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  • The Boundaries of the Planetary Boundary Framework: A Critical Appraisal of Approaches to Define a “Safe Operating Space” for Humanity
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Frank Biermann; Rakhyun E. Kim

    In 2009, a group of 29 scholars argued that we can identify a set of “planetary boundaries” that humanity must not cross at the cost of its own peril. This planetary boundaries framework has been influential in generating academic debate and in shaping research projects and policy recommendations worldwide. Yet, it has also come under heavy scrutiny and been criticized. What is today's overall significance

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Reconciling Conflict and Cooperation in Environmental Governance: A Social Network Perspective
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Örjan Bodin; María Mancilla García; Garry Robins

    Most if not all environmental problems entail conflicts of interest. Yet, different actors and opposing coalitions often but certainly not always cooperate in solving these problems. Hence, processes of conflict and cooperation often work in tandem, albeit much of the scholarly literature tends to focus on either of these phenomena in isolation. Social network analysis (SNA) provides opportunities

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Modeling Costs and Benefits of Energy Storage Systems
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Eric Hittinger; Rebecca E. Ciez

    In recent years, analytical tools and approaches to model the costs and benefits of energy storage have proliferated in parallel with the rapid growth in the energy storage market. Some analytical tools focus on the technologies themselves, with methods for projecting future energy storage technology costs and different cost metrics used to compare storage system designs. Other tools focus on the integration

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Urban Climates and Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Valéry Masson; Aude Lemonsu; Julia Hidalgo; James Voogt

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to extreme weather episodes, which are expected to increase with climate change. Cities also influence their own local climate, for example, through the relative warming known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. This review discusses urban climate features (even in complex terrain) and processes. We then present state-of-the-art methodologies on the generalization

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Tropes of Celebrity Environmentalism
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Crystal Abidin; Dan Brockington; Michael K. Goodman; Mary Mostafanezhad; Lisa Ann Richey

    Celebrity advocacy for environmental causes has grown dramatically in recent decades. An examination of this expansion and the rise of causes such as climate change reveals the shifting politics and organization of advocacy. We address these changes to the construction and interpretation of celebrity advocacy and detail how they have produced a rich variety of environmental celebrity advocates. We

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Sustainability Science: Toward a Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    William C. Clark; Alicia G. Harley

    This review synthesizes diverse approaches that researchers have brought to bear on the challenge of sustainable development. We construct an integrated framework highlighting the union set of elements and relationships that those approaches have shown to be useful in explaining nature–society interactions in multiple contexts. Compelling evidence has accumulated that those interactions should be viewed

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Environmental and Resource Management
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Luca Tacconi; David Aled Williams

    Corruption significantly affects the large majority of countries, and it has negative social and economic impacts. Its impacts on environmental and resource management (ERM) sectors are less well understood. We review corruption in the extractive industries, irrigation, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and conservation activities with a focus on the management of protected areas and the wildlife trade

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Climate Decision-Making
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Ben Orlove; Rachael Shwom; Ezra Markowitz; So-Min Cheong

    Climate change decision-making has emerged in recent decades as an area of research and practice, expanding on an earlier focus on climate policy. Defined as the study of decisions relevant for climate change, it draws on developments in decision science, particularly advances in the study of cognitive and deliberative processes in individuals and organizations. The effects of climate, economic, social

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Advances Toward a Net-Zero Global Building Sector
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Diana Ürge-Vorsatz; Radhika Khosla; Rob Bernhardt; Yi Chieh Chan; David Vérez; Shan Hu; Luisa F. Cabeza

    The building sector is responsible for 39% of process-related greenhouse gas emissions globally, making net- or nearly-zero energy buildings pivotal for reaching climate neutrality. This article reviews recent advances in key options and strategies for converting the building sector to be climate neutral. The evidence from the literature shows it is possible to achieve net- or nearly-zero energy building

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Chemical Contamination of Drinking Water in Resource-Constrained Settings: Global Prevalence and Piloted Mitigation Strategies
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Susan E. Amrose; Katya Cherukumilli; Natasha C. Wright

