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  • Development of a process for the treatment of synthetic wastewater without energy inputs using the salinity gradient of wastewaters and a reverse electrodialysis stack
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Pengfei Ma; Xiaogang Hao; Alessandro Galia; Onofrio Scialdone

    Electrochemical processes are considered very effective methods for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by organics resistant to conventional biological processes and various inorganic pollutants. Large sites that treat wastewaters usually deal with a large number of waters often characterized by different salinity contents, that could be potentially used to provide the energy necessary for the electrochemical remediation. Hence, in this work a RED process for the treatment of synthetic wastewaters contaminated by organics, without energy inputs, using the salinity gradient of different wastewaters, was studied, for the first time. It was found that two synthetic wastewaters with different NaCl content can be effectively used in a RED system to drive anodic and cathodic processes for the removal of their organic contents without external energy supplies. The effects of the salinity gradient, the external resistance and the set-up of the process was evaluated. Under optimized operating conditions, a fast and high removal of TOC (about 70% every hour) in the anodic compartment and a good stability of operating conditions for all the monitored time (10 h) were achieved. In addition, about 67% of the solution with high salinity used in the stack to provide the salinity gradient was effectively treated in the anodic compartment of the stack.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Subcellular distribution governing accumulation and translocation of pesticides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Chao Ju; Suxia Dong; Hongchao Zhang; Shijie Yao; Feiyan Wang; Duantao Cao; Shiji Xu; Hua Fang; Yunlong Yu
    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Electrochemical pretreatment of coal gasification wastewater with Bi-doped PbO2 electrode: Preparation of anode, efficiency and mechanism
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Jiaxin Li; Mo Li; Da Li; Qinxue Wen; Zhiqiang Chen

    Coal gasification wastewater (CGW) contains a large amount of toxic pollutants, which seriously affects the subsequent biochemical treatment. In order to investigate the efficiency of electrocatalytic oxidation on pretreatment of CGW, lead dioxide electrodes doped with PEG and Bi were successfully prepared. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were comprehensively used to characterize the lead dioxide electrode and the electrochemical performance was also tested by linear sweep voltammetry curve, cyclic voltammetry curve and AC impedance. Biodegradability and toxicity of CGW were evaluated by dehydrogenase activity and acute toxicity, respectively. Results showed that the doping of PEG and Bi significantly improved the electrochemical performance and catalytic oxidation performance of lead dioxide electrodes. The degradation rate of phenol by Sn–Sb/PbO2 (PEG + Bi) electrode were 1.57 times of that by pure lead dioxide electrode. The removal of TOC and total phenols were 53.2% and 82.7%, respectively at 120 min under 40 mA cm−2 by Sn–Sb/PbO2 (PEG + Bi) electrode. The changes of biodegradability, biological toxicity and by-products were analyzed. Furthermore, 3,5-dimethylphenol was used as characteristic pollutant to study the degradation mechanism of phenolic pollutants in electrocatalytic system. According to the intermediate products detected by GC-MS, possible degradation pathways in electrocatalytic system were proposed.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • UV-LED/chlorine degradation of propranolol in water: Degradation pathway and product toxicity
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Ruihan Xiong; Zhuojun Lu; Qian Tang; Xueling Huang; Huazhen Ruan; Wei Jiang; Yiqun Chen; Zizheng Liu; Jianxiong Kang; Dongqi Liu

    This study reports on the propranolol (PRO) degradation performance and product toxicity of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED)/chlorine process. The effects of experimental parameters including solution pH, chlorine dosage, and water matrix constituents on PRO removal were evaluated. Up to 94.5% of PRO could be eliminated within 15 min at a PRO-to-chlorine molar ratio of 1:4. The overall removal efficiency of PRO was non-pH dependent in the range of 5–9, while the initial rate was accelerated under alkaline conditions. The presence of Cl−/HCO3− had little influence on the PRO degradation, whereas either humic acid or NO3− had an obvious inhibitory effect. Radical scavenger experiments showed that both HO and Cl primarily contributed to the PRO degradation, and electron paramagnetic resonance data demonstrated the generation of 1O2. The transformation of PRO during this process led to five detected products, which exhibited a higher acute toxicity than the parent compound according to the bright luminescent bacillus T3 method. It is worth mentioning that under the same ultraviolet illumination intensity, the degradation of PRO under UV-LED/chlorine gave a better performance than UV254/chlorine, but the EEO of the former is obviously higher than the latter. So further research is required on improving the electric current to photon conversion efficiency for UV-LED. Additionally, the UV-LED/chlorine system was effective in the degradation of other drugs including sulfamethoxazole, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, and gatifloxacin, suggesting the possible application of the UV-LED/chlorine process for the removal of pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Activated carbon stimulates microbial diversity and PAH biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in oil-polluted sediments
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Stefano Bonaglia; Elias Broman; Björn Brindefalk; Erika Hedlund; Tomas Hjorth; Carl Rolff; Francisco J.A. Nascimento; Klas Udekwu; Jonas S. Gunnarsson

