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  • Population and Environment.
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Alex de Sherbinin,David Carr,Susan Cassels,Leiwen Jiang

    The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics (e.g., population size, growth, density, age and sex composition, migration, urbanization, vital rates) and environmental changes. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The State and Future of Antarctic Environments in a Global Context
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Steven L. Chown, Cassandra M. Brooks

    Antarctica and the Southern Ocean comprise a critical part of the Earth System. Their environments are better understood than ever before, yet the region remains poorly considered among international agreements to improve the state of the global environment. In part the situation owes to isolated regional regulation within the Antarctic Treaty System, and in part to the dated notion that Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are well conserved and relatively free from human impact. Here we review growth in knowledge of Antarctic environments and anthropogenic pressures on them. We show that the region's unusual diversity is facing substantial local and globally mediated anthropogenic pressure, on a par with environments globally. Antarctic environmental management and regulation is being challenged to keep pace with the change. Much benefit can be derived from consideration of Antarctic environmental and resource management in the context of global agreements.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Island Biodiversity in the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    James C. Russell, Christoph Kueffer

    Biodiversity on marine islands is characterized by unique biogeographic, phylogenetic and functional characteristics. Islands hold a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity, and they have also experienced a disproportionate loss of it. Following human contact, island biodiversity has sustained negative human impacts increasing in rate and magnitude as islands transitioned from primary through secondary to tertiary economies. On islands, habitat transformation and invasive non-native species have historically been the major threats to biodiversity, and although these threats will continue in new forms, new impacts such as human-induced climate change and sea-level rise are emerging. Island biodiversity is changing with some species going extinct, others changing in abundance, non-native species becoming a part of many ecosystems, and humans shaping many ecological processes. Islands thus are microcosms for the emerging biodiversity and socioecological landscapes of the Anthropocene. Islands will require new strategies for the protection and restoration of their biodiversity, including maintaining biological and cultural heritage through regenerative practices, mainstreaming biodiversity in cultural and production landscapes, and engaging with the reality of novel ecosystems.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Mammal Conservation: Old Problems, New Perspectives, Transdisciplinarity, and the Coming of Age of Conservation Geopolitics
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    David W. Macdonald

    I review the shocking current status of terrestrial mammals and then describe an approach to solving it, embracing a continuum of spatial and intellectual scales, from groundedness to geopolitics. Starting with an illustrative arena, the interface between agriculture and wildlife, I then outline the litany of threats to mammals and some successful approaches to their conservation, and document some broad-scale patterns regarding ecosystems, the mammalian communities within, and some implications for conservation. Observing that the battle for mammalian conservation is being badly lost, I dedicate the third part of this article to a combination of top-down and bottom-up, interdisciplinary studies, aspiring to a holistic approach that sets conservation in the wider sphere of the human enterprise and that I term transdisciplinary conservation.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • The State of the World's Mangrove Forests: Past, Present, and Future
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Daniel A. Friess, Kerrylee Rogers, Catherine E. Lovelock, Ken W. Krauss, Stuart E. Hamilton, Shing Yip Lee, Richard Lucas, Jurgenne Primavera, Anusha Rajkaran, Suhua Shi

    Intertidal mangrove forests are a dynamic ecosystem experiencing rapid changes in extent and habitat quality over geological history, today and into the future. Climate and sea level have drastically altered mangrove distribution since their appearance in the geological record ∼75 million years ago (Mya), through to the Holocene. In contrast, contemporary mangrove dynamics are driven primarily by anthropogenic threats, including pollution, overextraction, and conversion to aquaculture and agriculture. Deforestation rates have declined in the past decade, but the future of mangroves is uncertain; new deforestation frontiers are opening, particularly in Southeast Asia and West Africa, despite international conservation policies and ambitious global targets for rehabilitation. In addition, geological and climatic processes such as sea-level rise that were important over geological history will continue to influence global mangrove distribution in the future. Recommendations are given to reframe mangrove conservation, with a view to improving the state of mangroves in the future.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Food Loss and Waste: Measurement, Drivers, and Solutions
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Edward S. Spang, Laura C. Moreno, Sara A. Pace, Yigal Achmon, Irwin Donis-Gonzalez, Wendi A. Gosliner, Madison P. Jablonski-Sheffield, Md Abdul Momin, Tom E. Quested, Kiara S. Winans, Thomas P. Tomich

    It has been estimated that one-third of global food is lost or wasted, entailing significant environmental, economic, and social costs. The scale and impact of food loss and waste (FLW) has attracted significant interest across sectors, leading to a relatively recent proliferation of publications. This article synthesizes existing knowledge in the literature with a focus on FLW measurement, drivers, and solutions. We apply the widely adopted DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) framework to structure the review. Key takeaways include the following: Existing definitions of FLW are inconsistent and incomplete, significant data gaps remain (by food type, stage of supply chain, and region, especially for developing countries), FLW solutions focus more on proximate causes rather than larger systemic drivers, and effective responses to FLW will require complementary approaches and robust evaluation.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Sustainable Living: Bridging the North-South Divide in Lifestyles and Consumption Debates
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Bronwyn Hayward, Joyashree Roy

    This article presents a critical assessment of the literature on sustainable consumption in the global North and South, in the context of accelerated and megascale transitions that are needed across all human activities, in ways that “leave no one behind,” as envisaged in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It challenges two dominant, related research foci: an emphasis on the individual and individual aspirations of the good life, and the policy incrementalism of rational, ecological modernization. Although conceding individuals must act consciously to advance sustainability, nuanced interpretations of collective sustainable living rarely feature in mainstream research. Discussion highlights values of extended family, tribe and community solidarity, and human and nonhuman interrelationships for harmonious, peaceful, spiritual, and material coexistence. Concepts such as Ahimsa (India), Buen Vivir (South America), Ubuntu (Africa), Hauora (New Zealand), or Shiawase and Ikigai (Japan), for example, can enrich understandings of sustainable living as long-term collective action for sustainable development and reducing climate change.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Status, Institutions, and Prospects for Global Capture Fisheries
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Christopher Costello, Daniel Ovando

    We compile global data to examine the current status, trends, threats, and opportunities in the world's wild-capture fisheries. We find that global fisheries have largely diverged—well-managed, often industrial fisheries tend to be in reasonably good health, while coastal fisheries, often from low-governance regions, tend to be in poor health. Good governance seems to play a central role, and we summarize key findings from the literature on how effective fishery management can simultaneously increase food security, livelihoods, and conservation outcomes. Other solutions, such as marine protected areas and big data, can be useful but will not, by themselves, solve the main fishery challenges. We conclude by examining notorious threats, such as climate change and lack of governance on the high seas, and find that these can be largely neutralized with good fishery management, suggesting that overall, the future of wild fisheries can be bright with effective fishery management interventions.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Illegal Wildlife Trade: Scale, Processes, and Governance
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Michael ‘t Sas-Rolfes, Daniel W.S. Challender, Amy Hinsley, Diogo Veríssimo, E.J. Milner-Gulland

    Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) has increased in profile in recent years as a global policy issue, largely because of its association with declines in prominent internationally trafficked species. In this review, we explore the scale of IWT, associated threats to biodiversity, and appropriate responses to these threats. We discuss the historical development of IWT research and highlight the uncertainties that plague the evidence base, emphasizing the need for more systematic approaches to addressing evidence gaps in a way that minimizes the risk of unethical or counterproductive outcomes for wildlife and people. We highlight the need for evaluating interventions in order to learn, and the importance of sharing datasets and lessons learned. A more collaborative approach to linking IWT research, practice, and policy would better align public policy discourse and action with research evidence. This in turn would enable more effective policy making that contributes to reducing the threat to biodiversity that IWT represents.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Pete Smith, Justin Adams, David J. Beerling, Tim Beringer, Katherine V. Calvin, Sabine Fuss, Bronson Griscom, Nikolas Hagemann, Claudia Kammann, Florian Kraxner, Jan C. Minx, Alexander Popp, Phil Renforth, Jose Luis Vicente Vicente, Saskia Keesstra

    Land-management options for greenhouse gas removal (GGR) include afforestation or reforestation (AR), wetland restoration, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), biochar, terrestrial enhanced weathering (TEW), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We assess the opportunities and risks associated with these options through the lens of their potential impacts on ecosystem services (Nature's Contributions to People; NCPs) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We find that all land-based GGR options contribute positively to at least some NCPs and SDGs. Wetland restoration and SCS almost exclusively deliver positive impacts. A few GGR options, such as afforestation, BECCS, and biochar potentially impact negatively some NCPs and SDGs, particularly when implemented at scale, largely through competition for land. For those that present risks or are least understood, more research is required, and demonstration projects need to proceed with caution. For options that present low risks and provide cobenefits, implementation can proceed more rapidly following no-regrets principles.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Sanitation for Low-Income Regions: A Cross-Disciplinary Review
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Christopher Hyun, Zachary Burt, Yoshika Crider, Kara L. Nelson, C.S. Sharada Prasad, Swati D.G. Rayasam, William Tarpeh, Isha Ray

    Sanitation research focuses primarily on containing human waste and preventing disease; thus, it has traditionally been dominated by the fields of environmental engineering and public health. Over the past 20 years, however, the field has grown broader in scope and deeper in complexity, spanning diverse disciplinary perspectives. In this article, we review the current literature in the range of disciplines engaged with sanitation research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We find that perspectives on what sanitation is, and what sanitation policy should prioritize, vary widely. We show how these diverse perspectives augment the conventional sanitation service chain, a framework describing the flow of waste from capture to disposal. We review how these perspectives can inform progress toward equitable sanitation for all [i.e., Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6]. Our key message is that both material and nonmaterial flows—and both technological and social functions—make up a sanitation “system.” The components of the sanitation service chain are embedded within the flows of finance, decision making, and labor that make material flows of waste possible. The functions of capture, storage, transport, treatment, reuse, and disposal are interlinked with those of ensuring equity and affordability. We find that a multilayered understanding of sanitation, with contributions from multiple disciplines, is necessary to facilitate inclusive and robust research toward the goal of sanitation for all.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Co-Producing Sustainability: Reordering the Governance of Science, Policy, and Practice
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Carina Wyborn, Amber Datta, Jasper Montana, Melanie Ryan, Peat Leith, Brian Chaffin, Clark Miller, Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    Co-production has become a cornerstone of research within the sustainability sciences, motivating collaborations of diverse actors to conduct research in the service of societal and policy change. This review examines theoretical and empirical literature from sustainability science, public administration, and science and technology studies (STS) with the intention of advancing the theory and practice of co-production within sustainability science. We argue that co-production must go beyond stakeholder engagement by scientists to the more deliberate design of societal transitions. Co-production can contribute to such transitions by shifting the institutional arrangements that govern relationships between knowledge and power, science and society, and state and citizens. We highlight critical weaknesses in conceptualizations of co-production within sustainability sciences with respect to power, politics, and governance. We offer suggestions for how this can be rectified through deeper engagement with public administration and STS to offer a broad vision for enhancing the use, design, and practice of a more reflexive co-production in sustainability science.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Solar Geoengineering: Social Science, Legal, Ethical, and Economic Frameworks
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Jane A. Flegal, Anna-Maria Hubert, David R. Morrow, Juan B. Moreno-Cruz

    Solar geoengineering research in the social sciences and humanities has largely evolved in parallel with research in the natural sciences. In this article, we review the current state of the literature on the ethical, legal, economic, and social science aspects of this emerging area. We discuss issues regarding the framing and futures of solar geoengineering, empirical social science on public views and public engagement, the evolution of ethical concerns regarding research and deployment, and the current legal and economic frameworks and emerging proposals for the regulation and governance of solar geoengineering.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Is Natural Capital Really Substitutable?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    François Cohen, Cameron J. Hepburn, Alexander Teytelboym

    The extent to which natural capital can be substituted with manufactured or human capital in production is a key determinant of the possibility of long-run sustainable economic development. We review empirical literature pertaining to the degree of substitutability between natural capital and other forms of capital. We find that most available substitutability estimates do not stand up to careful scrutiny. Moreover, accurate substitutability estimates are even more difficult to produce for unpriced or mispriced resources. Finally, we provide evidence from industrial energy use, and agricultural land use, that suggests substitutability of natural capital with other forms of capital may be low to moderate.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Social Synergies, Tradeoffs, and Equity in Marine Conservation Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    David A. Gill, Samantha H. Cheng, Louise Glew, Ernest Aigner, Nathan J. Bennett, Michael B. Mascia

    Biodiversity conservation interventions often aim to benefit both nature and people; however, the social impacts of these interventions remain poorly understood. We reviewed recent literature on the social impacts of four marine conservation interventions to understand the synergies, tradeoffs, and equity (STE) of these impacts, focusing on the direction, magnitude, and distribution of impacts across domains of human wellbeing and across spatial, temporal, and social scales. STE literature has increased dramatically since 2000, particularly for marine protected areas (MPAs), but remains limited. Few studies use rigorous counterfactual study designs, and significant research gaps remain regarding specific wellbeing domains (culture, education), social groups (gender, age, ethnic groups), and impacts over time. Practitioners and researchers should recognize the role of shifting property rights, power asymmetries, individual capabilities, and resource dependency in shaping STE in conservation outcomes, and utilize multi-consequential frameworks to support the wellbeing of vulnerable and marginalized groups.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Toward REDD+ Implementation
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Danae Maniatis, Joel Scriven, Inge Jonckheere, Jennifer Laughlin, Kimberly Todd

    After several years of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries) readiness, countries are starting to move toward REDD+ implementation and accessing results-based payments (RBPs). Currently various parallel processes for accessing RBPs exist, including project and jurisdictional—approaches that often operate under a nascent national framework. This review is structured around the key considerations for countries to implement REDD+ and access RBPs. It offers a discussion focusing on three areas that are crucial for the success of REDD+: (a) REDD+ in the context of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), (b) the role of the private sector in achieving emissions reductions, and (c) access to RBPs for REDD+. We present some key considerations for future issues and possible successes of REDD+ implementation.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Ecotourism for Conservation?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Amanda L. Stronza, Carter A. Hunt, Lee A. Fitzgerald

