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  • A Method to Represent a Well in a Three‐Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Model
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Hai Pham; Rishi Parashar; Nicole Sund; Karl Pohlmann

    In discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling, fractures are randomly generated and placed in the model domain. The rock matrix is considered impermeable. Small fractures and isolated fractures are often ignored to reduce computational expense. As a result, the rock matrix between fractures could be large and intersections may not be found between a well introduced in the model and the hydraulically

  • Chemistry of the karst Sarabkalan Spring, Iran, and controls of PDO and ENSO climate indices on it
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-07-25
    Abolfazl Rezaei

    The Sarabkalan Spring serves as a primary water supply to irrigation and domestic use in the Sirvan Region, Iran. As it has a highly variable discharge, understanding its teleconnections with large‐scale climate variability is crucial. In this study, we first characterize the springshed and its corresponding karst aquifer system using genetic algorithm analysis on the spring discharge, water balance

  • Coastal Resiliency Groundwater Considerations
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Daniel J. Rozell

    The potential for rising groundwater is an important consideration in any coastal resiliency assessment. Unlike other groundwater modeling that focuses mostly on contaminant tracking, coastal groundwater resiliency assessments are primarily concerned with the potential for groundwater emergence induced by sea level rise. This provides more options for modelers that range from simplified water table

  • Simulation of lake–groundwater interaction under steady‐state flow
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Chuiyu Lu; Bo Zhang; Xin He; Guoliang Cao; Qingyan Sun; Lingjia Yan; Tao Qin; Tianchen Li; Zepeng Li

    MODFLOW is one of the most popular groundwater simulation tools available; however, the development of lake modules that can be coupled with MODFLOW is lacking apart from the LAK3 package. This study proposes a new approach for simulating lake– groundwater interaction under steady‐state flow, referred to as the sloping lakebed method (SLM). In this new approach, discretization of the lakebed in the

  • Fault Seal Analysis in an Onshore Unconventional Gas Target, North Perth Basin
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    F. Mullen; R. Archer; G. Yielding; H. Boogaerdt

    During the 1980s, hydrocarbons were logged in aquifers during drilling of conventional gas wells in the Woodada gasfield. The gasfield is located in the North Perth Basin in Western Australia. Using Fault Seal Analysis Technology, our goal was to test the hypothesis that faults in the Kockatea Shale that are currently being reactivated may be leak prone. Wells proximal to faults with a fracture stability

  • Unstructured Gridding for MODFLOW from Prior Groundwater Flow Models: A New Paradigm.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    M Adil Sbai

    This work introduces a new unstructured gridding approach relying on feedback from a previous groundwater flow model. All cells in a relatively coarse model using a rectilinear grid are recursively subdivided following a cell wise specific discharge‐based indicator to generate quadtree, octree or Voronoï grids. This technique leverages the full potential of the latest MODFLOW engines. The suitability

  • An application of HFE-D for evaluating seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers of Southern Vietnam.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Thi Thuy Van Le,Rungruang Lertsirivorakul,Tran Vuong Bui,Marcia K Schulmeister

    The coastal aquifers and inland waters of the Long Xuyen Quadrangle and Ca Mau Peninsula of southern Vietnam have been significantly impacted by sea water intrusion (SI) as a result of recent anthropogenic activities. This study identified the evolution and spatial distribution of hydrochemical conditions in coastal aquifers at this region using Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram (HFE‐D) and Geographical

  • Parallel simulation in subsurface hydrology: Evaluating the performance of modelling computers.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Theo S Sarris,David M Scott,Murray E Close

    Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis, model calibration and optimization applications in hydrology, usually involve a very large number of forward transient model solutions, often resulting in computational bottlenecks. Parallel processing can significantly reduce overall simulation time, benefiting from the architecture of modern computers. This work investigates system performance using two realistic

  • Modeling groundwater inflow to the new crater lake at KĪlauea Volcano, Hawai'i.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    S E Ingebritsen,A F Flinders,J P Kauahikaua,P A Hsieh

    During the 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, scientists relied heavily on a conceptual model of explosive eruptions triggered when lava‐lake levels drop below the water table. Numerical modeling of multiphase groundwater flow and heat transport revealed that, contrary to expectations, liquid water inflow to the drained magma conduit would likely be delayed by months to years, owing to the

  • Use of Groundwater Level Fluctuations near an Operating Water Supply Well to Estimate Aquifer Transmissivity.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Sergey Pozdniakov,Pavel Ivanov,Paul Davis,Nikolay Sizov

