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  • Correction to: Hissing like a snake: bird hisses are similar to snake hisses and prompt similar anxiety behavior in a mammalian model
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Mylène Dutour, Laurène Lévy, Thierry Lengagne, Marie-Jeanne Holveck, Pierre-André Crochet, Philippe Perret, Claire Doutrelant, Arnaud Grégoire

    After publication of this paper, the authors determined an error in the article title.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Birds from matched developmental environments breed faster
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Harrison J.F. Eyck, Ondi L. Crino, Fanny-Linn O.H. Kraft, Tim S. Jessop, Katherine L. Buchanan

    Abstract The developmental environment an animal experiences can have a pervasive and sustained effect on phenotype throughout its life. Animals exposed to suboptimal conditions during development can experience physiological trade-offs, leading to seemingly negative phenotypic changes in later life that have been hypothesised to have detrimental effects on fitness. However, few studies have investigated how exposure to suboptimal developmental conditions affects an animal’s reproductive behavior and fitness. Here, we determine if elevated levels of corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during development affect fitness via changes in reproductive investment in adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). To do this, we exposed nestling zebra finches to either CORT supplemented or control treatments and assessed their mate selection and reproductive investment as adults, using free choice breeding experiments. We found that breeding pairs of birds from matched developmental treatments (CORT or control) had a shorter latency to lay clutches compared to pairs with mismatched developmental treatments. We found no indication that clutch size or egg mass were affected by developmental treatment. Also, we found no evidence that birds choose mates to match their own developmental treatment. Our results demonstrate that developmental experience may affect reproductive investment through changes to reproductive timing and add to the literature suggesting that pairs with similar developmental backgrounds can coordinate their reproduction more effectively. Significance statement Developmental stress may reduce the fitness of a breeding pair as a result of its detrimental effect on phenotype and performance. Alternatively, individuals could use indicators of developmental stress to influence mate choice in order to compensate for a poor start to life. Previous studies suggest that birds do assortatively mate by developmental environment, but this has not been tested in a free choice mating context. Using a free choice breeding experiment, we show that pairs of breeding birds lay eggs faster when they have matching developmental environments, regardless of the quality of their developmental environment. This evidence suggests that assortatively mated pairs can potentially offset a bad start to life and maintain fitness in spite of the deleterious effects of developmental stress.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Individual behavior, behavioral stability, and pace of life within and among five shrew species
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Sophie von Merten, Niels J. Dingemanse, Maria da Luz Mathias, Leszek Rychlik

    Abstract Phenotypic variation in behavior exists among species and populations, as well as among and within individuals. The pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis predicts covariation between life-history strategies, ranging from slow to fast, and behavior, ranging from shy, inactive, and flexible to bold, active, and less flexible. This covariation is expected to exist at multiple hierarchical levels, from the species down to the individual. We predict that fast-lived species will differ in average levels of behavior, and additionally show lower within-individual and among-individual variation than slow-lived ones. Shrews represent a highly suitable model to test these predictions, as they comprise a range of genera which differ tremendously in life-history strategy and metabolism. We performed repeated tests of boldness and aggression on 155 wild-caught individuals of five species of shrews, two species of the slow-lived genus Crocidura, two of the fast-lived genus Sorex, and one of the intermediate-paced genus Neomys. To compare not only average levels of behavior but also its variance components between those groups, we calculated coefficients of variation at within- and among-individual levels. Our results support our first prediction that, following the framework of pace-of-life-syndromes, fast-lived species should exhibit bolder behavior than slow-lived ones. However, our prediction of lower within- and among-individual variation in fast-lived species was not supported. Instead, our data suggest that other ecological factors might influence the expression of behavioral variation in shrew species, such as the variability in habitat choice and differences in anti-predator strategies. Significance statement The behavior and life history of animals are often structured into so-called pace-of-life syndromes (POLS), with slow-lived individuals being rather shy, inactive, and flexible and fast-lived individuals rather bold, active, and less flexible. Comparing the behavior in five species of shrews, we tested if such a gradient can also be found on the species level. While the average levels of species’ behavior indeed matched their pace of life, their individual behavior and behavioral stability did not. It was rather explained by an interplay of ecological and physiological factors, among them the variability in habitat choices and differences in anti-predator strategies. Our study shows that behavioral variation cannot be explained by just one factor like POLS at different hierarchical levels, but rather by a combination of factors including the animals’ life-history and ecological and physiological background.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Synchronized hatching as a possible strategy to avoid sibling cannibalism in stink bugs
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Jun Endo, Hideharu Numata

    In some animals, timing of egg hatching is adjusted in response to cues from clutch mates to synchronize hatching within a clutch and this typically facilitates mass migration of hatchlings from their natal clutch. A recent study in eight species of Pentatomidae revealed that four species show synchronized hatching due to responses to earlier-hatched siblings, by comparing temporal hatching patterns between intact clutches and eggs individually detached from clutches. However, hatchlings of Pentatomidae do not migrate from their natal clutch immediately. In the present study, using the same eight species, we explored the evolutionary reason for the synchronized hatching in Pentatomidae. In all of the species examined except one non-synchronized species, Eurydema rugosum, hatchlings showed egg feeding behavior with greatly different time of onset. The highly synchronized species, Halyomorpha halys and Nezara viridula, had the time of onset of egg feeding earlier than in the other species. In these two species, based on the hatching patterns of eggs individually detached from their clutches, we concluded that eggs can be cannibalized by their earlier-hatched siblings unless they hatch in response to siblings. On the other hand, this was not the case in the moderately synchronized species, Piezodorus hybneri and Plautia stali. In the other three non-synchronized species, Aelia fieberi, Dolycoris baccarum, and Palomena angulosa, eggs seemed not to incur a risk of cannibalism. In intact H. halys clutches, almost no eggs were cannibalized by siblings. In conclusion, synchronized hatching serves as a possible strategy to avoid sibling cannibalism in Pentatomidae, although it can also have some other functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Not too big, not too small: raids at moderately sized hosts lead to optimal outcomes for a slave-making ant
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Julie S. Miller

    Understanding the trajectory of host-parasite co-evolution requires knowledge of how hosts and parasites impact one another’s fitness, especially among the avian and insect social parasites. Host choice is an important first step in this process, but the principles guiding host choice are unresolved, especially for specialist parasites choosing among individual hosts with multiple traits. To determine how parasites weigh various host traits relative to others, we need to identify their costs and benefits. Here I use the slave-making ant, Temnothorax americanus, to investigate the payoffs from different host trait combinations. I measured the costs and benefits of raids at hosts that varied in their value (# brood), defensive power (# workers), or their ratios. Additionally, I investigated whether slave-maker fighting power influences which host trait combinations were optimal. Slave-makers performed best when hosts contained more brood but fewer workers. However, the ability to maximize this ratio is constrained by the correlation of brood and worker numbers in natural nests, making the optimal host moderately sized. Measures of costs reinforce this conclusion, since slave-maker mortality increased with the number of host workers. Additionally, I found that larger slave-maker colonies have higher payoffs at larger hosts, suggesting their optimal host trait profile differs from smaller colonies. This study shows that social parasites exercising force ought to balance a trade-off between host value and defensibility, rather than maximizing only value. Furthermore, the results highlight that host demography could play a larger role in insect social parasite arms races than previously appreciated.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Distant neighbours: friends or foes? Eurasian beavers show context-dependent responses to simulated intruders
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Anke Benten, Hannah B Cross, Helga V Tinnesand, Andreas Zedrosser, Frank Rosell

    Abstract Neighbour-stranger discrimination is widespread in territorial animals, and depending on the relative threat posed by neighbours and strangers, residents commonly exhibit either the “dear enemy phenomenon” or the “nasty neighbour effect”. Different members of the same group may represent different threat levels, and the response of residents can be modified depending on, e.g. the sex and dominance status of the intruder. Neighbour-stranger discrimination is primarily investigated in neighbours with shared borders, and whether residents recognize their more distant neighbours remains unexplored. Here, using experimental scent marks, we investigated whether Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) discriminate between distant neighbours (i.e. two territories away) and strangers (i.e. further away than the known dispersal distance). We tested the hypotheses that Eurasian beavers can discriminate between distant neighbours and strangers and that social status (i.e. sub-dominant or dominant) and sex of the intruder affect the responses of resident beavers. We predicted that resident beavers show the “dear enemy phenomenon” in response towards dominant distant neighbours due to their territory ownership and the “nasty neighbour effect” in response towards sub-dominants due to their likelihood to disperse. Sex of residents and social status of intruders were important in explaining territorial responses, with males exhibiting stronger responses to sub-dominant distant neighbours, especially males, than sub-dominant strangers. No such discrimination was found by females or between dominant distant neighbours and strangers. We suggest that the “nasty neighbour” response by male resident beavers towards sub-dominant distant neighbours relates to the relative threat levels due to repeated intrusions during dispersal attempts. Significance statement Territorial animals discriminate between neighbours and strangers to allocate aggressive behaviour to conspecific intruders. This neighbour-stranger discrimination has primarily been investigated between adjacent neighbours, but extraterritorial movements of residents into distant territories occur. Whether residents can discriminate between distant neighbours and strangers has only been studied in skylarks (Alauda arvensis), based on acoustic communication. Yet, it is unknown whether distant neighbours are perceived as neighbours or strangers based on olfactory recognition. Here we investigated whether Eurasian beavers (C. fiber) can discriminate between distant neighbours (i.e. two territories away) and strangers, based on olfactory scent samples including information on social status (i.e. dominant or sub-dominant) and sex of the intruder. Our results show that male residents showed a “nasty neighbour” response towards sub-dominant distant neighbours. These findings highlight the sensitivity of territorial mammals to the familiarity and social status of intruders.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • In utero behavioral imprinting to predation risk in pups of the bank vole
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Thorbjörn Sievert, Arjane Kerkhoven, Marko Haapakoski, Kevin D. Matson, Olga Ylönen, Hannu Ylönen

