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  • Effects of flushing flows on the transport of mercury-polluted particulate matter from the Flix Reservoir to the Ebro Estuary
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Albert Palanques; Jorge Guillén; Pere Puig; Joan O. Grimalt
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing carbon and nitrogen conversion in food wastes by the black soldier fly
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Wancheng Pang; Dejia Hou; Jiangshan Chen; Elhosseny E. Nowar; Zongtian Li; Ronggui Hu; Jeffery K. Tomberlin; Ziniu Yu; Qing Li; Shucai Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • 更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Evaluation of soil treatment techniques on remediated brine spill sites in semi-arid rangelands
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Megan J. Dornbusch; Ryan F. Limb; Hannah A.K. Tomlinson; Aaron L.M. Daigh; Kevin K. Sedivec

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOG) generates high volumes of flowback and produced water, byproducts of hydraulic fracturing operations, that are often released or spilled on the soil surface. Soil contamination with these wastewaters, commonly referred to as brine, has the potential to inhibit vegetation growth indefinitely. Natural attenuation of brine is not expedient in arid and semi-arid regions where most United States UOG developments are located, including the Bakken region of North Dakota. In situ (at-site) and ex situ (off-site) soil treatment techniques are commonly employed to remediate brine-contaminated soils in the Bakken. However, little is known regarding each technique's efficacy despite differences in application, cost, and efficiency. We selected 10 sites previously remediated with chemical amendments (in situ) and 11 sites with topsoil excavation (ex situ) in the United States Forest Service Little Missouri National Grasslands. We paired each remediated site with a reference to examine the ability of each strategy to return brine-contaminated sites to conditions reflective of the current state of the surrounding semi-arid rangeland ecosystem. At each site, we quantified soil electrical conductivity (ECe) as an indicator of soil salinity and measured vegetation cover, biomass production, bare ground, and litter. The difference between paired reference and remediated sites was used for analysis. Brine contamination was still evident as soil ECe was similarly increased on chemical amendment and topsoil excavation remediated sites over paired references at all soil depths tested. Due to the nature of the topsoil excavation treatment, elevated ECe in the 0–15 cm depth suggested resalinization of the new topsoil. Remediation techniques also resulted in similar plant community composition marked by an increase in exotic forb biomass, largely due to the invasion of kochia (Bassia scoparia) which was absent from reference sites. However, remediation techniques differed substantially in vegetation establishment. We found 15% more bare ground on sites remediated with chemical amendment treatment than paired references and 55% more with topsoil excavation. Our results indicate that in situ strategies may be more suitable than ex situ strategies for brine-spill remediation in semi-arid rangelands like the Bakken in North Dakota as they cause less disturbance and likely require less post-remediation management to establish adequate vegetation cover to protect the soil from further erosion.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • PET bottles recycling in China: An LCA coupled with LCC case study of blanket production made of waste PET bottles
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ruirui Zhang; Xiaotian Ma; Xiaoxu Shen; Yijie Zhai; Tianzuo Zhang; Changxing Ji; Jinglan Hong
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Remediation of persistent organic pollutants in aqueous systems by electrochemical activation of persulfates: A review
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Dan Zhi; Yinghui Lin; Li Jiang; Yaoyu Zhou; Anqi Huang; Jian Yang; Lin Luo
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Removal of phosphate from wastewater by modified bentonite entrapped in Ca-alginate beads
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Xiaoyi Xu; Bin Wang; Hui Tang; Zhaoxia Jin; Yulan Mao; Tianyin Huang
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Decoupling and decomposition analysis of industrial sulfur dioxide emissions from the industrial economy in 30 Chinese provinces
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Yuan Qian; Hui Cao; Simin Huang

    As one of the largest emitters of sulfur dioxide (SO2), China has faced increasing pressure to achieve sustainable development. This study investigates the decoupling relationship between industrial SO2 emissions and the industrial economy in China during 1996–2015. According to the decoupling results, the study period is divided into four stages: 1996–2001, 2001–2006, 2006–2010, and 2010–2015. These four stages are closely aligned with the major adjustments of the national socio-economic policies. Then, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition method is used to analyze the driving factors of industrial SO2 emissions. The results demonstrate that the SO2 generation intensity and SO2 abatement are the major contributors to reducing industrial SO2 emissions, while the economic activity effect is the primary inhibitory factor. Moreover, the provincial results show that most provinces with weak decoupling state since 2006 are located in less developed provinces with energy-intensive industries. Besides, the economic structure and SO2 generation intensity show negative contributions to reducing industrial SO2 emissions in some of these regions. Based on the results, the attention should be focused on cleaner production to reduce industrial SO2 emissions further, and environmental policies should be tailored to local conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Dynamics of Strontium and geochemically correlated elements in soil during washing remediation with eco-complaint chelators
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Zinnat A. Begum; Ismail M.M. Rahman; Kento Ishii; Hirofumi Tsukada; Hiroshi Hasegawa
    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Ecological consequence of nomad settlement policy in the pasture area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: From plant and soil perspectives
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jing Zhang; Xiaoyong Cui; Yanfen Wang; Gongbuzeren; Minghao Zhuang; Baoming Ji
    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • A novel feedforward control strategy for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor (AGS-SBR)
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Wenjing Chen; Yiming Lu; Quan Jin; Miao Zhang; Jun Wu

    The nitrogen removal in the aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor (AGS-SBR) can be achieved by the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) mode, or by the separated nitrification and denitrification stages. The SND offers a simpler operation structure than the separated nitrification and denitrification. Based on the mathematical simulation, a novel control strategy was put forward to adjust the DO (dissolved oxygen) concentration to achieve the SND under dynamic fluctuated influent conditions in AGS-SBR. The control strategy aimed to achieve a small accumulation of NH4+ at the end of the aeration cycle (NH4+ setpoint value), as previous research has indicated that keeping the small NH4+ setpoint value would guarantee the optimal condition for total nitrogen (TN) removal. The SBR aeration cycle was divided into several equal control intervals. The DO was adjusted in every control interval to reach the NH4+ set point. The results revealed that the control strategy was able to maintain the NH4+ setpoint value and achieve satisfactory TN removal. The control interval should be less than 30 min to prevent deviation of NH4+ concentration from its setpoint value. A minimum aeration duration of 3 h was required to achieve satisfactory SND.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • An improved water footprint model of steel production concerning virtual water of personnel: The case of Iran
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Reza Nezamoleslami; S. Mahdi Hosseinian

