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  • Feasibility of using a novel algal-bacterial biofilm reactor for efficient domestic wastewater treatment
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-07-20
    Yao Gou; Jixiang Yang; Fang Fang; Jinsong Guo; Hua Ma

    Current algal-bacterial consortia require high hydraulic retention times (HRTs, 2–10 days) to efficiently remove pollutants from domestic wastewaters. A novel algal-bacterial biofilm reactor was developed for a much lower HRT. The results showed that an HRT of 12 h ensured 90% removal of organic matter and ammonium, and phosphate removal was approximately 30%. Decreasing the HRT to 8 h significantly deteriorated the reactor's pollutant removal efficiencies and increasing the HRT to 24 h did not improve these efficiencies. Illumination, which was light source for algae, was provided by a LED light. Activity tests showed that organic matter and ammonium removal rates resulting from illumination were 70% and 50%, respectively, of the rates when dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained at 2 mg/L. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates resulted from illumination and aeration were 18.63 and 25.38 mg COD/L.h, respectively. The phosphate removal rate was 0.26 and 0.43 mg/L.h when illumination and aeration were applied, respectively. The ammonium removal rates were approximately 10,390 and 5000 mg NH4+−N/m2.d when the reactor was aerated or illuminated, respectively. These two rates were significantly higher than reported nitrification rates. Moreover, the percentage of Oscillatoria sp. increased from below 10% to over 90% under the applied organic load and temperature, while the percentage of fast growing algae, Chlorella, chroococcus sp and Scenedesmus sp., decreased from over 90% to below 10%. These results showed that an algal-bacterial biofilm reactor with a low reactor footprint was developed.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Carbonaceous decomposition of a recalcitrant effluent treated by the photo-Fenton process: a kinetic approach
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Hélcio José Izário Filho; Adriano Francisco Siqueira; Marco Aurélio Kondracki de Alcântara; Leandro Gonçalves Aguiar; Alessandro Sampaio Cavalcanti

    Natural effluents with marked variation in their chemical composition over decomposition time in the matrix from which they are generated have a complex composition and are not totally known in most cases. Landfill leachate can be considered an effluent with complex composition, requiring imminent and more comprehensive studies on organic load degradation. Such complexity of numerous organic compounds (most of them recalcitrant humic and fulvic substances) demands a large number of kinetic equations to satisfactorily describe the temporal evolution of such conversion. Thereby, this work aims to study a kinetic approach grounded on previously consolidated chemical reactions of radical generation through the photo-Fenton mechanism. A molar balance was developed for each species in a batch photo-Fenton process and the resulting ordinary differential equations were numerically solved in MATLABTM. The kinetic model satisfactorily described an organic load conversion of the effluent under the various experimental conditions studied herein. Experimental trends could be represented by a free-radical mechanism and a degradation rate equation of first order for organic carbon, hydroxyl radical and H+. The model fittings revealed a hydroxyl radical/organic carbon stoichiometric ratio of 2:1. The kinetic study has confirmed the importance of pH levels for the reaction medium, and indicated that degradation rate depends on the medium organic composition, which provided an exponential function of conversion for the degradation rate coefficient. The model simulations corroborated the positive effect of sunlight on the radical generation through FeOH2+ decomposition reaction with a rate coefficient in the range 4 × 10−3–2 × 10−1 s−1.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Performance evaluation of treating oil-containing restaurant wastewater in microbial fuel cell using in situ graphene/polyaniline modified titanium oxide anode
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    ZhiLiang Li; ShengKe Yang; Ya’nan Song; HaiYang Xu; ZongZhou Wang; WenKe Wang; YaQian Zhao

    Most studies conducted nowadays to boost electrode performance in microbial fuel cell (MFC) have focused on carbonaceous materials. The titanium suboxides (Ti4O7, TS) are able to provide a new alternative for achieving better performance in MFC and have been tested and demonstrated in this study. The Ti4O7 electrode with high electrochemical activity was modified by graphene/polyaniline by the constant potential method. Electrogenic microorganisms were more conducive to adhere to the anode electrode due to the presence of graphene/polyaniline. The MFC reactor with polyaniline /graphene modified TS (TSGP) anode achieves the highest voltage with 980 mV, and produces a peak power density of 2073 mW/m2, which is 2.9 and 12.7 times of those with the carbon cloth anode, respectively, at the 1000 Ω external resistance. In addition, this study evaluates the effects of anolyte conductivity, pH, and COD on the treatment of oil-containing restaurant wastewater (OCRW) in MFC using TSGP anode. The OCRW amended with 120 mS/cm obtains the lowest internal resistance (160.3 Ω). Increasing the anodic pH, gradually from acidic (pH 5.5) to alkaline conditions (pH 8.0), resulted in a gradual increase in maximum power density to 576.4 mW/m2 and a decrease in internal cell resistance to 203.7 Ω. The MFC at the COD 1500 mg/L could obtain steady-state output voltage during 103 h while removing up to 65.2% of the COD of the OCRW.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The enhanced effect of oxalic acid on the electroreduction of Cr(VI) via formation of intermediate Cr(VI)-oxalate complex
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Yijie Liu; Shuaishuai Xin; Bo Jiang

    In this study, the enhanced effect of oxalic acid (Ox) on Cr(VI) electroreduction was evaluated. It was found that for Cr(VI)-contaminated solution ([Cr(VI)]0 = 1.0 mM, pH = 3.0), addition of 5.0 mM Ox can significantly increase Cr(VI) reduction from 0.36 to 1.0 mM within 90 min electrolysis reaction, accompanying with the increase of current efficiency from 19% to 53%. Increasing initial Ox concentration (0–10 mM) and electric current (10–40 mA) facilitated Cr(VI) reduction, whereas it was inhibited with decreasing solution pH value (2.0–3.5) and elevating Cr(VI) concentration (0.1–2.0 mM), respectively. Results show that reactive electron was the primary reductant for the heterogeneous reduction of Cr(VI) on the cathode. In addition, Ox can also serve as an electron donor for the homogeneous reduction of Cr(VI). During this process, the formation of Cr(VI)-oxalate complex is indispensable for the enhanced Cr(VI) reduction. The coordination of Ox with Cr(VI) did not only make the structure of Cr(VI) more distorted but also improved the reactivity of Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)-oxalate complex toward reduction reaction. In general, this study provides an energy-efficient and environmentally benign strategy for the treatment of Ox and Cr(VI) co-contaminated wastewater.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A study on near zero liquid discharge approach for the treatment of reverse osmosis membrane concentrate by electrodialysis
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-07-20
    Cigdem Balcik-Canbolat; Cisel Sengezer; Hacer Sakar; Ahmet Karagunduz; Bulent Keskinler

    A lab-scale electrodialysis (ED) which consisted of 11 pieces of cation-exchange membranes and 10 pieces of anion-exchange membranes was used to treat concentrated brine of Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. The effect of operating parameters such as applied voltage, flowrate, and operating mode was investigated to measure the performance of a lab-scale ED. Three different voltages (5, 10, and 15 V) and flowrates (20, 30, and 40 L/h) were applied in order to optimize the operating conditions of the ED system. The maximum TDS removal efficiencies were 85%, 97%, and 98% for 5, 10, and 15 V, respectively. It was concluded that the desalination efficiencies were almost the same at flowrates values of 20, 30 and 40 L/h. The TDS concentration of the treated brine in the concentrate compartment rises to the highest value of 25,400 mg/L with desalination rate of 92.5% after five cycle operation. Moreover, the desalinated brine can be used as fresh water.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Metabolite identification of ibuprofen biodegradation by Patulibacter medicamentivorans under aerobic conditions
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-07-27
    Ricado Salgado; Dulce Brito; Joao P. Noronha; Barbara Almeida; Maria R. Bronze; Adrian Oehmen; Gilda Carvalho; Maria T. Barreto Crespo

    Ibuprofen (IBU) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is becoming increasingly recognized as an important micropollutant to be monitored in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), since it has been detected in effluents at the µg L−1 level. The IBU metabolites from biological degradation are not completely understood and can represent a threat to natural aquatic systems. P. medicamentivorans was previously isolated from WWTP sludge and found to be capable of IBU degradation. The aerobic biodegradation of ibuprofen by this organism was investigated in a batch lab-scale reactor for the identification of the metabolites formed. The metabolites were analysed and putatively identified by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS and GC-MS and biodegradation pathways were proposed. The toxicity and the biodegradability potential of the metabolites were also investigated. The results showed that IBU biotransformation was achieved by hydroxylation followed by the formation of a carboxylic acid in the IBU molecule and by the formation of a catechol, allowing the aromatic ring cleavage. Two biodegradation pathways were proposed: in one, the metabolites generated from the enzymatic action correspond to a less biodegradable chemical structure of the intermediate products (isobutylbenzene and 3-isobutylphenol), with comparatively higher toxicity; in the other mechanism, more oxidable chemical structures were formed with less toxicity and higher biodegradability. This suggests that the biodegradation of IBU by P. medicamentivorans can take place by more than one mechanism regarding the enzymes formed by this Gram-positive bacterium, with subsequent oxidation of the parent compound to overall more soluble and less toxic compounds to fish, daphnia and green algae.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mitigation of soil loss from turfgrass cultivation by utilizing poultry abattoir sludge compost and biochar on low-organic matter soil
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-07-26
    Saim Ozdemir; Nejlet Nusret Nuhoglu; Omer Hulusi Dede; Kaan Yetilmezsoy