    Biodegradation by microorganisms is a useful tool that helps alleviating hydrocarbon pollution in nature. Microbes are more efficient in degradation under aerobic than anaerobic conditions, but the majority of sediment by volume is generally anoxic. Incubation experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation potential of naphthalene—a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)—and the diversity of microbial communities in presence/absence of activated carbon (AC) under aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Radio-respirometry experiments with endogenous microorganisms indicated that degradation of naphthalene was strongly stimulated (96%) by the AC addition under anaerobic conditions. In aerobic conditions, however, AC had no effects on naphthalene biodegradation. Bioaugmentation tests with cultured microbial populations grown on naphthalene showed that AC further stimulated (92%) naphthalene degradation in anoxia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that sediment amendment with AC increased microbial community diversity and changed community structure. Moreover, the relative abundance of Geobacter, Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, and methanogenic archaea increased sharply after amendment with AC under anaerobic conditions. These results may be explained by the fact that AC particles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between microorganisms involved in PAH degradation pathways. We suggest that important ecosystem functions mediated by microbes—such as hydrocarbon degradation—can be induced and that AC enrichment strategies can be exploited for facilitating bioremediation of anoxic oil-contaminated sediments and soils.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dianchi lake, southwest China: Influence of energy structure changes and economic development
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xiaohua Ma; Hongbin Wan; Juan Zhou; Duan Luo; Tao Huang; Hao Yang; Changchun Huang
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Are free radicals actually responsible for enhanced oxidation of contaminants by Cr(VI) in the presence of bisulfite?
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Yuan Gao; Han-Ping Pan; Yang Zhou; Zhen Wang; Su-Yan Pang; Chao-Ting Guan; Yong-Ming Shen; Jin Jiang
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mercury in Fish Marketed in The Amazon Triple Frontier and Health Risk Assessment
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Stephani Ferreira da Silva; Marcelo de Oliveira Lima

    Fish has great socioeconomic, cultural, and nutritional importance for Amazonian populations. Despite all health benefits, fish can accumulate great amounts of mercury (Hg). The entry of Hg in aquatic trophic chains is an issue of concern to animal and human health. Higher risks of human exposure are strongly related to fish consumption. Upper Solimões population has one of the highest fish consumption rates of the Amazon. This study aimed to access the concentration of total Hg (THg) in muscle, liver, and gills of 17 species of fishes marketed in the Upper Solimões Region and Health Risk Assessment. Higher concentrations were observed in Carnivores/Piscivores. The highest THg concentration was found in liver of Cichla ocellaris (4.549 μg/g) and the lowest in gills of Hoplosternum littorale (0.002 μg/g). Most species had higher THg concentrations in muscle>liver>gills, in the Ebb period, and liver>muscle>gills, in the Flood period. Hoplias malabaricus, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Ageneiosus inermis, and C. ocellaris presented average THg concentrations above the safe limit stablished by WHO. THg levels in C. ocellaris, H. malabaricus, P. squamosissimus, P. fasciatum, and Semaprochilodus insignis were higher than those found in fish of heavily impacted areas. Signs of bioaccumulation and biomagnifications of Hg can already be observed in this region. The Western Amazon Region urgently needs government actions to inhibit Hg release in aquatic ecosystems and to advise this population on the safe amount of fish to be eaten according to species and period of the year.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Sandalwood-derived carbon quantum dots as bioimaging tools to investigate the toxicological effects of malachite green in model organisms
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Devyani Shukla; Megha Das; Dipanshu Kasade; Maneesha Pandey; Ashutosh Kumar Dubey; Sanjeev Kumar Yadav; Avanish Singh Parmar
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Effects of different routes of exposure to metals on bioaccumulation and population growth of the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Paul Dayras; Capucine Bialais; Baghdad Ouddane; Jae-Seong Lee; Sami Souissi
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Impact of origin and structure on the aggregation behavior of natural organic matter
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Peiyun Wei; Fanchao Xu; Heyun Fu; Xiaolei Qu
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Can high rate algal ponds be used as post-treatment of UASB reactors to remove micropollutants?
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Lucas Vassalle; María Jesús García-Galán; Sérgio F. Aquino; Robson José de Cássia Franco Afonso; Ivet Ferrer; Fabiana Passos; Cesar Rossas Mota Filho
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • New insights into filamentous sludge bulking: The potential role of extracellular polymeric substances in sludge bulking in the activated sludge process
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Wei-Ming Li; Xi-Wen Liao; Jin-Song Guo; Yu-Xin Zhang; You-Peng Chen; Fang Fang; Peng Yan
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Mercury methylation and demethylation potentials in Arctic lake sediments
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Karista E. Hudelson; Paul E. Drevnick; Feiyue Wang; Deborah Armstrong; Aaron T. Fisk
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Critical study of crop-derived biochars for soil amendment and pharmaceutical ecotoxicity reduction
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Magda Caban; Agnieszka Folentarska; Hanna Lis; Paulina Kobylis; Aleksandra Bielicka-Giełdoń; Jolanta Kumirska; Wojciech Ciesielski; Piotr Stepnowski
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio) ability to activate ABCC transporters after exposure to glyphosate and its formulation Roundup Transorb®
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jenifer Silveira Moraes; Bruna Félix da Silva Nornberg; Micheli Rosa de Castro; Bernardo dos Santos Vaz; Catiúscia Weinert Mizuschima; Luis Fernando Fernandes Marins; Camila de Martinez Gaspar Martins
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in Sinonovacula constricta in response to toxic metal accumulation during growth in an aquaculture farm
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Mengxu Chen; Jiayi Zhou; Jinhuang Lin; Hongchao Tang; Yifei Shan; Alan K. Chang; Xueping Ying