    We developed a method to estimate aquifer transmissivity from the hydraulic‐head data associated with the normal cyclic operation of a water supply well thus avoiding the need for interrupting the water supply associated with a traditional aquifer test. The method is based on an analytical solution that relates the aquifer's transmissivity to the standard deviation of the hydraulic‐head fluctuations

  • Recommended Sampling Intervals for Arsenic in Private Wells.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Brian J Mailloux,Nicholas A Procopio,Mark Bakker,Therese Chen,Imtiaz Choudhury,Kazi Matin Ahmed,M Rajib H Mozumder,Tyler Ellis,Steve Chillrud,Alexander van Geen

    Geogenic arsenic in drinking water is a worldwide problem. For private well owners, testing (e.g., private or government laboratory) is the main method to determine arsenic concentration. However, the temporal variability of arsenic concentrations is not well characterized and it is not clear how often private wells should be tested. To answer this question, three datasets, two new and one publicly

  • Are Groundwater Level Data Collected by Citizen Scientists Trustworthy? A Cautionary Tale.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-24
    Alex K Manda,J Randall Etheridge,Cynthia Grace-McCaskey,Thomas R Allen,Robert Howard

    Public participation in groundwater projects is increasing, however, the efficacy of the data collected in such studies, is not well‐documented in the literature. In this study, the authors describe a citizen science project focused on measuring and recording groundwater levels in an aquifer and evaluate whether the groundwater data collected by the participants are trustworthy. A total of 31 participants

  • On Solving Groundwater Flow and Transport Models with Algebraic Multigrid Preconditioning.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    M Adil Sbai,A Larabi

    Iterative solvers preconditioned with algebraic multigrid have been devised as an optimal technology to speed up the response of large sparse linear systems. In this work, this technique was implemented in the framework of the dual delineation approach. This involves a single groundwater flow linear solution and a pure advective transport solution with different right-hand sides. The new solver was

  • ogs5py: A Python-API for the OpenGeoSys 5 Scientific Modeling Package.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Sebastian Müller,Alraune Zech,Falk Heße

    High‐performance numerical codes are an indispensable tool for hydrogeologists when modeling subsurface flow and transport systems. But as they are written in compiled languages, like C/C++ or Fortran, established software packages are rarely user‐friendly, limiting a wider adoption of such tools. OpenGeoSys (OGS), an open‐source, finite‐element solver for thermo‐hydro‐mechanical–chemical processes

  • Erratum
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-11

    Mills, A. 2020. Comparison of two computational methods for estimating transmissivity based on the picking equation. Groundwater (this issue). After the manuscript was approved for publication in Groundwater, I continued testing one of the two programs discussed in the paper (PPC‐Recovery). I found an error in the code that involved switching rw for rc in one equation, where rw is the radius of the

  • Fracture Flow Characterization with Low-Noise Spontaneous Potential Logging.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-19
    André C G Kowalski,Carlos A Mendonça,Ulrich S Ofterdinger

    Geophysical well logging has been applied for fracture characterization in crystalline terrains by physical properties measurements and borehole wall imaging. Some of these methods can be applied to monitor pumping tests to identify fractures contributing to groundwater flow and, with this, determine hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity along the well. We present a procedure to identify fractures

  • Assessment of NMR Logging for Estimating Hydraulic Conductivity in Glacial Aquifers.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Alexander K Kendrick,Rosemary Knight,Carole D Johnson,Gaisheng Liu,Steven Knobbe,Randall J Hunt,James J Butler

    Glacial aquifers are an important source of groundwater in the United States and require accurate characterization to make informed management decisions. One parameter that is crucial for understanding the movement of groundwater is hydraulic conductivity, K . Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging measures the NMR response associated with the water in geological materials. By utilizing an external

  • Field Tracer Tests to Evaluate Transport Properties of Tryptophan and Humic Acid in Karst.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Simon Frank,Nadine Goeppert,Nico Goldscheider

    The monitoring of water quality, especially of karst springs, requires methods for rapidly estimating and quantifying parameters that indicate contamination. In the last few years, fluorescence-based measurements of tryptophan and humic acid have become a promising tool to assess water quality in near real-time. In this study, we conducted comparative tracer tests in a karst experimental site to investigate

  • Are Visible Fractures Accurate Predictors of Flow and Mass Transport in Fractured Till?
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Nathan L Young,William W Simpkins,Robert Horton