    The water footprint concept has been widely applied to the agriculture sector; however, little attention has been given to industrial products. In this paper, the concept of water footprint is applied to a large steel plant located in a semi-arid basin in the central part of Iran. The limitations of existing research, including the lack of any advanced approach for assessing the virtual water of personnel's food, working in the plant, and the lack of providing independent data sources, are addressed. An improved water footprint model of steel production is proposed based on the water footprint network methodology and the life cycle assessment framework. Ideas from food ecological footprint are applied to measure the water footprint of personnel's foods. The case of Iran demonstrates that the water footprint of steel production is considerably large compared with other industrial products. The results highlight the relevance of production line technology, energy efficiency measures, and human management on reducing the water footprint of steel products. The paper adds to a growing body of literature on environmentally friendly steel production.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • 更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Impact of eelgrass bed recovery and expansion on phytoplankton growth through nutrient competition
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Feng Wang; Wataru Nishijima; Yota Uchida; Akira Umehara; Satoshi Nakai; Kenki Kasamo; Yoshiaki Shiraki
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • 更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Copper-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles as high-performance catalysts for efficient removal of toxic organic pollutants and stable solar water oxidation
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Ch Venkata Reddy; I. Neelakanta Reddy; K. Ravindranadh; Kakarla Raghava Reddy; Nagaraj P. Shetti; D. Kim; J. Shim; Tejraj M. Aminabhavi

    Doping effect on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting efficiency and photocatalytic activities of ZrO2 under visible light are reported. The XRD analysis revealed that pure, 0.1 and 0.3 mol% doped samples showed mixed crystal phases (tetragonal and monoclinic) and 0.5 mol% doped sample showed a pure tetragonal phase. Under visible light, 90% of methyl orange dye degradation was achieved with in 100 min. Moreover, the optimal doped sample showed a significant degradation rate constant over other samples. The doped photoelectrodes display a better PEC water oxidation performance over pure photoelectrode. Furthermore, the optimal doped (0.3 mol %) electrode shows 0.644 mAcm−2 photocurrent density, corresponding to an approximate 50-fold enhancement over pure electrode (0.013 mAcm−2). The optimized doped sample achieved 98% degradation of methyl orange within 100 min of light irradiation. The superior PEC water oxidation and photocatalytic activity of optimal doped samples under visible light are credited to suitable doping content, crystalline size, greater surface area, suitable bandgap, a lower charge carrying resistance, surface properties and the ability for decreasing the charge carrier's recombination rate.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Lateral mobilization of soil carbon induced by runoff along karstic slopes
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Leticia Gaspar; Lionel Mabit; Ivan Lizaga; Ana Navas
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Projecting China's future water footprint under the shared socio-economic pathways
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Xiaocong Xu; Yuanying Zhang; Yimin Chen

    Increasing water scarcity in China is further exacerbated by the rapid socio-economic development and uneven spatial distribution of water resources. Current studies on water footprint have mainly focused on historical accounting and trend analysis at the provincial scale. However, a comprehensive exploration of future water footprint would be vital to a better understanding of future water shortage challenges, and more importantly, would allow the mitigation of water scarcity and inequal water distribution. In this paper, we present an approach to project the future water footprint of China at a fine resolution (0.125 arc-degree) under the shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) scenario framework, which described five future alternative socio-economic development pathways over the 21st century. We first simulated the future spatial patterns of built-up land using the Future Land Use Simulation (FLUS) model and derived the future population growth and urbanization rate from the population projection provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Then future water footprint was projected according a log-transformed linear regression calibrated with historical data during 2007–2012. We found that the total volume of China's water footprint will increase significantly in the future under the SSP1, SSP4 and SSP5 scenarios, reaching up to nearly 400 billion m3 in 2050, equivalent to almost 40% increase compared to that in 2010. The spatial patterns of future water footprint show dramatic increase (up to 100–130%) in the eastern provinces (Shandong, Henan, and Hebei), and slight decrease were found in the western provinces (Xinjiang, Ningxia, and Qinghai). In addition, the future water footprints were found to share very similar spatial patterns at local pixel scale among different SSP scenarios in three of the largest metropolitan areas of China (Beijing-Hebei-Tianjin, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta). These findings provide extensive knowledge of the future water footprint and suggest a more severe water scarcity in the future from a consumption-oriented perspective. More effective water management policies are urgently needed to mitigate future water resource scarcity and inequality.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Bentonite-supported nano zero-valent iron composite as a green catalyst for bisphenol A degradation: Preparation, performance, and mechanism of action
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-12
    Teng Bao; Mekdimu Mezemir Damtie; Ahmad Hosseinzadeh; Wei Wei; Jie Jin; Hoang Nhat Phong Vo; Jing Song Ye; Yiwen Liu; Xiao Fei Wang; Zhi Min Yu; Zhi Jie Chen; Ke Wu; Ray L. Frost; Bing-Jie Ni
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Metals source apportionment in farmland soil and the prediction of metal transfer in the soil-rice-human chain
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Meihua Deng; Youwei Zhu; Kan Shao; Qi Zhang; Guohua Ye; Jing Shen

    China is facing serious heavy metal pollution in farmland soil, which is a major pressing concern for food safety and human health. This research delivers an integrated methodology for pollution source apportionment and a soil-rice-human model to predict heavy metal transfer in the farmland soil, rice grain and human blood chain. The source identification integrated positive matrix factorization (PMF), cluster analysis (CA) and the life cycle assessment (LCA) survey of agricultural and industrial production and consumption. Based on the case analysis of Shaoxing, this method showed very good performance through the illustration of the source contributions by PMF and LCA at county level and the identification of the pollution sources using CA and LCA at field scale. According to the overall evaluation, the integrated method was superior for the farmland metals pollution source identification comparing to existing source apportionment methods. To predict metal transformation in soil-rice-human chain, a set of models of metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr) accumulation ability in rice grain and human blood has been established by literature review and monitoring data. The models showed adequate predictability for the metal content of rice grains at both the field and regional scale, and plausible simulation of the metal concentration in human blood throughout the whole study region. Therefore, this study provides valuable tools for farmland soil heavy metal pollution source identification and for the prediction of heavy metal transformation in soil-rice-human chain; and it can highlight the need to take mitigating action to reduce farmland metal pollution risks in specific regions.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Synthesis and applications of various bimetallic nanomaterials in water and wastewater treatment
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Jaimy Scaria; P.V. Nidheesh; M.Suresh Kumar

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are the complex combination of two different metal constituents in nanoscale. Water and wastewater treatment utilizing bimetallic particles is an emerging research area. When two metals are combined, it can show not only the properties of its constituents but also new and enhanced properties derived by the synergy of the combination. These properties of bimetallic nanoparticles inevitably depend on the size, structure, and morphology of the particles. Thus the adopting synthesis strategy is very crucial to achieve desired results. Here in this review, the various bimetallic synthesis strategies are compared. The bimetallic nanoparticles decontaminate water through adsorption and/or catalysis mechanism. The various degradation pathways, specifically, adsorption, reduction, oxidation, and advanced oxidation processes are discussed in detail in this review.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Comprehensive studies on optimization of ligno-hemicellulolytic enzymes by indigenous white rot hymenomycetes under solid-state cultivation using agro-industrial wastes
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yuvarani Naidu; Yasmeen Siddiqui; Abu Seman Idris