    Ecotourism originated in the 1980s, at the dawn of sustainable development, as a way to channel tourism revenues into conservation and development. Despite the “win-win” idea, scholars and practitioners debate the meaning and merits of ecotourism. We conducted a review of 30 years of ecotourism research, looking for empirical evidence of successes and failures. We found the following trends: Ecotourism is often conflated with outdoor recreation and other forms of conventional tourism; impact studies tend to focus on either ecological or social impacts, but rarely both; and research tends to lack time series data, precluding authors from discerning effects over time, either on conservation, levels of biodiversity, ecosystem integrity, local governance, or other indicators. Given increasing pressures on wild lands and wildlife, we see a need to add rigor to analyses of ecotourism. We provide suggestions for future research and offer a framework for study design and issues of measurement and scaling.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • China's Environment on a Metacoupled Planet
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Jianguo Liu, Andrés Viña, Wu Yang, Shuxin Li, Weihua Xu, Hua Zheng

    China has emerged as a global economic powerhouse after four decades of unprecedented growth. Such growth has generated many environmental challenges with enormous ecological, socioeconomic, and health consequences in China and beyond. Although the overall quality of air and water is starting to improve, both are still below national and international standards. Water shortages are widespread. Biodiversity continues to decline. China is the world's top CO2 emitter, although per capita emissions are much lower than those of developed counties. On the positive side, large national conservation programs have been implemented, including the Natural Forest Conservation Program, the Grain-to-Green Program, Ecosystem Functional Conservation Areas, and Ecological Protection Redlines. More than 2,750 nature reserves have been established and a new national park system is being constructed. Some endangered and threatened species, such as the giant panda, are showing signs of recovery, and forest cover and some ecosystem services have increased. These mixed environmental outcomes result from human-nature interactions within China as well as between China and adjacent and distant countries. These include increasing rapid economic growth, resource consumption, land use change, trade and investment, and conservation and development policies. We suggest systems approaches such as nexus approaches and flow-centered governance to help China achieve ecological civilization and become an environmental leader on a metacoupled planet.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Recent Progress and Emerging Topics on Weather and Climate Extremes Since the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Yang Chen, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Panmao Zhai, Anna Pirani

    Weather and climate extremes impose serious impacts on natural and human systems. In its fifth assessment report (AR5) and a special report [Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX)], the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provided a thorough assessment of observed and projected changes in extremes in a warming climate, with evidenced scientific gaps in the understanding of these responsive changes being reported. Reviewing post-AR5 literature, this article synthesizes recent advances regarding these previous gaps with respect to detection, attribution, and projection of extremes. We focus on constraints for the assessment confidence, overlooked types and characteristics of extremes, and changes in their thermodynamic-dynamic drivers. We also stress potential misinterpretations of existing results, propose an update of earlier key findings, and identify burgeoning topics.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Inequality and the Biosphere
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Maike Hamann, Kevin Berry, Tomas Chaigneau, Tracie Curry, Robert Heilmayr, Patrik J.G. Henriksson, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Amir Jina, Emilie Lindkvist, Yolanda Lopez-Maldonado, Emmi Nieminen, Matías Piaggio, Jiangxiao Qiu, Juan C. Rocha, Caroline Schill, Alon Shepon, Andrew R. Tilman, Inge van den Bijgaart, Tong Wu

    Rising inequalities and accelerating global environmental change pose two of the most pressing challenges of the twenty-first century. To explore how these phenomena are linked, we apply a social-ecological systems perspective and review the literature to identify six different types of interactions (or “pathways”) between inequality and the biosphere. We find that most of the research so far has only considered one-directional effects of inequality on the biosphere, or vice versa. However, given the potential for complex dynamics between socioeconomic and environmental factors within social-ecological systems, we highlight examples from the literature that illustrate the importance of cross-scale interactions and feedback loops between inequality and the biosphere. This review draws on diverse disciplines to advance a systemic understanding of the linkages between inequality and the biosphere, specifically recognizing cross-scale feedbacks and the multidimensional nature of inequality.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Religion and Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Willis Jenkins, Evan Berry, Luke Beck Kreider

    Understanding the cultural dimensions of climate change requires understanding its religious aspects. Insofar as climate change is entangled with humans, it is also entangled with all the ways in which religion attends human ways of being. Scholarship on the connections between religion and climate change includes social science research into how religious identity figures in attitudes toward climate change, confessional and constructive engagements of religious thought with climate change from various communities and traditions, historical and anthropological analyses of how climate affects religion and religion interprets climate, and theories by which climate change may itself be interpreted as a religious event. Responses to climate change by indigenous peoples challenge the categories of religion and of climate change in ways that illuminate reflexive stresses between the two cultural concepts.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Diet, Health, and Environment Trilemma
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Michael Clark, Jason Hill, David Tilman

    As populations become more affluent and urbanized, diets are shifting such that they are becoming higher in calories and include more highly processed foods and animal products. These dietary shifts are driving increases in diet-related diseases and are also causing environmental degradation. These linked impacts pose a new key issue for global society—a diet, health, and environment trilemma. Recent dietary shifts have contributed to increasing diet-related health and environmental impacts, including an 80% increase in global diabetes prevalence and an 860% increase in global nitrogen fertilizer use. Furthermore, if current dietary trajectories were to continue for the next several decades, diet-related diseases would account for three-quarters of the global burden of disease and would also lead to large increases in diet-related environmental impacts. We discuss how shifts to healthier diets—such as some Mediterranean, pescetarian, vegetarian, and vegan diets—could reduce incidence of diet-related diseases and improve environmental outcomes. In addition, we detail how other interventions to food systems that use known technologies and management techniques would improve environmental outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • 1.5°C Hotspots: Climate Hazards, Vulnerabilities, and Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Carl-Friedrich Schleussner, Delphine Deryng, Sarah D'haen, William Hare, Tabea Lissner, Mouhamed Ly, Alexander Nauels, Melinda Noblet, Peter Pfleiderer, Patrick Pringle, Martin Rokitzki, Fahad Saeed, Michiel Schaeffer, Olivia Serdeczny, Adelle Thomas

    Differentiating the impacts of climate change between 1.5°C and 2°C requires a regional and sector-specific perspective. Whereas for some regions and sectors the difference in climate variables might be indistinguishable from natural variability, other areas especially in the tropics and subtropics will experience significant shifts. In addition to region-specific changes in climatic conditions, vulnerability and exposure also differ substantially across the world. Even small differences in climate hazards can translate into sizeable impact differences for particularly vulnerable regions or sectors. Here, we review scientific evidence of regional differences in climate hazards at 1.5°C and 2°C and provide an assessment of selected hotspots of climate change, including small islands as well as rural, urban, and coastal areas in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, that are particularly affected by the additional 0.5°C global mean temperature increase. We interlink these with a review of the vulnerability and exposure literature related to these hotspots to provide an integrated perspective on the differences in climate impacts between 1.5°C and 2°C.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Methane and Global Environmental Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Dave S. Reay, Pete Smith, Torben R. Christensen, Rachael H. James, Harry Clark