    Tracer experiments conducted in the laboratory on undisturbed core samples (<7.3-cm-diameter) have been a standard method for estimating hydraulic and transport properties of fractured till since the 1980s. This study assesses the relationship between visible fractures on the top and bottom of core samples and the resulting hydraulic and mass transport properties of the core. We hypothesized that more

  • Using Wavelet Coherence to Characterize Surface Water Infiltration into a Low-Lying Karst Aquifer.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-09
    Philip Schuler,Èlia Cantoni,Léa Duran,Paul Johnston,Laurence Gill

    Karstified carbonate aquifers may receive significant recharge contributions from losing streams, hence, the knowledge about surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) interactions is crucial with regard to water management (e.g., source protection zone delineation). The dynamics of SW-GW interactions may depend on factors such as the relative water levels between streams and aquifers, resulting in a temporal

  • Distributed Temperature Sensing to Measure Infiltration Rates Across a Groundwater Recharge Basin.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Ricardo Medina,Christine Pham,Megan H Plumlee,Adam Hutchinson,Matthew W Becker,Patrick J O'Connell

    Managed aquifer recharge is used to augment groundwater resources and provide resiliency to water supplies threatened by prolonged droughts. It is important that recharge facilities operate at their maximum efficiency to increase the volume of water stored for future use. In this study, we evaluate the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technology as a tool to measure high-resolution infiltration

  • Spatiotemporal Analysis of Extracted Groundwater Volumes Estimated from Electricity Consumption.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Hone-Jay Chu,Cheng-Wei Lin,Thomas J Burbey,Muhammad Zeeshan Ali

    Land subsidence caused by groundwater overexploitation is a serious global problem. The acquisition of spatiotemporal pumping rates and volumes is a first step for water managers to develop a strategic plan for mitigating land subsidence. This study investigates an empirical formulation to estimate the monthly maximum pumped volume over a 10-year period based on electric power consumption data. A spatiotemporal

  • Using Generative Adversarial Networks as a Fast Forward Operator for Hydrogeological Inverse Problems.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Yasin Dagasan,Przemysław Juda,Philippe Renard

    Subsurface characterization using inverse techniques constitutes one of the fundamental elements of hydrogeological modeling applications. Available methods to solve inverse problems rely on a forward operator that predicts state variables for a given set of subsurface parameters. As the number of model parameters to be estimated increases, forward operations incur a significant computational demand

  • Improved Parameter Resolution with Markov Chain Monte Carlo Simulation of Different Aquifer Tests.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Tomas Perina

    Hydraulic testing for aquifer characterization at contaminated sites often includes tests of short duration and of different types, such as slug tests and pumping tests, conducted at different phases of investigation. Tests conducted on a well cluster installed in a single aquifer can be combined in aggregate inverse analysis using an analytical model for groundwater flow near a test well. A genetic

  • DISOLV: A Python Package for the Interpretation of Borehole Dilution Tests
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Sarah L. Collins; Marco Bianchi

    Single borehole dilution tests (SBDTs) are an inexpensive but effective technique for hydrogeological characterization of hard‐rock aquifers. We present a freely available, easy‐to‐use, open‐source Python package, DISOLV, for plotting, analyzing, and modeling SBDT data. DISOLV can significantly reduce the time spent interpreting field data by helping to identify flowing fractures intersecting the borehole

  • Groundwater Impacts from the M5.8 Earthquake in Korea as Determined by Integrated Monitoring Systems
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Soo‐Hyoung Lee; Jae Min Lee; Heesung Yoon; Yongcheol Kim; Seho Hwang; Kyoochul Ha; Yongje Kim

    This paper describes the impacts of the M5.8(5.1) Gyeongju earthquakes on groundwater levels using data obtained from a unique coastal monitoring well. The monitoring strategy integrates conventional water level monitoring with periodic, continuous measurements of temperature and electrical conductivity (EC) within the water column of the well. Another important component of the monitoring system is

  • The Enrichment Process of Groundwater Fluorine in Sea Water Intrusion Area of Gaomi City, China
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Qiao Chen; Decheng Hao; Zongjun Gao; Mengjie Shi; Min Wang; Jianguo Feng; Qinghai Deng; Lu Xia; Chunrong Zhang; Yongbo Yu