    The disposal of oil palm biomass is a huge challenge in Malaysian oil palm plantations. The aim of this study was to develop efficient solid-state cultivated (SSC) ligno-hemicellulolytic bio-degrader formulations of indigenous white-rot hymenomycetes (Trametes lactinea FBW and Pycnoporus sanguineus FBR) utilizing oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB), rubber wood sawdust (SD) and vermiculite (V) either alone or in combination as substrates. Based on significant laccase (849.40 U mg−1 protein), xylanase (42.26 U g−1 protein) and amylase (157.49 U g−1 protein) production, SD+V (T5) and V (T3) were the optimum substrates for SSC of T. lactinea FBW. Whereas, utilizing EFB (T1) substrate for SSC of P. sanguineus FBR enhanced the production of MnP (42.51 U mg−1 protein), LiP (103.20 U mg−1 protein) and CMCase (34.39 U g−1 protein), enzymes. Apparently, this is the first study reporting on the protein profiles by T. lactinea FBW, producing two isoforms of un-purified laccase (~55 and 70 kDa) and MnP (~40 and 60 kDa) and a CMCase band (~60 kDa) during SSC on SD+V (T5) substrate. Interestingly, this is also the first report to document a single isoform of un-purified laccase (~50 kDa), MnP (~45 kDa), CMCase (~60 kDa) and xylanase (~55 kDa) by P. sanguineus FBR during SSC on empty fruit bunches substrate. The computed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Biplot analysis elucidated the relationship between the solid substrate compositions, the hymenomycete strain, ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme profiles, and cultivation time. Therefore, it is suggested to use PCA as a tool for multivariate analysis method for comprehensive selection and optimization of ligno-hemicellulolytic enzyme cocktails by the indigenous white rot hymenomycetes. These non-toxic (acute oral toxicity) formulations are safe to be used in field applications to efficiently degrade oil palm trunks and root mass that had been felled, chipped or pulverized under zero burning waste management program. This study could also serve as an alternative method for efficient utilization of agro-industrial waste as substrates for the development of cost-effective bio-degraders formulations for agro-waste management.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • MBR treatment of leachates originating from waste management facilities: A reference study of the design parameters for efficient treatment
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Dany Roy; Patrick Drogui; Rajeshwar D. Tyagi; Dany Landry; Mohamed Rahni
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Pillared graphene oxide composite as an adsorbent of soluble hydrocarbons in water: pH and organic matter effects
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    C.E. Flores-Chaparro; C.J. Castilho; I. Külaots; Robert H. Hurt; J.R. Rangel-Mendez
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Synergetic conservation of water and energy in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of output and substitution elasticities
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Shuai Shao; Zhenbing Yang; Lili Yang; Xi Zhang; Yong Geng

    China's rapid industrialization has induced water and energy shortage issue. Since water and energy resources are inextricably connected, the synergetic conservation of these two resources is conducive to China's sustainable development. In this paper, using a heterogeneous stochastic frontier model, we estimate the output and substitution elasticities of water and energy in China's industrial sector at the provincial level during the period of 2004–2014, in order to explore how to achieve synergetic conservation of water and energy resources by identifying the water-energy nexus. The results show that in China's industrial sector, the overall technical efficiency measured by the ratio of actual output to the ideal output in production frontier experienced a slight decline during the research period. The output elasticity (i.e., the changes in output caused by per unit change in a certain input) of water remains positive, while that of energy is negative in most years, indicating that water input increase contributes to industrial output growth, rather than energy input. Water and energy show a complementary relationship in most years, suggesting that a decrease in water input can reduce energy input. Therefore, to achieve the synergetic conservation of water and energy, the government should actively advance water-saving and energy-saving technologies by taking account of the differentiated production characteristics of different provincial-level industrial sector. In particular, when water and energy are complementary, the technological progress for saving either energy or water will be conducive to the synergetic conservation of these two resources.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Households' source separation behaviour and solid waste disposal options in Ghana's Millennium City
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Hamdiyah Alhassan; Paul Adjei Kwakwa; Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere

    Poor solid waste management has increasingly taken a hegemonic position in urban policy discourse in Ghana. Often, the discourse centers on free market principles and inflexible waste management laws that promote privatization and deregulation. Recently however, source separation is dominating discussions on policy alternatives. This study investigates determinants of households' source separation behaviour and solid waste disposal options among residents of Ghana's ‘Millennium City’- Accra using logit and multinomial logit regression models respectively. The logit regression estimates show that households' source separation behaviour is determined by gender, income, monetary incentives, attitude, compound house dummy, type of service provider and other household location variables. The multinomial logit estimates reveal that gender, age, age square, income, household size, employment, housing type, and attitude predicted household disposal options. We argue that to win the ‘garbage war’, source separation should be promoted by the Accra Metropolitan Assembly as this may enhance positive attitudes towards proper waste management.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Combined application of biochar and sulfur regulated growth, physiological, antioxidant responses and Cr removal capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) in tannery polluted soils
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Muhammad Asaad Bashir; Muhammad Naveed; Zahoor Ahmad; Bin Gao; Adnan Mustafa; Avelino Núñez-Delgado
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • 更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Can Citizen Science using social media inform sanitation planning?
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Jan Freihardt

    Improving the sanitation situation in a community that relies on on-site sanitation requires information about the quantity and quality of faecal sludge (FS) produced. Existing tools for data collection about FS characteristics are either imprecise or very costly. As information and communication technologies are becoming more available in low-income countries, Citizen Science is becoming an option for the collection of sanitation data. This study used an online survey distributed via social media to predict FS characteristics (Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Sludge Volume Index (SVI)) at 40 households in Blantyre, Malawi. Furthermore, the study investigated whether and how an online survey could yield cost-effective and representative information about the sanitation situation at the household level. Facebook and WhatsApp both introduced a bias towards higher income households as low-income households still lack access to smartphones and internet. WhatsApp (€1.01/reply) was significantly cheaper than Facebook (€3.00/reply) and conventional data generation with household interviewers (€1.47–2.20/reply). Monetary incentives generated more replies than pure social messaging. TSS, VSS and COD were significantly correlated to TS. The slope of the regression line of COD to TS (0.97) was similar to one reported for Uganda (0.88), suggesting that the ratio of COD to TS might be independent of the location. Statistically significant median differences of TS concentrations were found for the survey parameters “system type” and “solid waste”, making these parameters candidates for predictors of FS characteristics. The sample size was too small for the other survey parameters to detect any differences statistically. Overall, using social media in a Citizen Science approach appears to be a promising new tool for FS characterization. In the current form, it can probably not replace other data collection tools, but rather complement them as a cost-efficient method to gain an initial assessment. Besides sanitation planning, social media and the Citizen Science approach could be employed for data collection in various fields of development cooperation.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • The size and distribution of tidal creeks affects salt marsh restoration
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yanan Wu; Jiakai Liu; Guoxin Yan; Jiexiu Zhai; Ling Cong; Liyi Dai; Zhenming Zhang; Mingxiang Zhang