    Abstract In the predator–prey arms race, survival-enhancing adaptive behaviors are essential. Prey can perceive predator presence directly from visual, auditory, or chemical cues. Non-lethal encounters with a predator may trigger prey to produce special body odors, alarm pheromones, informing conspecifics about predation risks. Recent studies suggest that parental exposure to predation risk during reproduction affects offspring behavior cross-generationally. We compared behaviors of bank vole (Myodes glareolus) pups produced by parents exposed to one of three treatments: predator scent from the least weasel (Mustela nivalis nivalis); scent from weasel-exposed voles, i.e., alarm pheromones; or a control treatment without added scents. Parents were treated in semi-natural field enclosures, but pups were born in the lab and assayed in an open-field arena. Before each behavioral test, one of the three scent treatments was spread throughout the test arena. The tests followed a full factorial design (3 parental treatments × 3 area treatments). Regardless of the parents’ treatment, pups exposed to predator odor in the arena moved more. Additionally, pups spend more time in the center of the arena when presented with predator odor or alarm pheromone compared with the control. Pups from predator odor–exposed parents avoided the center of the arena under control conditions, but they spent more time in the center when either predator odor or alarm pheromone was present. Our experiment shows that cross-generational effects are context-sensitive, depending on the perceived risk. Future studies should examine cross-generational behavioral effects in ecologically meaningful environments instead of only neutral ones. Significance statement We exposed bank voles to odors signaling predation risk to assess the effects parental predation exposure on the behavior of their offspring. Besides predator odor, we also assessed the role of a conspecific alarm cue as a novel way of spreading the predation risk information. Pup behaviors were assessed in the open-field arena, a standard way of assessing animal behavior in a wide range of contexts. We found that also alarm pheromone increased the time pups spend in the center of the arena similarly to predator odor. While previous studies suggested that offspring would be more fearful, our results indicate that the cross-generational effects are very context-dependent; i.e., they differ significantly depending on which scent cue is presented in the open-field arena. This shows the need for better tools or measurements to translate laboratory results into ecologically meaningful frameworks.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Male characteristics as predictors of genital color and display variation in vervet monkeys
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Mirjam M. I. Young, Sandra Winters, Christopher Young, Brigitte M. Weiß, Jolyon Troscianko, André Ganswindt, Louise Barrett, S. Peter Henzi, James P. Higham, Anja Widdig

    Abstract In the animal kingdom, conspicuous colors are often used for inter- and intra-sexual communication. Even though primates are the most colorful mammalian taxon, many questions, including what potential information color signals communicate to social partners, are not fully understood. Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) are ideal to examine the covariates of color signals. Males have multi-colored genitals, which they present during distinctive male-male interactions, known as the “Red-White-and-Blue” (RWB) display, but the genitals are also visible across a variety of other contexts, and it is unclear what this color display signals to recipients. We recorded genital color presentations and standardized digital photos of male genitals (N = 405 photos) over one mating season for 20 adult males in three groups at the Samara Private Game Reserve, South Africa. We combined these with data on male characteristics (dominance, age, tenure length, injuries, and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations). Using visual modeling methods, we measured single colors (red, white, blue) but also the contrasts between colors. We assessed the frequency of the RWB genital display and male variation in genital coloration and linked this to male characteristics. Our data suggest that the number of genital displays increased with male dominance. However, none of the variables investigated explained the inter- and intra-individual variation in male genital coloration. These results suggest that the frequency of the RWB genital display, but not its color value, is related to dominance, providing valuable insights on covariation in color signals and their display in primates. Significance statement Conspicuous colors in animals often communicate individual quality to mates and rivals. By investigating vervet monkeys, a primate species in which males present their colorful genitals within several behavioral displays, we aim to identify the covariates of such colorful signals and their behavioral display. Using visual modeling methods for the color analysis and combining behavioral display data and color data with male characteristics, we found that high-ranking males displayed their colorful genitals more frequently than lower-ranking ones. In contrast, color variation was not influenced by male dominance, age, tenure length, or health. Our results can serve as a basis for future investigations on the function of colorful signals and behavioral displays, such as a badge of status or mate choice in primates.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Risk-taking and locomotion in foraging threespine sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ): the effect of nutritional stress is dependent on social context
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    M. J. Hansen, I. Y. Ligocki, K. E. Zillig, A. E. Steel, A. E. Todgham, N. A. Fangue

    The relationship between individual physiological traits and social behaviour is an important research area because it can examine how mechanisms of behaviour link to functional outcomes. It is hypothesised that correlative and causative links between physiology and individual behaviour may be altered by social interactions. Here, we assess how nutritional stress (20-h starved, 90-h starved) and routine metabolic rate (RMR) determine the movement and foraging behaviour of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), both individually and in a social context. Results showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between RMR and behaviour. The nutritional stress treatment had significant opposite effects on voluntary swim speed, dependent on whether fish were assayed asocially (alone) or socially (in shoals of three). Greater nutritional stress caused voluntary swimming speeds to reduce in an asocial context but increase in a social context, although both relationships were not significant. Additional results exploring social behaviour parameters such as the frequency and duration of shoaling interactions suggests that alterations in fish swim speed between the two nutritional stress treatments may be due to competition effects. This study links state-dependent individual behaviour to social foraging performance and reinforces the theory that social context is an important modulator of the relationships between physiology and behaviour.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • When do looks matter? Effects of mate quality and environmental variability on lifetime reproduction
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Z. R. Stahlschmidt, I. Chu, C. Koh

    Inter-individual variation in lifetime reproduction is the key target for natural selection, and it is influenced by many factors. Yet, we lack an understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors interact to influence lifetime reproductive output (number of offspring) and reproductive effort (total biomass invested into reproduction). Thus, we used a factorial design to manipulate variability in food availability and temperature while also accounting for mate quality. We tested hypotheses related to estimates of lifetime reproductive output and effort in females of the wing-dimorphic sand field cricket (Gryllus firmus). Environmental variability influenced a temporal tradeoff of reproduction because females experiencing fluctuating temperatures had a particular bias toward reproductive output during early adulthood. Also, complex environmental variability (i.e., multiple and co-varying environmental factors) influenced differential allocation, which is when individuals adjust their reproductive efforts according to mate quality. Females mated to higher quality males laid more eggs only in environments that were highly stable (constant temperature and ad libitum food access). Reproductive effort was affected by a food–temperature interaction—fluctuating temperatures promoted egg production when food was limited, while constant temperature promoted egg production when food was abundant. Although a wing dimorphism mediates a well-established flight–fecundity tradeoff during early adulthood in G. firmus, short- and long-winged morphs exhibited similar lifetime reproduction and responded similarly to complex environmental variability. Given the natural co-variation of many environmental factors (e.g., water limitation often accompanies heat waves), we encourage continued work examining the role of complex environmental variability in tradeoffs related to reproductive decision-making and allocation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Decision-making in migratory birds at stopover: an interplay of energy stores and feeding conditions
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Thomas Klinner, Jonas Buddemeier, Franz Bairlein, Heiko Schmaljohann

    Abstract Migrating birds make stopovers to rest and fuel to prepare for their next flight. The decision when to continue migration significantly affects total duration of migration and thus arrival timing at the migratory destination. Departure decisions of migrants are therefore important to understand variation in arrival timing. Since the amount of energy can limit flight duration, feeding conditions and energy stores have a significant effect on the departure decisions. Unexpectedly though, various fasting-refuelling experiments controlling for these two parameters and using migratory restlessness as a proxy for departure probability did not find consistent patterns within and across different songbird species of departure decisions. Here we performed a fasting-refuelling experiment on four actively migrating songbird species during autumn, to assess the significance and consistency of the feeding conditions and energy stores on the bird’s departure decision. We found no differences in the departure probability between low and favourable feeding conditions in all species. During the low food phase, however, birds with higher energy stores were more likely to depart than leaner birds. When fasted individuals encountered improved feeding conditions, they significantly increased their energy stores and showed a significant drop in migratory restlessness. This is tantamount to the decision of staying at stopover. The consistency of the patterns seems to be generalizable across species. Additionally, the results highlight the importance of the interplay of feeding conditions, changes in these and the bird’s current energy stores for the stopover decision-making process. Significance statement Many migratory songbirds travelling thousands of kilometres do so by making several single nocturnal flights interrupted by resting periods on the ground. To decide when to continue migration, birds seem to follow general departure rules. Fat birds continue migration when they do not find food during their rest, while lean birds stay until the feeding conditions have improved. In this study, we show for the first time a generalizable consistent pattern that feeding conditions, changes in food availability and the current energy stores jointly influence the departure decisions of migratory songbirds at stopovers. This is in contrast to former studies showing inconsistent patterns on the reaction of a low food phase regarding the departure probability. Our experiment, therefore, advances our knowledge about the decision-making process of bird migrants and demonstrates the importance of favourable feeding conditions for migratory birds resting at a stopover site.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Variation in song structure along an elevation gradient in a resident songbird
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Carrie L. Branch, Vladimir V. Pravosudov

    Abstract Heterogeneous environments can create differential selection pressures among populations, which may result in the evolution of local adaptations. Premating isolation mechanisms may emerge due to limited movement among locally adapted individuals, thus further enhancing such adaptations. The song of male songbirds is one potential premating isolation mechanism that has long been of interest because of its implications for mate choice, local adaptation, and speciation associated with environmental heterogeneity. We tested whether locally adapted mountain chickadees exhibit variation in song structure along an elevation gradient and whether song structure shifts with the distinct change in winter climate severity around the snowline. These birds exhibit large elevation-related differences in numerous behavioral and neurological traits, including variation in spatial cognition associated with fitness consequences. We recorded song along two continuous elevation gradients and detected significant differences among the sampling sites along an elevation gradient and between “high” and “low” elevation songs. Our current results, coupled with previously reported winter climate-related differences are generally consistent with the local adaptation hypothesis explaining geographic variation in song, which suggests that variation in song structure could serve as an indicator of local adaptation. Our study shows that song differences can evolve on a small spatial scale along a continuous species distribution when there is a rapid change in environmental conditions also favoring the evolution of local adaptations. Significance statement Local adaptations may evolve when heterogeneous environments result in differential selection on fitness-related traits. If locally adapted populations experience reduced movement, additional traits may also change over time and serve as indicators of origin. The ability to identify and mate with local males, which are likely adapted to the prevailing environment, should procure a fitness advantage such that offspring produced with a local individual will inherit the genetic material that made that individual successful. Temperate male bird song is initially learned near the nest, varies geographically, and is commonly used by females to assess male quality. Using mountain chickadees that inhabit an elevation gradient associated with large phenotypic differences, we found significant variation in song structure along an elevation gradient and that male song also changes significantly at an important ecological threshold, consistent with high- and low-elevation songs that may be used by females to identify and mate with local males.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Deep learning analysis of nest camera video recordings reveals temperature-sensitive incubation behavior in the purple martin ( Progne subis )
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Heather M. Williams, Robert L. DeLeon

    Incubation is a key life history stage for birds, and incubation attentiveness can have significant fitness consequences for both parents and offspring. Incubation is, however, a challenging phenomenon to observe and studies generally either measure some proxy of the target behavior, or risk disturbing birds through direct observation. More recently, nest cameras have provided a non-intrusive way to directly observe incubation, but analysis of these data is time-consuming. Here, we use the results of the first deep learning model which automated analysis of nest camera video recordings from eight purple martin (Progne subis) nests over the entire incubation period at a 1-s resolution. We mathematically define the initiation of incubation, characterize the change in nest attentiveness during incubation, and analyze the factors determining nest attentiveness and on- and off-bout duration during the incubation process. A random forest regression model identified the most important predictors of nest attentiveness. Attentiveness decreased with increasing temperature, but the strength of this response increased above the presumed physiological zero egg temperature, below which egg development ceases. This implies that the purple martins are able to adjust their incubation behavior in a complex, multiple-state manner to an extrinsic stimulus. Our study highlights the value of high-resolution datasets created using artificial intelligence for the analysis of nest camera video recordings of animal behavior.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • How do Allenby’s gerbils titrate risk and reward in response to different predators?
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Douglas F. Makin, Burt P. Kotler