    Global atmospheric methane concentrations have continued to rise in recent years, having already more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution. Further environmental change, especially climate change, in the twenty-first century has the potential to radically alter global methane fluxes. Importantly, changes in temperature, precipitation, and net primary production may induce positive climate feedback effects in dominant natural methane sources such as wetlands, soils, and aquatic ecosystems. Anthropogenic methane sources may also be impacted, with a risk of enhanced emissions from the energy, agriculture, and waste sectors. Here, we review the global sources of methane, the trends in fluxes by source and sector, and their possible evolution in response to future environmental change. We discuss ongoing uncertainties in flux estimation and projection, and highlight the great potential for multisector methane mitigation as part of wider global climate change policy.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Effects of Tropical Vegetation on Rainfall
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    D.V. Spracklen, J.C.A. Baker, L. Garcia-Carreras, J.H. Marsham

    Vegetation modifies land-surface properties, mediating the exchange of energy, moisture, trace gases, and aerosols between the land and the atmosphere. These exchanges influence the atmosphere on local, regional, and global scales. Through altering surface properties, vegetation change can impact on weather and climate. We review current understanding of the processes through which tropical land-cover change (LCC) affects rainfall. Tropical deforestation leads to reduced evapotranspiration, increasing surface temperatures by 1–3 K and causing boundary layer circulations, which in turn increase rainfall over some regions and reduce it elsewhere. On larger scales, deforestation leads to reductions in moisture recycling, reducing regional rainfall by up to 40%. Impacts of future tropical LCC on rainfall are uncertain but could be of similar magnitude to those caused by climate change. Climate and sustainable development policies need to account for the impacts of tropical LCC on local and regional rainfall.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Terrestrial Carbon Sink
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    T.F. Keenan, C.A. Williams

    Life on Earth comes in many forms, but all life-forms share a common element in carbon. It is the basic building block of biology, and by trapping radiation it also plays an important role in maintaining the Earth's atmosphere at a temperature hospitable to life. Like all matter, carbon can neither be created nor destroyed, but instead is continuously exchanged between ecosystems and the environment through a complex combination of physics and biology. In recent decades, these exchanges have led to an increased accumulation of carbon on the land surface: the terrestrial carbon sink. Over the past 10 years (2007–2016) the sink has removed an estimated 3.61 Pg C year−1 from the atmosphere, which amounts to 33.7% of total anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity and land-use change. This sink constitutes a valuable ecosystem service, which has significantly slowed the rate of climate change. Here, we review current understanding of the underlying biological processes that govern the terrestrial carbon sink and their dependence on climate, atmospheric composition, and human interventions.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Mobile Worlds: Choice at the Intersection of Demographic and Environmental Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2016-11-11
    Jon Barnett, W. Neil Adger

    Research on environmental change has often focused on changes in population as a significant driver of unsustainability and environmental degradation. Demographic pessimism and limited engagement with demographic realities underpin many arguments concerning limits to growth, environmental refugees, and environment-related conflicts. Re-engagement between demographic and environmental sciences has led to greater understanding of the interactions between the size, composition, and distribution of populations and exposure to environmental risks and contributions to environmental burdens. We review the results of this renewed and far more nuanced research frontier, focusing in particular on the way demographic trends affect exposure, sensitivity, and adaptation to environmental change. New research has explained how migration systems interact with environmental challenges in individual decisions and in globally aggregate flows. Here we integrate analysis on demographic and environmental risks that often share a root cause in limited social freedoms and opportunities. We argue for a capabilities approach to promoting sustainable solutions for a more mobile world.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Social-Ecological Systems Insights for Navigating the Dynamics of the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Belinda Reyers, Carl Folke, Michele-Lee Moore, Reinette Biggs, Victor Galaz

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research offers new theory and evidence to transform sustainable development to better contend with the challenges of the Anthropocene. Four insights from contemporary SES literature on (a) intertwined SES, (b) cross-scale dynamics, (c) systemic tipping points, and (d) transformational change are explored. Based on these insights, shifts in sustainable development practice are suggested to recognize and govern the complex and codeveloping social and ecological aspects of development challenges. The potential susceptibility of SES to nonlinear systemic reconfigurations is highlighted, as well as the opportunities, agency, and capacities required to foster reconfigurative transformations for sustainable development. SES research proposes the need for diverse values and beliefs that are more in tune with the deep, dynamic connections between social and ecological systems to transform development practice and to support capacities to deal with shocks and surprises. From these perspectives, SES research offers new outlooks, practices, and novel opportunity spaces from which to address the challenges of the Anthropocene.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Research On Degrowth
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Giorgos Kallis, Vasilis Kostakis, Steffen Lange, Barbara Muraca, Susan Paulson, Matthias Schmelzer

    Scholars and activists mobilize increasingly the term degrowth when producing knowledge critical of the ideology and costs of growth-based development. Degrowth signals a radical political and economic reorganization leading to reduced resource and energy use. The degrowth hypothesis posits that such a trajectory of social transformation is necessary, desirable, and possible; the conditions of its realization require additional study. Research on degrowth has reinvigorated the limits to growth debate with critical examination of the historical, cultural, social, and political forces that have made economic growth a dominant objective. Here we review studies of economic stability in the absence of growth and of societies that have managed well without growth. We reflect on forms of technology and democracy com-patible with degrowth and discuss plausible openings for a degrowth transition. This dynamic and productive research agenda asks inconvenient questions that sustainability sciences can no longer afford to ignore.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Politics of Climate Change Adaptation
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Nives Dolšak, Aseem Prakash

    Climate action has two pillars: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation faces collective action issues because its costs are focused on specific locations/actors but benefits are global and nonexcludable. Adaptation, in contrast, creates local benefits, and therefore should face fewer collective action issues. However, governance units vary in the types of adaptation policies they adopt. To explain this variation, we suggest conceptualizing adaptation-as-politics because adaptation speaks to the issues of power, conflicting policy preferences, resource allocation, and administrative tensions. In examining who develops and implements adaptation, we explore whether adaptation is the old wine of disaster management in the new bottle of climate policy, and the tensions between national and local policy making. In exploring what adaptation policies are adopted, we discuss maladaptation and the distinction between hard and soft infrastructure. Finally, we examine why politicians favor visible, hard adaptation over soft adaptation, and how international influences shape local policy.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Evolution of the UNFCCC
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Jonathan Kuyper, Heike Schroeder, Björn-Ola Linnér

    This article takes stock of the evolution of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through the prism of three recent shifts: the move away from targeting industrial country emissions in a legally binding manner under the Kyoto Protocol to mandating voluntary contributions from all countries under the Paris Agreement; the shift from the top-down Kyoto architecture to the hybrid Paris outcome; and the broadening out from a mitigation focus under Kyoto to a triple goal comprising mitigation, adaptation, and finance under Paris. This review discusses the implications of these processes for the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of the UNFCCC's institutional and operational settings for meeting the convention's objectives. It ends by sketching three potential scenarios facing the UNFCCC as it seeks to coordinate the Paris Agreement and its relationship to the wider landscape of global climate action.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Sustainability Standards: Interactions Between Private Actors, Civil Society, and Governments
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Eric F. Lambin, Tannis Thorlakson