    Clam farming comprises an important part of China's economy. However, increasing pollution in the ocean by toxic metals has led to the bioaccumulation of toxic metals in marine animals, especially the bivalves such as clams, and the consequence of heavy metal-associated toxicity in these animals. Such toxicity can enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the tissues of the animals. In aquatic species, oxidative stress mechanisms have been studied by measuring the antioxidant and oxidative damage index in the tissues. The objectives of this study were to investigate the levels of different toxic metals and the extent of oxidative stress responses in the clam Sinonovacula constricta at different growth periods (from May to October) in Wengyang aquafarm, an important economic shellfish culture zone in Zhejiang Province, China. Water and sediment samples taken from the aquafarm were subjected to Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr assays. Overall, the levels of these metals in the water and sediment could be considered as light pollution, though the level of Hg in the water (0.266) and Cd in the sediment (0.813) could be considered as reaching moderate pollution. In addition, the levels of these metals, H2O2, MDA and GSH content, antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD, GPx) activities as well as the level of metallothioneins (MT) mRNA in the tissues of S. constricta were also analyzed. The levels of Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr increased with increasing culturing time, and the accumulation of these metals was stronger in the visceral mass than in the foot. The levels of MDA and GSH, as well as the level of SOD activity in the viscera and foot of S. constricta increased with increasing metal accumulation. However, CAT and GPX activities, H2O2 level and the expression of MT initially increased and then decreased. This suggested that S. constricta might have the ability to control oxidative damage by triggering antioxidant defense in coordination with the metal sequestering response. The results also implied that toxic metal pollution should be taken into account when selecting the site to be used as an aquafarm. In addition, the visceral mass should be considered to be a good tissue for measuring the level of metal pollutants.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Evaluation of fatty acid derivatives in the remediation of aged PAH-contaminated soil and microbial community and degradation gene response
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Qingling Wang; Jinyu Hou; Jing Yuan; Yucheng Wu; Wuxing Liu; Yongming Luo; Peter Christie

    In this study, derivatives of two common fatty acids in plant root exudates, sodium palmitate and sodium linoleate (sodium aliphatates), were added to an aged Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil to estimate their effectiveness in the removal of PAHs. Sodium linoleate was more effective in lowering PAHs and especially high-molecular-weight (4–6 ring) PAHs (HMW-PAHs). Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates that both amendments led to a shift in the soil bacterial community. Moreover, linear discriminant effect size (LEfSe) analysis demonstrates that the specific PAHs degraders Pseudomonas, Arenimonas, Pseudoxanthomonas and Lysobacter belonging to the γ-proteobacteria and Nocardia and Rhodococcus belonging to the Actinobacteria were the biomarkers of, respectively, sodium linoleate and sodium palmitate amendments. Correlation analysis suggests that four biomarkers in the sodium linoleate amendment treatment from γ-proteobacteria were all highly linearly negatively related to HMW-PAHs residues (p < 0.01) while two biomarkers in the sodium palmitate amendment treatment from Actinobacteria were highly linearly negatively related to LMW-PAHs residues (p < 0.01). Higher removal efficiency of PAHs (especially HMW-PAHs) in the sodium linoleate amendment treatment than in the sodium palmitate amendment treatment might be ascribed to the specific enrichment of microbes from the γ-proteobacteria. The bacterial functional KEGG orthologs (KOs) assigned to PAHs metabolism and functional C23O and C12O genes related to cleavage of the benzene ring were both up-regulated. These results provide new insight into the mechanisms of the two sodium aliphatate amendments in accelerating PAHs biodegradation and have implications for practical application in the remediation of PAHs-contaminated soils.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Polydatin attenuates cadmium-induced oxidative stress via stimulating SOD activity and regulating mitochondrial function in Musca domestica larvae
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yuming Zhang; Yajing Li; Qin Feng; Menghua Shao; Fengyu Yuan; Fengsong Liu
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Characterization of soluble and insoluble radioactive cesium in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Atsushi Ohbuchi; Kengo Fujii; Miki Kasari; Yuya Koike