    Chemical contamination of drinking water (including salinity) puts more than one billion people at risk of adverse health effects globally. Resource-constrained communities are the most affected and face unique challenges that require innovative safe water solutions. This review focuses on arsenic, fluoride, nitrates, lead, chromium, total dissolved solids, emerging organic contaminants, and, to a

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A Snapshot of the World's Groundwater Challenges
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Upmanu Lall; Laureline Josset; Tess Russo

    Depletion and pollution of groundwater, Earth's largest and most accessible freshwater stock, is a global sustainability concern. A changing climate, marked by more frequent and intense hydrologic extremes, poses threats to groundwater recharge and amplifies groundwater use. However, widespread human development and contamination of groundwater reservoirs pose an immediate threat of resource extinction

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Harvest of Tropical Wildlife for Bushmeat and Traditional Medicine
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Tien Ming Lee; Amanda Sigouin; Miguel Pinedo-Vasquez; Robert Nasi

    Bushmeat is not only an important source of fat, micronutrients, and macronutrients, but it also has medicinal uses. Extensive human–wildlife interactions may lead to pathogen exchange and trigger zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and coronavirus disease 2019. In the tropics, bushmeat has become one of the most threatened resources due to widespread

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Potential Climate Benefits of Digital Consumer Innovations
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Charlie Wilson; Laurie Kerr; Frances Sprei; Emilie Vrain; Mark Wilson

    Digitalization has opened up a wealth of new goods and services with strong consumer appeal alongside potential emission-reduction benefits. Examples range from shared, on-demand electric mobility and peer-to-peer trading of electricity, food, and cars to grid-responsive smart appliances and heating systems. In this review, we identify an illustrative sample of 33 digital consumer innovations that

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Ecosystems and Reliant Human Communities
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Scott C. Doney; D. Shallin Busch; Sarah R. Cooley; Kristy J. Kroeker

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation, along with agriculture and land-use practices are causing wholesale increases in seawater CO2 and inorganic carbon levels; reductions in pH; and alterations in acid-base chemistry of estuarine, coastal, and surface open-ocean waters. On the basis of laboratory experiments and field studies of naturally elevated

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The State of the World's Insects
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Paul Eggleton

    This article reviews the present state of insects, describing their taxonomic position, cost, and value as well as the threats to their well-being. Insects are an important source of both ecosystem services and ecosystem disservices. Recent studies have indicated a worrying decline in insect species, especially in flying insects in the northern temperate region, and this has spawned much media attention

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Soil Microbiomes Under Climate Change and Implications for Carbon Cycling
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Dan Naylor; Natalie Sadler; Arunima Bhattacharjee; Emily B. Graham; Christopher R. Anderton; Ryan McClure; Mary Lipton; Kirsten S. Hofmockel; Janet K. Jansson

    Communities of soil microorganisms (soil microbiomes) play a major role in biogeochemical cycles and support of plant growth. Here we focus primarily on the roles that the soil microbiome plays in cycling soil organic carbon and the impact of climate change on the soil carbon cycle. We first discuss current challenges in understanding the roles carried out by highly diverse and heterogeneous soil microbiomes

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Climate Change and Small Island Developing States
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Adelle Thomas; April Baptiste; Rosanne Martyr-Koller; Patrick Pringle; Kevon Rhiney

    Despite their heterogeneity, small island developing states (SIDS) are recognized as being particularly at risk to climate change, and, as they share numerous common traits, the United Nations recognizes them as a special group. SIDS have been quite vocal in calling attention to the challenges they face from climate change and advocating for greater international ambition to limit global warming. Here

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Is Natural Capital Really Substitutable?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    François Cohen; Cameron J. Hepburn; Alexander Teytelboym

    The extent to which natural capital can be substituted with manufactured or human capital in production is a key determinant of the possibility of long-run sustainable economic development. We review empirical literature pertaining to the degree of substitutability between natural capital and other forms of capital. We find that most available substitutability estimates do not stand up to careful scrutiny