    In heterogenous environments, predation risk from multiple predators and the availability of resources fluctuate both spatially and temporally. The various predators may include both aerial and terrestrial species that can facilitate each other and present qualitatively different risks to prey. Animals therefore forage across a complex landscape of fear, with areas of risks and relative safety where resources are generally asymmetrically distributed. Therefore, a trade-off exists between remaining safe and locating food. Animals make foraging decisions regarding where, when and for how long to forage by titrating marginal costs and benefits of foraging within and the marginal value of foraging across depletable resource patches. We conducted a series of titration experiments to determine how Allenby’s gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) titrated food and safety when presented with predation risk from owls, vipers and the joint risk from both predators. We manipulated bush and open microhabitats by increasing food availability in the riskier patches. In response to the different levels of enrichment, gerbils titrated food and safety. Riskier open microhabitats needed to be four times as rich in food as bush patches to be of equal value when subjected to predation from owls and the joint risk from owls and vipers. In response to vipers alone, riskier bush patches needed to be 2–4 times as rich in food as safer open patches for the marginal value of foraging to equalize across microhabitats. Overall, predation risk from owls and the joint risk from owls and vipers resulted in the greatest foraging costs for gerbils in risky microhabitats. Thus, the combined overall risk from multiple predator species was equivalent to the risk presented by the gerbils’ most dangerous predator (owls alone).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Coping styles in capital breeders modulate behavioural trade-offs in time allocation: assessing fine-scale activity budgets in lactating grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ) using accelerometry and heart rate variability
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Courtney R. Shuert, Patrick P. Pomeroy, Sean D. Twiss

    Abstract Balancing time allocation among competing behaviours is an essential part of energy management for all animals. However, trade-offs in time allocation may vary according to the sex of the individual, their age, and even underlying physiology. During reproduction, higher energetic demands and constrained internal resources place greater demand on optimizing these trade-offs insofar that small adjustments in time-activity may lead to substantial effects on an individual’s limited energy budget. The most extreme case is found in animals that undergo capital breeding, where individuals fast for the duration of each reproductive episode. We investigated potential underlying drivers of time-activity and describe aspects of trade-offs in time-activity in a wild, capital breeding pinniped, the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, during the lactation period. For the first time, we were able to access full 24-h activity budgets across the core duration of lactation as well as characterize how aspects of stress-coping styles influence time allocation through the use of animal-borne accelerometers and heart rate monitors in situ. We found that there was a distinct trade-off in time activity between time spent Resting and Alert (vigilance). This trade-off varied with the pup’s development, date, and maternal stress-coping style as indicated by a measure of heart rate variability, rMSSD. In contrast, time spent Presenting/Nursing did not vary across the duration of lactation given the variables tested. We suggest that while mothers balance time spent conserving resources (Resting) against time expending energy (Alert), they are also influenced by the inherent physiological drivers of stress-coping styles. Significance statement How animals apportion their time among different behaviours is key to their success. These trade-offs should be finely balanced to avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. Here, we examine how grey seal mothers balance their activity patterns during the short, but energetically demanding, period of pup-rearing. Animal-borne accelerometers provided a uniquely detailed and continuous record of activity during pup-rearing for 38 mothers. We also used heart rate monitors to provide measures of each individual’s stress-coping style. We found that mothers balance time Resting against remaining Alert while time Presenting/Nursing was largely independent of all factors measured. Stress-coping styles were found to drive the balancing and variation of all behaviours. This novel indication that differences in personality-like traits may drive whole activity budgets should be considered when assessing trade-offs in time allocation across a much wider variety of species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dominance rank and the presence of sexually receptive females predict feces-measured body temperature in male chimpanzees
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Jacob D. Negrey, Aaron A. Sandel, Kevin E. Langergraber

    Quantifying the costs of mating is key for understanding life-history trade-offs. As a reflection of metabolic rate, body temperature is one metric for assaying these costs. However, conventional methods for measuring body temperature are invasive and unsuitable for the study of free-living populations of endangered species, including great apes. A promising proxy for body temperature is fecal temperature, the internal temperature of fecal deposits shortly following defecation. We validated this method with humans, finding that maximum fecal temperature is a reliable proxy for rectal temperature. We then applied this method to wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We collected and analyzed 101 fecal temperature measurements from 43 adult chimpanzees (male: N = 28; female: N = 15). Chimpanzee fecal temperature ranged from 33.4 to 38.9 °C, with a mean of 35.8 °C. Although fecal temperature was not predicted by sex, age, or ambient temperature, male fecal temperature was 1.1 °C higher on days when sexually receptive females were present and was positively correlated with male dominance rank. Post hoc analyses showed that overall copulation rates, but not aggression rates, were positively correlated with fecal temperature, suggesting that sexual physiology and behavior best explain mating-related temperature variation. Together, these results indicate fecal temperature is a reliable proxy for core body temperature in large-bodied mammals, captures metabolic costs associated with male mating behavior, and represents a valuable noninvasive tool for biological field research.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Correction to: Social security: social relationship strength and connectedness influence how marmots respond to alarm calls
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Daniel T. Blumstein, Holly Fuong, Elizabeth Palmer

    Unfortunately, there was an error in the R script which led to the incorrect labeling of two social network measures.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Reproductive coordination breeds success: the importance of the partnership in avian sperm biology
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Laura L. Hurley, Melissah Rowe, Simon C. Griffith

    Previous experience with a partner can improve reproductive coordination between a pair and increase offspring production. We paired inexperienced zebra finches and investigated how a pairs’ experience and their reproductive success together (i.e., whether they were successful or unsuccessful at rearing chicks) related to the number of sperm reaching the ovum, sperm motile performance, and hatching success. In contrast to unsuccessful pairs, successful pairs increased their relative hatching rates over sequential breeding attempts, with pairs hatching 100% of eggs after successfully fledging their previous clutch. Across the study, hatching failure was primarily due to early embryo death. Further, the number of sperm reaching the perivitelline layer (PVL) significantly decreased after fledging chicks in successful pairs, and overall, less sperm was found on the PVL in successful pairs compared with unsuccessful pairs. Across breeding attempts, males in successful pairs also exhibited a significant decline in sperm swimming speed, whereas it increased over breeding attempts in unsuccessful pairs. Our results support the idea of an optimal level of supernumerary sperm on the avian egg. However, our data suggest that there are likely to be interactions between the quality of a partnership and male sperm traits that may contribute to fitness in socially monogamous birds and that have been largely neglected to date.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Predictors of colony extinction vary by habitat type in social spiders
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Brendan L. McEwen, James L. L. Lichtenstein, David N. Fisher, Colin M. Wright, Greg T. Chism, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Jonathan N. Pruitt

    Many animal societies are susceptible to mass mortality events and collapse. Elucidating how environmental pressures determine patterns of collapse is important for understanding how such societies function and evolve. Using the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola, we investigated the environmental drivers of colony extinction along two precipitation gradients across southern Africa, using the Namib and Kalahari deserts versus wetter savanna habitats to the north and east. We deployed experimental colonies (n = 242) along two ~ 800-km transects and returned to assess colony success in the field after 2 months. Specifically, we noted colony extinction events after the 2-month duration and collected environmental data on the correlates of those extinction events (e.g., evidence of ant attacks, no. of prey captured). We found that colony extinction events at desert sites were more frequently associated with attacks by predatory ants as compared with savanna sites, while colony extinctions in wetter savannas sites were more tightly associated with fungal outbreaks. Our findings support the hypothesis that environments vary in the selection pressures that they impose on social organisms, which may explain why different social phenotypes are often favored in each habitat.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • PC 1Hissing like a snake: bird hisses are similar to snake hisses and prompt similar anxiety behavior in a mammalian model
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Mylène Dutour, Laurène Lévy, Thierry Lengagne, Marie-Jeanne Holveck, Pierre-André Crochet, Philippe Perret, Claire Doutrelant, Arnaud Grégoire

    Batesian mimicry refers to a harmless species protecting itself from predators by mimicking a harmful species. A case of acoustic Batesian mimicry has been proposed in the naturalist literature: it is suspected that birds called like a snake when disturbed in their cavities to deter mammalian predators or repel competitors. To evaluate this hypothesis, we first test the assumption that the hissing sound produced by adult females of a wild cavity-nesting species – the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) – is acoustically similar to the hisses of three wild sympatric snake species. Then, we tested one prediction of this hypothesis which is that the receiver of the signal should react similarly to the snake and bird hisses. To do so, we used, hiss-naïve individuals, without any past experience with predators: the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus), representing a model of a possible nest competitor. We quantified mouse responses to blue tit and snake hisses and two non-hiss sounds (other blue tit vocalizations and human voices). Our results show that snake hisses and blue tit hisses are structurally more similar to each other than to other blue tit vocalizations and that both hisses provoke comparable levels of anxiety behavior in mice. Taken together, these results are compatible with the hypothesis that blue tits have evolved to mimic the sound of snakes, i.e., the Batesian mimicry hypothesis. We also note however that our results also agree with another hypothesis, suggesting that mechanisms underlying the production and perception of hisses are conserved across vertebrates. Further research is needed to disentangle these two hypotheses.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Novel ablation technique shows no sperm priming response by male eastern mosquitofish to cues of female availability
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Meng-Han Joseph Chung, Michael D. Jennions, Rebecca J. Fox