    Salt marshes are changeable and important ecosystems that currently face various threats, including global climate change and human activities. The influence of these factors can result in the degradation of salt marshes. Tidal creeks, which are an important source of nutrients and other substances for salt marsh vegetation, play an important role in the health of salt marshes. In this study, the morphological characteristics of tidal creeks and the characteristics of two typical plants, Suaeda glauca (SG) and Phragmites communis (PC), in the Yellow River Delta, China were investigated to determine the effect of tidal creeks on these plants. Aerial photography and field measurements of tidal creeks were carried out from May to July 2018 in the study area. At the same time, nine line-intercepts were set in the vertical direction of tidal creeks to investigate plants. The results showed that different grades of tidal creek exerted no significant influence on the growth of either S. glauca or P. communis. However, unlike grade, the size of a creek and the distance from it had marked effects on these plants. The cross-sectional area of a tidal creek had a significant positive impact on the density of S. glauca (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). For P. communis, the depth of a tidal creek had a strong correlation with this species’ density (r = 0.51, p = 0.04) and height (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). Meanwhile, there was a negative relationship between the distance from tidal creeks and the height of S. glauca (r = −0.52, p = 0.02). Conversely, the height (r = 0 0.90, p = 0.00) and density (r = 0.62, p = 0.01) of P. communis were positively affected by its vertical distance from tidal creeks. We found that the subtidal zone near a tidal creek was more conducive to the recovery and growth of S. glauca, and that areas further away from a tidal creek, located in the intertidal and subtidal zones, were more conducive to the recovery and growth of P. communis. The parameters associated with tidal creeks in the subtidal zone (cross sectional area 4.55 m2, distance 0–10 m) were beneficial for the growth of S. glauca. For P. communis, relevant features in the intertidal and subtidal zones (depth 0.40–0.45 m, distance 20–60 m) are useful. Our results suggest that attention should be paid to the effects of size and distribution of tidal creeks during the process of salt marsh restoration. This work also provides practical guidance for the restoration of native salt marshes in China.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Energy efficient sludge solubilization by microwave irradiation under carbon nanotube (CNT)-coated condition
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Kyeong Hwan Kang; Junghyeon Kim; Hyeonjin Jeon; Imgyu Byun

    Microwaves (MW) have great potential for sludge solubilization, and carbon materials can act as good microwave absorbers and heat transfer media because of their high dielectric loss tangent and thermal conductivity. In this study, carbon nanotube-coated MW vessels were developed by preparing a silane-CNT mixture and spray coating. In addition, sludge solubilization by microwave irradiation was performed to evaluate the effects of the CNT-coating at different initial total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, target temperatures, and MW irradiation times in the uncoated and CNT-coated MW vessels. The sludge solubilization efficiency increased with increasing MW irradiation time and temperature and followed a first-order reaction in both vessels. However, the energy requirement to maintain the temperature was reduced in the CNT-coated MW vessel compared to the uncoated vessel. In addition, the Arrhenius equation revealed the catalytic site in the CNT-coated MW vessel to have a temperature of around 130 °C at an average sludge temperature of 100 °C. The maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and soluble COD (sCOD) increase per MW energy used were 1.64 and 1.67 times higher in the CNT-coated MW vessel than in the uncoated vessel, respectively. The increase in soluble total nitrogen and phosphorus in the CNT-coated MW vessel was attributed to cell wall destruction and intracellular protoplast dissolution, because of the acceleration of the MW thermal effect and high conductivity of CNTs, as well as the MW-induced cell wall and membrane disruption by hot spots on the CNT surface. This suggests that CNTs can be applied to increase the energy efficiency in MW-based pretreatment methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Utilization of LD slag from steel industry for the preparation of MF membrane
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Deepti; A. Sinha; P. Biswas; S. Sarkar; U. Bora; M.K. Purkait
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Sustaining voluntary recycling programmes in a country transitioning to an integrated solid waste management system
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Kelly Lawrence; Vincent Cooper; Priya Kissoon

    Many developing countries are transitioning to integrated solid waste management systems that will likely have a recycling component for making them sustainable. There are several approaches to recycling, one being waste separation at the household level. Such an approach relies critically on the willingness of households to engage in source-separation. Many studies on recycling have been based on self-reported information on the willingness of households to participate in recycling programmes, should they be established; only few studies have been able to test what these intentions are by actual measurements of participation. The type of measurement for gauging success should be able to compare achievements against alternative approaches. This study is of particular interest to transitioning countries because it reports on a recycling programme in a small community that, even though voluntary in nature, has so far been sustained for almost three years. Available data on the amount of recycled beverage containers retrieved over a six-month period was analysed to assess the performance of the programme. A survey of households was performed among the community to understand the factors that may be contributing to such longevity. It was found that a major driver is the internal motivation of most of the community households for caring and preserving the environment. This is a necessary but not sufficient requirement, for it is doubtful whether the programme could have been sustained without an effective education programme and a system to make the process of retrieval easy. The education programme importantly linked recycling as a solution to an environmental problem plaguing the community. Moreover, the improvement in the environmental quality once the programme started was positive feedback to their recycling efforts. However, the ease at which recycled items could have been deposited was found to be the most essential factor. Inasmuch as the quantity of retrievals was a measure of the continued interest in recycling, a reliable estimate of the achieved fraction of beverage waste retrieval rates could not have been obtained with the most recent national waste characterization information. The reasons for this are explained.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Anthropogenic forcing exacerbating the urban heat islands in India
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Sarath Raj; Saikat Kumar Paul; Arun Chakraborty; Jayanarayanan Kuttippurath
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Helping stakeholders select and apply appraisal tools to mitigate soil threats: Researchers’ experiences from across Europe
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Uche T. Okpara; Luuk Fleskens; Lindsay C. Stringer; Rudi Hessel; Felicitas Bachmann; Ioannis Daliakopoulos; Kerstin Berglund; Francisco Jose Blanco Velazquez; Nicola Dal Ferro; Jacob Keizer; Silvia Kohnova; Tatenda Lemann; Claire Quinn; Gudrun Schwilch; Grzegorz Siebielec; Kamilla Skaalsveen; Mark Tibbett; Christos Zoumides