    A typical area, Gaomi City in China, was chosen to discuss the enrichment process of groundwater fluorine in sea water intrusion area. The groundwater had fluorine levels of 0.09–10.99 mg/L, with an average concentration of 1.38 mg/L. The high‐fluorine groundwater was mainly distributed in the unconsolidated Quaternary sediments, where concentrations in 83.6% of the samples exceeded the national limit

  • A New R Program for Flow‐Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH‐R)
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-15
    Marcos B. Barbosa; Neil Terry; Frederick D. Day‐Lewis; Reginaldo Bertolo; John W. Lane

    A new version of the computer program FLASH (Flow‐Log Analysis of Single Holes) is presented for the analysis of borehole vertical flow logs to estimate fracture (or layer) transmissivities and far‐field hydraulic heads. The program is written in R, an open‐source environment. All previous features have been retained and new features incorporated including more rigorous parameter estimation, uncertainty

  • Can Karst Conduit Models Be Calibrated? A Dual Approach Using Dye Tracing and Temperature
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    James L. Berglund; Laura Toran; Ellen K. Herman

    Modeling flow and transport using both temperature and dye tracing provides constraints that can improve understanding of karst networks. A laminar flow and transport model using the finite element subsurface flow model simulated the conduit connection between a sinking stream and spring in central Pennsylvania to evaluate how conduit morphology might affect dye transport. Single and overly tortuous

  • Sulfur Hexafluoride and Potassium Bromide as Groundwater Tracers for Managed Aquifer Recharge
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Sarah P. Gerenday; Jordan F. Clark; Jeffrey Hansen; Ida Fischer; John Koreny

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an established tracer for use in managed aquifer recharge projects. SF6 exsolves from groundwater when it encounters trapped air according to Henry's law. This results in its retardation relative to groundwater flow, which can help determine porous media saturation and flow dynamics. SF6 and the conservative, nonpartitioning tracer, bromide (Br− added as KBr), were introduced

  • The Enrichment Process of Groundwater Fluorine in Seawater Intrusion Area of Gaomi City, China
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    Qiao Chen; Decheng Hao; Zongjun Gao; Mengjie Shi; Min Wang; Jianguo Feng; Qinghai Deng; Lu Xia; Chunrong Zhang; Yongbo Yu

    A typical area, Gaomi City in China, was chosen to discuss the enrichment process of groundwater fluorine in seawater intrusion area. The groundwater had fluorine levels of 0.09–10.99 mg/L, with an average concentration of 1.38 mg/L. The high‐fluorine groundwater was mainly distributed in the unconsolidated Quaternary sediments, where concentrations in 83.6% of the samples exceeded the national limit

  • A Flux Detection Probe to Quantify Dynamic Groundwater‐Surface Water Exchange in the Hyporheic Zone
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Jonathan Thomle; Chris Strickland; Tim C. Johnson; Yue Zhu; James Stegen

    A new probe was designed to quantify groundwater‐surface water exchange in the hyporheic zone under dynamic stage condition. Current methods focus on either vertical pore water velocity or Darcy flux measurements. Both parameters must be understood to evaluate residence time and mass flux of constituents. Furthermore, most instruments are not well suited for monitoring instantaneous velocity or flux

  • Integrated Hydrologic Modeling to Untangle the Impacts of Water Management During Drought
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-11
    Lauren M. Thatch; James M. Gilbert; Reed M. Maxwell

    Over the past century, groundwater levels in California's San Joaquin Valley have dropped by more than 30 m in some areas mostly due to excessive groundwater extraction used to irrigate agricultural lands and sustain a growing population. Between 2012 and 2015, California experienced the worst drought in its recorded history, depleting surface water supplies and further exacerbating groundwater depletion

  • Simulating Groundwater-Streamflow Connections in the Upper Colorado River Basin.
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Hoang Tran,Jun Zhang,Jean-Martial Cohard,Laura E Condon,Reed M Maxwell

    In mountain, snow driven catchments, snowmelt is supposed to be the primary contribution to river streamflows during spring. In these catchments the contribution of groundwater is not well documented because of the difficulty to monitor groundwater in such complex environment with deep aquifers. In this study we use an integrated hydrologic model to conduct numerical experiments that help quantify

  • Importance of Spatial Resolution in Global Groundwater Modeling
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Robert Reinecke; Alexander Wachholz; Steffen Mehl; Laura Foglia; Christoph Niemann; Petra Döll