    Abstract Changes in mate availability and sperm competition should generate selection to adjust investments into different pre- and post-copulatory traits so that the product of mating and fertilization success maximize net male reproductive success. Given costly sperm production and the risk of sperm depletion, males should invest strategically in ejaculates. Here, we use the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), where males have a single coercive mating tactic, to test whether the number of cues indicative of female availability affects the rate of sperm available for mating (so-called sperm priming). We also tested whether plasticity in sperm production varies with male body size. We created four socio-sexual treatments that differ in the number of female-derived cues: none, chemical, chemical and visual, and full access to a female. We used ablation surgery, removing the tip of the male gonopodium (intromittent organ), to prevent males from mating with a female in the treatment where they interacted with females. We hypothesized that elevated sperm priming would be associated with more cues about female availability, and be more apparent in smaller, subordinate males due to their lower baseline sperm count (higher risk of sperm depletion) and their potential disadvantage during premating competition (leading to higher marginal benefits from sperm investment). There was, however, no evidence for sperm priming. The rate of sperm availability for mating and the baseline sperm reserves were, however, dependent on male body size. We discuss possible reasons for our findings. We also note that our study provides novel insights into the proximate mechanisms associated with sperm release in Poeciliids. Our confirmation of the fact that removing the gonopodium tip prevents a male from releasing sperm when housed with a female has many potential applications (e.g., in the study of effects of ejaculate investment and mating effort on male mating success and longevity). Significance statement When ejaculates are energetically costly, males should strategically adjust sperm production in response to relevant social cues such as female availability. Using four socio-sexual scenarios, we demonstrate that male mosquitofish G. holbrooki do not produce less sperm when housed alone, compared to being exposed only to chemical cues from females, or to chemical and visual cues, or even when allowed full access to a female. The absence of plasticity in sperm production, when compared to that reported in other Poeciliid fishes, suggests that the relationship between sperm number and mating success might depend upon the mating system. If increased sperm number has a small effect on male reproductive success, there might not be selection for plastic shifts in sperm production. We also showed that ablation surgery on the male’s gonopodium allows us to let males interact with females without ejaculating.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Intraspecific variation in boldness and exploration shapes behavioral responses to stress in Galápagos sea lion pups
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Eugene J. DeRango, Jonas F.L. Schwarz, Paolo Piedrahita, Diego Páez-Rosas, Fritz Trillmich, Oliver Krüger

    Abstract Behavioral plasticity allows individual organisms to alter behavioral traits in response to environmental or state-dependent conditions. Structured animal personality traits often influence the degree of between-individual variation in plasticity within a population, especially as it relates to an individual’s behavioral coping style towards disturbances. Here, we investigated whether boldness and exploration measured during novel object tests in young Galápagos sea lion pups were associated with individual behavioral responses towards capture. We found that only state-related traits, such as sex and body condition, and not personality affected baseline capture responses (struggle and escape responses after release). Male pups and those that maintained good body condition tended to show initially low struggle and escape behavior. These responses, however, were not highly repeatable within individuals during the study period. Different personality types greatly differed in how they modulated their behavior over time, and few sea lions utilized fixed strategies. Unexpectedly, bolder but less explorative individuals habituated quickest to capture, while shy and explorative pups increased responses over time. Pups found to be bolder but less explorative in novel object tests also moved between fewer sites within their habitat based on observational data. This may suggest that these individuals may be less sensitive to disturbances by increasing familiarity within a limited home range. Our results illustrate that individual pups may differentially assess risk and adjust behavior to cope with disturbance within their early life environment. Significance statement Galápagos sea lions are an endangered pinniped species which live within a habitat characterized by a large degree of environmental uncertainty. We hypothesized that, depending on their personality, Galápagos sea lion pups may show varying degrees of behavioral plasticity in response to a dynamic early life environment. We show that bold pups and those that were less explorative during novel object tests and within their natural habitat were more likely to habituate quickly to stressful experiences (i.e., a capture and handling regime). We postulate that a familiarity with the physical and social environment in addition to personality traits may play an important role in how individual sea lion pups assess and cope with early life risks.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Courtship interference by neighboring males potentially prevents pairing in fiddler crab Austruca lactea
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Fumio Takeshita, Minoru Murai

    Courtship interference occurs when dominant males hinder female assessment of prospective males during female mate choice, leading to a more complex distribution of mating success. In this study, we describe and evaluate courtship interference in underground mating of the fiddler crab Austruca lactea. When a mate-searching female enters the burrow of a courting male, neighboring males frequently interfere in the female-male interaction. We thus identified mate-searching females and observed their interactions until pairing. The duration until females’ final decision for pairing increased with the number of interferences by neighboring males. The females reappeared more frequently from the burrow of the finally selected male when neighboring males interfered. These results suggest that courtship interference by neighboring males delays pairing between the mate-searching female and the finally selected male in this species. The number of interferences by neighboring males increased with female size, implying that large females with high fecundity potential induce interference by neighboring males. Moreover, in approximately half of the cases in which interference occurred at the burrow of the immediate last male before the finally selected male, the finally selected male was the interfering one. The distribution of mating success was therefore biased toward males that combined attractiveness (according to female preference) and dominance (which is associated with courtship interference) in this species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Sibling differences in litter huddle position contribute to overall variation in weaning mass in a small mammal
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    José Alfredo Zepeda, Heiko G. Rödel, Raquel Monclús, Robyn Hudson, Amando Bautista

    In altricial, litter-bearing species, huddling together with siblings during early life is a vital strategy to maintain a sufficiently high and stable body temperature. In this context, individual differences in huddling behavior within litters have been emphasized, as pups regularly occupying more central positions have relatively higher body temperatures, have quicker access to the mother’s nipples during nursing, and consequently show greater growth. However, it is not known whether such positive effects of a central litter huddle position on within-litter differences in growth translate into an overall higher weaning mass, taking into account strong contributors to among-litter growth variation, such as litter size and maternal parity. We used path analysis to investigate causal relations among these variables, based on data from 150 domestic rabbit pups from 24 litters. Our results confirmed positive, indirect effects of pups’ central litter huddle position on within-litter differences in early growth. This positive effect of a central litter huddle position also contributed to explaining a significant part of the overall across-litter variance in weaning body mass, apparent even when controlling for the direct negative effect of litter size, the direct positive effects of birth mass, and the lower offspring growth in primiparous compared to multiparous mothers. Thus, the results underline the key role of individual differences in litter huddle position in shaping within-litter but also overall variation in early growth. This might constitute an important mechanism accounting for how the positive association between body mass at birth and early growth is mediated in altricial, polytocous mammals.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Do male seminal donations shape female post-mating receptivity in a usually monandrous moth?
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Luis M. Torres-Vila, F. Javier Mendiola-Díaz, A. Cristina Echave-Sanabria

    Abstract Male ejaculates in insects include a complex array of substances other than sperm whose proximate functions have proven to be diverse. Some function as allohormones that manipulate post-mating female physiology and behaviour. As each sex pursues their own reproductive interests to maximise fitness, seminal allohormones are expected to promote outcomes ranging from reproductive cooperation to sexual conflict and antagonistic coevolution. Most research on the evolutionary importance of male seminal donations has targeted highly polyandrous species, and more research is needed on usually monandrous species. Here, we explore in the mostly monandrous moth Lobesia botrana if there is variation among males in their ability to influence female post-mating receptivity (PMR), if the trait covariates with the polyandry level of the parental strain and if it could be mediated by ejaculate composition when taking into account spermatophore size. To do this, we conducted controlled reciprocal crosses between field-collected mostly monandrous strains and laboratory-selected highly polyandrous strains. We found that laboratory strain males were significantly less efficient than field strain males at inhibiting female PMR, and that such variation covariate with the polyandry level of the parental strain. Male strain also influenced the duration of the female refractory period, fecundity and fertility being high and roughly similar. Between-strain differences in the ability of males to influence female PMR suggest an effect of seminal fluid composition and its underlying genetic variation in male strains. Further research is needed to assess whether male donations that regulate female PMR are widespread in monandrous insect species to better understand the wider evolutionary significance of these findings in L. botrana. Significance statement The available evidence suggests that male-donated allohormonal substances (including parasperm) can influence/manipulate female PMR in insects. Most research on this issue has targeted polyandrous species, as it is often implicitly assumed that in monandrous species eupyrene sperm itself plays the key role in inhibiting female PMR. We studied whether male donations could have some allohormonal effect on female PMR in the usually monandrous moth Lobesia botrana. Controlled crosses between field-collected mostly monandrous strains and artificially selected highly polyandrous strains suggest that there is genetic variation in ejaculate composition-mediated male ability to influence/manipulate female PMR.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Parent personality is linked to juvenile mortality and stress behavior in the arctic fox ( Vulpes lagopus )
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Seoyun Choi, Emma Grocutt, Rasmus Erlandsson, Anders Angerbjörn

    Abstract Life history theory predicts that individuals will differ in their risk-taking behavior according to their expected future fitness. Understanding consequences of such individual variation within a behavioral trait is crucial in explaining potential trade-offs between different traits and in predicting future dynamics in changing environments. Here, we studied individuals in a wild arctic fox population to explore if (1) individual variation in risk-taking behaviors of adult arctic foxes and in stress-dealing behaviors of their juveniles exist and are consistent over time to verify the existence of personality traits; (2) those behavioral traits in adults and juveniles are correlated; (3) they can explain fitness-related components (i.e., juvenile physical condition, mortality rate). We presented simple field experiments assessing behavioral traits by observing adult reactions toward approaching observers, and juvenile behaviors while trapping. Through the experiments, we found highly consistent individual variation of adults in vigilance and boldness levels, and more flexible juvenile behavioral traits categorized as investigating, passive, and escaping. The offspring of bolder adults exhibited more investigating behaviors and were less passive than the offspring of shy adults. Juvenile physical condition was not related to their mortality nor any behavioral traits of either parents or themselves. Lastly, highly investigating and active juveniles with bold parents had significantly lower mortality rates. This shows that interactions between parent personality and juvenile behavioral traits affect a fitness-related component in the life history of individuals. Significance statement The recent surge of interest in consistent individual difference in behavior, also called as animal personality, has already focused on its fitness consequences, but few studies have investigated the interactions between parent and offspring personality, and their ecological consequences. Moreover, this has rarely been studied in wild canids. The arctic fox is a charismatic species showing wide individual variation in behaviors. They live in highly fluctuating tundra ecosystems providing different selection regimes, making it even more eco-evolutionarily intriguing. Yet, few studies looked into behavioral traits and their importance in this system. While introducing simple methods to improve personality research in the wild, we provide a unique example of how variation in both parents and their juveniles collectively works for group dynamics in a cyclic population. This provides a firm basic for understanding behavior-mediated dynamics and opens up broader questions on how fluctuating environments exert varying pressures on individual differences.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Watch out! Insecure relationships affect vigilance in wild spider monkeys ( Ateles geoffroyi )
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Laura Busia, Colleen M. Schaffner, Filippo Aureli

    Vigilance is used to monitor extra-group threats as well as risky group members. We examined whether relationship quality affects vigilance patterns of spider monkeys. We used focal animal sampling to collect data on social interactions and individual vigilance of all adults and subadults (N = 22) in a community of well-habituated Geoffroy’s spider monkeys living in the protected area of Otoch Ma’ax Yetel Kooh, Yucatan, Mexico. Through a principal component analysis of seven indices of social interactions, we previously obtained three components of relationship quality, reflecting the levels of compatibility, value, and security. Such components could differentially affect vigilance depending on whether vigilance is directed to extra-group threats or risky group members. We tested whether an individual’s vigilance was affected by (1) the mean level of compatibility, the mean level of value and the mean level of security across subgroup members; (2) the lowest level of compatibility, the lowest level of value, and the lowest level of security with any subgroup member; and (3) the mean level of compatibility, the mean level of value, and the mean level of security with neighbors (i.e., subgroup members within 5 m). We did not find evidence for any effect of compatibility and value; however, security did affect vigilance, as individuals were more vigilant when they had a less secure relationship with the subgroup member with the lowest level of security or with the average neighbor.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Proximity to humans is associated with longer maternal care in brown bears
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Joanie Van de Walle, Martin Leclerc, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Andreas Zedrosser, Jon E. Swenson, Fanie Pelletier