    Soluble and insoluble radioactive cesium in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 60% of soluble radioactive cesium was determined using the Tessier extraction method, and it was almost same extraction rate with Japanese leaching test No.13. In addition, chloride compounds such as halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) showed same behavior with soluble radioactive cesium, therefore, soluble radioactive cesium existed as a chloride (CsCl) with water solubility characteristics. Almost insoluble radioactive cesium trapped into silicate of crystalline phase or amorphous phase was eluted by hydrogen fluoride treatment. Radioactive 137Cs was released in three stages by heating treatment (untreated - 400 °C, 600 °C–800 °C, and 800 °C–1000 °C) according to decreasing amorphous content. The relationship between the concentrations of radioactive 137Cs and amorphous phase exhibited good linearity (R = 0.9278). Insoluble radioactive 137Cs was contained in inner part of the amorphous phase, and free radioactive cesium was determined from the concentration of the amorphous phase.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The transport of graphitic carbon nitride in saturated porous media: Effect of hydrodynamic and solution chemistry
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yanji Jiang; Duo Guan; Yiman Liu; Xianqiang Yin; Shi Zhou; Guilong Zhang; Nong Wang; Huimin Sun
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Facilitated bioreduction of nitrobenzene by lignite acting as low-cost and efficient electron shuttle
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Guangfei Liu; Bin Dong; Jiti Zhou; Juanjuan Li; Ruofei Jin; Jing Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Removal of perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) from synthetic and natural groundwater by electrocoagulation
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jia Bao; Wen-Jing Yu; Yang Liu; Xin Wang; Zhi-Qun Liu; Yan-Fang Duan
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Catalytic reaction mechanism of formaldehyde oxidation by oxygen species over Pt/TiO2 catalyst
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Junyan Ding; Yingju Yang; Jing Liu; Zhen Wang

    Theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were employed to uncover the molecular-level oxidation mechanism of HCHO over Pt/TiO2 surface. All the three possible reaction mechanisms including Eley-Rideal mechanism, Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and Mars-Van Krevelen mechanism were deeply investigated to determine the primary channel of HCHO oxidation on Pt/TiO2 catalyst. The adsorption energies and geometries show that HCHO and O2 are chemically adsorbed on Pt and Ti sites of the Pt/TiO2 catalyst surface, respectively. The adsorption energy of O2 (−141.91 kJ/mol) is higher than that of HCHO (−122.03 kJ/mol). HCHO oxidation reaction mainly occurs through the Eley-Rideal mechanism: gaseous HCHO reacts with activated O produced from the dissociation reaction of molecular oxygen on Pt/TiO2 surface by comparing the three possible mechanisms. HCHO oxidation reaction prefers the pathway of HCHO → H2CO2 → HCO2 → CO2. In the whole HCHO oxidation reaction, the elementary reaction of HCO2 dehydrogenation presents the highest activation energy barrier of 230.45 kJ/mol. Therefore, HCO2 dehydrogenation is recognized as the rate-determining step. The proposed skeletal reaction scheme can be used to well understand the microcosmic reaction process of HCHO oxidation on Pt/TiO2 catalyst.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • To what extent can the biogeochemical cycling of mercury modulate the measurement of dissolved mercury in surface freshwaters by passive sampling?
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    M. Bretier; A. Dabrin; G. Billon; B. Mathon; C. Miège; M. Coquery

    Mercury (Hg) is a pollutant of global concern owing to its great toxicity even at very low concentrations. Its toxicity depends on its chemical forms evidencing the importance to study its speciation. Dissolved Hg (Hg(d)) and methylmercury (MeHg(d)) monitoring in surface freshwaters represents a great challenge because of their very low concentrations and substantial temporal variability at different timescales. The Hg(d) temporal variability depends on the environmental conditions such as the hydrology, water temperature, redox potential (Eh), and solar photo cycle. Passive samplers represent an alternative to improve the assessment of Hg(d) and MeHg(d) concentrations in surface freshwaters by integrating their temporal variability. An original sampling strategy was designed to assess the relevance of 3-mercaptopropyl DGT (Diffusive Gradient in Thin films) to integrate in situ the temporal variations of labile Hg (Hg(DGT)) and MeHg (MeHg(DGT)) concentrations. This strategy was implemented on two rivers to study the dynamics of Hg(d), Hg(DGT), MeHg(d) and MeHg(DGT) at diurnal and annual timescales. We evidenced that Hg(DGT) and MeHg(DGT) concentrations were generally consistent with discrete sampling measurements of Hg(d) and MeHg(d) in dynamic surface freshwaters. However, Hg(DGT) concentrations were overestimated (2–16 times higher) in case of low flow or low water depth, low suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and elevated daily photoperiod. The most probable hypothesis is that such conditions promoted Hg0 production, and resulted in Hg0 uptake by DGT. Thus, attention should be paid when interpreting Hg(DGT) concentrations in surface freshwaters in environmental conditions that could promote Hg0 production.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Catalytic performance and debromination of Fe–Ni bimetallic MCM-41 catalyst for the two-stage pyrolysis of waste computer casing plastic
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Tao Chen; Jie Yu; Chuan Ma; Kagiso Bikane; Lushi Sun