    Global‐scale gradient‐based groundwater models are a new endeavor for hydrologists who wish to improve global hydrological models (GHMs). In particular, the integration of such groundwater models into GHMs improves the simulation of water flows between surface water and groundwater and of capillary rise and thus evapotranspiration. Currently, these models are not able to simulate water table depth

  • Groundwater Model Simulations of Stakeholder‐Identified Scenarios in a High‐Conflict Irrigated Area
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-03-01
    Maribeth Kniffin; Kenneth R. Bradbury; Michael Fienen; Kenneth Genskow

    This study investigated collaborative groundwater‐flow modeling and scenario analysis in the Little Plover River basin, Wisconsin, USA where an unconfined aquifer supplies groundwater for agricultural irrigation, industrial processing, municipal water supply, and stream baseflow. We recruited stakeholders with diverse interests to identify, prioritize, and evaluate scenarios defined as management changes

  • Assessing the Impact of a Heated Basement on Groundwater Temperatures in Bratislava, Slovakia
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    David Krcmar; Renata Flakova; Ivana Ondrejkova; Kamila Hodasova; Daniela Rusnakova; Zlatica Zenisova; Martin Zatlakovic

    Groundwater temperature is a useful hydrogeological parameter that is easy to measure and can provide much insight into groundwater flow systems, but can be difficult to interpret. For measuring temperature directly in the ground, dedicated specifically designed monitoring wells are recommended since conventional groundwater wells are not optimal for temperature monitoring. Multilevel monitoring of

  • Hydrochemical Relation Between Shallow Groundwater with Elevated Fluoride and Groundwater in Underlying Carbonates
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Yan Dou; Ken Howard; Liwei Yang; Dong Wang; Li Guo

    In the arid to semi‐arid district of Chengcheng, Weinan City, in central Shaanxi Province, diminishing groundwater reserves in the shallow Quaternary (QLB) aquifer and elevated fluoride in the similarly shallow Permo‐Triassic (PTF) aquifer, have promoted interest in the development of groundwater resources in the deep but poorly understood Cambrian‐Ordovician carbonate aquifer system (COC). To investigate

  • Use of Sonication for Enhanced Sampling of Attached Microbes from Groundwater Systems
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Murray Close; Phil Abraham; Judith Webber; Eliza Cowey; Bronwyn Humphries; Graham Fenwick; Simon Howard; Kimberly Huynh; Travis Grace; Pierre‐Yves Dupont; Louise Weaver

    The vast majority of microorganisms in aquifers live as biofilms on sediment surfaces, which presents significant challenges for sampling as only the suspended microbes will be sampled through normal pumping. The use of a down‐well low frequency sonicator has been suggested as a method of detaching microbes from the biofilm and allowing rapid sampling of this community. We developed a portable, easy

  • A Type‐Curve Method for the Analysis of Pumping Tests with Piecewise‐Linear Pumping Rates
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Chao Zhuang; Yabing Li; Zhifang Zhou; Walter A. Illman; Zhi Dou; Jinguo Wang; Long Yan

    Aquifer hydraulic parameters are commonly inferred from constant‐rate pumping tests, while variable pumping rates are frequently encountered in actual field conditions. In this study, we propose a generally applicable dimensionless form of the analytical solution for variable‐rate pumping tests in confined aquifers. In particular, we adopt a piecewise‐linear fitting of variable pumping rates and propose

  • Pneumatic Slug Manifold Design and Practical Considerations
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Donald M. Reeves; Tanten T. Buszka; Madison E. Wayt; Daniel G. Greene

    Article impact statement: Simple, non‐commercial pneumatic slug manifold design for standard 5 cm (2 in.) monitoring wells that is easy to replicate and assemble.

  • Flux‐Corrected Transport with MT3DMS for Positive Solution of Transport with Full‐Tensor Dispersion
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Shuo Yan; Albert J. Valocchi

    Solute transport is usually modeled by the advection‐dispersion‐reaction equation. In the standard approach, mechanical dispersion is a tensor with principal directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow vector. Since realistic scenarios include nonuniform and unsteady flow fields, the governing equation has full tensor mechanical dispersion. When conventional grid‐based numerical methods are used

  • DTSGUI: A Python Program to Process and Visualize Fiber‐Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing Data
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Marian Domanski; Daven Quinn; Frederick D. Day‐Lewis; Martin A. Briggs; Dale Werkema; John W. Lane

    Fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensing (FO‐DTS) has proven to be a transformative technology for the hydrologic sciences, with application to diverse problems including hyporheic exchange, groundwater/surface‐water interaction, fractured‐rock characterization, and cold regions hydrology. FO‐DTS produces large, complex, and information‐rich datasets. Despite the potential of FO‐DTS, adoption of

  • A Dual Delineation Approach to Untangle Interferences in Well Doublets Systems
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Mohammed Adil Sbai

    Traditional numerical methods for the delineation of wellhead protection areas span deterministic and probabilistic approaches. They provide time‐related capture zones. However, none of the existing approaches identifies the groundwater contribution areas related to each source or sink. In this work, the worthiness of the so‐called double delineation approach was extended. This task was achieved by

  • Comparison of Two Computational Methods for Estimating Transmissivity Based on the Picking Equation
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    A. Mills

    A comparison is presented of two computational methods, PICKINGmodel and PPC‐Recovery, to estimate transmissivities based on the Picking equation using water‐level recovery data from brief pumping tests of relatively low‐yielding domestic wells. The tests were performed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in 50 domestic bedrock wells in south‐central New York State, and USGS staff performed

  • Groundwater Origin in Qanats, Chemo‐Isotopic, and Hydrogeological Evidence
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Hojat Mirani Moghadam; Rahim Bagheri; Gholam Hossein Karami; Hadi Jafari

    A systematic study of the chemo‐isotopic characteristics and origin of the groundwater was carried out at six major qanats in the hyper‐arid Gonabad area, eastern Iran. These qanats as a sustainable groundwater extraction technology have a long history, supporting human life for more than a thousand years in this region. The Gonabad qanats are characterized by outlet electrical conductivity (EC) values

  • Hydraulic‐Head Formulation for Density‐Dependent Flow and Transport
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Christian D. Langevin; Sorab Panday; Alden M. Provost

    Density‐dependent flow and transport solutions for coastal saltwater intrusion investigations, analyses of fluid injection into deep brines, and studies of convective fingering and instabilities of denser fluids moving through less dense fluids typically formulate the groundwater flow equation in terms of pressure or equivalent freshwater head. A formulation of the flow equation in terms of hydraulic

  • Decision Support Modeling: Data Assimilation, Uncertainty Quantification, and Strategic Abstraction
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    John Doherty; Catherine Moore

    We present a framework for design and deployment of decision support modeling based on metrics which have their roots in the scientific method. Application of these metrics to decision support modeling requires recognition of the importance of data assimilation and predictive uncertainty quantification in this type of modeling. The difficulties of implementing these procedures depend on the relationship

  • Groundwater Storage Change in the Jinsha River Basin from GRACE, Hydrologic Models, and In Situ Data
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Nengfang Chao; Gang Chen; Jian Li; Longwei Xiang; Zhengtao Wang; Kunjun Tian

    Groundwater plays a major role in the hydrological processes driven by climate change and human activities, particularly in upper mountainous basins. The Jinsha River Basin (JRB) is the uppermost region of the Yangtze River and the largest hydropower production region in China. With the construction of artificial cascade reservoirs increasing in this region, the annual and seasonal flows are changing

  • Characterizing Water Flow in Vegetated Lysimeters with Stable Water Isotopes and Modeling
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Fatemeh Shajari; Florian Einsiedl; Arno Rein

    We have used stable water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) in combination with lumped‐parameter modeling for characterizing unsaturated flow in two lysimeters vegetated with maize. The lysimeters contained undisturbed soil cores dominated by sandy gravel (Ly1) and clayey sandy silt (Ly2). Stable water isotopes were analyzed in precipitation and lysimeter outflow water over about 3 years. The mean transit time

  • Stochastic Modeling of Groundwater Fluoride Contamination: Introducing Lazy Learners
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Khabat Khosravi; Rahim Barzegar; Shaghayegh Miraki; Jan Adamowski; Prasad Daggupati; Mohammad Reza Alizadeh; Binh Thai Pham; Mohammad Taghi Alami

    While it remains the primary source of safe drinking and irrigation water in northwest Iran's Maku Plain, the region's groundwater is prone to fluoride contamination. Accordingly, modeling techniques to accurately predict groundwater fluoride concentration are required. The current paper advances several novel data mining algorithms including Lazy learners [instance‐based K‐nearest neighbors (IBK);

  • Groundwater Depth Forecasting Using Configurational Entropy Spectral Analyses with the Optimal Input
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Tianli Guo; Songbai Song; Jihai Shi; Jun Li