    Abstract In the sexual conflict over the duration of maternal care, male mammals may improve their reproductive success by forcing early mother–offspring separation in species where lactation supresses estrus. However, when individual females benefit from continuing to care for their current offspring, they should adopt counter-strategies to avoid separation from offspring. Here, we tested whether spatial segregation from adult males and proximity to humans during the mating season could be associated with longer maternal care in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos). Using resource selection functions (RSFs), we contrasted habitat selection patterns of adult males and those of adult females with yearlings that either provided 1.5 years of maternal care (“short-care females”) or continued care for an additional year (“long-care females”) during the mating season, the period when family break-ups typically occur. Males and short-care females had similar habitat selection patterns during the mating season. In contrast, habitat selection patterns differed between males and long-care females, suggesting spatial segregation between the two groups. In particular, long-care females used areas closer to human habitations compared with random locations (defined here as selection), whereas males used areas further to human habitations compared with random locations (defined here as avoidance). Our results show a correlation between habitat selection behavior and the duration of maternal care. We suggest that proximity to humans during the mating season may represent a female tactic to avoid adverse interactions with males that may lead to early weaning of offspring. Significance statement In mammalian species where lactation supresses ovulation, males may gain a reproductive advantage by forcing early mother-offspring separation; however females can respond through behavioral tactics. We show that female brown bears with yearling cubs can spatially segregate from males during the mating season and that this behavior is associated with longer maternal care. Females selecting areas close to human habitations tend to keep their yearlings for an additional year, suggesting that human presence could have a shielding effect from males. Our study is among the few to explore sexual conflicts over the duration of maternal care close to weaning and shows that animals have the potential to adjust their behavioral tactics to make use of human-dominated landscapes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Behavioral type-environment correlations in the field: a study of three-spined stickleback.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2014-04-02
    Simon Pearish,Lauren Hostert,Alison M Bell

    Behavioral type-environment correlations occur when specific behavioral types of individuals are more common in certain environments. Behavioral type-environment correlations can be generated by several different mechanisms that are probably very common such as niche construction and phenotypic plasticity. Moreover, behavioral type-environment correlations have important ecological and evolutionary implications. However, few studies have examined behavioral type-environment correlations in natural populations. In this study, we asked whether some behavioral types of three-spined stickleback were more likely to occur in certain social environments (alone or in a shoal with other stickleback) or in certain microhabitats in a river (in the open or under cover). We found that individuals that were in shoals with other stickleback at the time of collection from the field emerged from a refuge more quickly compared to individuals that were found alone. In addition, fish that were alone in an open microhabitat explored more of a pool compared to fish that were alone in cover, but this difference did not occur among fish that were in shoals at the time of collection. Subsequent analyses of gut contents suggested that differences in microhabitat use were consistent over time. Our study provides some of the first evidence for behavioral type-environment correlations in a natural population of non-human animals.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biased parental investment and reproductive success in Gabbra pastoralists.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 1996-02-01
    R Mace

    This study of wealth and reproductive success is based on interviews obtained from 848 rural nomadic Gabbra families from northern Kenya. The Gabbra are nomadic pastoralists who herd camels, goats, and sometimes sheep. Household is defined as a unit that owns a camel herd. Findings indicate that size of the camel herd (wealth) is positively related to the reproductive success of both men and women and is independent of age. The effect is greatest for men. Poverty effects vary between men and women. Very poor men are at a greater disadvantage than very poor women. Poor men and women tend to marry at a later age. It is posited that the beneficial effects of wealth on reproductive success may be underestimated. Both richer and poorer families showed a slightly male-biased sex ratio. There was no evidence that poorer Gabbra households might favor daughters, as suggested in the literature on sex-biased parental investment. There was no evidence that the Gabbra practiced infanticide. The average dowry size was 16.5 sheep units, where one camel is valued at about 10 sheep or goats. The traditional brideprice is 3 camels. Each son takes about 10 camels for his marriage, when brideprice is accounted for. Heads of household reported that their initial herd size was about 6.75 camels. If there is bias in parental investment, it probably occurs in the number of animals passed on to a child at marriage. Boys are disadvantaged by elder brothers, while girls are not disadvantaged by elder sisters. Lower birth order sons are prone to migrate into another ethnic group. It is likely that fathers maximize their wealth by making certain that a small number are well provided for rather than equally dividing investments. The number of elder sisters has a small effect on dowry size. Competition for parental investment appears to occur only among siblings of the same sex, particularly brothers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sex-biased lactational duration in a human population and its reproductive costs.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 1993-01-01
    S W Margulis,J Altmann,C Ober

    The authors tested the proposition that among humans (1) differences in lactational duration result in differences in costs of reproduction even under rich nutritional conditions; and (2) elimination of factors postulated to favor male-biased parental care will be reflected in elimination or reversal of sex-biased care. To do so, the authors examined the relationship between lactactational duration and fertility among Hutterites, a communal-living human population in which the levels of nutritional resources and fertility are high, breast feeding is the norm, contraceptive use is limited, and the collective social and economic system results in low resource variance among individuals. The authors demonstrate that even under good nutritional conditions, duration of nursing was a significant predictor of the length of time to next pregnancy and that nursing continued to suppress fertility after the resumption of menses. Moreover, the authors find that daughters were nursed longer than sons, leading to a longer interval to next pregnancy. The authors examine this uncommon, but not unique, finding of female-biased human parental care in the light of Hutterite social structure, and they explore the consistency of this finding with the most applicable models of parental investment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Kipsigis women's preferences for wealthy men: evidence for female choice in mammals?
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 1990-01-01
    M B Mulder

    Factors affecting the choice of a male mate in a polygynous society are examined using data on the Kipsigis people of Kenya. "This paper has two aims: first, to test whether Kipsigis women prefer wealthy men by examining the sequence of marriages among a group of pioneers...who established a settlement in the territory of their enemies (1930-1949); second, to determine whether women suffer reproductively as a result of polygynous marriage."

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sources of variance in a female fertility signal: exaggerated estrous swellings in a natural population of baboons.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2014-08-05
    Courtney L Fitzpatrick,Jeanne Altmann,Susan C Alberts

    Signals of fertility in female animals are of increasing interest to evolutionary biologists, a development that coincides with increasing interest in male mate choice and the potential for female traits to evolve under sexual selection. We characterized variation in size of an exaggerated female fertility signal in baboons and investigated the sources of that variance. The number of sexual cycles that a female had experienced after her most recent pregnancy ("cycles since resumption") was the strongest predictor of swelling size. Furthermore, the relationship between cycles since resumption and swelling size was most evident during rainy periods and was not evident during times of drought. Finally, we found significant differences in swelling size between individual females; these differences endured across cycles (i.e., were not explained by variation within individuals) and persisted in spite of ecological effects. This study is the first to provide conclusive evidence of significant variation in swelling size between female primates (controlling for cycles since resumption) and to demonstrate that ecological constraints influence variation in this signal of fertility.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Costs of reproduction in a long-lived female primate: injury risk and wound healing.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2014-07-22
    Elizabeth A Archie,Jeanne Altmann,Susan C Alberts

    Reproduction is a notoriously costly phase of life, exposing individuals to injury, infectious disease, and energetic tradeoffs. The strength of these costs should be influenced by life history strategies, and in long-lived species, females may be selected to mitigate costs of reproduction because life span is such an important component of their reproductive success. Here we report evidence for two costs of reproduction that may influence survival in wild female baboons-injury risk and delayed wound healing. Based on 29 years of observations in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya, we found that wild female baboons experienced the highest risk of injury on days when they were most likely to be ovulating. In addition, lactating females healed from wounds more slowly than pregnant or cycling females, indicating a possible tradeoff between lactation and immune function. We also found variation in injury risk and wound healing with dominance rank and age: older and low-status females were more likely to be injured than younger or high-status females, and older females exhibited slower healing than younger females. Our results support the idea that wild non-human primates experience energetic and immune costs of reproduction, and they help illuminate life history tradeoffs in long-lived species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • When good neighbors don't need fences: Temporal landscape partitioning among baboon social groups.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2013-08-06
    A Catherine Markham,Vishwesha Guttal,Susan C Alberts,Jeanne Altmann

    Intraspecific competition is a key factor shaping space-use strategies and movement decisions in many species, yet how and when neighbors utilize shared areas while exhibiting active avoidance of one another is largely unknown. Here we investigated temporal landscape partitioning in a population of wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We used global positioning system (GPS) collars to synchronously record the hourly locations of 5 baboon social groups for ~900 days, and we used behavioral, demographic, and life history data to measure factors affecting use of overlap areas. Annual home ranges of neighboring groups overlapped substantially, as predicted (baboons are considered non-territorial), but home ranges overlapped less when space use was assessed over shorter time scales. Moreover, neighboring groups were in close spatial proximity to one another on fewer days than predicted by a null model, suggesting an avoidance-based spacing pattern. At all time scales examined (monthly, biweekly, and weekly), time spent in overlap areas was greater during time periods when groups fed on evenly dispersed, low-quality foods. The percent of fertile females in social groups was negatively correlated with time spent in overlap areas only during weekly time intervals. This suggests that broad temporal changes in ecological resources are a major predictor of how intensively overlap areas are used, and groups modify these ecologically driven spacing patterns at short time scales based on female reproductive status. Together these findings offer insight into the economics of territoriality by highlighting the dynamics of spacing patterns at differing time scales.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-08-19
    Stefano S K Kaburu,Nicholas E Newton-Fisher

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading-of grooming for mating-by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism-egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees' willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • FACIAL ASYMMETRY IS NEGATIVELY RELATED TO CONDITION IN FEMALE MACAQUE MONKEYS.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2013-05-15
    Anthony C Little,Annika Paukner,Ruth A Woodward,Stephen J Suomi