    Commercial turfgrass cultivation is one of the main ornamental industries world-wide; however, successive turfgrass sod cutting from the same site removes surface soil, leading to a decline in soil organic matter, impairment of soil fertility and degradation of environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the applicability of poultry abattoir sludge compost (PASC) and biochar (BC) on the establishment of turfgrass by evaluating plant growth performance and mitigation of soil loss by organic waste amendments. The experimental study was designed on the soil which had originally low-organic matter content and previously used as a turfgrass sod harvested site in a sandy loam soil. Incorporation of PASC to soil improved the physicochemical properties in terms of bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH, total nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC), and organic matter (OM) by 37 (±2)%, 45 (±3)%, 55 (±3)%, 21 (±2)%, 48 (±2)%, 90 (±10)%, and 96 (±4)%, respectively. PASC-amended treatments enhanced the turfgrass growth rate more than the BC due to its increased nutrient availability. Incorporation of 100 Mg ha–1 (mega gram per hectare) PASC in surface soil with or without BC decreased the mineral soil removal rate by half of the respective soil (control) treatments. The results of the present study confirmed the utilization of PASC and BC as promising agro-industrial-based fertilizers in turfgrass sod production for sustainable soil and nutrient management.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Multi-hydrolytic enzyme accumulation and microbial community structure of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and waste-activated sludge
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Kun Luo; Xiao Xie; Qi Yang; Fei Chen; Yu Zhong; Pin Xie; Gui Wang

    The accumulation of multi-hydrolytic enzyme through anaerobic co-digestion of waste-activated sludge (WAS) and food waste (FW) was studied by regulating temperature, pH and the mass ratio of FW to WAS (F/W). Experimental results showed that temperature had a profound effect on the activity of the enzyme and the most suitable temperatures for the accumulation of amylase and protease were 37°C and 50°C, respectively. The highest activity of amylase and protease accumulated reached 10.29 and 19.23 U/mL at an F/W ratio of 2:1. The addition of anaerobic co-digestion solution enriching protease and amylase had positive effects on the hydrolysis of WAS. In addition, the Illumina high-throughput sequencing demonstrated that the bacterial diversity decreased, but the bacterial abundance increased during the co-digestion process of WAS and FW. The predominant strains for secreting amylase were Lactobacillus and Clostridium-sensu-strito-1, and Aeromonas was the dominant strain for secreting protease.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Applicability of lignin polymers for automobile brake pads as binder and filler materials and their performance characteristics
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Jeesu Park; Hyewon Hwang; Jae Young Kim; Joon Weon Choi

    We present environmentally friendly brake pads produced with three different types of lignin, soda lignin (SL), sulphuric acid lignin (SAL) and heat-treated SAL (HL), as frictional materials to replace phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR, binder) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, filler) in commercial automobile brake pad. Then the performance characteristics of the lignin-added brake pads were tested and compared using several fundamental tests. The results showed that lignin-added brake pads adhered to the SAE standard (0.25) for friction coefficient, which is the primary contributor to the performance of a braking system. In particular, the replacement of PFR with SL demonstrated a better friction coefficient than did replacement with SAL or HL, reaching up to 0.6. On the other hand, when lignin was substituted for CNSL as filler, HL-added brake pads showed a significant improvement in wear resistance of 0.12 g (dust generation) compared to SL and SAL, which had a resistance of approximately 0.25 g.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Removal of heavy metals from landfill leachate using zero valent iron and granular activated carbon
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-08-02
    Stefania Bilardi; Paolo Salvatore Calabrò; Rosa Greco; Nicola Moraci

    The possibility of a landfill leachate pre-treatment, aiming at heavy metals removal, by means of either zero valent iron (ZVI), or granular activated carbon (GAC) or by a mixture of the two materials, was investigated in this paper through batch and column tests. For this purpose, a synthetic landfill leachate containing heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Ni, Zn), chloride, sulphates, ammonium and organic matter was prepared. Batch tests results demonstrated the efficiency of ZVI, GAC and ZVI/GAC mixture in heavy metals removal (efficiency > 90%) and their negligible effect on the other contaminants. Column tests showed as pure ZVI is by far more efficient than pure GAC in the long term. The influence of humic acids (HA) on the reactive and hydraulic behaviour of ZVI was also studied through column tests. The presence of HA in the leachate caused a reduction of ZVI removal efficiency and a considerable decrease in its hydraulic conductivity. Results of a column test carried out using the ZVI/GAC granular mixture showed as the removal efficiency over time ranges from 100% to 89% for Cu, from 93% to 80% for Ni and from 98% to 95% for Zn. The use of a filter filled with the ZVI/GAC mixture could find application for leachate pre-treatment having the objective of removing heavy metals prior the final co-treatment with municipal wastewater minimizing adverse side effect on the process (e.g. transfer of heavy metals in the excess sludge to be used in agriculture).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Comparison of the emissions and performance of ethanol-added diesel–biodiesel blends in a compression ignition engine with those of pure diesel
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-08-01
    Felipe Fernandes Klajn; Flávio Gurgacz; Anderson Miguel Lenz; Giuseppe Eugenio Peruzo Iacono; Samuel Nelson Melegari de Souza; Yuri Ferruzzi

    In this study, a biodiesel was produced from blending vegetable and animal sources with diesel and diesel-ethanol using a motor-generator set to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics. Fifteen and twenty percent of animal-vegetable biodiesel were added to each diesel-ethanol blend. A motor-generator test was conducted for each mixture; each sample was subjected to resistive loads from 2 to 5 kW with six repetitions. The physicochemical properties met the national standard guidelines, while the best specific fuel consumption (SFC) was observed for the 15% biodiesel-1% ethanol (B15E1) blend at the load of 5 kW with 327.069 g kW−1 h−1, followed by diesel (334.875 g kW−1 h−1). The exhaust gas temperature behaved differently depending on the ethanol concentration; it was lower when the concentration of added ethanol was higher. The NO emissions decreased while the SO2 emissions increased as the ethanol concentration increased.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Influence of pollutants’ control facilities on PM2.5 profiles emitted from an iron and steel plant
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Yangyang Guo; Lei Luo; Yang Zheng; Tingyu Zhu; Meng Ye

    A typical long process in an iron and steel plant has been investigated with four main manufacturing processes, and nine sample sites were selected, in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the PM2.5 profile changes caused by the pollutants’ control facilities. The result shows pollutants’ control facilities have not only affected PM2.5 concentrations, but also the PM2.5 profiles. PM2.5 concentration was increased 1.89 times after Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in the sintering process, the Ca content in PM2.5 increased to 21.1% caused by the desulfurizing agent; compared with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bag filter (BF) is more effective for removal of fine particles, especially the condensable particles. The chemical compositions of Cl, K, Pb and Sb decreased after ESP in the sintering process, Fe decreased to 38.0% after ESP in the pelletizing process, and SO42− and Organic carbon (OC) increased in both processes. Different from ESP, Fe content increased obviously after BF in both blast furnace and converter processes, while S, K, SO42−, and OC are all decreased after BF. The coefficient of divergence (CD) values has been calculated at 0.42∼0.60, showing giant influences of pollutants’ control facilities on PM2.5 chemical profiles. Sixteen Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 have been analysed, the result shows that de-dusting facilities (ESP and BF) are quite effective for PAHs removal, and the PAHs’ concentration significantly increased after FGD. More efforts are still needed to complete the accurate profile data with the rapid development of pollutants’ control technologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Effect of alkaline treatment on pathogens, bacterial community and antibiotic resistance genes in different sewage sludges for potential agriculture use
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Bruna Coelho Lopes; Elayne Cristina Machado; Hortência Franco Rodrigues; Cintia Dutra Leal; Juliana Calábria de Araújo; Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    Alkaline treatment is widely used to reduce pathogens in sewage sludge in developing countries and guarantee that it is safe for use in agriculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alkaline treatment applied to waste-activated (WAS) and Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)-sludge on the bacterial community, pathogens (viable helminths eggs and Salmonella spp), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). The bacterial community structure was examined through denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), targeting 16S rRNA genes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to evaluate the presence of several ARGs. The conducted alkaline experiment consisted of adding hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) to sewage sludges. Samples were taken before and after 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours of treatment. Alkaline treatment changed considerably the bacterial community structure and after 24 hours, shifts in bacterial profiles were more pronounced in the UASB sludge sample than in WAS. Some bacteria remained under extreme pH conditions (pH > 12), such as Azospira oryzae and Dechloromonas denitrificans in the WAS samples, and Geothrix and Geobacter in the UASB sludge samples. The values of pathogens and indicators in the sludge after 24 hours of alkaline treatment meet sanitary law regulations and thus the sludges could have the potential to agricultural distribution. It is important to highlight that ARG, which are not currently present in sanitary regulations, were detected in the sludge samples after the alkaline treatment, which could be a concern for human health.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Oxidative removal of sulfadiazine using synthetic and natural manganese dioxides.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Ardie Septian,Won Sik Shin