    A computer casing plastic waste containing brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was pyrolyzed in a two-stage vertical quartz tube reactor using iron and nickel metals modified MCM-41 catalysts. Various catalysts with different ratios of Fe and Ni were prepared and utilized to study their catalytic performance. At the presence of 20%Ni/MCM-41 catalyst, the pyrolytic yield of oil and gas reached maximum values of 49.9 wt% and 13.8 wt% respectively. The co-existence of Fe and Ni showed synergistic effect on oil composition by promoting the formation of valuable single ring hydrocarbons. With regard to the 15%Fe–5%Ni/MCM-41, 10%Fe–10%Ni/MCM-41 and 5%Fe–15%Ni/MCM-41 catalysts, the production of single ring hydrocarbons were 64.58%, 65.93% and 64.74% respectively. The bimetallic catalysts also exhibited remarkable effect on eliminating bromine from pyrolytic oil. At the presence of Fe–Ni/MCM-41, the bromine in pyrolytic oil was reduced to below 4 wt% compared with 10 wt% without catalyst. Higher amounts of Fe in the catalyst is beneficial for the debromination efficiency. The debromination process by the Fe–Ni/MCM-41 may be realized by these different mechanisms: catalytic cracking of organobromines, reaction of loaded metal oxides with HBr/SbBr3, and deposition of organobromines on the surface of catalyst.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Reconnaissance sampling and determination of hexavalent chromium in potentially-contaminated agricultural soils in Copperbelt Province, Zambia
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Elliott M. Hamilton; Richard M. Lark; Scott D. Young; Elizabeth H. Bailey; Godfrey M. Sakala; Kakoma K. Maseka; Michael J. Watts
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Chemical behavior of fluorine and phosphorus in chemical looping gasification using phosphogypsum as an oxygen carrier
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jing Yang; Liping Ma; Hongpan Liu; Zhiying Guo; Quxiu Dai; Wei Zhang; Keomounlath Bounkhong
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The chemical species of mercury accumulated by Pseudomonas idrijaensis, a bacterium from a rock of the Idrija mercury mine, Slovenia.
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jean-Paul Bourdineaud; Goran Durn; Bojan Režun; Alain Manceau; Jasna Hrenović
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Experimental study on the optimisation of azo-dyes removal by photo-electrochemical oxidation with TiO2 nanotubes
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Laura Mais; Annalisa Vacca; Michele Mascia; Elisabetta Maria Usai; Stefania Tronci; Simonetta Palmas

    An experimental investigation is here presented on the photo-electrochemical removal of Methyl Orange (MO), selected as a model of the organic dyes, contained in wastewaters. The process is carried out in an electrochemical flow reactor, in which titania nanotubular electrode is irradiated with a simulated solar light. Design of Experiments (DOE) technique is used to plan the experimental campaign and investigate on the single and combined effects of applied current, electrolyte flow rate, and initial MO concentration, on the specific reaction rate. The results of the DOE analysis, also combined with the study of the distribution of the intermediate products, confirm a reaction mechanism mediated by OH radicals; high applied current and low reactant concentration resulted as favourable conditions to achieve high specific reaction rate of color removal.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Electro-Fenton treatment of the analgesic tramadol: Kinetics, mechanism and energetic evaluation
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Hélène Monteil; Nihal Oturan; Yoan Péchaud; Mehmet A. Oturan

    The removal of the analgesic tramadol (TMD) from water was studied by electro-Fenton (EF) process using BDD anode. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) generated in this process are very strong oxidants and able to successfully oxidize TMD until its total mineralization in aqueous solution. The oxidative degradation of TMD was very rapid with complete disappearance of 0.1 mM (26.3 mg L−1) TMD in 10 min at 500 mA constant current electrolysis. The absolute (second order) rate constant for oxidation of TMD by OH was determined using competition kinetic method and found to be (5.59 ± 0.03) ✕ 109 M−1 s−1. The quasi-complete mineralization of the 0.1 mM TMD solution was obtained in 6 h electrolysis at 500 mA current. Several oxidation reaction intermediates were identified using GC-MS analysis. Oxalic, glyoxylic and fumaric acids were identified and their evolution during electrolysis was followed along treatment. Ammonium and nitrate ions, released during the treatment, were also considered. Based on these data and TOC removal results, a possible mineralization pathway was proposed.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Evolution and stabilization of environmental persistent free radicals during the decomposition of lignin by laccase
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yafang Shi; Kecheng Zhu; Yunchao Dai; Chi Zhang; Hanzhong Jia
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Intramolecular isotope effects during permanganate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Maxime Julien; Didier Gori; Patrick Höhener; Richard J. Robins; Gérald S. Remaud

