastline in north-east England. The most northern population was at Beadnell in Northumberland and the most southern was at Port Mulgrave in North Yorkshire; sites included unspoilt bays and areas heavily affected by industrial contamination such as the River Tees estuary. We hypothesized that the radula might be used as an indicator of environmental contamination. There were significant differences between the sites in the ratio of radula length to shell length. Limpets from Whitburn had the smallest radula fraction (mean = 1.665), while those from Port Mulgrave the largest (mean = 1.998). Such variation is common in the literature and we detected no correlate and propose no cause. Iron was clearly the dominant metal in the radulae, with an overall of mean of 1.46% of radular weight, though this is rather low in comparison to values in the literature. Iron is naturally secreted into the developing radula as a putative hardening agent. The next most abundant metals, in descending order, were Na (at approximately 2000-8000 microg g(-1)), K, Mg, Ca (approximately 1000-1500 microg g(-1)), Zn, Cu, Al, Pb (approximately 7-75 microg g(-1)), Mn, As, Cd (approximately 0-1 microg g(-1)). All but Al and Cd showed significant differences between the sites, but not in any consistent or convincing geographic manner. Nevertheless, the variations in metal levels between sites (e.g. Fe > 72%, Cu and Zn > 10-fold) suggest an environmental cause, but we are unable to offer any responsible factor, for example, there appeared little effect of the River Tees estuary. Cadmium is at a relatively low level in the radula in comparison to published data on pedal mucus and the flesh, but Pb is relatively high in pedal mucus and the radula and this might suggest that the radula is a detoxification route for Pb. Although the relationship between radula metal content and environmental metal content is unknown, the radula is constantly replaced and so may yet have the potential to be of use as a bioindicator, integrating metal exposure over much shorter periods than whole body burdens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multiple biomarker comparison in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Greece coast: "lysosomal membrane stability, neutral red retention, micronucleus frequency and stress on stress".
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    N Koukouzika,V K Dimitriadis

    The lysosomal membrane stability test applied on the digestive cells (LMS) and the neutral red lysosomal retention assay (NRR) performed on hemocytes have been evaluated on mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from Thermaikos and Strymonikos gulfs (Nothern Greece) in June and December 2000. The correlation analysis indicated that there was a strong positive relationship between the above mentioned biomarkers in both sampling seasons, supporting the validity of their application in water quality assessment. The evaluation of micronucleus frequency (MN) has been also performed in hemocytes of the same mussels and, according to the results, it requires additional validation before using it as a stress index. The results obtained in parallel by the stress on stress (SOS) technique do not support the application of this biomarker in biomonitoring, showing, however, negative correlation with LMS and NRR in one sampling season. Finally, morphological observations were performed on cryosections stained for the enzyme N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase, revealing differences in the epithelial cell-layer thickness, as well as changes in the digestive lysosomal system of mussels, obtained from different sampling sites in the two sampling seasons.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of exposure to a mixture of cadmium and chromium on detoxification enzyme (GST, P450-MO) activities in the frog Rana ridibunda.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    Iason Kostaropoulos,Dimitra Kalmanti,Basiliki Theodoropoulou,Nikolaos S Loumbourdis

    The effect of two heavy metals, namely chromium and cadmium, on GST and P450-MO activities in the liver, kidney and gut of the frog Rana ridibunda, and the use of these detoxification enzyme systems as possible markers of heavy metal contamination of rivers in Northern Greece was investigated. In control animals, the highest P450-MO activity was observed in the liver and the lowest activity in the gut. As regards GST, the liver and kidneys showed the highest activity. Exposure of Rana to either Cr or a mixture of Cr and Cd caused a decrease in liver GST and P450-MO and renal GST activities. An important finding was that both GST and P450-MO activities were negatively correlated with concentrations of both metals in the liver of mixture-exposed animals. The results suggest that the determination of GST and P450-MO activities, in combination, could serve to indicate heavy metal contamination in rivers of Northern Greece.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Methyl parathion modifies foraging behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera).
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    David Guez,Shao-Wu Zhang,Mandyam V Srinivasan