    The face is an important visual trait in social communication across many species. In evolutionary terms there are large and obvious selective advantages in detecting healthy partners, both in terms of avoiding individuals with poor health to minimise contagion and in mating with individuals with high health to help ensure healthy offspring. Many models of sexual selection suggest that an individual's phenotype provides cues to their quality. Fluctuating asymmetry is a trait that is proposed to be an honest indicator of quality and previous studies have demonstrated that rhesus monkeys gaze longer at symmetric faces, suggesting preferences for such faces. The current study examined the relationship between measured facial symmetry and measures of health in a captive population of female rhesus macaque monkeys. We measured asymmetry from landmarks marked on front-on facial photographs and computed measures of health based on veterinary health and condition ratings, number of minor and major wounds sustained, and gain in weight over the first four years of life. Analysis revealed that facial asymmetry was negatively related to condition related health measures, with symmetric individuals being healthier than more asymmetric individuals. Facial asymmetry appears to be an honest indicator of health in rhesus macaques and asymmetry may then be used by conspecifics in mate-choice situations. More broadly, our data support the notion that faces are valuable sources of information in non-human primates and that sexual selection based on facial information is potentially important across the primate lineage.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development of communication in alarm contexts in wild chimpanzees.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2019-07-28
    Guillaume Dezecache,Catherine Crockford,Klaus Zuberbühler

    Abstract Animals have evolved a range of communicative behaviours in the presence of danger. Although the mechanisms and functions of some of these behaviours have been relatively well researched, comparatively little is known about their ontogeny, including how animals learn to inform social partners about impending danger. In adult chimpanzees, behaviours in response to dangers involve several channels, particularly alarm calls and simultaneous gaze alternations with nearby recipients. Gaze alternations may allow inexperienced individuals to learn from more experienced ones by assessing their reactions to unfamiliar objects or events, but they may also provide the basis for more advanced social referencing. Here, we were interested in the development of these two common behaviours, alarm calling and gaze alternations, in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) confronted with a threat. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated those in 8 infant and 8 juveniles by experimentally exposing them to an unfamiliar but potentially dangerous object, a large, remotely controlled, moving spider model. For alarm calling, we found a positive relation with age, starting at around 28 months, although alarm calls were not consistently emitted until after 80 months. For gaze alternations, we found no age effect, with some of the youngest infants already showing the behaviour. Although its function remains unclear in infant and juvenile chimpanzees, gaze alternations emerge early in chimpanzee development. Alarm calling may require more advanced developmental stages, such as greater perceptual abilities, categorical capacities or more sophisticated social cognition, i.e. an understanding that danger is a collective experience that requires communication. Significance statement Alarm calling and other anti-predatory behaviours have been the topic of much research but their ontogenies are still poorly described and understood. Recent studies on the behaviour of wild chimpanzees in threatening contexts have suggested sophisticated social cognitive abilities in adults. How do these behaviours develop in ontogeny? We addressed this question using a field experiment with 8 infants and 8 juveniles exposed to a novel and potentially threatening object in their natural habitat. We found that gaze alternations are present in some of the youngest individuals, potentially revealing early social awareness in chimpanzees. Age did not have an effect on the presence of gaze alternation. We also found that alarm calling was more common in older individuals, suggesting that call production and context of usage must be learnt. We discuss our results in light of developmental theories of social cognition and the role of social learning in the primate lineage.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ant larvae regulate worker foraging behavior and ovarian activity in a dose-dependent manner.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-09-13
    Yuko Ulrich,Dominic Burns,Romain Libbrecht,Daniel J C Kronauer

    Division of labor in insect societies relies on simple behavioral rules, whereby individual colony members respond to dynamic signals indicating the need for certain tasks to be performed. This in turn gives rise to colony-level phenotypes. However, empirical studies quantifying colony-level signal-response dynamics are lacking. Here, we make use of the unusual biology and experimental amenability of the queenless clonal raider ant Cerapachys biroi, to jointly quantify the behavioral and physiological responses of workers to a social signal emitted by larvae. Using automated behavioral quantification and oocyte size measurements in colonies of different sizes and with different worker to larvae ratios, we show that the workers in a colony respond to larvae by increasing foraging activity and inhibiting ovarian activation in a progressive manner, and that these responses are stronger in smaller colonies. This work adds to our knowledge of the processes that link plastic individual behavioral/physiological responses to colony-level phenotypes in social insect colonies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mother-male bond, but not paternity, influences male-infant affiliation in wild crested macaques.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-08-02
    Daphne Kerhoas,Lars Kulik,Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah,Muhammad Agil,Antje Engelhardt,Anja Widdig

    ABSTRACT In promiscuous primates, interactions between adult males and infants have rarely been investigated. However, recent evidence suggests that male affiliation towards infants has an influence on several aspects of the infants' life. Furthermore, affiliations may be associated with male reproductive strategy. In this study, we examined which social factors influenced male-infant affiliation initiated by either male or infant, in wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra). We combined behavioral data and genetic paternity analysis from 30 infants living in three wild groups in Tangkoko Reserve, Indonesia. Our results indicate that adult males and infants do not interact at random, but rather form preferential associations. The social factors with the highest influence on infant-initiated interactions were male rank and male association with the infant's mother. While infants initiated affiliations with males more often in the absence of their mothers, adult males initiated more affiliations with infants when their mothers were present. Furthermore, males initiated affiliations more often when they were in the same group at the time the infant was conceived, when they held a high dominance rank, or when they had a close relationship with the mother. Interestingly, paternity did not affect male-infant affiliation despite being highly skewed in this species. Overall, our results suggest that adult males potentially associate with an infant to secure future mating with the mother. Infants are more likely to associate with a male to receive better support, suggesting a strategy to increase the chance of infant survival in a primate society with high infant mortality. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We explore social relationships between males and infants in a promiscuous primate, the wild crested macaque. Our novel approach addresses the nature of affiliations both from males' and infants' perspectives. The results show that males and infants form preferential associations. Male-female affiliation, but not paternity, was a significant predictor of interactions initiated both by males and infants. Males initiated more interactions towards infants when the mother was in proximity, while infants initiated more interactions in her absence. Finally, high-ranking males were more likely to initiate interactions towards infants. We demonstrated that paternity is not a good predictor of male-infant affiliations, even in a species with a high reproductive skew and a relatively high confidence of paternity. Our paper is one of the first to show that infants are active agents in establishing and maintaining preferential relationships with males.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parasites modulate within-colony activity and accelerate the temporal polyethism schedule of a social insect, the honey bee.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-07-12
    Myrsini E Natsopoulou,Dino P McMahon,Robert J Paxton

    Task allocation in social insect colonies is generally organised into an age-related division of labour, termed the temporal polyethism schedule, which may in part have evolved to reduce infection of the colony's brood by pests and pathogens. The temporal polyethism schedule is sensitive to colony perturbations that may lead to adaptive changes in task allocation, maintaining colony homeostasis. Though social insects can be infected by a range of parasites, little is known of how these parasites impact within-colony behaviour and the temporal polyethism schedule. We use honey bees (Apis mellifera) experimentally infected by two of their emerging pathogens, Deformed wing virus (DWV), which is relatively understudied concerning its behavioural impact on its host, and the exotic microsporidian Nosema ceranae. We examined parasite effects on host temporal polyethism and patterns of activity within the colony. We found that pathogens accelerated the temporal polyethism schedule, but without reducing host behavioural repertoire. Infected hosts exhibited increased hyperactivity, allocating more time to self-grooming and foraging-related tasks. The strength of behavioural alterations we observed was found to be pathogen specific; behavioural modifications were more pronounced in virus-treated hosts versus N. ceranae-treated hosts, with potential benefits for the colony in terms of reducing within-colony transmission. Investigating the effects of multiple pathogens on behavioural patterns of social insects could play a crucial role in understanding pathogen spread within a colony and their effects on colony social organisation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Changes in vocal parameters with social context in humpback whales: considering the effect of bystanders.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-05-25
    Rebecca A Dunlop

    ABSTRACT Many theories and communication models developed from terrestrial studies focus on a simple dyadic exchange between a sender and receiver. During social interactions, the "frequency code" hypothesis suggests that frequency characteristics of vocal signals can simultaneously encode for static signaler attributes (size or sex) and dynamic information, such as motivation or emotional state. However, the additional presence of a bystander may result in a change of signaling behavior if the costs and benefits associated with the presence of this bystander are different from that of a simple dyad. In this study, two common humpback whale social calls ("wops" and "grumbles") were tested for differences related to group social behavior and the presence of bystanders. "Wop" parameters were stable with group social behavior, but were emitted at lower (14 dB) levels in the presence of a nearby singing whale compared to when a singing whale was not in the area. "Grumbles" were emitted at lower (30-39 Hz) fundamental frequencies in affiliative compared to non-affiliative groups and, in the presence of a nearby singing whale, were also emitted at lower (14 dB) levels. Vocal rates did not significantly change. The results suggest that, in humpbacks, the frequency in certain sound types relates to the social behavior of the vocalizing group, implying a frequency code system. The presence of a nearby audible bystander (a singing whale) had no effect on this frequency code, but by reducing their acoustic level, the signal-to-noise ratio at the singer would have been below 0, making it difficult for the singer to audibly detect the group. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The frequency, duration, and amplitude parameters of humpback whale social vocalizations were tested between different social contexts: group social behavior (affiliating versus non-affiliating), the presence of a nearby singing whale, and the presence of a nearby non-singing group. "Grumbles" (commonly heard low-frequency unmodulated sounds) frequencies were lower in affiliating groups compared to non-affiliating groups, suggesting a change in group motivation (such as levels of aggression). "Wop" (another common sound type) structure (frequency and duration) was similar in affiliating and non-affiliating groups. In the presence of an audible bystander (a singing whale), both sound types were emitted at similar rates, but much lower amplitudes (14 dB), vastly reducing the detectability of these sounds by the singer. This suggests that these groups were acoustically avoiding the singing whale. They did not, however, acoustically respond to the presence of a nearby non-singing group.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Intergroup encounters in Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi): who fights and why?
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-05-20
    Flávia Koch,Johannes Signer,Peter M Kappeler,Claudia Fichtel

    ABSTRACT Individuals living in groups have to achieve collective action for successful territorial defense. Because conflicts between neighboring groups always involve risks and costs, individuals must base their decision to participate in a given conflict on an evaluation of the trade-off between potential costs and benefits. Since group members may differ in motivation to engage in group encounters, they exhibit different levels of participation in conflicts. In this study, we investigated factors influencing participation in intergroup encounters in Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi), a group-living primate from Madagascar. Over a period of 12 months, we studied eight adjacent sifaka groups in Kirindy Forest. We observed 71 encounters between known neighboring groups in which adult females and males participated equally as often. No individual participated in every encounter, and non-participation occurred more often in larger groups. Females participated less often in encounters when they had dependent infants, presumably to reduce the risk of infanticide. Male participation was influenced by social status: dominant males participated in most encounters, whereas males with fewer opportunities to reproduce participated less often, hence male participation is influenced by the incentive of maintaining access to females. The number of actively participating individuals in the opponent group positively influenced the participation in both sexes. Thus, sifakas seem to decide joining a given encounter opportunistically, most likely based on a combination of individual incentives and the actual circumstance of each encounter, suggesting that the complexity in intergroup relationships appears to be the product of decisions made by each individual group member. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cooperation among group-living animals is often challenged by collective action problems resulting from individual differences in interests in contributing to collective behaviors. Intergroup encounters involve distinguished costs and benefits for each individual despite being in the same social group. Therefore, encounters between groups offer a good opportunity to investigate individual participation in collective action. In this study, we investigate the influence of different incentives on individual participation in intergroup encounters in wild Malagasy primate, Verreaux's sifakas. We propose a novel approach that takes into account the variable circumstances of each conflict, such as the number of individuals fighting in both groups as a predictor for participation. We believe that our study not only provides novel data on wild sifakas, but it also offers new perspectives for the interpretation of intergroup relationships in other taxa.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The relationship between testosterone and long-distance calling in wild male chimpanzees.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-05-18
    Pawel Fedurek,Katie E Slocombe,Drew K Enigk,Melissa Emery Thompson,Richard W Wrangham,Martin N Muller