    Soil improvement measures need to be ecologically credible, socially acceptable and economically affordable if they are to enter widespread use. However, in real world decision contexts not all measures can sufficiently meet these criteria. As such, developing, selecting and using appropriate tools to support more systematic appraisal of soil improvement measures in different decision-making contexts represents an important challenge. Tools differ in their aims, ranging from those focused on appraising issues of cost-effectiveness, wider ecosystem services impacts and adoption barriers/opportunities, to those seeking to foster participatory engagement and social learning. Despite the growing complexity of the decision-support tool landscape, comprehensive guidance for selecting tools that are best suited to appraise soil improvement measures, as well as those well-adapted to enable participatory deployment, has generally been lacking. We address this gap using the experience and survey data from an EU-funded project (RECARE: Preventing and REmediating degradation of soils in Europe through land CARE). RECARE applied different socio-cultural, biophysical and monetary appraisal tools to assess the costs, benefits and adoption of soil improvement measures across Europe. We focused on these appraisal tools and evaluated their performance against three broad attributes that gauge their differences and suitability for widespread deployment to aid stakeholder decision making in soil management. Data were collected using an online questionnaire administered to RECARE researchers. Although some tools worked better than others across case studies, the information collated was used to provide guiding strategies for choosing appropriate tools, considering resources and data availability, characterisation of uncertainty, and the purpose for which a specific soil improvement measure is being developed or promoted. This paper provides insights to others working in practical soil improvement contexts as to why getting the tools right matters. It demonstrates how use of the right tools can add value to decision-making in ameliorating soil threats, supporting the sustainable management of the services that our soil ecosystems provide.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Science communication is needed to inform risk perception and action of stakeholders
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Fabrice Requier; Alice Fournier; Quentin Rome; Eric Darrouzet

    Stakeholders are critical environmental managers in human-dominated landscapes. In some contexts, stakeholders can be forced to personally act following their own observations and risk perception instead of science recommendation. In particular, biological invasions need rapid control actions to reduce potential socio-ecological impacts, while science-based risk assessments are rather complex and time-delayed. Although they can lead to important detrimental effects on biodiversity, potential time-delayed disconnections between stakeholders' action and science recommendations are rarely studied. Using the case study of western European beekeepers controlling the invasive Asian hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax for its suspected impact on honey bee colonies, we analysed mechanisms underlying personal actions of stakeholders and how they evolved in science disconnection. Personal actions of stakeholders were causal-effect linked with their risk observation but disconnected to time-delayed science predictions and recommendations. Unfortunately, these science-disconnected actions also led to dramatic impacts on numerous species of the local entomofauna. These results highlight the need to improve mutual risk communication between science and action in the early-stages of management plans to improve the sustainably of stakeholders’ practices.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Consumer preferences for aquaponics: A comparative analysis of Australia and Israel
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Asael Greenfeld; Nir Becker; Janet F. Bornman; Maria José dos Santos; Dror Angel

    Aquaponics, the combined rearing of fish and hydroponic horticulture, has great potential for sustainable food production. Despite increasing research and investments in commercial scale systems, aquaponics is not yet a successful industry and most businesses report negative returns. Aquaponic produce is thought to contain added value to the consumer, and the environment. As most consumers are unaware of aquaponics and their benefits, little is known of its potential market. The present study addresses this gap by analysing willingness to consume aquaponic produce at different price levels in Israel and Australia. We used econometric tools to study the effects of pricing and other factors on revenues in each country. Cluster analysis was used to define groups of potential consumers. The results indicate that 17–30% of the population in both Israel and Australia would prefer to consume aquaponic produce once informed of their added value. Revenues at a given premium would be higher in Israel than in Australia, and higher for a leafy green, than for fish. Different segments of the population differed in their willingness to consume aquaponic produce, as well as in their stated motivations when purchasing food. Conclusions highlight the importance of case-specific research on consumer preferences and economic considerations preceding commercial investment in aquaponics.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Top-down and bottom-up processes to implement biological monitoring in protected areas
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Carly Cowell; Charlene Bissett; Sam M. Ferreira

    Achieving biodiversity conservation objectives and targets requires environmental management agencies to undertake monitoring. Several management practices have been used but are they successful? Using SANParks as an example, we focus on three cases of national parks that use different techniques to implement environmental monitoring. We assessed a top-down, bottom-up and an integrated approach to setting targets using Table Mountain, Mokala and Bontebok National Parks respectively. Attainment of national and international objectives from State of Biodiversity assessment scores and achievement of objectives within individual Park Management Plans served as measurement criteria. We highlight several reasons for lack of achievement of objectives and targets for protected areas and illustrate that setting of objectives and monitoring must have complete full integration into park operations, both on staff and budget scales, rather than be seen as an external function from service divisions within parks or external service providers. An integrated approach to setting of objectives and targets of national and international importance is best achieved via the robust implementation of strategic adaptive management with interventions, measurement, reflection and adaptation integrated as learning by doing. Our results may not be unique but only a few organizations implement adaptive management in its full context.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Synergistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria benefit maize growth under increasing soil salinity
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Helena Moreira; Sofia I.A. Pereira; Alberto Vega; Paula M.L. Castro; Ana P.G.C. Marques

    Salt-affected soils are a major problem worldwide for crop production. Bioinocula such as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help plants to thrive in these areas but interactions between them and with soil conditions can modulate the effects on their host. To test potential synergistic effects of bioinoculants with intrinsically different functional relationships with their host in buffering the effect of saline stress, maize plants were grown under increasing soil salinity (0–5 g NaCl kg−-1 soil) and inoculated with two PGPB strains (Pseudomonas reactans EDP28, and Pantoea alli ZS 3-6), one AMF (Rhizoglomus irregulare), and with the combination of both. We then modelled biomass, ion and nutrient content in maize plants in response to increasing salt concentration and microbial inoculant treatments using generalized linear models. The impacts of the different treatments on the rhizosphere bacterial communities were also analyzed. Microbial inoculants tended to mitigate ion imbalances in plants across the gradient of NaCl, promoting maize growth and nutritional status. These effects were mostly prominent in the treatments comprising the dual inoculation (AMF and PGPB), occurring throughout the gradient of salinity in the soil. The composition of bacterial communities of the soil was not affected by microbial treatments and were mainly driven by salt exposure. The tested bioinocula are most efficient for maize growth and health when co-inoculated, increasing the content of K+ accompanied by an effective decrease of Na+ in plant tissues. Moreover, synergistic effects potentially contribute to expanding crop production to otherwise unproductive soils. Results suggest that the combination of AMF and PGPB leads to interactions that may have a potential role in alleviating the stress and improve crop productivity in salt-affected soils.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Kinetics and mechanisms of oxytetracycline degradation in an electro-Fenton system with a modified graphite felt cathode
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Weikang Lai; Guangyan Xie; Ruizhi Dai; Chaozhi Kuang; Yanbin Xu; Zhanchang Pan; Li Zheng; Ling Yu; Shengjun Ye; Zhuoyao Chen; Hang Li
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Heavy metals, antibiotics and nutrients affect the bacterial community and resistance genes in chicken manure composting and fertilized soil
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Wenwen Deng; Anyun Zhang; Shujuan Chen; Xueping He; Lei Jin; Xiumei Yu; Shengzhi Yang; Bei Li; Liangqian Fan; Lin Ji; Xin Pan; Likou Zou