    We examined the effects of sublethal doses of an organophosphorus insecticide, Methyl Parathion (MeP), on the foraging behaviour of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) in a flight cage. The results revealed that MeP modified the frequency of visits to a feeding station to which the bees had previously been trained. A dose of 50 ng per animal elicited an increase in the frequency of visits to the feeder, compared to control animals. A dose of 10 ng, on the other hand, led initially to a decrease in the visit frequency, followed by an increase to a level above that of the controls. A hypothesis is presented to account for the way in which MeP affects foraging behaviour. We propose that the behavioural assay presented here could be useful as a preliminary screening test to study sublethal effects of pesticides on foraging performance in honeybees.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Observed differences in life history characteristics of nematodes Aphelenchus and Acrobeloides upon exposure to copper and benzo(a)pyrene.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2005-12-31
    Fafeng Li,Deborah A Neher,Brian J Darby,Thomas R Weicht

    Maturity index values reflect life history characteristics often inferred by morphology. We tested the hypothesis that Acrobeloides and Aphelenchus are sensitive to chemical pollutants, opposite of what their colonizer-persister (CP) value of 2 suggests. Acrobeloides and Aphelenchus were reared at 19 degrees C and provided diets of Escherichia coli and Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. LC50 values for Aphelenchus exposed to copper or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are greater than Acrobeloides. Copper impedes growth of Acrobeloides at 10 microg/g, and results in 100% mortality at 20 microg/g. In contrast, Aphelenchus is more resilient, with no visible impact at 20 microg/g. Acrobeloides and Aphelenchus were sensitive to much lower concentrations of BaP than copper, i.e., 0.5 microg/g inhibited development of Acrobeloides and 2 microg/g for Aphelenchus. Egg size and hatch were unaffected at 15 microg/g copper. In contrast, 0.5 microg/g BaP reduced both egg size and hatch for Aphelenchus but not Acrobeloides. Survival of Acrobeloides and reproduction of Aphelenchus responded differently to copper and BaP, implying the relationship between this classification and their sensitivity to short-term effects may be less straightforward than presumed. Refinement of index values based on empirical evidence can be used to improve sensitivity and interpretation of nematode community indices for environmental monitoring.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Risk assessment of low arsenic exposure using biomarkers of oxidative and genotoxic stress in a piscine model.
    Ecotoxicology. (IF 2.460) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Deepak K Jha,Kumar Sayrav,Gaurav P Mishra,Bipin B Mishra,Anupma Kumari,Amod Kumar,Parimal K Khan

    The high level exposure to arsenic induces marked oxidative and genotoxic stress. However, information on the potential of low level arsenic exposure in this context is still scanty. In the present study, the extent of oxidative stress and genetic toxicity induced by low arsenic exposure was explored in freshwater fish Channa punctatus. Fish were exposed to low levels of arsenic (10 and 50 µg L-1) as well as to its high level (500 µg L-1) using sodium arsenite in aquaria water for 14 consecutive days. The TBARS assay for lipid peroxidation exhibited the increased occurrence of oxidative damage in the erythrocytes of fish at both the lower and higher levels of arsenic exposure. The level of reduced glutathione was also elevated in all the three arsenic exposed groups of fish compared to control. In contrast, significant decline was observed in the levels of three major antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, upon exposure to higher as well as lower levels of arsenic. Significant increases in micronucleus induction were found in the erythrocytes of fish even at the low levels of arsenic exposure. The study further revealed the occurrence of DNA fragmentation in the erythrocytes of fish at low arsenic exposures as well. The low level exposure to arsenic (using sodium arsenite), therefore, appeared to be capable of inducing noticeable oxidative stress as well as potential genotoxic effect in Channa punctatus. Moreover, the ability of arsenic to induce oxidative stress invariably appeared correlated with its genotoxic potential.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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