    Studies on oxidation kinetics of sulfadiazine (SDZ) using δ-MnO2 (birnessite) and natural MnO2 are limited. Reaction order at different SDZ speciation was determined based on the effects of initial H+, MnO2 and SDZ concentrations using initial rate method, which would be useful to determine the optimum pH and MnO2 concentration. Birnessite and natural MnO2 with different physico-chemical properties such as BET surface area, pHPZC, d-spacing, and crystal size similarly showed good efficiencies in oxidizing neutral SDZ (pH 5) and anionic SDZ (pH 8). Activation energy (Ea) and thermodynamic parameters indicated the similar oxidation efficiencies in the temperature range of 10 to 40°C. The SO42- was produced from the SDZ oxidation coupled to the reduction of MnO2 to Mn2+. The effect of co-solute ciprofloxacin (CIP) on the oxidation kinetics of SDZ was also studied. The rates of SDZ oxidation by both birnessite and natural MnO2 were reduced by the presence of CIP due to competition in oxidation between SDZ and CIP. The SDZ was more rapidly oxidized than CIP in both single- and bi-solute systems, as indicated by the presence of CIP intermediate, whereas the intermediate of SDZ was not detected.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Isothermal drying kinetics of sewage sludge using weathered coal fly ash as adjuvant for agronomic application.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Luciano A Gomes,Andreia F Santos,Rui J A Lopes,José C Góis,Margarida J Quina

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of weathered coal fly ash (CFA) as a drying adjuvant of sewage sludge (SS) to produce a soil amendment. The high amount of SS and CFA creates a complex waste management problem in many countries, requiring more research efforts. Towards a circular economy, CFA can be viewed as an anthropogenic inorganic by-product with valuable nutrients (e.g., K), which can be recovered in combination with SS (rich in organic matter, N, and P). Different temperatures (70, 85, 100, 115, and 130 °C) are tested to dry small SS cylinders, without and with 0.15 g CFA g-1 of SSwet basis (wb). By fitting appropriate models to the experimental drying curves, it is possible to observe an improvement of 1-17% in the diffusion coefficient and 7-19% in the kinetic constants, using CFA. The best drying conditions are achieved with CFA as an adjuvant at 130 °C, where the drying rate is 31.61 gH2O kg-1 SSwb min-1. Phytotoxicity and growth assays are performed to evaluate the effect of the produced materials in the soil. The product with SS and CFA shows the potential to improve soil condition due to (i) the organic matter, N, P, and K content, (ii) the lower phytotoxic effect when compared to raw SS; (iii) the soil pH correction. Thus, not only the addition of weathered CFA facilitates the drying of SS but also the final product has benefits to soil conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Remediation of arsenic-cationic metals from smelter contaminated soil by washings of Na2EDTA and phosphoric acid: removal efficiencies and mineral transformation.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Meng Wei,Jia-Jun Chen,Chuan-Hai Xia

    Sequential and combined soil washing tests of Na2EDTA and phosphoric acids were conducted to remediation soil contaminated with arsenic and cationic metals (cadmium, copper, and lead) at a former metal smelter. The aim of the testing was to improve the heavy metals removal efficiency and investigate the mechanism of the influence of soil minerals on washing efficiency, including the influence on soil mineral, metal oxides, and functional groups of soil surface. The results indicated that the combined washing of Na2EDTA and phosphoric acid was effective in removing both arsenic and cationic metals from contaminated soil and had synergy effect for most target metals. The results of metal removal efficiency indicated that the washing agent, washing mode, and washing times influenced the removal efficiencies of arsenic and cationic metals. The spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that sequential and combined washings were effective in dissolving and reforming soil minerals compared with single washing. The promoted complexation, ligand exchange, desorption, and inhibition of adsorption resulted in the synergistic effect for most target metals under combined washing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Selective electrodialysis for simultaneous but separate phosphate and ammonium recovery.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Katie Charlotte Kedwell,Mads Koustrup Jørgensen,Cejna Anna Quist-Jensen,Tien Duc Pham,Bart Van der Bruggen,Morten Lykkegaard Christensen

    Nutrients were extracted from digester supernatant sampled from a full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plant. A four-compartment selectrodialysis setup was used to extract ammonium and phosphate in two separate compartments. The initial phosphate recovery rate was measured to be 0.072 mmol m-2 s-1 and the initial ammonium recovery rate was measured to be 1.31 mmol m-2 s-1. The ammonium recovery rate was 18 times higher than that for phosphate, whereas the molar concentration of ammonium in the feed was 10 times higher than that of phosphate. An average recovery of 72 ± 1% and 90 ± 10% for ammonium and phosphate was observed after 3 h of operation. A monovalent anion selective (MVA) membrane was used to avoid ammonium and reduce the concentration of monovalent anions in the phosphorus stream. The pH in the phosphorus stream was kept at 10 so phosphate did not pass the MVA membrane. A membrane area of 26 m2 per m3 digester supernatant was required to recover 70% of phosphate and ammonium for the digester supernatant that contained 6 mM phosphate and 105 mM ammonium.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Synergistic effect of a spinel ferrite on the adsorption capacity of nano bio-silica for the removal of methylene blue.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Sunday J Olusegun,Erico T F Freitas,Luciano R S Lara,Nelcy D S Mohallem

    The synergistic effect of CoFe2O4 on the capacity of bio-silica extracted from rice husk for the removal of methylene blue (MB) was investigated. The novel composite of cobalt ferrite/nano bio-silica was prepared by dispersing cobalt and iron salt in ratio 1:2 in a solution containing bio-silica, calcined at 700°C and characterized. The adsorption capacity of the composite (253.6 mg g-1) was higher than that of bio-silica (52.6 mg g-1), and the process was exothermic and spontaneous. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable to explain the adsorption isotherm, while pseudo-second-order and Elovich are best applicable for the kinetics mechanism. The amount of MB that was removed, increased with an increase in ionic strength due to dimerization of MB. Regeneration and reusability of the adsorbents showed that they are economically viable. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis of MB-loaded adsorbent confirmed the adsorption of MB.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Polar modified dendritic post-cross-linked polymer for Cu2+ adsorption.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    Xiaomi Yuan,Fa Zhou,Fang Long,Ruilin Man,Jianhan Huang

    The polar modified dendritic post-cross-linked polymer, namely HCPD was synthesized and used for adsorptive removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The results showed that 5.12 mmol/g of amino and 2.25 mmol/g of carbonyl groups were uploaded on the polymer and these groups were significantly beneficial for Cu2+ removal. The maximum capacity reached 157.8 mg/g at 313 K and increased as the temperature increased. The Langmuir model characterized the equilibrium data well and a chemical interaction was involved with the enthalpy change of 49.50 kJ/mol. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the kinetic data well and the intra-particle diffusion model was appropriate for characterizing the kinetic adsorption. HCPD could be easily regenerated and the regenerated polymers were effectively recycled for five times without significant loss of the equilibrium capacity. Moreover, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that the chelating coordination of the amino and carbonyl groups with Cu2+ was the main driving force for the adsorption.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biocomposites: could agroindustrial wastes be used as reinforcements in polymers?
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Cintia Navas,Melina Bagni,Dolly Granados,María Reboredo

    The use of agricultural by-products in the production of biocomposite materials is of growing interest worldwide. Mechanical properties and degradation temperature of a biocomposite depend strongly on the characteristics of the selected reinforcement. The present study focuses on the characterization of three lignocellulosic agro-industrial wastes: olive wet husk (OWH), olive pits (OP) and grape stalks (GS), generated by industries of Cuyo region in Argentina. Such characterization comprises proximate analysis, lignocellulosic composition, functional groups, crystalline phases, mineralogical and elemental composition, and thermal properties. The results obtained are of relevance for understanding the final properties of the biocomposites that will be prepared with these lignocellulosic particles, and will allow to determine which of them is the most appropriate for a specific application. This work suggests that OP could have better interfacial interaction with a polymeric matrix.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Preparation of spherical filler-like ZnFe2O4/Bi2MoO6 surrounded by nanosheets and its photocatalytic applications.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Hongling Zhang,Yanghao Yan,Muhammad Asim Khan,Mingzhu Xia,Wu Lei,Fengyun Wang