    Stable isotopes have been widely used to monitor remediation of environmental contaminants over the last decades. This approach gives a good mechanistic description of natural or assisted degradation of organic pollutants, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Since abiotic degradation seems to be the most promising assisted attenuation method, the isotopic fractionation associated with oxidation and hydrolysis processes need to be further investigated in order to understand better these processes and make their monitoring more efficient. In this study, position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) associated with permanganate oxidation and acid hydrolysis of MTBE were determined using isotope ratio monitoring by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (irm-13C NMR) combined with isotope ratio monitoring Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS). The use of this Position-Specific Isotopic Analysis (PSIA) method makes it possible to observe a specific normal IE associated with each of these two abiotic degradation mechanisms. The present work demonstrates that the 13C isotope pattern of the main degradation product, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), depends on the chemical reaction by which it is produced. Furthermore, this study also demonstrates that PSIA at natural abundance can give new insights into reaction mechanisms and that this methodology is very promising for the future of modeling the remediation of organic contaminants.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Polyurethane foam-based passive air sampling for simultaneous determination of POP- and PAH-related compounds: A case study in informal waste processing and urban areas, northern Vietnam
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Hoang Quoc Anh; Isao Watanabe; Nguyen Minh Tue; Le Huu Tuyen; Pham Hung Viet; Ngo Kim Chi; Tu Binh Minh; Shin Takahashi
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Thiophanate-methyl induces severe hepatotoxicity in zebrafish
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Kun Jia; Bo Cheng; Lirong Huang; Juhua Xiao; Zhonghui Bai; Xinjun Liao; Zigang Cao; Tianzhu Shen; Chunping Zhang; Chengyu Hu; Huiqiang Lu
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The Co-occurrence of DNRA and Anammox during the anaerobic degradation of benzene under denitrification
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Xinkuan Han; Shuchan Peng; Lilan Zhang; Peili Lu; Daijun Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Polymers with Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs) for targeted CO2 reduction to ethylene
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Samuel C. Perry; Samantha M. Gateman; Richard Malpass-Evans; Neil McKeown; Moritz Wegener; Pāvels Nazarovs; Janine Mauzeroll; Ling Wang; Carlos Ponce de León
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Occurrence of bisphenol A and its alternatives in paired urine and indoor dust from Chinese university students: Implications for human exposure
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Hua Zhang; Qiang Quan; Mingyue Zhang; Nan Zhang; Wu Zhang; Meixiao Zhan; Weiguo Xu; Ligong Lu; Jun Fan; Qian Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Application of advanced anodes in microbial fuel cells for power generation: A review
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Teng Cai; Lijun Meng; Gang Chen; Yu Xi; Nan Jiang; Jialing Song; Shengyang Zheng; Yanbiao Liu; Guangyin Zhen; Manhong Huang
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Chemical removal and selectivity reduction of nitrate from water by (nano) zero-valent iron/activated carbon micro-electrolysis
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ningfan Song; Jian Xu; Yunpeng Cao; Fan Xia; Jun Zhai; Hainan Ai; Dezhi Shi; Li Gu; Qiang He
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Characterization of organic aerosol at a rural site influenced by olive waste biomass burning
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Rosa Pérez Pastor; Pedro Salvador; Susana García Alonso; Andrés Alastuey; Saúl García dos Santos; Xavier Querol; Begoña Artíñano

    Biomass burning is a major air pollution problem all around the world. However, the identification and quantification of its contribution to ambient aerosol levels is a difficult task due to the generalized lack of observations of molecular markers. This paper presents the results of a yearlong study of organic constituents of the atmospheric aerosol at a rural site in southern Spain (Villanueva del Arzobispo, Jaén). Sampling was performed for PM10 and PM2.5, and a total of 116 and 115 samples, respectively, were collected and analyzed by GC/MS, quantifying 77 organic compounds. Higher levels of organic pollutants were recorded from November to March, coinciding with the cold season when domestic combustion is a common practice in rural areas. This jointly with adverse meteorological conditions, e.g. strong atmospheric stability, produced severe pollution episodes with high PMx ambient levels. High daily concentrations of tracers were reached, up to 26 ng m−3 for B(a)P and 6065 ng m−3 for levoglucosan in PM2.5, supporting that biomass burning is a major source of pollution at rural areas. A multivariate statistical study based on factor and cluster analysis, was applied to the data set with the aim to distinguish sources of organic compounds. The main resulting sources were related with biomass combustion, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), biogenic emissions, lubricating oil and soil organic components. A preliminary organic source profile for olive wastes burning was evaluated, based on cluster results, showing anhydrosacharides and xylitol are the main emitted compounds, accounting for more than 85% of the quantified compounds. Other source compounds were fatty acids, diacids, aliphatics, sugars, sugar alcohols, PAHs and quinones.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Developing a cadmium resistant rice genotype with OsHIPP29 locus for limiting cadmium accumulation in the paddy crop
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Bai Qing Zhang; Xue Song Liu; Sheng Jun Feng; Ya Ning Zhao; Lei Lei Wang; Justice Kipkorir Rono; He Li; Zhi Min Yang

    Widespread contamination of agricultural soil with toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) is a major threat to crop production and human health. Metallochaperones are a unique class of proteins that play pivotal roles in detoxifying metallic ions inside cells. In this study, we investigated the biological function of an uncharacterized metallochaperone termed OsHIPP29 in rice plants and showed that OsHIPP29 resides in the plasma membrane and nucleus and detoxifies excess Cd and Zn. OsHIPP29 was primarily expressed in shoots during the vegetative stage and in leaf sheath and spikelet at the flowering stage. It can be differentially induced by excess Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn. To identify the function of OsHIPP29 in mediating rice response to Cd stress, we examined a pair of OsHIPP29 mutants, RNAi lines and transgenic rice overexpressing OsHIPP29 (OX) under Cd stress. Both mutant and RNAi lines are sensitive to Cd in growth as reflected in decreased plant height and dry biomass. In contrast, the OX lines showed better growth under Cd exposure. Consistent with the phenotype, the OX lines accumulated less Cd in both root and shoot tissues, whereas OsHIPP29 knockout led to higher accumulation of Cd. These results point out that expression of OsHIPP29 is able to contribute to Cd detoxification by reducing Cd accumulation in rice plants. Our work highlights the significance of OsHIPP29-mediated reduced Cd in rice plants, with important implications for further developing genotypes that will minimize Cd accumulation in rice and environmental risks to human health.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The potential wildfire effects on mercury remobilization from topsoils and biomass in a smelter-polluted semi-arid area
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Marek Tuhý; Jan Rohovec; Šárka Matoušková; Martin Mihaljevič; Bohdan Kříbek; Aleš Vaněk; Ben Mapani; Jörg Göttlicher; Ralph Steininger; Juraj Majzlan; Vojtěch Ettler
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Assessment of oxidative balance in hydrophilic cellular environment in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to glyphosate
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Juan M. Ostera; Gabriela Malanga; Susana Puntarulo