    Succession of bacterial communities involved in the composting process of chicken manure, including first composting (FC), second composting (SC) and fertilizer product (Pd) and fertilized soil (FS), and their associations with nutrients, heavy metals, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla observed during composting. Overall, potential pathogenic bacteria decreased from 37.18% (FC) to 3.43% (Pd) and potential probiotic taxa increased from 5.77% (FC) to 7.12% (Pd). Concentrations of heavy metals increased after second composting (SC), however, no significant differences were observed between FS and CS groups. Alpha diversities of bacterial communities showed significant correlation with heavy metals and nutrients. All investigated antibiotics decreased significantly after the composting process. The certain antibiotics, heavy metals, or nutrients was significantly positive correlated with the abundance of ARGs, highlighting that they can directly or indirectly influence persistence of ARGs. Overall, results indicated that the composting process is effective for reducing potential pathogenic bacteria, antibiotics and ARGs. The application of compost lead to a decrease in pathogens and ARGs, as well as an increase in potentially beneficial taxa and nutrients in soil.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • 更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Enhanced Cr(VI) stabilization in soil by carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized nanosized Fe0 (CMC-nFe0) and mixed anaerobic microorganisms
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Mei Su; Weizhao Yin; Li Liu; Ping Li; Zhanqiang Fang; Yili Fang; Penchi Chiang; Jinhua Wu
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Challenges on the conservation of traditional orchards: Tree damage as an indicator of sustainable grazing
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Aida López-Sánchez; Ramón Perea; Sonia Roig; Johannes Isselstein; Anja Schmitz

    Traditional orchard meadows are among the most valuable cultural and agricultural systems for nature conservation in Europe. They comprise scattered fruit trees over a highly diverse herbaceous layer and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. However, they are strongly endangered due to farmland intensification and abandonment. Livestock grazing is known to promote grassland diversity but it may also cause tree damage through debarking. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different grazers (cattle, horse and sheep) on fruit trees in 42 traditional orchards of the Rhenish uplands (Germany). Overall, we found that 70% of the study trees showed debarking damage, although most of them (40%) were slightly damaged (1–10% of the trunk debarked). Most debarked trees showed accumulated damage over time, and only 8% of the study trees were damaged during the last year. The probability of strong debarking (>50% of the trunk damaged) was higher in orchards grazed by cattle and horses than on those grazed by sheep (5.3 and 3.7-fold difference, respectively). Importantly, unsustainable levels of cumulative debarking caused a decay of crown development, which may strongly affect fruit production. Additionally, lower tree densities favored higher levels of debarking intensity but did not affect the probability of occurrence. Individual tree-protection was an effective practice in decreasing trunk debarking (95% reduction in tree damage occurrence). The impact of grazing animals on trees might represent a useful indicator to assess the sustainability of each grazing system and should be taken into account in future agriculture and conservation policies.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • The influence of layout on Appalachian Trail soil loss, widening, and muddiness: Implications for sustainable trail design and management
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Fletcher Meadema; Jeffrey L. Marion; Johanna Arredondo; Jeremy Wimpey

    This research investigates the influence of layout and design on the severity of trail degradation. Previous trail studies have been restricted by relatively small study areas which provide a limited range of environmental conditions and therefore produce findings with limited applicability; this research improves on this limitation by analyzing a representative sample of the Appalachian Trail with significant topographical, ecological, use-related, and managerial diversity. Many trail science studies have also focused on a singular form of trail degradation, whereas this study investigates all three core types of trail impact: trail soil loss, widening and muddiness. Relational analyses with all three indicators provide a more cohesive understanding of trail impact and reveal interrelationships between trail degradation processes. ANOVA testing of the mean values for these trail impact indicators across categories of influential independent factors confirms and refines the relevance of core trail design principles, specifically the sustainability advantages of trails with low grades and side-hill alignments. Findings also reveal and clarify the importance of landform grade in determining the susceptibility of trails to degradation and the influence of routing decisions; these relationships have received relatively little attention in the literature. The results also reveal several methodological considerations for trail alignment metrics and trail impact indicators.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Governance and policy limitations for sustainable urban land planning. The case of Mexico
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Karol Yañez Soria; Monica Ribeiro Palacios; Claudia Abigail Morales Gomez

    In the last 25 years, unplanned and dispersed urban development has become the norm rather than the exception mostly in medium and small cities of the global south, a region with high poverty rates and weak institutions in charge of land use changes. This paper is based on environmental discourses and governance policy integration to address the limitations in preventing the conversion of open land, which provides ecosystem services, into settlement land. It analyzes the case of the Metropolitan Zone of Queretaro in central Mexico, which has experienced particularly high rates of urban expansion in recent years. This paper focuses on the private sector's significant contribution to urban sprawl, a situation linked to the following deficits: policy domain integration deficit, which is related to competing goals among multi-level, multi-scale and multi-sector actors; the interdisciplinary deficit, which requires various procedures and instruments to promote stakeholder collaboration; and the democracy deficit, which involves micro-level actions rather than substantive policy design to encourage citizens to become agents of change and develop awareness of the value of nature in cities.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Immobilization and sorption of Cd and Pb in contaminated stagnic anthrosols as amended with biochar and manure combined with inorganic additives
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Yasir Hamid; Lin Tang; Bilal Hussain; Muhammad Usman; Muhammad Laeeq ur Rehman Hashmi; Muhammad Bilal Khan; Xiaoe Yang; Zhenli He
    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Studying the relationship between total organic carbon and soil carbon pools under different land management systems of Garo hills, Meghalaya
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Gaurav Mishra; Avishek Sarkar

    The contribution of land uses in sequestering soil carbon (C) is a key question of research in tropical regions, where C emissions due to land use changes, extreme rainfall events and high temperatures can aggravate the global issue of climate change. In the present study, different pools of soil organic C were assessed, from shifting cultivation lands (jhum), rubber, tea garden and coffee plantations of Tura district in Meghalaya, which is located in Northeastern region (NER) of India. To achieve this goal, different parameters such as bulk density (BD), total organic carbon (TOC) and C pools, viz., very labile (CVL), labile (CL), less labile (CLL) and non-labile (CNL) were analyzed. The results indicated significant correlations among TOC and C pools in most land uses, except for CNL pool. Tea gardens showed the highest value of TOC stock (62.75 ± 1.47 t C ha−1) while the lowest was found in the jhum lands (33.34 ± 5.04 t C ha−1). Similarly, both the active (12.03 mg g−1) and passive (4.60 mg g−1) C pools were highest under tea gardens. CVL was found to be positively correlated with TOC and active carbon pool (ACP), while CLL was also positively correlated with passive carbon pool (PCP). This study indicates the potential of tea gardens as a promising C sequestering land use, which can be promoted in jhum lands to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN and tree twigs derived biochar together retrieved Pb-induced growth, physiological and biochemical disturbances by minimizing its uptake and translocation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Muhammad Naveed; Adnan Mustafa; Syeda Qura-Tul-Ain Azhar; Muhammad Kamran; Zahir Ahmad Zahir; Avelino Núñez-Delgado