    In this article, the spherical filler-like ZnFe2O4/Bi2MoO6 (ZFO/BMO) surrounded by nanosheets were synthesized by a solvothermal method using spherical ZnFe2O4 as a matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to characterize the prepared samples. The photocatalytic performance of the material was detected under 420 nm visible light by Rhodamine B (RhB). The degradation results indicated that the ZFO/BMO photocatalyst with 20% ZnFe2O4 content (ZFO/BMO-2) demonstrated highly efficient performance. The constructed Z-type ZFO/BMO heterojunction lengthens the visible light absorption threshold and improves the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, ZFO/BMO heterojunction composite photocatalyst can be recycled effectively by applying an appropriate external magnetic field. It has important research value in photocatalysis and recycling.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Enhanced degradation of benzo[a]pyrene and toxicity reduction by microbubble ozonation.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Gwiwoong Nam,Mohamed M Mohamed,Jinho Jung

    The microbubble technique has drawn great attention for efficient utilization of ozone for advance oxidation processes. Therefore, in this study, microbubble ozonation was investigated to evaluate the removal efficiency and toxicity reduction of benzo[a]pyrene. Compared with conventional macrobubble ozonation, microbubble ozonation produced higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals and ozone in aqueous solutions, resulting in more efficient and persistent degradation of benzo[a]pyrene. Moreover, microbubble ozonation completely removed the acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene to Daphnia magna, whereas the toxicity reduction by macrobubble ozonation was not consistent owing possibly to toxic degradation products. These findings suggest that microbubble ozonation is a promising technique in terms of both chemical degradation and toxicity reduction of organic pollutants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Synergistic photocatalytic and Fenton-like degradation of organic contaminants using peroxymonosulfate activated by CoFe2O4@g-C3N4 composite.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Xu Guo,Shasha Ai,Dan Yang,Lei Zhao,Hanming Ding

    The integration of two different advanced oxidation processes can not only avoid their individual shortcomings, but also utilize the synergistic effects between them. Herein, CoFe2O4 modified g-C3N4 composite (CoFe2O4@g-C3N4) was synthesized and used for building a novel coupled system, in which two processes of visible light-activated photocatalysis and sulfate radical-based Fenton-like oxidation have been combined together to provide a synergistic reaction path for the removal of rhodamine B. The coupled system exhibited a drastically enhanced catalytic efficiency compared with the photocatalytic or Fenton-like process alone. It also showed a significantly enhanced catalytic activity compared with g-C3N4, CoFe2O4 or their simple mixture. The improved catalytic performance can be ascribed to the efficient separation of photogenerated carriers as well as more available catalytic reactive sites for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation due to the synergistic effects between the photocatalytic and Fenton-like processes. In 30 min, 96% RhB was degraded using PMS activated by a CoFe2O4@g-C3N4 composite with 3% CoFe2O4 loading under visible light irradiation, and the synergistic index in such system reached as high as 3.07. Such system can be used at a wide pH range of 3.0-10.0. The composite also showed good stability for its practical applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maximizing energy recovery from wastewater via bioflocculation-enhanced primary treatment: A pilot scale study.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Petr Dolejš,Zdeněk Varga,Benjamin Luza,Aleš Pícha,Pavel Jeníček,David Jeison,Jan Bartáček

    Anaerobic digestion of municipal sewage sludge is widely used for harvesting energy from wastewater organic content. The more organic carbon we can redirect into the primary sludge, the less energy is needed for aeration in secondary treatment and the more methane is produced in anaerobic digesters. Bioflocculation has been proposed as a promising separation technology to maximize carbon capture in primary sludge. Thus far, only limited data on bioflocculation are available under real conditions, i.e. from pilot-scale reactors treating raw sewage. Moreover, no study has discussed yet the influence of bioflocculation on denitrification potential of sewage. Therefore, we performed bioflocculation of raw sewage in high-rate contact stabilization process in pilot-scale to investigate maximal primary treatment efficiency. During 100 days of operation at sludge retention time of only 2 days, the average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (NL) and total phosphorus (TP) were 75%, 87% and 51%, respectively, using no chemicals for precipitation. Up to 76% of incoming COD was captured in primary sludge and 46% for subsequent anaerobic digestion, where energy recovery potential achieved 0.33 to 0.37 g COD as CH4 per g COD of influent. This study showed in real conditions that this newly adapted separation process has significant benefits over chemically enhanced primary treatment, enabling sewage treatment process to overcome energy self-sufficiency.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation of lignin of rice husk alkaline hydrolysates using Fe-impregnated silica catalysts.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    D Arefieva Olga,S Vasilyeva Marina,A Zemnukhova Liudmila,S Timochkina Anna

    Present work shows results of a study on heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of lignin alkaline hydrolysates formed in the process of obtaining a fibrous mass from rice husk. Fe-impregnate biogenic amorphous silica Fe/RH-SiO2 obtained from rice husk was used as a catalyst. Using IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis it was shown that iron(III) oxide in the form of hematite is present on the catalyst surface. Phenol was used for preliminary assessment of catalytic activity of the catalyst Fe/RH-SiO2. The degree of degradation of phenol by the UV/visible radiation/Fe/RH-SiO2/H2O2 system reaches 90%. The catalytic activity of Fe/RH-SiO2 was studied in the reaction of lignin degradation of rice husk alkaline hydrolysates under ultraviolet and visible irradiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The lignin solutions with COD: Н2О2 ratios from 1:2 to 1:16 were exposure under UV irradiation for 15-minute and the subsequent lightening on sunny days between 9 a.m. and 8 p.m. in April for 7 days in the presence of a catalyst and without it. The catalyst concentration was 1.0 g·L-1. After that, it was found the content of phenolic compounds in the presence of a catalyst is 2-20 times lower than without it. The COD with the COD: Н2О2 = 1:16 ratio in the presence of a catalyst decreases 1.5 times as compared with the initial solution, whereas without a catalyst it increases 13 times.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nanosecond pulse used to enhance the electrocoagulation of municipal wastewater treatment with low specific energy consumption.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Nguyen Ho Que,Yuta Kawamura,Takahiro Watari,Yuya Takimoto,Takashi Yamaguchi,Hisayuki Suematsu,Koichi Niihara,Juan Paulo Wiff,Tadachika Nakayama

    This study compares the performance of nanosecond pulse (NSP) and direct current (DC) power supplies for use in a municipal wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC). Four Al plates connected in monopolar-parallel configuration (MP-P) were used as electrodes during the EC process. The maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 68% and 80% using DC and NSP, respectively. Moreover, NSP treatment reduced approximately 15% of the specific energy consumption (SEC) compared with that by DC at a similar COD removal efficiency of ≈ 68%, which was used as a benchmark value. In addition, when using NSP, the SEC required to increase the COD removal efficiency from 60% to 68% was two to three times less than that when DC was applied. The results suggest that an NSP operating at 10 kHz frequency (f) and 1 µs pulse width (pw) are preferred for obtaining higher COD removal efficiencies at a low SEC. The use of an NSP for EC can enhance the COD removal efficiency and reduce the wastewater treatment SEC. The results presented herein promote the use of EC systems combined with renewable energy sources for reducing the net carbon footprint of wastewater processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Efficient Graphene Coated Iron Oxide (GCIO) Nanoadsorbent for Removal of Lead and Arsenic Ions.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Nidhi Khare,Jaya Bajpai,A K Bajpai

    The graphene coated iron oxide (GCIO) was used for removal of Pb2+ and As3+ ions from aqueous solution. For characterization of GCIO several techniques (FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, TGA, DSC, and vibrating sample magnetometry) were used to which also indicated interaction of Pb2+ and As3+ with adsorbent. In addition, effects of adsorbate concentration, different composition of adsorbent, temperature, pH of the solution & contact time of adsorbate-adsorbent were studied. After analysis of these experiments it was found that GCIO offered very fast removal of Pb2+ and As3+ with small amount of GCIO (0.09 g) in 100 mg/L adsorbate solution. The maximum removal of Pb2+ ions (up to 97.62%) achieved when treated with 100 mg/L standard solution for 35  min at 450C in weak acidic medium (5 pH). The adsorption of Pb2+ ions followed Freundlich model with high correlation coefficient 0.98 R2. In case of As3+ ion, maximum removal of metal ion (up to 86.62%) attained when 100 mg/L adsorbate solution is treated for 25 minute in slightly acidic medium (6 pH) at 250C temperatures. The adsorption of As3+ ions followed D-R model with 0.98 R2 value. The adsorption of both metal ions (Pb2+ and As3+) follow second-order-kinetic model. The high percentage removal of metal ions with little quantity of GCIO confirmed that GCIO is an excellent, effective and economic adsorbent.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Kurstakin molecules facilitate diesel oil assimilation by Acinetobacter haemolyticus strain 2SA through overexpression of alkane hydroxylase genes.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Mamadou Malick Diallo,Caner Vural,Umut Şahar,Guven Ozdemir