    New partnerships between governments, private companies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are reshaping global environmental governance. In particular, there has been a rise of voluntary sustainability standards in an attempt to manage social and environmental impacts of global supply chains. We analyze the large spectrum of interactions between private, public, and civil society actors around voluntary sustainability standards, primarily for tropical agriculture and forestry. This review uncovers a policy ecosystem dominated by a proliferation of standards that complement, substitute, or compete against each other, with coordination mechanisms beginning to arise. Contrary to widely held views, interactions between governments, NGOs, and private companies surrounding the adoption of sustainable practices are not generally antagonistic, and public and private environmental governance regimes rarely operate independently. The influence of these interactions on the effectiveness of sustainability standards needs more attention. Better understanding how private regulations interact with the policy ecosystem will help design more effective interventions.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • India and Climate Change: Evolving Ideas and Increasing Policy Engagement
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Navroz K. Dubash, Radhika Khosla, Ulka Kelkar, Sharachchandra Lele

    India is a significant player in climate policy and politics. It has been vocal in international climate negotiations, but its role in these negotiations has changed over time. In an interactive relationship between domestic policy and international positions, India has increasingly become a testing ground for policies that internalize climate considerations into development. This article critically reviews the arc of climate policy and politics in India over time. It begins by examining changes in knowledge and ideas around climate change in India, particularly in the areas of ethics, climate impacts, India's energy transition, linkages with sustainability, and sequestration. The next section examines changes in politics, policy, and governance at both international and national scales. The article argues that shifts in ideas and knowledge of impacts, costs, and benefits of climate action and shifts in the global context are reflected and refracted through discourses in India's domestic and international policies.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Transnational Governance for Mining and the Mineral Lifecycle
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Graeme Auld, Michele Betsill, Stacy D. VanDeveer

    This review focuses on transnational governance in the minerals and mining sector. Although several initiatives have emerged to address specific governance challenges in this sector, knowledge of these efforts is piecemeal and little is known about patterns in transnational governance development across this issue area. We address these gaps by reviewing the extant research literature and analyzing empirical examples of transnational minerals and mining governance, using the gold sector as an illustrative case. We identify the social, humanitarian, security, and environmental problems manifest along the mineral lifecycle and consider the extent to which existing transnational governance initiatives address these issues. We call for future scholarship that addresses the diversity of transnational governance practices in the minerals and mining sector and explains emergent patterns in the particular forms of governance that dominate this issue area, as well the types of problems that have (and have not) received attention.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Economics of 1.5°C Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Simon Dietz, Alex Bowen, Baran Doda, Ajay Gambhir, Rachel Warren

    The economic case for limiting warming to 1.5°C is unclear, due to manifold uncertainties. However, it cannot be ruled out that the 1.5°C target passes a cost-benefit test. Costs are almost certainly high: The median global carbon price in 1.5°C scenarios implemented by various energy models is more than US$100 per metric ton of CO2 in 2020, for example. Benefits estimates range from much lower than this to much higher. Some of these uncertainties may reduce in the future, raising the question of how to hedge in the near term. Maintaining an option on limiting warming to 1.5°C means targeting it now. Setting off with higher emissions will make 1.5°C unattainable quickly without recourse to expensive large-scale carbon dioxide removal (CDR), or solar radiation management (SRM), which can be cheap but poses ambiguous risks society seems unwilling to take. Carbon pricing could reduce mitigation costs substantially compared with ramping up the current patchwork of regulatory instruments. Nonetheless, a mix of policies is justified and technology-specific approaches may be required. It is particularly important to step up mitigation finance to developing countries, where emissions abatement is relatively cheap.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Mapping Sea-Level Change in Time, Space, and Probability
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Benjamin P. Horton, Robert E. Kopp, Andra J. Garner, Carling C. Hay, Nicole S. Khan, Keven Roy, Timothy A. Shaw

    Future sea-level rise generates hazards for coastal populations, economies, infrastructure, and ecosystems around the world. The projection of future sea-level rise relies on an accurate understanding of the mechanisms driving its complex spatio-temporal evolution, which must be founded on an understanding of its history. We review the current methodologies and data sources used to reconstruct the history of sea-level change over geological (Pliocene, Last Interglacial, and Holocene) and instrumental (tide-gauge and satellite alimetry) eras, and the tools used to project the future spatial and temporal evolution of sea level. We summarize the understanding of the future evolution of sea level over the near (through 2050), medium (2100), and long (post-2100) terms. Using case studies from Singapore and New Jersey, we illustrate the ways in which current methodologies and data sources can constrain future projections, and how accurate projections can motivate the development of new sea-level research questions across relevant timescales.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Multiple UAVs for Mapping: A Review of Basic Modeling, Simulation, and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Tarek I. Zohdi

    The goal of this article is to provide an introduction to basic modeling and simulation techniques for multiple interacting unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), called swarms, for applications in mapping. The target audience is senior students and young scientists. This review will serve to inform, orient, and direct someone already educated in environmental science but unaware of multiple-UAV interaction models.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Scenario Development and Foresight Analysis: Exploring Options to Inform Choices
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Keith Wiebe, Monika Zurek, Steven Lord, Natalia Brzezina, Gnel Gabrielyan, Jessica Libertini, Adam Loch, Resham Thapa-Parajuli, Joost Vervoort, Henk Westhoek

    In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, where social and environmental change occur ever more rapidly, careful futures-oriented thinking becomes crucial for effective decision making. Foresight activities, including scenario development, quantitative modeling, and scenario-guided design of policies and programs, play a key role in exploring options to address socioeconomic and environmental challenges across many sectors and decision-making levels. We take stock of recent methodological developments in scenario and foresight exercises, seek to provide greater clarity on the many diverse approaches employed, and examine their use by decision makers in different fields and at different geographic, administrative, and temporal scales. Experience shows the importance of clearly formulated questions, structured dialog, carefully designed scenarios, sophisticated biophysical and socioeconomic analysis, and iteration as needed to more effectively link the growing scenarios and foresight community with today's decision makers and to better address the social, economic, and environmental challenges of tomorrow.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Plastic as a Persistent Marine Pollutant
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Boris Worm, Heike K. Lotze, Isabelle Jubinville, Chris Wilcox, Jenna Jambeck

    Synthetic organic polymers—or plastics—did not enter widespread use until the 1950s. By 2015, global production had increased to 322 million metric tons (Mt) year−1, which approaches the total weight of the human population produced in plastic every year. Approximately half is used for packaging and other disposables, 40% of plastic waste is not accounted for in managed landfills or recycling facilities, and 4.8–12.7 Mt year−1 enter the ocean as macroscopic litter and microplastic particles. Here, we argue that such mismanaged plastic waste is similar to other persistent pollutants, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which once threatened a “silent spring” on land. Such a scenario seems now possible in the ocean, where plastic cannot be easily removed, accumulates in organisms and sediments, and persists much longer than on land. New evidence indicates a complex toxicology of plastic micro- and nanoparticles on marine life, and transfer up the food chain, including to people. We detail solutions to the current crisis of accumulating plastic pollution, suggesting a Global Convention on Plastic Pollution that incentivizes collaboration between governments, producers, scientists, and citizens.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Colin Hoag, Jens-Christian Svenning