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Solar Geoengineering: Social Science, Legal, Ethical, and Economic Frameworks
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Jane A. Flegal; Anna-Maria Hubert; David R. Morrow; Juan B. Moreno-Cruz

    Solar geoengineering research in the social sciences and humanities has largely evolved in parallel with research in the natural sciences. In this article, we review the current state of the literature on the ethical, legal, economic, and social science aspects of this emerging area. We discuss issues regarding the framing and futures of solar geoengineering, empirical social science on public views

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Toward REDD+ Implementation
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Danae Maniatis; Joel Scriven; Inge Jonckheere; Jennifer Laughlin; Kimberly Todd

    After several years of REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries) readiness, countries are starting to move toward REDD+ implementation and accessing results-based payments (RBPs). Currently various parallel processes for

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Social Synergies, Tradeoffs, and Equity in Marine Conservation Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    David A. Gill; Samantha H. Cheng; Louise Glew; Ernest Aigner; Nathan J. Bennett; Michael B. Mascia

    Biodiversity conservation interventions often aim to benefit both nature and people; however, the social impacts of these interventions remain poorly understood. We reviewed recent literature on the social impacts of four marine conservation interventions to understand the synergies, tradeoffs, and equity (STE) of these impacts, focusing on the direction, magnitude, and distribution of impacts across

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Co-Producing Sustainability: Reordering the Governance of Science, Policy, and Practice
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Carina Wyborn; Amber Datta; Jasper Montana; Melanie Ryan; Peat Leith; Brian Chaffin; Clark Miller; Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    Co-production has become a cornerstone of research within the sustainability sciences, motivating collaborations of diverse actors to conduct research in the service of societal and policy change. This review examines theoretical and empirical literature from sustainability science, public administration, and science and technology studies (STS) with the intention of advancing the theory and practice

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Sanitation for Low-Income Regions: A Cross-Disciplinary Review.
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Christopher Hyun,Zachary Burt,Yoshika Crider,Kara L Nelson,C S Sharada Prasad,Swati D G Rayasam,William Tarpeh,Isha Ray

    Sanitation research focuses primarily on containing human waste and preventing disease; thus, it has traditionally been dominated by the fields of environmental engineering and public health. Over the past 20 years, however, the field has grown broader in scope and deeper in complexity, spanning diverse disciplinary perspectives. In this article, we review the current literature in the range of disciplines

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Pete Smith; Justin Adams; David J. Beerling; Tim Beringer; Katherine V. Calvin; Sabine Fuss; Bronson Griscom; Nikolas Hagemann; Claudia Kammann; Florian Kraxner; Jan C. Minx; Alexander Popp; Phil Renforth; Jose Luis Vicente Vicente; Saskia Keesstra

    Land-management options for greenhouse gas removal (GGR) include afforestation or reforestation (AR), wetland restoration, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), biochar, terrestrial enhanced weathering (TEW), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We assess the opportunities and risks associated with these options through the lens of their potential impacts on ecosystem services (Nature's

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Ecotourism for Conservation?
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Amanda L. Stronza; Carter A. Hunt; Lee A. Fitzgerald

    Ecotourism originated in the 1980s, at the dawn of sustainable development, as a way to channel tourism revenues into conservation and development. Despite the “win-win” idea, scholars and practitioners debate the meaning and merits of ecotourism. We conducted a review of 30 years of ecotourism research, looking for empirical evidence of successes and failures. We found the following trends: Ecotourism

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Illegal Wildlife Trade: Scale, Processes, and Governance
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Michael ‘t Sas-Rolfes; Daniel W.S. Challender; Amy Hinsley; Diogo Veríssimo; E.J. Milner-Gulland

    Illegal wildlife trade (IWT) has increased in profile in recent years as a global policy issue, largely because of its association with declines in prominent internationally trafficked species. In this review, we explore the scale of IWT, associated threats to biodiversity, and appropriate responses to these threats. We discuss the historical development of IWT research and highlight the uncertainties