    Long-distance calling is a common behaviour in animals that has various important social functions. At a physiological level, calling is often mediated by gonadal hormones such as testosterone (T), particularly when its function is linked to intra-sexual competition for mates or territory. T also plays an important role in the development of vocal characteristics associated with dominance in humans. However, the few available studies of T and vocal behaviour in non-human primates suggest that in primates T has less influence on call production than in other animals. We tested this hypothesis by studying the relationship between T concentrations and pant hooting in wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara community in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found three kinds of correlation. Hourly T averages were positively associated with hourly rates of pant-hooting. Monthly T levels were likewise correlated with monthly rates of pant hooting after controlling for other influences such as fission-fusion rates. Finally, males with high T levels had higher peak frequency at the start of the call climax. These results suggest that T affects the production of pant-hoots in chimpanzees. This implies that the pant-hoot call plays a role in male-male competition. We propose that even in cognitively sophisticated species, endocrine mechanisms can contribute to regulating vocal production.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Keeping eyes peeled: guppies exposed to chemical alarm cue are more responsive to ambiguous visual cues.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-04-14
    Jessica F Stephenson

    ABSTRACT Information received from the visual and chemical senses is qualitatively different. For prey species in aquatic environments, visual cues are spatially and temporally reliable but risky as the prey and predator must often be in close proximity. Chemical cues, by contrast, can be distorted by currents or linger and thus provide less reliable spatial and temporal information, but can be detected from a safe distance. Chemical cues are therefore often the first detected and may provide a context in which prey respond to subsequent ambiguous cues ("context hypothesis"). Depending on this context, early chemical cues may also alert prey to attend to imminent cues in other sensory modalities ("alerting hypothesis"). In the context of predation risk, for example, it is intuitive that individuals become more responsive to subsequent ambiguous cues across sensory modalities. Consistent with the context hypothesis, guppies, Poecilia reticulata, exposed to conspecific alarm cue reduced activity, a classic fright response among fish, in response to a water disturbance more than those exposed to cues of unharmed conspecifics or a water control. Despite this reduction in activity, guppies exposed to alarm cue were more attentive to visual cues than those exposed to the other chemical cues, as predicted by the alerting hypothesis. These responses contrasted with those of guppies exposed to chemical cues of undisturbed, unharmed conspecifics, which were relatively unaffected by the disturbance. This is the first study indicating that unambiguous cues detected by one sensory modality affect animal responses to subsequent ambiguous multimodal cues. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In moving water, chemical cues can be detected over longer distances than visual cues; they may therefore be detected first and alert animals to imminent visual cues. This effect is likely to be particularly important if these chemical cues are indicative of predation. I investigated how different chemical cues affect (1) guppy response to an ambiguous water disturbance and (2) their responsiveness to subsequent ambiguous visual cues. Guppies based their responses to ambiguous cues on the context implied by chemical cues: those exposed to chemical cues indicative of predation reduced activity, a classic fright response, but increased responsiveness to visual cues, relative to those exposed to control chemical cues. This is the first study to show that unambiguous cues detected by one sense affect animal responses to ambiguous cues detected by other senses.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The reproductive advantages of a long life: longevity and senescence in wild female African elephants.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-02-24
    Phyllis C Lee,Victoria Fishlock,C Elizabeth Webber,Cynthia J Moss

    Long-lived species such as elephants, whales and primates exhibit extended post-fertile survival compared to species with shorter lifespans but data on age-related fecundity and survival are limited to few species or populations. We assess relationships between longevity, reproductive onset, reproductive rate and age for 834 longitudinally monitored wild female African elephants in Amboseli, Kenya. The mean known age at first reproduction was 13.8 years; only 5 % commenced reproduction by 10 years. Early reproducers (<12.5 years) had higher age-specific fertility rates than did females who commenced reproduction late (15+ years) with no differences in survival between these groups. Age-specific reproductive rates of females dying before 40 years were reduced by comparison to same-aged survivors, illustrating a mortality filter and reproductive advantages of a long life. Overall, 95 % of fertility was completed before 50, and 95 % of mortality experienced by age 65, with a mean life expectancy of 41 years for females who survived to the minimum age at first birth (9 years). Elephant females have a relatively long period (c. 16 years) of viability after 95 % completed fertility, although reproduction does not entirely cease until they are over 65. We found no evidence of increased investment among females aged over 40 in terms of delay to next birth or calf mortality. The presence of a mother reproducing simultaneously with her daughter was associated with higher rates of daughter reproduction suggesting advantages from maternal (and grandmaternal) co-residence during reproduction.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sex and friendship in a multilevel society: behavioural patterns and associations between female and male Guinea baboons.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-02-24
    Adeelia S Goffe,Dietmar Zinner,Julia Fischer

    One key question in social evolution is the identification of factors that promote the formation and maintenance of stable bonds between females and males beyond the mating context. Baboons lend themselves to examine this question, as they vary in social organisation and male-female association patterns. We report the results from the first systematic observations of individually identified wild female Guinea baboons. Guinea baboons live in a multilevel society with female-biased dispersal. Although several males could be found within 5 m of females, each female chiefly associated with one "primary" male at the 2 m distance. Social interactions occurred predominantly with the primary male, and female reproductive state had little influence on interaction patterns. The number of females per primary male varied from 1 to 4. During the 17-month study period, half of the females transferred between different males one or multiple times. A subset of females maintained weaker affiliative nonsexual relationships with other "secondary" males. Units composed of primary males with females, and occasional secondary males, apparently form the core of the Guinea baboon society. The social organisation and mating patterns of Guinea and hamadryas baboons may have a common evolutionary origin, despite notable differences in relationship quality. Specifically, Guinea baboon females appear to have greater leverage in their association patterns than hamadryas baboon females. Although we cannot yet explain the lack of overt male control over females, results generally support the notion that phylogenetic descent may play an important role in shaping social systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relatedness predicts multiple measures of investment in cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2016-01-05
    Gavin M Leighton,Sebastian Echeverri,Dirk Heinrich,Holger Kolberg

    Although communal goods are often critical to society, they are simultaneously susceptible to exploitation and are evolutionarily stable only if mechanisms exist to curtail exploitation. Mechanisms such as punishment and kin selection have been offered as general explanations for how communal resources can be maintained. Evidence for these mechanisms comes largely from humans and social insects, leaving their generality in question. To assess how communal resources are maintained, we observed cooperative nest construction in sociable weavers (Philetairus socius). The communal nest of sociable weavers provides thermal benefits for all individuals but requires continual maintenance. We observed cooperative nest construction and also recorded basic morphological characteristics. We also collected blood samples, performed next-generation sequencing, and isolated 2358 variable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate relatedness. We find that relatedness predicts investment in cooperative nest construction, while no other morphological characters significantly explain cooperative output. We argue that indirect benefits are a critical fitness component for maintaining the cooperative behavior that maintains the communal good.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • What underlies waves of agitation in starling flocks.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-09-19
    Charlotte K Hemelrijk,Lars van Zuidam,Hanno Hildenbrandt

    Fast transfer of information in groups can have survival value. An example is the so-called wave of agitation observed in groups of animals of several taxa under attack. It has been shown to reduce predator success. It usually involves the repetition of a manoeuvre throughout the group, transmitting the information of the attack quickly, faster than the group moves itself. The specific manoeuvre underlying a wave is typically known, but not so in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Although waves of agitation in starling flocks have been suggested to reflect density waves, exact escape manoeuvres cannot be distinguished because flocks are spatially too far away. Therefore, waves may also reflect orientation waves (due to escape by rolling). In the present study, we investigate this issue in a computational model, StarDisplay. We use this model because its flocks have been shown to resemble starling flocks in many traits. In the model, we show that agitation waves result from changes in orientation rather than in density. They resemble empirical data both qualitatively in visual appearance and quantitatively in wave speed. In the model, local interactions with only two to seven closest neighbours suffice to generate empirical wave speed. Wave speed increases with the number of neighbours mimicked or repeated from and the distance to them. It decreases with reaction time and with time to identify the escape manoeuvre of others and is not affected by flock size. Our findings can be used as predictions for empirical studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Male rhesus macaques use vocalizations to distinguish female maternal, but not paternal, kin from non-kin.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-09-18
    Dana Pfefferle,Angelina V Ruiz-Lambides,Anja Widdig

    Recognizing close kin and adjusting one's behavior accordingly (i.e., favor kin in social interactions, but avoid mating with them) would be an important skill that can increase an animals' inclusive fitness. Previous studies showed that philopatric female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) bias their social behavior toward maternal and paternal kin. Benefits gained from selecting kin should, however, not only apply to the philopatric sex, for which the enduring spatial proximity facilitates kin discrimination. Given that dispersal is costly, the dispersing sex may benefit from migrating together with their kin or into groups containing kin. In male rhesus macaques, natal migrants bias their spatial proximity toward familiar male kin rather than familiar non-kin. Here, we set up playback experiments to test if males use the acoustic modality to discriminate familiar female kin from non-kin in a non-sexual context. Males responded differently to the presentation of "coo" calls of related and unrelated females, with their reaction depending on the interaction between kin-line (maternal vs paternal kin) and degree of relatedness (r = 0.5, 0.25). Specifically, males were more likely to respond to close kin compared to more distant kin or unrelated females, with this effect being significant in the maternal, but not paternal kin-line. The present study adds to our knowledge of kin recognition abilities of the dispersing sex, suggesting that male rhesus macaques are also able to identify kin using the acoustic modality. We discuss that the probability of response might be affected by the potential benefit of the social partner.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-09-18
    Xiao-Wei Li,Jozsef Fail,Anthony M Shelton

    Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acoustic behavior of melon-headed whales varies on a diel cycle.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-08-25
    Simone Baumann-Pickering,Marie A Roch,Sean M Wiggins,Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler,John A Hildebrand