    Anthropogenic activities like industrial mining, refining and smelting release substantial amounts of lead (Pb) into the soil causing potential ecological menaces to environment, soil productivity and food security. Present pot scale study was undertaken to investigate the effects of tree twigs-derived biochar and a bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN on Pb accumulation, growth, physiological, biochemical and antioxidative defense responses of mung bean grown in Pb spiked soil. The original soil was spiked with Pb (600 mg kg−1) and amended with biochar (1% w/w). Upon screening in laboratory, B. phytofirmans PsJN exhibited high Pb tolerance and was able to grow at high Pb concentrations. Surface-disinfected seeds of mung bean were inoculated with B. phytofirmans PsJN and sown in pots along with un-inoculated seeds. Data were collected for various growth, physiological and biochemical parameters from fully matured harvested plants. Application of biochar and B. phytofirmans PsJN ameliorated Pb induced negative impacts in mung bean both individually and in combination, but better growth, physiological and seed quality responses were observed with their combined use. Compared with respective controls, their combined use increased the following parameters in normal and Pb spiked soils, respectively: plant height (69% and 159%), root dry weight (97% and 130%), shoot dry weight (42% and 104%), number of pods (70% and 210%), grains weight (58% and 194%) and number of root nodules (71% and 255%). Moreover, combined use increased chlorophyll contents (27% and 37%), photosynthetic rate (93% and 204%), transpiration rate (42% and 132%), stomatal conductance (70% and 218%), sub-stomatal conductance (93% and 148%) and water use efficiency (35% and 43%). In addition, combined application of biochar and B. phytofirmans PsJN retarded Pb-induced oxidative stress by intensifying antioxidant enzyme activities and reducing activities of reactive oxygen species. Similarly, considerable reduction in Pb uptake, translocation and bioaccumulation in mung bean was noticed in Pb spiked soil due to applied amendments. Furthermore, their combined use resulted in considerable increase in grain quality parameters (protein, fat, ash) both in normal and Pb-spiked soils. Therefore, it can be inferred that interactive use of biochar and B. phytofirmans PsJN provides an efficient innovative strategy to repossess Pb induced growth, physiological, biochemical and oxidative disturbances in mung bean.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Degradation of the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide by UV/Solar radiation assisted oxidation processes
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    M. Fernández-Perales; M. Sánchez-Polo; M. Rozalen; M.V. López-Ramón; A.J. Mota; J. Rivera-Utrilla
    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Microbially induced calcite precipitation in calcareous soils by endogenous Bacillus cereus, at high pH and harsh weather
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Meriam Oualha; Shazia Bibi; Muhannad Sulaiman; Nabil Zouari

    Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) improves the physical properties of soils by increasing the solid content, decreasing the pore sizes and improving the rigidity of the particle-to-particle contact ending with a better mechanical and geotechnical performances of the soils. First, the physical characteristics of soils in Qatar showed similar grain size distributions with most falling in the category of fine particles (30 μm–1 μm), which is appropriate for MICP processes. MICP is ensured by the ureolytic activity of urease producing bacteria. However, Qatari soils are characterized with high carbonate contents exceeding 20%, high alkalinity and fluctuations of temperature and aeration. Although such properties can cause calcite dissolution as reported in literature, two Qatari endogenous B. cereus strains, QBB4 and QBB5, were shown able to adapt to the harsh conditions and induce mineral formations by MICP. Their optimal potentials was at wide ranges of temperature from 30 °C to 42 °C and pH from 7.0 to 8.0. Using Qatari bacteria in liquid cultures and at syringe level at laboratory conditions, as well as in plots at field conditions, 16% CaCO3 increase in minerals formation was obtained, leading to 7% increase of soils stability. Increase of carbonate contents was also shown by an increase in the stability of aggregates to disintegration when incubated in water using a 0.25 mm sieve. MICP in Qatari soils is feasible using B. cereus QBB4, as this is an endogenous bacterium that tolerates harsh conditions, high alkalinity and calcium contents. The performance of these bacterial strains was achieved with clear formation of aragonite, feldspars and quartz in the calcareous soils.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Impact of P inputs on source-sink P dynamics of sediment along an agricultural ditch network
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    G. Ezzati; O. Fenton; M.G. Healy; L. Christianson; G.W. Feyereisen; S. Thornton; Q. Chen; B. Fan; J. Ding; K. Daly
    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Appraising growth, oxidative stress and copper phytoextraction potential of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) grown in soil differentially spiked with copper
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Muhammad Hamzah Saleem; Muhammad Kamran; Yaoyu Zhou; Aasma Parveen; Muzammal Rehman; Sunny Ahmar; Zaffar Malik; Adnan Mustafa; Rao Muhammad Ahmad Anjum; Bo Wang; Lijun Liu

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the oldest predominant industrial crops grown for seed, oil and fiber. The present study was executed to evaluate the morpho-physiological traits, biochemical responses, gas exchange parameters and phytoextraction potential of flax raised in differentially copper (Cu) spiked soil viz (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg Cu kg−1 soil) under greenhouse pot experiment. The results revealed that flax plants were able to grow up to 400 mg kg−1 Cu level without showing significant growth inhabitation while, further inference of Cu (600 mg kg−1) in the soil prominently inhibited flax growth and biomass accumulation. Compared to the control, contents of proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) were increased by 160.0% and 754.1% accordingly, at 600 mg Cu kg−1 soil level. The Cu-induced oxidative stress was minimized by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 189.2% and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) by 300.8% in the leaves of flax at 600 mg Cu kg−1 soil level, compared to the untreated control. The plant Cu concentration was determined at 35, 70, 105 and 140 days after sowing (DAS) and results depicted that 16.9 times higher Cu concentration was accumulated in flax roots while little (14.9 times) was transported to the shoots at early stage of growth, i.e. 35 DAS. While at 140 DAS, Cu was highly (21.7 times) transported to the shoots while, only 12.3 times Cu was accumulated in the roots at 600 mg Cu kg−1 soil level, compared to control. Meanwhile, Cu uptake by flax was boosted up to 253 mg kg−1 from the soil and thereby extracted 43%, 39% and 41% of Cu at 200, 400 and 600 mg Cu kg−1 soil level, compared to initial Cu concentration. Therefore, study concluded that flax has a great potential to accumulate high concentration of Cu in its shoots and can be utilized as phytoremediation material when grown in Cu contaminated soils.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • The influence of different solid-liquid ratios on the thermophilic anaerobic digestion performance of palm oil mill effluent (POME)
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Sabeeha N.B.A. Khadaroo; Paul Grassia; Darwin Gouwanda; Phaik Eong Poh