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Status, Institutions, and Prospects for Global Capture Fisheries
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Christopher Costello; Daniel Ovando

    We compile global data to examine the current status, trends, threats, and opportunities in the world's wild-capture fisheries. We find that global fisheries have largely diverged—well-managed, often industrial fisheries tend to be in reasonably good health, while coastal fisheries, often from low-governance regions, tend to be in poor health. Good governance seems to play a central role, and we summarize

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Sustainable Living: Bridging the North-South Divide in Lifestyles and Consumption Debates
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Bronwyn Hayward; Joyashree Roy

    This article presents a critical assessment of the literature on sustainable consumption in the global North and South, in the context of accelerated and megascale transitions that are needed across all human activities, in ways that “leave no one behind,” as envisaged in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It challenges two dominant, related research foci: an emphasis on the individual

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Food Loss and Waste: Measurement, Drivers, and Solutions
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Edward S. Spang; Laura C. Moreno; Sara A. Pace; Yigal Achmon; Irwin Donis-Gonzalez; Wendi A. Gosliner; Madison P. Jablonski-Sheffield; Md Abdul Momin; Tom E. Quested; Kiara S. Winans; Thomas P. Tomich

    It has been estimated that one-third of global food is lost or wasted, entailing significant environmental, economic, and social costs. The scale and impact of food loss and waste (FLW) has attracted significant interest across sectors, leading to a relatively recent proliferation of publications. This article synthesizes existing knowledge in the literature with a focus on FLW measurement, drivers

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The State of the World's Mangrove Forests: Past, Present, and Future
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Daniel A. Friess; Kerrylee Rogers; Catherine E. Lovelock; Ken W. Krauss; Stuart E. Hamilton; Shing Yip Lee; Richard Lucas; Jurgenne Primavera; Anusha Rajkaran; Suhua Shi

    Intertidal mangrove forests are a dynamic ecosystem experiencing rapid changes in extent and habitat quality over geological history, today and into the future. Climate and sea level have drastically altered mangrove distribution since their appearance in the geological record ∼75 million years ago (Mya), through to the Holocene. In contrast, contemporary mangrove dynamics are driven primarily by anthropogenic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Mammal Conservation: Old Problems, New Perspectives, Transdisciplinarity, and the Coming of Age of Conservation Geopolitics
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    David W. Macdonald

    I review the shocking current status of terrestrial mammals and then describe an approach to solving it, embracing a continuum of spatial and intellectual scales, from groundedness to geopolitics. Starting with an illustrative arena, the interface between agriculture and wildlife, I then outline the litany of threats to mammals and some successful approaches to their conservation, and document some

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Island Biodiversity in the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    James C. Russell; Christoph Kueffer

    Biodiversity on marine islands is characterized by unique biogeographic, phylogenetic and functional characteristics. Islands hold a disproportionate amount of the world's biodiversity, and they have also experienced a disproportionate loss of it. Following human contact, island biodiversity has sustained negative human impacts increasing in rate and magnitude as islands transitioned from primary through

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The State and Future of Antarctic Environments in a Global Context
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Steven L. Chown; Cassandra M. Brooks

    Antarctica and the Southern Ocean comprise a critical part of the Earth System. Their environments are better understood than ever before, yet the region remains poorly considered among international agreements to improve the state of the global environment. In part the situation owes to isolated regional regulation within the Antarctic Treaty System, and in part to the dated notion that Antarctica

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • China's Environment on a Metacoupled Planet
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Jianguo Liu, Andrés Viña, Wu Yang, Shuxin Li, Weihua Xu, Hua Zheng

    China has emerged as a global economic powerhouse after four decades of unprecedented growth. Such growth has generated many environmental challenges with enormous ecological, socioeconomic, and health consequences in China and beyond. Although the overall quality of air and water is starting to improve, both are still below national and international standards. Water shortages are widespread. Biodiversity

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Recent Progress and Emerging Topics on Weather and Climate Extremes Since the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Yang Chen, Wilfran Moufouma-Okia, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Panmao Zhai, Anna Pirani