    Many terrestrial and marine species have a diel activity pattern, and their acoustic signaling follows their current behavioral state. Whistles and echolocation clicks on long-term recordings produced by melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) at Palmyra Atoll indicated that these signals were used selectively during different phases of the day, strengthening the idea of nighttime foraging and daytime resting with afternoon socializing for this species. Spectral features of their echolocation clicks changed from day to night, shifting the median center frequency up. Additionally, click received levels increased with increasing ambient noise during both day and night. Ambient noise over a wide frequency band was on average higher at night. The diel adjustment of click features might be a reaction to acoustic masking caused by these nighttime sounds. Similar adaptations have been documented for numerous taxa in response to noise. Or it could be, unrelated, an increase in biosonar source levels and with it a shift in center frequency to enhance detection distances during foraging at night. Call modifications in intensity, directionality, frequency, and duration according to echolocation task are well established for bats. This finding indicates that melon-headed whales have flexibility in their acoustic behavior, and they collectively and repeatedly adapt their signals from day- to nighttime circumstances.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conspecific recognition and aggression reduction to familiars in newly weaned, socially plastic mammals.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-08-08
    Kelly J Robinson,Sean D Twiss,Neil Hazon,Simon Moss,Mike Lonergan,Patrick P Pomeroy

    Recognising conspecifics and behaving appropriately towards them is a crucial ability for many species. Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) show varying capabilities in this regard: mother-pup recognition has been demonstrated in some geographical populations but is absent in others, yet there is evidence that individuals aggregate with prior associates. The recognition capabilities of newly weaned grey seal pups were investigated using class recognition trials within the habituation/dishabituation paradigm. Trials took place in pens, using pairs of individuals that either had previously cohabited (familiar) or that had never met before (stranger). Frequencies of olfactory and visual investigative behaviours ('checks') and aggressive interactions were recorded during trials. Familiar individuals recognised each other: paired strangers showed significantly more checks and aggressive interactions than were seen in trials pairing familiars. Oxytocin concentrations in post-trial plasma samples were analysed to investigate the underlying physiology modulating recognition abilities; however, no significant differences were detected between familiar or stranger trials. This study demonstrates that at a young age, grey seals can recognise individuals they have previously encountered. Recognition abilities in this species have adaptive value by allowing the reduction of costly aggressive interactions between familiar conspecifics, which is often cited as the first step towards the evolution of sociality in a species. This study is the first with wild subjects to find conspecific recognition abilities in a pinniped species outside of reproductive contexts. It demonstrates that even largely solitary species can be capable of recognition and pro-social behaviours that benefit them during times when they must aggregate.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tactical deception to hide sexual behaviour: macaques use distance, not visibility.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-08-08
    A M Overduin-de Vries,B M Spruijt,H de Vries,E H M Sterck

    Although tactical deception (TD) may be employed to hide sexual behaviour, there is as yet no firm evidence for it. Hiding may be guided by cognitive mechanisms consistent with either no, low or high level TD, such as exploiting male peripheral positions (no TD), creating distance (TD level 1) or hiding behind screens (TD level 1.5 which involves visual perspective taking (VPT)). Macaques are capable of VPT in a food context, suggesting that they may employ TD level 1.5. We investigated, in an observational study with temporarily provided hiding screens, which strategy was used to hide sexual behaviour in captive groups of two macaque species (Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis). Sexual behaviour only sporadically took place near screens, and the few copulations near screens were not systematically hidden from the alpha male, precluding TD level 1.5. Instead, both females and non-alpha males were at a larger distance from the alpha male during sexual interactions than otherwise, consistent with TD level 1. Creating peripheral locations (TD level 1) may be effective in improving sexual opportunities in many species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How habitat affects the benefits of communication in collectively foraging honey bees.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2012-04-01
    Matina C Donaldson-Matasci,Anna Dornhaus

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) use the dance language to symbolically convey information about the location of floral resources from within the nest. To figure out why this unique ability evolved, we need to understand the benefits it offers to the colony. Previous studies have shown that, in fact, the location information in the dance is not always beneficial. We ask, in which ecological habitats do honey bee colonies actually benefit from the dance language, and what is it about those habitats that makes communication useful? In this study, we examine the effects of floral distribution patterns on the benefits of dance communication across five different habitats. In each habitat, we manipulated colonies' ability to communicate and measured their foraging success, while simultaneously characterizing the naturally occurring floral distribution. We find that communication is most beneficial when floral species richness is high and patches contain many flowers. These are ecological features that could have helped shape the evolution of the honey bee dance language.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Differences in exploration behaviour in common ravens and carrion crows during development and across social context.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-06-23
    Rachael Miller,Thomas Bugnyar,Kerstin Pölzl,Christine Schwab

    Exploration is particularly important for young animals, as it enables them to learn to exploit their surroundings. It is likely to be affected by species ecology and social context, though there are few comparative, longitudinal studies that control for effects of early experience. Here, we investigated group level exploration behaviour in two closely related and identically reared, generalist corvid species: common ravens (Corvus corax) and carrion crows (C. corone, C. cornix), during development and across social context. Subjects were repeatedly presented with a range of novel items, whilst alone and in a dyad/ subgroup, at the fledging (1-2 months old), juvenile (3-8 months old) and sub-adult (14-18 months old) stages. Whilst alone, they were also presented with a novel and familiar person, at the fledging and juvenile stages. We expected developmental differences and a facilitating influence of social context on exploration. Developmental differences were present, with both species interacting most frequently with novel items as juveniles, which may relate to major developmental steps, such as dispersal and a neophobia increase as sub-adults. When a conspecific(s) was present, subjects generally interacted more frequently, though took longer to interact, with novel items. Additionally, we found unexpected species differences, with the most striking difference being the crows' significantly lower rate of interaction with the novel person, though not the familiar person; a species difference that was present from fledging. We discuss these findings by relating to potential differences in the two species ecology and behaviour, such as habitat use and caching proficiency.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Context-dependent evaluation of prospective mates in a fish.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-06-23
    Lisa Locatello,Federica Poli,Maria B Rasotto

    Female choice is often assumed to be based on absolute preference, driven by a threshold value of mate attractiveness. However, increasing evidence suggests that females may instead perform a comparative evaluation of prospective mates, possibly incurring in violation of rational decision rules (e.g. independence from irrelevant alternative, IIA). A prototypical case is the 'asymmetrically dominated decoy' effect where the preference for a target option over a competitor is altered by the addition of an irrelevant alternative. Here, we test for this effect in the peacock blenny Salaria pavo. Females, in binary test (i.e. focal option dyad differing in body size and extension of a yellow spot), strongly preferred one of the options. The effect of decoys, asymmetrically dominating the focal options for either yellow spot extension or body size, varied according to the initially preferred trait and the decoy type. Indeed, the addition of a decoy caused a shift in preference only when the decoy exhibited the intermediate expression of the trait less preferred initially. By contrast, females did not modify their preference in the presence of the decoy for their preferred trait. Although females' evaluation was context-dependent, the violation of IIA was clearly observed only with respect to the initially less preferred trait. This does not exclude that females are in any case using comparative decision rules. Indeed, when faced with three alternatives, two of which are proportionally closer to each other than to the third one, they might not be able to discriminate among them, perceiving stimulus absolute magnitude.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Moving in groups: how density and unpredictable motion affect predation risk.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-05-20
    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel,Gavin Holmes,Roland Baddeley,Innes C Cuthill

    One of the most widely applicable benefits of aggregation is a per capita reduction in predation risk. Many factors can contribute to this but, for moving groups, an increased difficulty in tracking and targeting one individual amongst many has received particular attention. This "confusion effect" has been proposed to result from a bottleneck in information processing, a hypothesis supported by both modelling and experiment. If the competition for limited attention is localised to the particular part of the visual field where the target is located, prey density is likely to be the key factor rather than group numbers per se. Furthermore, unpredictability of prey movement may enhance confusion, but both factors have received insufficient attention from empiricists: undoubtedly because of the difficulty of experimental manipulation in natural systems. We used a computer-based target tracking task with human subjects to manipulate effects of number and density independently, in factorial combination with motion path predictability. Density, rather than number, drove the confusion effect in our experiment and acted synergistically with the unpredictability of the direction of motion. The experimental paradigm we present offers the potential for isolating other factors affecting predation success on group-living prey, and forging links with the psychological literature on object tracking and visual search.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Time is of the essence: an application of a relational event model for animal social networks.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-05-01
    K P Patison,E Quintane,D L Swain,G Robins,P Pattison

    Understanding how animal social relationships are created, maintained and severed has ecological and evolutionary significance. Animal social relationships are inferred from observations of interactions between animals; the pattern of interaction over time indicates the existence (or absence) of a social relationship. Autonomous behavioural recording technologies are increasingly being used to collect continuous interaction data on animal associations. However, continuous data sequences are typically aggregated to represent a relationship as part of one (or several) pictures of the network of relations among animals, in a way that parallels human social networks. This transformation entails loss of information about interaction timing and sequence, which are particularly important to understand the formation of relationships or their disruption. Here, we describe a new statistical model, termed the relational event model, that enables the analysis of fine-grained animal association data as a continuous time sequence without requiring aggregation of the data. We apply the model to a unique data set of interaction between familiar and unfamiliar steers during a series of 36 experiments to investigate the process of social disruption and relationship formation. We show how the model provides key insights into animal behaviour in terms of relationship building, the integration process of unfamiliar animals and group building dynamics. The relational event model is well suited to data structures that are common to animal behavioural studies and can therefore be applied to a range of social interaction data to understand animal social dynamics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Territorial competition and the evolutionary loss of sexual size dimorphism.
    Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (IF 2.103) Pub Date : 2015-03-24
    Ulrike Odreitz,Kristina M Sefc

    Non-sexual social selection can underlie the evolution of sexually monomorphic phenotypes. A causal relationship between territorial competition and sexual monomorphism predicts that male and female competitors should employ similar contest behavior and that contest outcome should depend on the same traits in males and females. We test this prediction in a sexually monomorphic cichlid fish of the genus Tropheus, in which males and females defend individual feeding territories. Lineages basal to Tropheus are sexually dimorphic and have non-territorial females, suggesting that a switch to female territoriality and loss of sexual dimorphism occurred in the Tropheus lineage. We compare rates of agonistic behavior and the effects of body size asymmetries on competitive success between male-male and female-female contests in an experimental setup. Body size asymmetry had the same effect in male and female contests, being negatively correlated with contest duration and positively correlated with the probability of winning. Male and female winners employed the same rates of frontal and lateral displays as well as charges against their opponents. Contest duration was longer in females. In tied contests, females displayed more than males. Our data suggest that intraspecific contest competition for territories selects for large body size in both sexes and support a link between the evolution of female territoriality and the loss of sexual size dimorphism in Tropheus.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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