    Biodegradation is a cost-effective process commonly used to eliminate many xenobiotic hydrocarbons such as diesel oils. However, their hydrophobic character reduces the biodegradation efficiency. In order to overcome this hurdle, kurstakins isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain 7SA were used as emulsifying agents. The influence of kurstakin molecules on diesel oil degradation by Acinetobacter haemolyticus strain 2SA was evaluated in the presence and absence of the aforementioned lipopeptide. The degradation rates and gene expressions of alkane hydroxylases were evaluated at days 4, 10, 14 and 21. Results showed that kurstakin molecules increased the hydrophobicity of 2SA. Moreover, diesel oil degradation activities were higher in the presence of kurstakin with 29%, 35%, 29% and 23% improvement at 4th, 10th, 14th and 21st day respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that the difference between the degradation rates in the presence and absence of kurstakin was significant with p = 0.03. The detection of three different hydroxylase genes namely alkB, almA and cyp153 in 2SA genome, might have allowed more efficient degradability of alkanes. According to the real-time PCR results, cyp153 was the most induced gene during diesel oil degradation in the presence and absence of kurstakin. Yet, the three genes demonstrated higher levels of expression in the presence of kurstakin when compared to its absence. This study showed that kurstakins enhance the diesel oil biodegradation rate by increasing the hydrophobicity of 2SA. In addition to their anti-fungal activities, kurstakins can be used as biosurfactant to increase biodegradation of diesel oil.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of Fe-loaded biochar on the bioavailability of Arsenic and cadmium to lettuce growing in a mining contaminated soil.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Pingping Wu,Lujiu Li,Jing Wang

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are two prominent metal contaminants in mining soil, threatening food and environmental safety. The effects of Fe-loaded biochar on the accumulation and translocation of As and Cd in a soil-lettuce system were investigated to evaluate the efficiency of Fe-loaded biochar in reducing As and Cd bioavailability. Application of Fe-loaded biochar at a rate of 0.5-1.5% decreased the concentrations of porewater As and Cd by 4.2-53.0% and -0.6-21.7%, respectively. The results of sequential extraction showed that Fe-loaded biochar can promote the transfer of As and Cd in soils from the available fraction to a relatively stable fraction, thus reducing the mobility and availability of As and Cd. The concentrations of As and Cd in lettuce shoots in the Fe-loaded biochar treatment were significantly decreased by 11.4-26.0% and 4.4-12.9% compared with those in the untreated soil, respectively. Fe-loaded biochar applied at a rate of 0.5-1.0% had no obvious effect on plant biomass, and the lowest weight of lettuce shoots and roots was observed in the treatment with Fe-loaded biochar applied at a rate of 1.5%, in which they were reduced by 12.9% and 18.0%, respectively. Overall, Fe-loaded biochar as a soil amendment was effective in simultaneously reducing As and Cd bioavailability in As and Cd co-contaminated soils, and an application rate lower than 1.5% is recommended to avoid significant decreases in plant growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 3D sponges of chemically functionalized chitosan for potential environmental pollution remediation: biosorbents for anionic dye adsorption and 'antibiotic-free' antibacterial activity.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Isadora C Carvalho,Fernanda G L Medeiros Borsagli,Alexandra A P Mansur,Cláudia L Caldeira,Dionei J Haas,Andrey P Lage,Virginia S T Ciminelli,Herman S Mansur

    In this work, it was developed three-dimensional (3D) porous hydrogel sponges produced by the freeze-dried process using chitosan polymer functionalized by 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA). These chitosan-based sponges were used as cationic adsorbents for the removal of anionic methyl orange (MO) dye, simulating a model organic pollutant in aqueous medium. Moreover, these porous 3D constructs were also evaluated as 'antibiotic-free' antibacterial materials against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, which were used as model pathogens possibly found in contaminated hospital discharges. These 3D hydrogels were comprehensively characterized through morphological methods such as scanning electron microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography techniques, combined with FTIR, Raman, and UV-visible spectroscopy analyses. Additionally, the surface area, the degree of swelling, and the adsorption profiles and kinetics of these scaffolds were systematically investigated. The chemically thiolated chitosan (CHI-MUA) hydrogels were successfully produced with a supramolecular polymeric network based on hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds, and hydrophobic interactions that resulted in higher stability in aqueous medium than hydrogels of pristine chitosan. CHI-MUA exhibited sponge-like three-dimensional structures, with highly interconnected and hierarchical pore size distribution with high porosity and surface area. These architectural aspects of the 3D sponges favoured the high adsorption capacity for MO dye (∼388 mg.g-1) in water with removal efficiency greater than 90% for MO solutions (from 20 mg.L-1-1200 mg.L-1). The adsorption data followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and adsorption isotherm analysis and spectroscopy studies suggested a multilayer behaviour with coexistence of adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. Additionally, the in vitro evaluation of toxicity (MTT and LIVE-DEAD® assays) of 3D-sponges revealed a non-toxic response and preliminary suitability for bio-related applications. Importantly, the 3D-sponges composed of chitosan-thiolated derivative proved high antibacterial activity, specificity against P. aeruginosa (model hazardous pathogen), equivalent to conventional antibiotic drugs, while no lethality against S. aureus (reference commensal bacteria) was observed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evaluation of solids removal and optimisation of backwashing for an upflow stormwater filtration system utilising novel floating fibrous media.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Yuhoon Hwang,Younggyo Seo,Hyowon Kim,Kunwan Roh,Dogun Kim

    Although filtration devices are already widely used for stormwater runoff treatment, there are much to be improved to ensure the required performance. Additionally, the performance of a device should be verified before on-site installation. In this context, an upflow filtration system using novel high porosity floating fibrous media formed into spherical shape was proposed and evaluated for solid capture and backwashing. At filtration velocities of 20-40 m/h, the maximum head loss was about 2 cm even under a solid load of 30 kg/m2, and suspended solid (SS) removal efficiency was >96% throughout 300 min. A considerable amount of SS was removed in the pretreatment chamber, so the load on the media was reduced. Several models were tried to describe the solid capture in the media. The coefficients of solid attachment/detachment showed good correlations with filtration velocity. Other parameters indicated a variation of solid capture and permeability, which is unique to the media in this study. The backwashing with air and water for 1-2 min each showed good head loss recovery under the SS load up to 550-600 kg/m2, and the SS discharge was more efficient when the stagnant water was drained before water backwashing. The results in this study suggest the high potential of the combination of fibrous media and upflow filtration system for the efficient control of the nonpoint source pollutants in stormwater runoff.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Significant improvement in biodegradability of a real Optical Brightening Agent (OBA) wastewater using small doses of Fenton's reagent.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Samik Mapara,Upendra D Patel,Olya Keen,J P Ruparelia

    Optical Brightening Agent (OBA) wastewater (OBAW) has been reported to be highly resistant to biodegradation. In this study, a real OBAW from an industry which was already treated using primary and secondary treatments (residual COD of secondary clarifier overflow (SCO): 3400-3700 mgL-1) was further treated by Fenton's treatment (FT). Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test revealed that using small doses of H2O2 and Fe+2, the biodegradability of SCO improved to 90% as compared to ∼18% without FT. UV-Vis analysis revealed that ca. 80% of initially present OBAs were removed by treatment sequence outlined in this study. Biodegradability study on individual raw wastewaters from four types of OBAs (designated OBA-TS, OBA-DS-U, OBA-HS, and OBA-DS-D) being manufactured at the time of this study, revealed that OBA-TS wastewater was the most biodegradable (>95% biodegradability) followed by OBA-DS-U (∼60%), OBA-HS (∼20%), and OBA-DS-D (<5%). Application of FT improved the biodegradability of these streams as: OBA-DS-U (∼70%), OBA-HS (∼60%), and OBA-DS-D (∼50%). A treatment sequence consisting of waste coal dust (WCD) pretreatment-FT-biodegradation is a novel, economical, and sustainable approach to treating highly recalcitrant OBA wastewater.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diclofenac removal in water supply by adsorption on composite low-cost material.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Gledson Renan Salomão,Juliana Heloisa Pinê Américo-Pinheiro,William Deodato Isique,Nádia Hortense Torres,Ianny Andrade Cruz,Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira

    This work objective was to evaluate batch adsorption processes using polyethylene terephthalate composite (PTC) material, sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) functionalized with iron oxide (Fe3+) (PTCSBA/ Fe3+) in the adsorption of 1000 µg  L-1 of diclofenac sodium (DIC) in synthetic solution, simulating water supply. The batch test was started by determining the adsorbent mass (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 g) to remove 1000 µg L-1 of DIC, followed by the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm assays, evaluating the reaction rate and adsorption capacity, respectively. The PTCSBA/ Fe3+ mass that had the best efficiency in the DIC removal was 0.3 g, the pseudo second-order kinetic model (PSO) was the one that best fit the study having a determination coefficient (R2) equals to 0.97. The PTCSBA/ Fe3+ has good characteristics for DIC adsorption, achieving a 93% removal rate of sodium diclofenac. The composite is a low-cost adsorbent, 0.08 cents per kilogram of material, becoming a material with satisfactory characteristics for the removal of DIC. Therefore, it is recommended to use PTCSBA/ Fe3+ as adsorbent material in small water filter systems in order to remove DIC due to the low cost of the composite.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Decomposition of n-hexane using a dielectric barrier discharge plasma.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Youn-Suk Son,Junghwan Kim,In-Young Choi,Jo-Chun Kim

    In this study, we investigated the decomposition characteristics of n-hexane by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. In order to accomplish this, the factors influencing these decomposition characteristics such as background gases (air, N2, and He), residence time (1-10 s), initial n-hexane concentration (10-50 ppm), relative humidity (2.5%, 40%, and 70%), and power (50-80 W) were evaluated. As a result, the decomposition efficiency of n-hexane at N2 atmosphere was found to be lower than those at air and He atmosphere. The removal efficiency of n-hexane was increased when the residence time, relative humidity, and power increased, and when the initial concentration decreased. The concentrations of CO, CO2, and aerosol increased as the specific energy density increased. However, the O3 level increased up to a certain point, then decreased. Various hydrocarbons such as acetone, pentanal, nonanal, etc. were also detected as by-products and their decomposition and recombination pathways were suggested.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biodegradation of gaseous xylene in a flat composite membrane bioreactor.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : null
    Weier Lu,Zhenwen Wang,Guangli Xiu

    The xylene is an important hydrophobic volatile organic compound (VOC) widely used as a solvent in different industries. Compared to the conventional bioreactors, the membrane bioreactor is more efficient for the degradation of hydrophobic VOCs. In this work, the degradation of gaseous xylene in a flat composite membrane bioreactor inoculated with activated sludge under different operating conditions was investigated. The maximum elimination capacities, ECv of 289 g/(m3 h) and ECm of 0.145 g/(m2 h) were obtained at the gas residence time of 20 s and the loading rate of 475 g/(m3 h). Moreover, the membrane bioreactor is stable enough to suffer weak shock loading and short intermittent process shutdown. These results indicate that the membrane biotechnology shows great potentials in practical applications for xylene removal.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Anaerobic biological treatment of industrial saline wastewater: fixed bed reactor performance and analysis of the microbial community structure and abundance.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2018-11-08
    Mariem Jeddi,Fatma Karray,Slim Loukil,Najla Mhiri,Manel Ben Abdallah,Sami Sayadi

    The purpose of the present work is to treat saline Tuna fish wastewater, with the salt concentration of 43 g L-1 and total organic carbon (TOC) of 8.3 g L-1, using an anaerobic fixed bed reactor involving salt-tolerant bacteria from the natural hypersaline environment during 150 days. The highest volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency of 84.1% was recorded for the organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.04 g TOC L-1.d-1 and the lowest salinity of 14.6 g NaCl L-1. In addition, the maximum biogas production of 0.8 L-1.d-1 for a working volume of 4 L and an organic loading rate of 2.07 g TOC L-1.d-1 correlated with the decrease of Volatile fatty acids (VFA) content. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and the phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial community showed the action of hydrolytic, acidogenic, halotolerant sulfate-reducing and halophilic fermentative bacterium during the processing time. A stable archaeal and methanogenic community's diversity including hydrogenotrophic methanogens was demonstrated with Quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR). The highest bacterial population abundance was detected for 1.45 g TOC L-1.d-1 and the important methanogenic community abundance for 2.07 g TOC L-1.d-1 may be related to the highest biogas production in this charge for an effluent salinity of 27.7 g NaCl L-1.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Experimental study of butane adsorption on coconut based activated carbon for different gas concentrations, temperatures and relative humidities.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Adnan Görgülü,Hüseyin Yağlı,Yıldız Koç,Ali Koç,Nurhan Adil Öztürk,Özkan Köse

    In this paper, the adsorption behaviour of activated carbon was investigated experimentally for changing butane concentration, temperature and relative humidity. Throughout the study, the coconut-based activated carbon was used. During the tests applied for butane concentration of 2, 4, 8, 20, 40 and 80 ppm, the temperature was taken as 15, 23 and 33°C for a relative humidity of 50, 70 and 90%. The results showed that butane concentration had a direct relationship with adsorption. However, temperature and adsorption were inversely proportional. As a result of the adsorption between activated carbon and butane, it led to physical adsorption as one of the most important types of adsorption due to Van der Waals forces among molecules. To create physical adsorption, lower temperature ranges were more convenient. The relative humidity of the air reduced the time to reach the maximum saturation rate. The increased relative humidity also reduced the amount of butane adsorbed. Also, 50% relative humidity range was an important turning point. Relative humidity affected the adsorption of butane at a relative humidity of 50%. However, the relative humidity at 70 and 90% significantly reduced butane adsorption; on the other hand, it considerably increased the adsorption of moisture.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Study on the correlation between pore morphology of porous calcium silicate and high-capacity formaldehyde adsorption.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Xiaoyan Wang,Junmin Sun,Yongfeng Zhang,Yinmin Zhang

    A novel porous calcium silicate (PCS) material with unique pore structure prepared from coal fly ash (CFA) was reported. The microstructure was investigated through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance cryoporometry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Model describing the nanostructure of the prepared PCS was proposed in this work. Results show that the prepared PCS has open pores, a high specific surface area, and multi-peak pore size distributions (macro-, meso-, and micropores). The unique conical pore structure and interconnected micro-, meso-, and macropores are favourable to the reduction of the diffusion resistance of gas molecules. Benefiting from such a valuable structure, PCS exhibits excellent gas adsorption properties. Used in formaldehyde (HCHO) adsorption experiment, PCS shows excellent properties, including high storage capacity and endurance. The saturated adsorption capacity of the prepared PCS is 2.056 mg/g, which is enhanced by fourfold compared with that of active carbon commercially used for formaldehyde adsorption. This work provides a new, efficient, and rational way to utilize CFA. The prepared material can be used as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent of HCHO under ambient conditions. Furthermore, the microstructure and the correlation between pore morphology and gas adsorption properties of the prepared PCS are revealed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A charcoal-shaped catalyst NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 in electro-Fenton: high activity, wide pH range and catalytic mechanism.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Yanshi Zheng,Shan Qiu,Fengxia Deng,Yingshi Zhu,Fang Ma,Guojun Li

    A charcoal-shaped catalyst NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 in electro-Fenton (EF) was synthesized by a facile precipitation approach via sintering products of oxalate co-precipitation. This obtained NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 catalyst was easily separated via an external magnetic field and was used as a heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for rhodamine B (RhB, a target pollutant) degradation. Characteristics of NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 catalyst were assessed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Barrett-Emmett-Teller (BET), respectively. SEM results revealed that the proposed NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 was charcoal-shaped with the size in the range of 0.5-5 μm. Experiment results show that the EF process with the proposed catalyst could work in a wide pH range from 3 to 9. Under optimized conditions, estimated 90% RhB degradation was achieved in 60 min under the following conditions: 0.6 g/L NiFe2O4/Fe2O3, pH 3. Radical scavengers and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra results demonstrated that the main oxidant species involved was [Formula: see text], accounting for RhB degradation in EF. Moreover, according to our research on interfacial reaction, [Formula: see text] was mainly generated from the homogenous Fenton reaction rather than the surface Fenton reaction, stimulating by the dissolved Fe2+, Fe3+ and Ni2+ from catalyst. The reusability of NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 catalyst was evaluated for recycling the same catalyst for 5 runs. In conclusion, the facile fabrication NiFe2O4/Fe2O3 catalyst shows great potential in wastewater treatment with promising activity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process of biogas slurry from cow manure anaerobic digester.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Minghui Zhang,Dawen Gao