    This review explores what past environmental change in Africa—and African people's response to it—can teach us about how to cope with life in the Anthropocene. Organized around four drivers of change—climate; agriculture and pastoralism; megafauna; and imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism (ICC)—our review zooms in on key regions and debates, including desertification; rangeland degradation; megafauna loss; and land grabbing. Multiscale climate change is a recurring theme in the continent's history, interacting with increasingly intense human activities from several million years onward, leading to oscillating, contingent environmental changes and societally adaptive responses. With high levels of poverty, fast population growth, and potentially dramatic impacts expected from future climate change, Africa is emblematic of the kinds of social and ecological precariousness many fear will characterize the future globally. African people's innovation and adaptation to contingency may place them among the avant-garde with respect to thinking about Anthropocene conditions, strategies, and possibilities.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Mark Vardy, Michael Oppenheimer, Navroz K. Dubash, Jessica O'Reilly, Dale Jamieson

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) conducts policy-relevant but not policy-prescriptive assessments of climate science. In this review, we engage with some of the key design features, achievements, and challenges that situate and characterize the IPCC as an intergovernmental organization that is tasked with producing global environmental assessments (GEAs). These include the process of working through consensus to assess and summarize climate science and the need to include knowledge from as many of the 195 IPCC nation-states as possible, despite the structural inequalities between developed and developing countries. To highlight salient features that are unique to the IPCC but that offer lessons for other organizations that conduct GEAs, we include case studies on the politics of climate denialism, the use of geoengineering in mitigation scenarios, and the links between adaptive capacity, adaptation, and global development. We conclude with a discussion of institutional reflexivity. We consider how the IPCC can model an ethical and participatory response to climate change by critically examining, and being transparent about, the relation between science and politics.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The Concept of the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Yadvinder Malhi

    The Anthropocene, the concept that the Earth has moved into a novel geological epoch characterized by human domination of the planetary system, is an increasingly prevalent framework for debate both in academia and as a wider cultural and policy zeitgeist. This article reviews the proliferation of literature surrounding this concept. It explores the origins and history of the concept, as well as the arguments surrounding its geological formalization and starting date ranging from the Pleistocene to the twentieth century. It examines perspectives and critiques of the concept from the Earth system sciences, ecological and geological sciences, and social sciences and humanities, exploring its role as a cultural zeitgeist and ideological provocation. I conclude by offering a personal perspective on the concept of the Anthropocene and its utility.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Marked for Life: Epigenetic Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Miriam N. Jacobs, Emma L. Marczylo, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Joëlle Rüegg

    The presence of human-made chemical contaminants in the environment has increased rapidly during the past 70 years. Harmful effects of such contaminants were first reported in the late 1950s in wildlife and later in humans. These effects are predominantly induced by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), chemicals that mimic the actions of endogenous hormones and leave marks at several levels of organization in organisms, from physiological outcomes (phenotypes) to molecular alterations, including epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic mechanisms play pivotal roles in the developmental processes that contribute to determining adult phenotypes, through so-called epigenetic programming. While there is increasing evidence that EDC exposure during sensitive periods of development can perturb epigenetic programming, it is unclear whether these changes are truly predictive of adverse outcomes. Understanding the mechanistic links between EDC-induced epigenetic changes and phenotypic endpoints will be critical for providing improved regulatory tools to better protect the environment and human health from exposure to EDCs.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Degradation and Recovery in Changing Forest Landscapes: A Multiscale Conceptual Framework
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Jaboury Ghazoul, Robin Chazdon

    Conceptual confusion revolves around how to define, assess, and overcome land, ecosystem, and landscape degradation. Common elements link degradation and recovery processes, offering ways to advance local, regional, and global initiatives to reduce degradation and promote the recovery of ecosystems and landscapes in forest biomes. Biophysical attributes of degradation and recovery can be measured, but the relevance of selected attributes across scales is subject to values that determine preferred states. Degradation defined in the context of a resilience-based approach is a state where the capacity for regeneration is greatly reduced or lost, recovery is arrested, core interactions and feedbacks are broken, and human intervention is required to initiate a trajectory of recovery. Another approach combines degradation and recovery processes through the concept of recovery debt, the cumulative lost benefits incurred, relative to a target state during phases of degradation and recovery. Degradation and recovery can also be described in terms of societal willingness to invest in improved management or restoration. Interventions can facilitate recovery to new stable or persistent states that provide multiple social and ecological benefits at land, ecosystem, and landscape scales. Multiple trajectories of recovery, as well as historic and ongoing chronic environmental change, might, however, mean that recovery to an original reference state is not possible.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Drivers of Human Stress on the Environment in the Twenty-First Century
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Thomas Dietz

    Human actions are transforming ecosystems across the globe. Six frameworks aid in understanding the forces that drive human stress on the environment and human responses to this stress. Two of them, the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT) model and decomposition analysis, are approaches to analyzing data. Four describe the interrelated system of human actions and environmental responses: driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, responses (DPSIR); the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) framework; coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and telecoupling; and social-ecological systems (SES). In applying these frameworks, attention must be given to the scale of analysis and to the effects of context. In addition to the frameworks there are four substantial research literatures providing theory and empirical analysis of how drivers place stress on the environment: a macrocomparative tradition, work on household energy consumption, land change science, and research on commons. Although these traditions remain somewhat separate, they are largely complementary.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Linking Urbanization and the Environment: Conceptual and Empirical Advances
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Xuemei Bai, Timon McPhearson, Helen Cleugh, Harini Nagendra, Xin Tong, Tong Zhu, Yong-Guan Zhu

    Urbanization is one of the biggest social transformations of modern time, driving and driven by multiple social, economic, and environmental processes. The impacts of urbanization on the environment are profound, multifaceted and are manifested at the local, regional, and global scale. This article reviews recent advances in conceptual and empirical knowledge linking urbanization and the environment, focusing on six core aspects: air pollution, ecosystems, land use, biogeochemical cycles and water pollution, solid waste management, and the climate. We identify several emerging trends and remaining questions in urban environmental research, including (a) increasing evidence on the amplified or accelerated environmental impacts of urbanization; (b) varying distribution patterns of impacts along geographical and other socio-economic gradients; (c) shifting focus from understanding and quantifying the impacts of urbanization toward understanding the processes and underlying mechanisms; (d) increasing focus on understanding complex interactions and interlinkages among different environmental, social, economic, and cultural processes; and (e) conceptual advances that call for articulating and using a systems approach in cities. In terms of governing the urban environment, there is an increasing focus on public participation and coproduction of knowledge with stakeholders. Cities are actively experimenting toward sustainability under a plethora of guiding concepts that manifests their aspirational goals, with varying levels of implementation and effectiveness.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Debating Unconventional Energy: Social, Political, and Economic Implications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Kate J. Neville, Jennifer Baka, Shanti Gamper-Rabindran, Karen Bakker, Stefan Andreasson, Avner Vengosh, Alvin Lin, Jewellord Nem Singh, Erika Weinthal