    The studied hypothesis is that glyphosate (GLY) can affect the oxidative balance in the hydrophilic intracellular medium in non-target Chlorella vulgaris cells. Analytical GLY (5 μM) and a commercial product (RUP) (5 μM) supplementation, did not affect the growth profile. Neither in latent (Lag) nor in exponential (Exp) phase of development, there were significant differences in the cellular abundance, evaluated as cell number, after the supplementation with GLY or RUP. The ascorbyl (A•) content was significantly increased in the presence of GLY or RUP, in Lag and Exp phase of growth. No changes were observed in stationary (St) phase after supplementation with either GLY or RUP. Ascorbate (AH−) content was decreased by 30% in Exp phase of development the presence of RUP. In St phase of the development both, the administration of either GLY or RUP decreased the antioxidant content by 34 and 37%, respectively. The supplementation with GLY and RUP lead to a significant 5- and 10-fold increase in Exp phase, respectively in the A•/AH-content ratio, assessed as a damage/protection ratio in the hydrophilic fraction of the cells, as compared to controls. Neither GLY nor RUP affected the ratio in cells in St phase of development. The data presented here showed experimental evidence that suggested that oxidative balance in the hydrophilic environment is affected by GLY, even at the low to medium concentrations currently used. The effect seems as reversible either because of the magnitude of the herbicide-dependent damage or the antioxidant activity activated.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Be cautious applying carbon-fluorine bonds in drug delivery
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Christian Sonne; Su Shiung Lam; Ki-Hyun Kim; Jörg Rinklebe; Yong Sik Ok

    As reported in Chemosphere by Colles et al. (2020), there is multiple pathways for human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Now, a new chemical formation of C-F bonds in drug delivery lead to concerns for human exposure as these inert chemical formations are resistance to metabolic degradation and excretion. According to a new study in Nature, the synthesis of N-trifluoromethylamides containing carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds now offers new opportunities for the invention of human medicine in the pharmaceutical industry because of their polarity-induced stimulation to efficiently interact with biological receptors and enzymes (Clayden, 2019, Scattolin et al., 2019). A careful look at the components nonetheless leads to suspicion whether they can exert potentially harmful side effects in humans given that their physicochemical properties are similar to the industrially produced chemicals per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). These repellent chemicals, when used in for example GoreTex, Teflon, and fire foam, are extremely toxic to humans and lead to impairment of reproduction and suppression of the immune system as well as cancer promotion (Im et al. 2019). Despite these new substances are short length carbon chains with short half-life and thereby less toxic than PFAS it is still far from clear and should be investigated further including the break-down products in drinking water (Kotthoff and Bücking 2018). For example, emerging evidence has suggested that PFBS, a short-chain PFAS with only four carbon atoms and commonly used as a replacement for long-chain PFAS, is still associated with adverse health outcomes (Liu et al. 2020). The proposed new pharmaceutical chemicals may therefore have undesired effects such as reduced responses to vaccinations, infertility, auto immunity, and in worst-case also cancer. In the light of the potential risk associated with C-F bonds, we recommend to restrict their use just like the neuro-toxic compound Thiomersal used as an antiseptic and antifungal organo-mercury compound in vaccine production only (Geier et al. 2015). In Michigan in the US, historical PFAS pollution by the Wolverine Worldwide tannery has caused an array of human health problems such as high cholesterol, ulcerative colitis, thyroid disease, testicular cancer, kidney cancer as well as pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (Talpos 2019). Because of this and other cases, the global production and sale of organic fluorinated compounds being banned through the Stockholm Convention to avoid adverse effects on humans and wildlife (Stockholm Convention 2018). This should be a red alert with respect to the pharmaceutical (industrial) use of carbon-fluorine due to its significant risk as aforementioned. Caution should be taken when considering exposing humans to novel drugs and chemicals with containing C-F structures. We therefore urge to collect more evidence on the toxic properties from N-trifluoromethylamides in humans, with special caution for pregnant women due to risk of foetal and neonatal neuro-endocrine development (Grandjean et al. 2014). No or reduced consumption of these upcoming novel chemicals should be implemented to safeguard the health of the coming generations as claimed by the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health (Landrigan et al. 2018).