    In order to improve the sedimentation performance of biogas slurry and reduce the COD, microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP) was used to pretreat the cow manure biogas slurry. A laboratory-scale microwave reactor was used to strengthen the H2O2 advanced oxidation process to achieve the solid-liquid separation of biogas slurry which was difficult to be settled. The results showed that the maximum COD removal efficiency reached 68.8% when pH, H2O2/total solid, microwave time and microwave power were 3, 0.4, 5 min and 300 W, respectively. COD was reduced from 24,157 mg/L to 7536 mg/L, and the settlings volume was reduced to 38%, while other pollutants such as the total solid and total dissolved solid were significantly reduced. Total solid and total dissolved solid removal efficiency reached 50.0% and 62.0%, respectively. Since no other agents were added, MW/H2O2-AOP can effectively reduce secondary pollution and reduce the cost of treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effect of activator on the structure and desulphurization efficiency of sludge-activated carbon.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2014-08-26
    Fen Li,Bo Yan,Yanping Zhang,Linhuan Zhang,Tao Lei

    Sludge-activated carbons (SACs) prepared with excess of activated sludge are used to solve the problems of sludge disposal and odour pollution in a sewage treatment plant. For the preparation, ZnCl2, KOH and H2SO4 are used as activators, respectively. The structure of the SACs are characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, specific surface area and pore structure technologies, and the adsorption performance of H2S is investigated. Results indicate that the desulphurization activity of SACs, whose activators are ZnCl2 and KOH (SACZ and SACK), is better than that of carbon with H2SO4 as the activator (SACH). The breakthrough time of SACZ and SACK is up to 86 min, the sulphur capacity is 7.7 mg/cm3, and the maximal iodine value is 409.95 mg/g. While the breakthrough time of SACH is only 26 min with the sulphur capacity of 2.3 mg/cm3. A large percentage of pore volume with a diameter of 2-5 nm in the total pore volume is conductive to the desulphurization reaction. The large amount of surface acid functional groups is also helpful to the adsorption of H2S. The desulphurization activity of SACZ and SACK is superior over that of commercial-activated carbon.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hexavalent Cr ion adsorption and desorption behaviour of expanded poly(tetrafluoro)ethylene films grafted with 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Kazunori Yamada,Asumi Takada,Ayako Konishi,Yuji Kimura,Hiromichi Asamoto,Hiroaki Minamisawa

    A new polymeric adsorbent for Cr(VI) ions based on an expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) film was prepared by the combined use of the pretreatment with oxygen plasma and photografting of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The grafting of DMAEMA was characterized by XPS and FT-IR spectroscopic measurements. The adsorption behaviour of DMAEMA-grafted ePTFE (ePTFE-g-PDMAEMA) films was investigated as a function of the experimental parameters, such as the initial pH value, temperature, and grafted amount. The adsorption capacity and initial adsorption rate had the maximum values at the initial pH value of 3.0. On the other hand, the adsorption capacity became almost constant at temperatures higher than 30°C, although the adsorption rate increased over the temperature. The adsorption behaviour obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and well expressed by the Langmuir isotherm equation with higher correlation coefficients. These results indicate that the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions occurs through the electrostatic interaction between protonated dimethylamino groups on a grafted PDMAEMA chain and [Formula: see text] ions. Cr(VI) ions were successfully desorbed from Cr(VI)-loaded ePTFE-g-PDMAEMA films in the eluents, such as NaCl at 0.50 M, NH4Cl at 0.50M, and NaOH at 1.0 mM, and ePTFE-g-PDMAEMA films were repeatedly used for adsorption of Cr(VI) ions without appreciable loss in the adsorption capacity. It should be noted that Cr(VI) ion adsorptivity with a high initial rate was conferred to the ePTFE films. The results obtained in this study emphasize that ePTFE-g-PDMAEMA films can be applied as an adsorbent for Cr(VI) ions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Water reduction in waste-activated sludge by resettling and filtration in batch. Phase (1): pilot-scale experiments to optimize performance.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2014-06-25
    Arturo Trapote,Margarita Jover,Pablo Cartagena,Marouane El Kaddouri,Daniel Prats

    This article describes an effective procedure for reducing the water content of excess sludge production from a wastewater treatment plant by increasing its concentration and, as a consequence, minimizing the volume of sludge to be managed. It consists of a pre-dewatering sludge process, which is used as a preliminary step or alternative to the thickening. It is made up of two discontinuous sequential stages: the first is resettling and the second, filtration through a porous medium. The process is strictly physical, without any chemical additives or electromechanical equipment intervening. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale system, consisting of a column of sedimentation that incorporates a filter medium. Different sludge heights were tested over the filter to verify the influence ofhydrostatic pressure on the various final concentrations of each stage. The results show that the initial sludge concentration may increase by more than 570% by the end of the process with the final volume of sludge being reduced in similar proportions and hydrostatic pressure having a limited effect on this final concentration. Moreover, the value of the hydrostatic pressure at which critical specific cake resistance is reached is established.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Laundry greywater treatment using a fluidized bed reactor: a proposed model based on greywater biodegradation and residence time distribution approach.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2014-03-13
    Pierre-luc David,Gaëlle Bulteau,Philippe Humeau,Claire Gérente,Yves Andrès

    The increasing demand for water and the decrease in global water resources require research into alternative solutions to preserve them. The present study deals with the optimization of a treatment process, i.e. an aerobic fluidized bed reactor and the modelling of the degradation that takes place within it. The methodology employed is based on the hydrodynamics of the treatment process linked to the biodegradation kinetics of greywater coming from a washing machine. The residence time distribution (RTD) approach is selected for the hydrodynamic study. Biodegradation kinetics are quantified by respirometry and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis on several mass quantities of colonized particles. RTD determinations show that there are no dysfunctions in the fluidized bed. Its hydrodynamic behaviour is similar to the one of a continuous stirred-tank reactor. A first-order reaction is obtained from the DOC biodegradation study. A model describing the degradation that takes place into the reactor is proposed, and from a sensitive study, the influence of the operating conditions on DOC biodegradation is defined. The theoretical results calculated from the first-order equation C(t) = 0.593 x C(0) x e(-kt) are compared with the experimental results and validated by a Student test. The value of the kinetic constant k is 0.011 h(-1) in the presence of a biomass carrier. The results highlight that it is possible to design a reactor in order to obtain a carbon content lower than 15 mg C L(-1) when the characteristics of raw greywater are known.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Elemental mercury adsorption on sulfur-impregnated porous carbon - a review.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2014-03-08
    K Suresh Kumar Reddy,Ahmed Al Shoaibi,C Srinivasakannan

    The presence of elemental mercury in wellhead natural gas is an important industrial problem, since even low levels of mercury can damage cryogenic aluminium heat exchangers and other plant equipment. Mercury present in the natural gas stream will also dramatically shorten the useful life of precious metal catalysts. The present work reviews the overall process of elemental mercury removal in practice using non-regenerative adsorbents (e.g. sulfur-impregnated porous carbon), addressing the various influencing parameters such as the method of sulfur impregnation, the impregnation temperature, the sulfur to carbon ratio, the impregnation time, the impact of flue gas constituents, the effect of processing temperature, and the nature of any carbon-containing functional groups present. The distribution of elemental sulfur is found to be the key to developing an effective adsorbent, rather than quantity of sulfur impregnated. Modifying or developing an adsorbent for elemental mercury removal from natural gas needs a detail physical and chemical characteristics assessment of the adsorbent.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Investigation of PM10 sources in Santa Catarina, Brazil through graphical interpretation analysis combined with receptor modelling.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2014-02-18
    L Hoinaski,D Franco,R M Stuetz,E C Sivret,H de Melo Lisboa

    Epidemiological studies have documented that elevated airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations, especially those with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10), are associated with adverse health effects. Two receptor models, UNMIX and positive matrix factorization (PMF), were used to identify and quantify the sources of PM10 concentrations in Tubarão and Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina, Brazil. This region is known for its high pollution levels due to intense industrial activity and exploitation of natural resources. PM10 samples were collected using high volume samplers at two sites in the region and statistical exploratory analysis techniques were applied to identify and assess PM10 sources. The two primary PM10 sources were identified as soil re-suspension/road dust emissions and coal burning emissions, contributing 65-75% and 15-25% of the PM10, respectively. The study confirmed the significance of the influence of local PM10 emissions (power plants, soil re-suspension and road dust emissions) on regional air quality, although no violations of the Brazilian PM10 standards (limit of 150 microg/m3) were observed, with a mean concentration of 27.6 microg/m3 measured in this study. This study demonstrated the usefulness of statistical exploratory analysis techniques in assessing the validity of modelling results and contributing to the interpretation of ambient air quality data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the study and characterization of nitrifying bacteria in nitrifying/denitrifying wastewater treatment plants.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2013-12-20
    A Benakova,J Wanner

    The aim of this study was to verify fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of nitrifying bacteria in activated sludge and biofilms, and to determine the distribution of nitrifiers in selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Both Czech and foreign WWTPs with intensification of nitrification (for example, in situ bioaugmentation of nitrification or biofilms) and without intensification were studied. The two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses of microscopic images were focused on quantifying the parameters and their differences with regard to the arrangement, capacity and sludge age of the WWTPs. This is the first time such a study has been performed in the Czech Republic.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Adsorption of glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides present in biodiesel produced from soybean oil.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2013-12-20
    Erika de Castro Vasques,Célia R Granhen Tavares,Carlos Itsuo Yamamoto,Marcos Rogério Mafra,Luciana Igarashi-Mafra