    The extraction of unconventional oil and gas—from shale rocks, tight sand, and coalbed formations—is shifting the geographies of fossil fuel production, with complex consequences. Following Jackson et al.’s (1) natural science survey of the environmental consequences of hydraulic fracturing, this review examines social science literature on unconventional energy. After an overview of the rise of unconventional energy, the review examines energy economics and geopolitics, community mobilization, and state and private regulatory responses. Unconventional energy requires different frames of analysis than conventional energy because of three characteristics: increased drilling density, low-carbon and “clean” energy narratives of natural gas, and distinct ownership and royalty structures. This review points to the need for an interdisciplinary approach to analyzing the resulting dynamic, multilevel web of relationships that implicates land, water, food, and climate. Furthermore, the review highlights how scholarship on unconventional energy informs the broader energy landscape and contested energy futures.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Emerging Technologies for Higher Fuel Economy Automobile Standards
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Timothy E. Lipman

    Transportation systems contribute significantly to air pollution and ∼15% globally and ∼25% in the United States to emissions climate-changing gases. In the United States, the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for motor vehicles were significantly raised in 2012 for the first time in almost three decades. The standards now call for an average across manufacturers of 54.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for new passenger cars by 2025, or 163 grams per mile (g/mi) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and of 47 mpg (196 g/mi) by 2021. The light truck standards, which include minivans and sport utility vehicles, call for fuel economy levels of 31 mpg (287 g/mi) in 2021 and of 40 mpg (222 g/mi) in 2025. Given approximately equal expected splits between car and light truck sales, these estimates imply combined car and light truck fleet averages of ∼40 to 41 mpg (217 to 222 g/mi) in 2021 and 50 mpg (178 g/mi) in 2025. However, because automakers have strategies to reduce GHGs in parallel with fuel economy, the actual in-use fuel economy of the fleet is expected to be somewhat lower. In this review, several automobile technology advances are described and assessed for providing relatively cost-effective solutions to meet CAFE standards for fuel economy and GHG reductions through 2025. The key points this review makes are that (a) loopholes in the current regulations will allow automakers to meet CAFE program goals with relatively minor incremental improvements to current technologies through 2025 and that (b) going beyond the current program, past 2025 to higher fuel economy levels and lower GHG emissions approaching 100 g/mi, is likely to involve heavier use of newer technologies especially including drivetrain electrification.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The Future of Low-Carbon Electricity
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Jeffery B. Greenblatt, Nicholas R. Brown, Rachel Slaybaugh, Theresa Wilks, Emma Stewart, Sean T. McCoy

    We review future global demand for electricity and major technologies positioned to supply it with minimal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: renewables (wind, solar, water, geothermal, and biomass), nuclear fission, and fossil power with CO2 capture and sequestration. We discuss two breakthrough technologies (space solar power and nuclear fusion) as exciting but uncertain additional options for low-net GHG emissions (i.e., low-carbon) electricity generation. In addition, we discuss grid integration technologies (monitoring and forecasting of transmission and distribution systems, demand-side load management, energy storage, and load balancing with low-carbon fuel substitutes). For each topic, recent historical trends and future prospects are reviewed, along with technical challenges, costs, and other issues as appropriate. Although no technology represents an ideal solution, their strengths can be enhanced by deployment in combination, along with grid integration that forms a critical set of enabling technologies to assure a reliable and robust future low-carbon electricity system.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Organic and Conventional Agriculture: A Useful Framing?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Carol Shennan, Timothy J. Krupnik, Graeme Baird, Hamutahl Cohen, Kelsey Forbush, Robin J. Lovell, Elissa M. Olimpi

    In this review, we examine the debate surrounding the role for organic agriculture in future food production systems. Typically represented as a binary organic–conventional question, this debate perpetuates an either/or mentality. We question this framing and examine the pitfalls of organic–conventional cropping systems comparisons. The review assesses current knowledge about how these cropping systems compare across a range of metrics related to four sustainability goals: productivity, environmental health, economic viability, and quality of life. We conclude by arguing for reframing the debate, recognizing that farming systems fall along gradients between three philosophical poles—industrial, agrarian, and ecological—and that different systems will be appropriate in different contexts. Despite evidence for lower yields in organic crop systems, we found considerable evidence for environmental and social benefits. Given these advantages, and the potential for improving organic systems, we echo calls for increased investment in organic and ecologically based cropping systems research and extension.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Smallholder Agriculture and Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Avery S. Cohn, Peter Newton, Juliana D.B. Gil, Laura Kuhl, Leah Samberg, Vincent Ricciardi, Jessica R. Manly, Sarah Northrop

    Hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people directly depend on smallholder farming systems. These people now face a changing climate and associated societal responses. We use mapping and a literature review to juxtapose the climate fate of smallholder systems with that of other agricultural systems and population groups. Limited direct evidence contrasts climate impact risk in smallholder agricultural systems versus other farming systems, but proxy evidence suggests high smallholder vulnerability. Smallholders distinctively adapt to climate shocks and stressors. Their future adaptive capacity is uncertain and conditional upon the severity of climate change and socioeconomic changes from regional development. Smallholders present a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation paradox. They emit a small amount of CO2 per capita and are poor, making GHG regulation unwarranted. But they produce GHG-intensive food and emit disproportionate quantities of black carbon through traditional biomass energy. Effectively accounting for smallholders in mitigation and adaption policies is critical and will require innovative solutions to the transaction costs that enrolling smallholders often imposes. Together, our findings show smallholder farming systems to be a critical fulcrum between climate change and sustainable development.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The Future Promise of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) Integration: A Sociotechnical Review and Research Agenda
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Benjamin K. Sovacool, Jonn Axsen, Willett Kempton

    Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) describes various approaches to link the electric power system and the transportation system in ways that may benefit both. VGI includes systems that treat plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) as controllable load with a unidirectional flow of electricity, such as “smart” or “controlled” charging or time-of-use (TOU) pricing. VGI typically encompasses vehicle-to-grid (V2G), a more technically advanced vision with bidirectional flow of electricity between the vehicle and power grid, in effect treating the PEV as a storage device. Such VGI systems could help decarbonize transportation, support load balancing, integrate renewable energy into the grid, increase revenues for electricity companies, and create new revenue streams for automobile owners. This review introduces various aspects and visions of VGI based on a comprehensive review. In doing so, it identifies the possible benefits, opportunities, and barriers relating to V2G, according to technical, financial, socio-environmental, and behavioral components. After summarizing our sociotechnical approach and the various opportunities and barriers indicated by existing literature, we construct a proposed research agenda to provide insights into previously understudied and unstudied research objectives. We find that the majority of VGI studies to date focus on technical aspects of VGI, notably on the potential of V2G systems to facilitate load balancing or to minimize electricity costs, in some cases including environmental goals as constraints. Only a few studies directly investigate the role of consumer acceptance and driver behavior within such systems, and barely any studies address the need for institutional capacity and cross-sectoral policy coordination. These gaps create promising opportunities for future research.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Technology and Engineering of the Water-Energy Nexus
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Prakash Rao, Robert Kostecki, Larry Dale, Ashok Gadgil