    Weather and climate extremes impose serious impacts on natural and human systems. In its fifth assessment report (AR5) and a special report [Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX)], the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change provided a thorough assessment of observed and projected changes in extremes in a warming climate, with evidenced scientific

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Inequality and the Biosphere
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Maike Hamann, Kevin Berry, Tomas Chaigneau, Tracie Curry, Robert Heilmayr, Patrik J.G. Henriksson, Jonas Hentati-Sundberg, Amir Jina, Emilie Lindkvist, Yolanda Lopez-Maldonado, Emmi Nieminen, Matías Piaggio, Jiangxiao Qiu, Juan C. Rocha, Caroline Schill, Alon Shepon, Andrew R. Tilman, Inge van den Bijgaart, Tong Wu

    Rising inequalities and accelerating global environmental change pose two of the most pressing challenges of the twenty-first century. To explore how these phenomena are linked, we apply a social-ecological systems perspective and review the literature to identify six different types of interactions (or “pathways”) between inequality and the biosphere. We find that most of the research so far has only

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Religion and Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Willis Jenkins, Evan Berry, Luke Beck Kreider

    Understanding the cultural dimensions of climate change requires understanding its religious aspects. Insofar as climate change is entangled with humans, it is also entangled with all the ways in which religion attends human ways of being. Scholarship on the connections between religion and climate change includes social science research into how religious identity figures in attitudes toward climate

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Diet, Health, and Environment Trilemma
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Michael Clark, Jason Hill, David Tilman

    As populations become more affluent and urbanized, diets are shifting such that they are becoming higher in calories and include more highly processed foods and animal products. These dietary shifts are driving increases in diet-related diseases and are also causing environmental degradation. These linked impacts pose a new key issue for global society—a diet, health, and environment trilemma. Recent

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • 1.5°C Hotspots: Climate Hazards, Vulnerabilities, and Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Carl-Friedrich Schleussner, Delphine Deryng, Sarah D'haen, William Hare, Tabea Lissner, Mouhamed Ly, Alexander Nauels, Melinda Noblet, Peter Pfleiderer, Patrick Pringle, Martin Rokitzki, Fahad Saeed, Michiel Schaeffer, Olivia Serdeczny, Adelle Thomas

    Differentiating the impacts of climate change between 1.5°C and 2°C requires a regional and sector-specific perspective. Whereas for some regions and sectors the difference in climate variables might be indistinguishable from natural variability, other areas especially in the tropics and subtropics will experience significant shifts. In addition to region-specific changes in climatic conditions, vulnerability

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Methane and Global Environmental Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Dave S. Reay, Pete Smith, Torben R. Christensen, Rachael H. James, Harry Clark

    Global atmospheric methane concentrations have continued to rise in recent years, having already more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution. Further environmental change, especially climate change, in the twenty-first century has the potential to radically alter global methane fluxes. Importantly, changes in temperature, precipitation, and net primary production may induce positive climate feedback

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Effects of Tropical Vegetation on Rainfall
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    D.V. Spracklen, J.C.A. Baker, L. Garcia-Carreras, J.H. Marsham

    Vegetation modifies land-surface properties, mediating the exchange of energy, moisture, trace gases, and aerosols between the land and the atmosphere. These exchanges influence the atmosphere on local, regional, and global scales. Through altering surface properties, vegetation change can impact on weather and climate. We review current understanding of the processes through which tropical land-cover

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Terrestrial Carbon Sink
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    T.F. Keenan, C.A. Williams

    Life on Earth comes in many forms, but all life-forms share a common element in carbon. It is the basic building block of biology, and by trapping radiation it also plays an important role in maintaining the Earth's atmosphere at a temperature hospitable to life. Like all matter, carbon can neither be created nor destroyed, but instead is continuously exchanged between ecosystems and the environment

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Social-Ecological Systems Insights for Navigating the Dynamics of the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Belinda Reyers, Carl Folke, Michele-Lee Moore, Reinette Biggs, Victor Galaz