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Biological purification of acidic Fenton effluent by a fungal consortium without pre-neutralization upon base addition: Microbial screening and performance
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yong Wang; Xuesong Yi; Zongze Shao

    Great progresses have been made to carry out Fenton oxidation under neutral or alkaline pH in which, nevertheless, organic acids and other acidic intermediates usually result in acidic Fenton effluent. To eliminate the classical neutralization step prior to biological treatment, acid-tolerant microbes were here screened and used for purification of acidic Fenton effluent to achieve pH increase and further COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The bacterial and fungal community diversity was analyzed before and after screening for acid-tolerant microbes. After screening the bacterial diversity sharply decreased while the fungal diversity at the genus level became richer, mainly including Phialemoniopsis (relative abundance 38.69%), Vanrija (20.08%), Hypocreaceae (18.44%) and Candida (14.74%). Acidic pH and residual H2O2 are the features of Fenton effluent; hence, effects of pH and H2O2 on the screened acid-tolerant microbes were investigated in the aspects of growth rate and oxygen uptake rate. The kinetic parameters, including YH–biomass yield coefficient; Kd–biomass decay coefficient; μm–specific maximum COD removal rate; Ks–half saturation constant for COD removal, of the acid-tolerant microbes using 1/5 YM (yeast extract and malt extract culture medium) as substrate at 25 °C were measured by respirometric methodology. In BAC (biological activated carbon) inoculated with acid-tolerant microbes to treat actual Fenton effluent, the average COD removal efficiency was 72% at HRT (hydraulic retention time) of 3 h and the effluent pH was above 6 after removing the dissolved CO2 by air stripping. This study will provide a basis for developing a new combined process including Fenton and biological oxidation without pH adjustment.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Mechanochemical immobilization of lead contaminated soil by ball milling with the additive of Ca(H2PO4)2
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Ziwei Zhang; Wenyi Yuan; Peizhong Li; Qingbin Song; Xiaoyan Wang; Weitong Xu; Xuefeng Zhu; Qiwu Zhang; Jianwei Yue; Jianfeng Bai; Jingwei Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • A novel pilot and full-scale Constructed Wetland study for glass industry wastewater treatment
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Amir Gholipour; Hamidreza Zahabi; Alexandros I. Stefanakis
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • New microginins from cyanobacteria of Greek freshwaters
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Sevasti – Kiriaki Zervou; Spyros Gkelis; Triantafyllos Kaloudis; Anastasia Hiskia; Hanna Mazur-Marzec
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Nutrient addition bioassay and phytoplankton community structure monitored during autumn in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir, China
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Amechi S. Nwankwegu; Yiping Li; Yanan Huang; Jin Wei; Eyram Norgbey; Qiuying Lai; Linda Sarpong; Kai Wang; Daobin Ji; Zhengjian Yang; Hans W. Paerl
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Coupling phytoremediation efficiency and detoxification to assess the role of P in the Cu tolerant Ricinus communis L.
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Xiupei Zhou; Sheliang Wang; Yonghong Liu; Guoyong Huang; Shiyuan Yao; Hongqing Hu

    Phosphorous (P) fertilization is an important agronomic practice, but its role in enhancing phytoremediation efficacy and mediating detoxification has rarely been reported in environmental remediation studies. In this study, a pot experiment was undertaken to assess: firstly, the effect of P on phytoextraction of Cu by Ricinus communis L.; secondly, the potential mechanisms by differentiating the effects of the plant from that of P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2); and thirdly, the role of P in physiological detoxification. Results showed that the application of P fertilizer significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the plant biomass as well as the Cu concentrations in plant tissues. This enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency represented by the total Cu extraction (up to 121.3 μg Cu plant−1). Phosphorous (P) fertilizer led to a negligible decline in soil pH (0.2 units) but significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced the concentrations of soil available in Cu and Fe, due to the formation of insoluble Cu/Fe-phosphate precipitates. Nevertheless, P fertilizer still improved the accumulation and extraction of Cu by R. communis, most likely attributable to the Fe-deficiency induced by applied P fertilizer. Moreover, the application of P fertilizer revealed a significant reduction in MDA, and a profound (p ≤ 0.05) elevation in the amount of photosynthetic pigments, GSH and AsA, along with the enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT). In this way, Cu toxicity was alleviated. P fertilizers not only enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of Cu-contaminated soils by R. communis, but they also facilitate detoxification, which improves our understanding of the role of P in phytoremediation technologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Evolution of heavy metals during thermal treatment of manure: A critical review and outlooks
    Chemosphere (IF 5.108) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Shuhui Li; Dongsheng Zou; Longcheng Li; Ling Wu; Fen Liu; Xinyi Zeng; Hua Wang; Yufeng Zhu; Zhihua Xiao

    Manure treatment has become a focal issue in relation to current national policies on environmental and renewable energy matters. Heavy metals can be excreted with the animal manure, contributing to pollution of soil and water. Therefore, animal manure needs proper treatment before application to agricultural soils. Here, we review the species transformation of HMs and fate during incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal processing of animal manures. During thermal processes, 75%–90% of thermally stable HMs such as Cr, Ni, and Mn were concentrated in the solid-phase. HMs with less thermal stability such as Cd, As, Hg, and Pb are inclined to concentrate in the aqueous phase and gas phase, accounting for less than 5% of their total concentrations. In general, thermal processes transform HMs in the exchangeable fraction with high biotoxicity to oxidizable fraction or residual fraction with less bioavailability. In addition, the operating conditions and co-processing with other materials may influence the species transformation of HMs. Finally, recommendations for future research on the proper disposal and utilization of animal manure are proposed. More large-scale experiments are required to elucidate the precise mechanism behind the immobilization of HMs. The influence of additives (catalysts and HM stabilizers) and the influence of the type of solvent on HM transformation needs further study.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
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