    Accurate groundwater depth forecasting is particularly important for human life and sustainable groundwater management in arid and semi‐arid areas. To improve the groundwater forecasting accuracy, in this paper, a hybrid groundwater depth forecasting model using configurational entropy spectral analyses (CESA) with the optimal input is constructed. An original groundwater depth series is decomposed

  • Optimal Location of Wells for Storage and Recovery of Surplus Desalinated Water in Coastal Aquifers
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Chefi Triki; Slim Zekri; Ali Al‐Maktoumi; Mohammad R. Bazargan‐Lari

    Storage of water in aquifers using injection wells is an efficient way for utilizing excess desalinated water in arid regions. In this investigation we estimate the benefits of optimally recharging seasonal surplus desalinated water into a strategic coastal aquifer already benefitting from natural recharge of flash‐floods water by a recharge dam. Since, usually the buyers of desalinated water commit

  • Aquifer Imaging with Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography: Application at the Field Scale
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Michael Cardiff; YaoQuan Zhou; Warren Barrash; Peter K. Kitanidis

    Modeling and laboratory experiments have demonstrated the ability of oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) to characterize heterogeneity in aquifer hydraulic properties. In OHT, a location is stressed via periodic pumping/injection at a set frequency, and the resulting head signal is measured at a number of monitoring locations. The source of oscillations is repeatedly moved, allowing tomographic

  • Exploring Groundwater Resources and Recharge Potentialities at El‐Gallaba Plain, Western Desert, Egypt
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Mohamed H. Geriesh; Basma M.H. Mansour; Ahmed Gaber; Khalid Mamoun

    Egypt has a fast‐growing population rate of 2.5%/year; consequently, there is an increase in the water demand for living and launching different development plans. Meanwhile, there is intensive construction of several dams in the upstream Nile basin countries. Thus, it is necessary to search for new water resources to overcome the expected shortages of the Nile water supply by focusing on alternative

  • Alpine Hydrogeology: The Critical Role of Groundwater in Sourcing the Headwaters of the World
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-11-24
    Masaki Hayashi

    Groundwater discharge in alpine headwaters sustains baseflow in rivers originating in mountain ranges of the world, which is critically important for aquatic habitats, run‐of‐river hydropower generation, and downstream water supply. Groundwater storage in alpine watersheds was long considered negligible, but recent field‐based studies have shown that aquifers are ubiquitous in the alpine zone with

  • Consequences of Groundwater‐Model Vertical Discretization in Risk‐Based Decision‐Making
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Jeremy T. White; Matthew J. Knowling; Catherine R. Moore

    One of the first and most important decisions facing practitioners when constructing a numerical groundwater model is vertical discretization. Several factors will influence this decision, such as the conceptual model of the system and hydrostratigraphy, data availability, resulting computational burden, and the purpose of the modeling analysis. Using a coarse vertical discretization is an attractive

  • Pay the PIED Piper: Guidelines to Visualize Large Geochemical Datasets on Piper Diagrams
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Christopher J. Russoniello; Laura K. Lautz

    The Piper diagram has increased in popularity since its 1944 introduction and is now one of the most familiar and effective tools in the hydrogeologist's toolbox. Within the Piper diagram, three points on three related plots fully display the major ionic species of a water sample. Recently the size and availability of datasets have increased as additional field measurements and modeling results are

  • Accelerating Streamline Tracking in Groundwater Flow Modeling on GPUs
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Xiaohui Ji; Mulan Luo; Xu‐Sheng Wang

    Streamline simulation in groundwater flow modeling is a time‐consuming process when a large number of streamlines are analyzed. We develop a parallelization method on graphics processing units (GPUs) for the semi‐analytical particle tracking algorithm developed by Pollock (1988). Compute Unified Device Architecture was used to implement the parallel method. Forward and backward tracking of a streamline

  • Variation in Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity at the Outcrop Scale, the Whanganui Basin, New Zealand
    Groundwater (IF 2.205) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Callum Rees; Alan Palmer; Julie Palmer; Ranvir Singh

    Groundwater flow and contaminant transport are strongly influenced by hydrogeological spatial variation. Understanding the textural heterogeneity of aquifer and aquitard units is critical for predicting preferential flow pathways, but is often hindered by sparse hydrogeological data, widely spaced data points, and complex stratigraphy. Here, we demonstrate the application of a relatively new air permeameter

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