    Social-ecological systems (SES) research offers new theory and evidence to transform sustainable development to better contend with the challenges of the Anthropocene. Four insights from contemporary SES literature on (a) intertwined SES, (b) cross-scale dynamics, (c) systemic tipping points, and (d) transformational change are explored. Based on these insights, shifts in sustainable development practice

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Research On Degrowth
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Giorgos Kallis, Vasilis Kostakis, Steffen Lange, Barbara Muraca, Susan Paulson, Matthias Schmelzer

    Scholars and activists mobilize increasingly the term degrowth when producing knowledge critical of the ideology and costs of growth-based development. Degrowth signals a radical political and economic reorganization leading to reduced resource and energy use. The degrowth hypothesis posits that such a trajectory of social transformation is necessary, desirable, and possible; the conditions of its

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Politics of Climate Change Adaptation
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Nives Dolšak, Aseem Prakash

    Climate action has two pillars: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation faces collective action issues because its costs are focused on specific locations/actors but benefits are global and nonexcludable. Adaptation, in contrast, creates local benefits, and therefore should face fewer collective action issues. However, governance units vary in the types of adaptation policies they adopt. To explain this

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Evolution of the UNFCCC
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Jonathan Kuyper, Heike Schroeder, Björn-Ola Linnér

    This article takes stock of the evolution of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through the prism of three recent shifts: the move away from targeting industrial country emissions in a legally binding manner under the Kyoto Protocol to mandating voluntary contributions from all countries under the Paris Agreement; the shift from the top-down Kyoto architecture to the

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Sustainability Standards: Interactions Between Private Actors, Civil Society, and Governments
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Eric F. Lambin, Tannis Thorlakson

    New partnerships between governments, private companies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are reshaping global environmental governance. In particular, there has been a rise of voluntary sustainability standards in an attempt to manage social and environmental impacts of global supply chains. We analyze the large spectrum of interactions between private, public, and civil society actors around

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • India and Climate Change: Evolving Ideas and Increasing Policy Engagement
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Navroz K. Dubash, Radhika Khosla, Ulka Kelkar, Sharachchandra Lele

    India is a significant player in climate policy and politics. It has been vocal in international climate negotiations, but its role in these negotiations has changed over time. In an interactive relationship between domestic policy and international positions, India has increasingly become a testing ground for policies that internalize climate considerations into development. This article critically

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Transnational Governance for Mining and the Mineral Lifecycle
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Graeme Auld, Michele Betsill, Stacy D. VanDeveer

    This review focuses on transnational governance in the minerals and mining sector. Although several initiatives have emerged to address specific governance challenges in this sector, knowledge of these efforts is piecemeal and little is known about patterns in transnational governance development across this issue area. We address these gaps by reviewing the extant research literature and analyzing

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • The Economics of 1.5°C Climate Change
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Simon Dietz, Alex Bowen, Baran Doda, Ajay Gambhir, Rachel Warren

    The economic case for limiting warming to 1.5°C is unclear, due to manifold uncertainties. However, it cannot be ruled out that the 1.5°C target passes a cost-benefit test. Costs are almost certainly high: The median global carbon price in 1.5°C scenarios implemented by various energy models is more than US$100 per metric ton of CO2 in 2020, for example. Benefits estimates range from much lower than

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Mapping Sea-Level Change in Time, Space, and Probability
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Benjamin P. Horton, Robert E. Kopp, Andra J. Garner, Carling C. Hay, Nicole S. Khan, Keven Roy, Timothy A. Shaw

    Future sea-level rise generates hazards for coastal populations, economies, infrastructure, and ecosystems around the world. The projection of future sea-level rise relies on an accurate understanding of the mechanisms driving its complex spatio-temporal evolution, which must be founded on an understanding of its history. We review the current methodologies and data sources used to reconstruct the

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Multiple UAVs for Mapping: A Review of Basic Modeling, Simulation, and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Tarek I. Zohdi