    The global demand for water and energy is projected to grow, but there likely will be significant constraints in our ability to keep meeting it. These constraints will be imposed partly by the interdependence between water, energy, and climate change. If left unchecked, these connections can exacerbate water and energy shortages and aggravate climate change impacts: Energy is used to supply and treat water; moreover, emissions from energy generation contribute to climate change, which affects water supplies and increases the demand for energy to sustain Earth's growing population and economy. The linkage between water and energy can offer opportunities for better meeting expected demand while minimizing damage from shortages of either. This article focuses on the technological and engineering aspects of various connections in the water-energy nexus where advancements can enable greater supply of one or both. It also outlines the benefits and challenges associated with each connection.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Landscape Approaches: A State-of-the-Art Review
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Bas Arts, Marleen Buizer, Lumina Horlings, Verina Ingram, Cora van Oosten, Paul Opdam

    Landscape approaches have become en vogue in the past couple of decades. Originating from nineteenth-century landscape geography, this renewed popularity since the 1980s is fueled by debates on—among others—nature conservation, landscape restoration, ecosystem services, competing claims on land and resources, sectorial land-use policies, sustainable development, and sense of place. This review illuminates the ambition and potential of these landscape approaches for interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral collaboration. To show this, we work with a T-shaped interdisciplinary model. After a short history of the landscape approaches, we dive into their key dimensions—from ecology to economics and culture to politics. Thereafter, we bring these dimensions together again and reflect on the integrative potential of landscape approaches for offering common ground to various disciplines and sectors. Two examples of applications are also dealt with: a landscape governance framework and a landscape capability framework.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Matthew A. Cole, Robert J.R. Elliott, Liyun Zhang

    We review the literature that investigates the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the environment. After reviewing the theoretical literature, we discuss two broad strands of research. First, the impact of environmental regulations on the choice of plant location and second, the impact of FDI on the emissions of various pollutants and the related question of whether we can observe environmental spillovers from foreign to domestic firms. Finally, we review the more recent literature on environmental outsourcing as an alternative to FDI and conclude with suggestions for future research.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Land Tenure Transitions in the Global South: Trends, Drivers, and Policy Implications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Thomas K. Rudel, Monica Hernandez

    Clouded titles to land in remote rural areas of the Global South have recently prevented increases in agricultural productivity and payments for environmental services (PES), so making land tenure more secure has become a priority for policymakers. The historical dynamics surrounding land tenure transitions suggest a strategy for reform. Colonial regimes stripped indigenous peoples of most rights to land. Newly independent states restored these rights for some smallholders through land reforms. Later, neo-liberal regimes made secure titles more expensive, and, in so doing, made insecure land tenure more pervasive. Spots of secure land tenure did emerge when indigenous groups, with outside support, resisted efforts by powerful outsiders to expropriate indigenous homelands. Because insecure land tenure persists in most forested rural areas, a focus on afforestation in deforested areas, where earlier episodes of reform secured smallholder land tenure, offers a promising direction for future PES and REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) efforts.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Ecosystem Services from Transborder Migratory Species: Implications for Conservation Governance
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Laura López-Hoffman, Charles C. Chester, Darius J. Semmens, Wayne E. Thogmartin, M. Sofia Rodríguez-McGoffin, Robert Merideth, Jay E. Diffendorfer

    This article discusses the conservation challenges of volant migratory transborder species and conservation governance primarily in North America. Many migratory species provide ecosystem service benefits to society. For example, insectivorous bats prey on crop pests and reduce the need for pesticides; birds and insects pollinate food plants; and birds afford recreational opportunities to hunters and birdwatchers. Migration is driven by the seasonal availability of resources; as resources in one area become seasonally scarce, individuals move to locations where resources have become seasonally abundant. The separation of the annual lifecycle means that species management and governance is often fractured across international borders. Because migratory species depend on habitat in different locations, their ability to provide ecosystem services in one area depends on the spatial subsidies, or support, provided by habitat and ecological processes in other areas. This creates telecouplings, or interconnections across geographic space, of areas such that impacts to the habitat of a migratory species in one location will affect the benefits enjoyed by people in other locations. Information about telecoupling and spatial subsidies can be used to craft new governance arrangements such as Payment for Ecosystem Services programs that target specific stakeholder groups and locations. We illustrate these challenges and opportunities with three North American case studies: the Duck Stamp Program, Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), and monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Legacies of Historical Human Activities in Arctic Woody Plant Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Signe Normand, Toke T. Høye, Bruce C. Forbes, Joseph J. Bowden, Althea L. Davies, Bent V. Odgaard, Felix Riede, Jens-Christian Svenning, Urs A. Treier, Rane Willerslev, Juliane Wischnewski

    Recent changes in arctic vegetation might not be driven by climate change alone. Legacies of human activities have received little attention as a contributing factor. We examine the extent to which traditional human activities (hunting, herding, fire, wood extraction, and agriculture) have had lasting effects on arctic woody plant communities and therefore might continue to affect biome-wide responses to climate change. Evidence suggests that legacies are likely to be evident across meters to hundreds of kilometers and for decades, centuries, and millennia. The evidence, however, is currently sparse, and we highlight the potential to develop systematic assessments through a circumarctic collaboratory consisting of a network of interdisciplinary field sites, standardized protocols, participatory research, and new approaches. We suggest that human activities should be brought into consideration to increase our understanding of arctic vegetation dynamics in general and to assess woody plant responses to climate change in particular.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Toward the Next Generation of Assessment
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Katharine J. Mach, Christopher B. Field

    Through integrative assessment, experts evaluate the state of knowledge on complex problems relevant to societies. In this review, we take stock of recent advances and challenges, rooting our analysis in climate change assessment. In particular, we consider four priorities in assessment: (a) integrating diverse evidence including quantitative and qualitative results and understanding, (b) applying rigorous expert judgment to evidence and its uncertainties, (c) exploring widely ranging futures and their connections to ongoing choices and actions, and (d) incorporating interactions among experts and decision makers in assessment processes. Across these assessment priorities, we survey past experiences, current practices, and possibilities for future experimentation, innovation, and learning. In our current era of climate and broader global change, integrative assessment can bolster decisions about contested and uncertain futures. We consider both opportunities and pitfalls in synthesizing and encompassing evidence and perspectives. Our aim is to advance transparent assessment for a sustainable future.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Sustainability Transitions Research: Transforming Science and Practice for Societal Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.617) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Derk Loorbach, Niki Frantzeskaki, Flor Avelino

    The article describes the field of sustainability transitions research, which emerged in the past two decades in the context of a growing scientific and public interest in large-scale societal transformation toward sustainability. We describe how different scientific approaches and methodological positions explore diverse types of transitions and provide the basis for multiple theories and models for governance of sustainability transitions. We distinguish three perspectives in studying transitions: socio-technical, socio-institutional, and socio-ecological. Although the field as a whole is very heterogeneous, commonalities can be characterized in notions such as path dependencies, regimes, niches, experiments, and governance. These more generic concepts have been adopted within the analytical perspective of transitions, which has led three different types of approaches to dealing with agency in transitions: analytical, evaluative, and experimental. The field has by now produced a broad theoretical and empirical basis along with a variety of social transformation strategies and instruments, impacting disciplinary scientific fields as well as (policy) practice. In this article, we try to characterize the field by identifying its main perspectives, approaches and shared concepts, and its relevance to real-world sustainability problems and solutions.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
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