    An alternative method was proposed to optimize the treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in an effort to address the poor removal efficiencies in terms of the chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD), total suspended solids (TSS) as well as oil and grease (O&G) content in treated POME along with many environmental issues associated with the existing POME treatment process. The elimination of the cooling ponds and the insertion of a dewatering device in the treatment process were recommended. The dewatering device should enhance the anaerobic digestion process by conferring a means of control on the digesters’ load. The objective of this study is to identify the optimum solid: liquid ratio (total solids (TS) content) that would generate the maximum amount of biogas with better methane purity consistently throughout the anaerobic digestion of POME, all while improving the treated effluent quality. It was established that a 40S:60L (4.02% TS) was the best performing solid loading in terms of biogas production and methane yield as well as COD, BOD, TSS, and O&G removal efficiencies. Meanwhile, at higher solid loadings, the biogas production is inhibited due to poor transport and mass transfer. It is also speculated that sulfate-reducing bacteria tended to inhibit the biogas production based on the significantly elevated H2S concentration recorded for the 75S:25L and the 100S loadings.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • 更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Classifying human wellbeing values for planning the conservation and use of natural resources
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Ken J. Wallace; Milena Kiatkoski Kim; Abbie Rogers; Mark Jago

    Understanding how values interact is fundamental to planning the conservation and use of natural resources. However, practitioners who apply value classifications use a diversity of approaches. Does this matter? In answering this question, we propose that well-constructed classifications contribute to planning by: clarifying definitions and underlying concepts; providing a basis for assessing synergies and trade-offs; explaining some ethical constraints, including aspects of governance and power; and providing a framework for cross-cultural analysis. To test these propositions we develop complementary value classifications for end state values and principles together with supporting theory, assumptions, and criteria. The proposed classifications are then compared with alternatives including those based on ‘needs’, ‘capabilities’, and total economic value. We find that the alternatives fail against key criteria and this hampers their capacity to fulfil the four roles proposed above. Therefore, we conclude that although value classifications are important and may vary depending on purpose, they need to be well-constructed – that is, supporting theory, assumptions, and criteria should be explicit.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Bioprospection of indigenous flora grown in copper mining tailing area for phytoremediation of metals
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Thays França Afonso; Carolina Faccio Demarco; Simone Pieniz; Maurizio Silveira Quadro; Flávio A.O. Camargo; Robson Andreazza

    The study evaluated plants with phytoremediation potential that occur spontaneously in an area of copper mining tailings in Southern of Brazil. Eleven plant species were investigated for heavy metal concentrations in its biomass. All species showed copper concentrations greater than 100 mg kg−1, and seven species highlighted for copper concentrations between 321 and 586 mg kg−1 and these species showed Cr concentrations between 25 and 440 mg kg−1. The species S. viarum Dunal and B. trimera Less were highlighted showing the highest concentrations of Cr (586 mg kg−1) and Cu (440 mg kg−1), respectively. Seven species showed Pb phytoextraction potential and four species showed Cu phytostabilization potential. It was concluded that the investigated species are adapted to low nutritional conditions and showed tolerance to heavy metals, mainly Cu, Pb and Cr in its biomass.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Integrating environmental variables by multivariate ordination enables the reliable estimation of mineland rehabilitation status
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Markus Gastauer; Cecílio Frois Caldeira; Sílvio Junio Ramos; Leonardo Carreira Trevelin; Rodolfo Jaffé; Guilherme Oliveira; Mabel Patricia Ortiz Vera; Eder Pires; Flávia Louzeiro de Aguiar Santiago; Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro; Felipe Tadashi Asoa Coelho; Rosilene Silva; Pedro Walfir M. Souza-Filho; José-Oswaldo Siqueira

    Despite the wide variety of variables commonly employed to measure the success of rehabilitation, the assessment and subsequent definition of indicators of environmental rehabilitation status are not simple tasks. The main challenges are comparing rehabilitated sites with target ecosystems as well as integrating individual environmental and eventually collinear variables into a single tractable measure for the state of a system before effective indicators that track rehabilitation may be modeled. Furthermore, a consensus is lacking regarding which and how many variables need to be surveyed for a reliable estimation of rehabilitation status. Here, we propose a multivariate ordination to integrate variables related to ecological processes, vegetation structure, and community diversity into a single estimation of rehabilitation status. As a case, we employed a curated set of 32 environmental variables retrieved from nonrevegetated, rehabilitating and reference sites associated with iron ore mines from the Urucum Massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. By integrating this set of environmental variables into a single estimation of rehabilitation status, the proposed multivariate approach is straightforward and able to adequately address collinearity among variables. The proposed methodology allows for the identification of biases towards single variables, surveys or analyses, which is necessary to rank environmental variables regarding their importance to the assessment. Furthermore, we show that bootstrapping permitted the detection of the minimum number of environmental variables necessary to achieve reliable estimations of the rehabilitation status. Finally, we show that the proposed variable integration enables the definition of case-specific environmental indicators for more rapid assessments of mineland rehabilitation. Thus, the proposed multivariate ordination represents a powerful tool to facilitate the diagnosis of rehabilitating sites worldwide provided that sufficient environmental variables related to ecological processes, diversity and vegetation structure are gathered from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites. By identifying deviations from predicted rehabilitation trajectories and providing assessments for environmental agencies, this proposed multivariate ordination increases the effectiveness of (mineland) rehabilitation.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • An evaluation of environmental plans quality: Addressing the rational and communicative perspectives
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Constantina Alina Hossu; Ioan-Cristian Iojă; Cristina G. Mitincu; Martina Artmann; Anna M. Hersperger

    Environmental action plans are important instruments intended to provide sustainable solutions for the most pressing environmental issues. As they should be updated regularly, efforts to evaluate their quality are essential for enabling incremental improvements in upcoming versions. The aim of our study was to systematically evaluate the quality of Romania's Local Environmental Action Plans (LEAPs) by following a theoretical framework that includes principles from both rational and communicative approaches to assessing plan quality. We selected 32 LEAPs and applied an evaluation protocol that enabled a comprehensive assessment of the plans. Our results showed an overall moderate quality of the LEAPs. Although most plans identify many environmental problems in need of solutions, in reality additional urgent environmental problems often exist. Furthermore, LEAPs perform only moderately in identifying tools for implementation provisions and ensuring the participation of the public in the planning process, and they are even weaker in establishing goals and achieving coordination across different governmental levels. Overall the assessment reveals that plans are rarely able to craft an appealing policy message. Our findings could be used as guidance for LEAP coordinating agencies to improve the plans in the upcoming updating processes, as they identify plan weaknesses and suggest ways to achieve high quality environmental plans. Furthermore, our novel plan assessment method based on rational comprehensive and communicative approaches to plan quality evaluation can be adapted easily to other studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Selecting and improving activated homogeneous catalytic processes for pollutant removal. Kinetics, mineralization and optimization
    J. Environ. Manag. (IF 4.865) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    T. González; J.R. Dominguez; E.M. Cuerda-Correa; S.E. Correia; G. Donoso
    更新日期:2019-12-17
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