    The goal of this article is to provide an introduction to basic modeling and simulation techniques for multiple interacting unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), called swarms, for applications in mapping. The target audience is senior students and young scientists. This review will serve to inform, orient, and direct someone already educated in environmental science but unaware of multiple-UAV interaction

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • Scenario Development and Foresight Analysis: Exploring Options to Inform Choices
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Keith Wiebe, Monika Zurek, Steven Lord, Natalia Brzezina, Gnel Gabrielyan, Jessica Libertini, Adam Loch, Resham Thapa-Parajuli, Joost Vervoort, Henk Westhoek

    In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, where social and environmental change occur ever more rapidly, careful futures-oriented thinking becomes crucial for effective decision making. Foresight activities, including scenario development, quantitative modeling, and scenario-guided design of policies and programs, play a key role in exploring options to address socioeconomic and environmental

    更新日期:2018-10-18
  • African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Colin Hoag, Jens-Christian Svenning

    This review explores what past environmental change in Africa—and African people's response to it—can teach us about how to cope with life in the Anthropocene. Organized around four drivers of change—climate; agriculture and pastoralism; megafauna; and imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism (ICC)—our review zooms in on key regions and debates, including desertification; rangeland degradation; megafauna

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • The Concept of the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Yadvinder Malhi

    The Anthropocene, the concept that the Earth has moved into a novel geological epoch characterized by human domination of the planetary system, is an increasingly prevalent framework for debate both in academia and as a wider cultural and policy zeitgeist. This article reviews the proliferation of literature surrounding this concept. It explores the origins and history of the concept, as well as the

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Debating Unconventional Energy: Social, Political, and Economic Implications
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Kate J. Neville, Jennifer Baka, Shanti Gamper-Rabindran, Karen Bakker, Stefan Andreasson, Avner Vengosh, Alvin Lin, Jewellord Nem Singh, Erika Weinthal

    The extraction of unconventional oil and gas—from shale rocks, tight sand, and coalbed formations—is shifting the geographies of fossil fuel production, with complex consequences. Following Jackson et al.’s (1) natural science survey of the environmental consequences of hydraulic fracturing, this review examines social science literature on unconventional energy. After an overview of the rise of unconventional

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Plastic as a Persistent Marine Pollutant
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Boris Worm, Heike K. Lotze, Isabelle Jubinville, Chris Wilcox, Jenna Jambeck

    Synthetic organic polymers—or plastics—did not enter widespread use until the 1950s. By 2015, global production had increased to 322 million metric tons (Mt) year−1, which approaches the total weight of the human population produced in plastic every year. Approximately half is used for packaging and other disposables, 40% of plastic waste is not accounted for in managed landfills or recycling facilities

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Mark Vardy, Michael Oppenheimer, Navroz K. Dubash, Jessica O'Reilly, Dale Jamieson

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) conducts policy-relevant but not policy-prescriptive assessments of climate science. In this review, we engage with some of the key design features, achievements, and challenges that situate and characterize the IPCC as an intergovernmental organization that is tasked with producing global environmental assessments (GEAs). These include the process

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Marked for Life: Epigenetic Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Miriam N. Jacobs, Emma L. Marczylo, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Joëlle Rüegg

    The presence of human-made chemical contaminants in the environment has increased rapidly during the past 70 years. Harmful effects of such contaminants were first reported in the late 1950s in wildlife and later in humans. These effects are predominantly induced by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), chemicals that mimic the actions of endogenous hormones and leave marks at several levels of organization

    更新日期:2017-10-17
  • Degradation and Recovery in Changing Forest Landscapes: A Multiscale Conceptual Framework
    Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. (IF 8.065) Pub Date : 2017-10-17
    Jaboury Ghazoul, Robin Chazdon

    Conceptual confusion revolves around how to define, assess, and overcome land, ecosystem, and landscape degradation. Common elements link degradation and recovery processes, offering ways to advance local, regional, and global initiatives to reduce degradation and promote the recovery of ecosystems and landscapes in forest biomes. Biophysical attributes of degradation and recovery can be measured,

    更新日期:2017-10-17
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