    The most common methods currently used for the removal of waste glycerol, monoglycerides and diglycerides remaining after phase separation during biodiesel production involve wet processes. These procedures are not environmentally viable because they require large volumes of water and thus generate significant quantities of effluent. In this study, adsorption was employed to replace this purification step. Some commercial activated carbons were tested along with adsorbents chemically modified with HNO3. A kinetics study was conducted at 30 degrees C and adsorption isotherms were obtained at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. The results indicated that the adsorption of glycerol increased with the use of chemically-modified activated carbon, showing that pH has a strong influence on glycerol adsorption. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided the best fit with the experimental data for the monoglycerides while the pseudo-second-order model showed a better fit for the glycerol and diglycerides. The Freundlich model had the best fit with experimental data on the adsorption equilibrium for all temperatures. The thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic and thus adsorption is favoured by increasing the temperature. The adsorption process using chemically-modified activated carbon was therefore very effective for the removal of waste glycerol resulting from biodiesel production, which is of considerable significance given the legal limits imposed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Research and application of arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation by manganese ore permeable reactive barrier.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Yao Li,Yongbing Huang,Weishan Wu,Mengmeng Yan,Yiting Xie

    Arsenic pollution in the water environment is one of the important environmental problems at present. High arsenic groundwater and its resulting local arsenic poisoning have caused a great threat to human life and health. The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an underground in-situ remediation technology, which has the advantages of high efficiency, low energy consumption, long aging, low operating and maintenance costs. By studying the arsenic removal effects of different materials, this paper selected natural manganese ore, manganese ore granulation, loaded manganese ore and mixed manganese ore as fillers for PRB. And it conducted a simulated experiment to study the feasibility of actual PRB engineering to repair arsenic-containing groundwater. The experiment proves that the removal rate of arsenic by four manganese ore materials exceeds 90%. After examining the geographical location and hydrogeological conditions of the PRB project, the Dengjiatang area of Chenzhou City, Hunan Province was selected as the construction area. Studies show that after the completion of PRB, the arsenic content of the effluent at each monitoring point is below 10 μg/L. It indicates that all four fillers achieve the purpose of removing arsenic, and can be applied to the project according to actual needs. Finally, the safety evaluation of the PRB project was carried out. And FeCl3·6H2O was selected as the base curing material and cement was as the process auxiliary stabilizer to solidify the arsenic-containing waste residue. The arsenic concentration in the leaching solution of the arsenic slag after curing is only 1 μg/L.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Removal of high concentration ammonia from wastewater by a combination of partial nitrification and anammox treatment.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-09-20
    F Nishimura,T Hidaka,A Nakagawa,H Yorozu,H Tsuno

    Attached growth reactors were developed separately for solids retention time (SRT)-controlled partial nitrification and for anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) treatment, and a new nitrogen removal process is proposed for wastewater containing highly concentrated ammonia. For partial nitrification, an attached growth medium of polyurethane foam was used. Partial nitrification was achieved stably under a SRT of 4 days, and the abundance ratio of NO2(-)-N to the sum of NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N was approximately 0.8 after 10 days. Under a SRT of4 days, the amoA gene concentrations of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria increased from 1 x 10(8) to 7 x 10(8) copies/l, whereas the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene concentrations of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria did not increase. These results indicate that SRT-controlled operation is a promising technology for achieving partial nitrification. For the Anammox treatment, an attached growth medium of non-woven fabric was used. Inorganic nitrogen removal of approximately 80-90% was observed at an inorganic nitrogen loading rate of over 10 kgN/(m3-medium.d) and an influent nitrogen concentration of 400 mgN/l. Our non-woven fabric reactor showed similar or superior Anammox performance to that reported previously. By using a combination of these two rectors, we can develop a method that combines partial nitrification and Anammox treatment for effective and stable nitrogen removal.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Simultaneous removal of formaldehyde and benzene in indoor air with a combination of sorption- and decomposition-type air filters.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Yoshika Sekine,Mitsuru Fukuda,Yosuke Takao,Takahiro Ozano,Hikaru Sakuramoto,Kuan Wei Wang

    Urgent measures for indoor air pollution caused by volatile organic compounds are required in urban areas of China. Considering indoor air concentration levels and hazardous properties, formaldehyde and benzene should be given priority for pollution control in China. The authors proposed the use of air-cleaning devices, including stand-alone room air cleaners and in-duct devices. This study aimed to find the best combination of sorption and decomposition filters for the simultaneous removal of formaldehyde and benzene, employing four types of air filter units: an activated charcoal filter (ACF), an ACF impregnated with a trapping agent for acidic gases (ACID), a MnO2 filter (MDF) for oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde at room temperature and a photocatalyst filter (PHOTO) coupled with a parallel beam ultraviolet (UV) irradiation device. The performance of the combined systems under air flow rates of 35-165 m3 h(-1) was evaluated in a test chamber (2 m3) with a constant gas generation system. The experimental results and data analysis using a kinetic approach showed the combined system of ACF, PHOTO and MDF significantly reduced both concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene in air without any unpleasant odours caused by the UV-induced photocatalytic reaction. The system was then evaluated in a full-size laboratory (22 m3). This test proved the practical performance of the system even at full scale, and also suggested that the filters should be arranged in the order of PHOTO/ACF/MDF from upstream to downstream. The proposed system has the potential of being used for improving indoor air quality of houses and buildings in China.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Application of fishmeal wastewater as a potential low-cost medium for lipid production by Lipomyces starkeyi HL.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Lihui Huang,Bo Zhang,Baoyu Gao,Guopeng Sun

    Due to the high organic compounds and high salinity of fishmeal wastewater (FW), it was firstly used as a novel medium to produce microbial lipid in this paper. Fermentation of FW without any additives adding showed that the broth was appropriate for the growth of strain Lipomyces starkeyi HL; however, production of 5.34 g l(-1) of biomass containing 20.8% of lipid was not satisfied. In order to enhance the accumulation of lipid and cell growth, FW was supplemented with various concentrations of glucose; meanwhile, the influence of initial pH was investigated. Biomass and lipid yield on FW were markedly affected by glucose concentration and initial pH. The addition of 20 g l(-1) glucose at initial pH 4.0 got the best results: 17.6 g l(-1) of biomass, 2.7 g l(-1) of lipid yield, 91.2% of protein removal and 43.4% of the chemical oxygen demand removal. The variation of fatty acid composition upon time course in the cellular lipid on FW or a mixture of glucose and FW was further studied.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis and comparison of biotreatment of air polluted with ethanol using biofiltration and biotrickling filtration.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Karine Morotti,Antonio Avalos Ramirez,J Peter Jones,Michèle Heitz

    This study analyses the performance of ethanol biofiltration with percolation (biotrickling filtration, BTF) comparing to a conventional biofilter (biofiltration, BF). Two biofilters packed with clay balls were operated in a range of inlet concentrations of ethanol in the air varying from 0.47 to 2.36 g m(-3). For both the BF and BTF, the specific growth rate (mu) and the elimination capacity (EC) decreased with the ethanol inlet concentration, presenting a kinetic of substrate inhibition. A Haldane-type model was adjusted for both biofilters in order to model both EC and mu as a function of the ethanol inlet concentration in the gas. The maximum EC was similar for both biofilters, at around 46 g m(-3) h(-1), whereas the maximum mu was 0.0057 h(-1) for the BF and 0.0103 h(-1) for the BTF. The maximum of ethanol removed, occurred at the lowest inlet concentration of (0.47 gm(-3)), and reached 86% for the BF and 74% for the BTF.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Simulation of a membrane bioreactor pilot treating old landfill leachates with activated sludge model no. 1 and no. 3.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Marcelo Galleguillos,Chéma Keffala,Jean-Luc Vasel

    Activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) and activated sludge model No. 3 (ASM3) can simulate correctly the behaviour of a pilot membrane bioreactor treating old landfill leachates. Both models show similar results, which are consistent with measured data. In this work, a simplified calibration procedure is applied including hydrodynamic and oxygen transfer characterization. The wastewater characterisation was based on a physical-chemical method combined with a BOD analysis for the COD fractions and on standard analysis for nitrogen forms. Default parameters were used for both models; despite this, good simulations were obtained showing the flexibility and accuracy of the well-achieved ASM family models. The sensibility analysis performed allows identification of the most important kinetic, stoichiometric and operational parameters that should be measured to confirm or replace default values. In this specific case, the simulation is most sensitive to heterotrophic yield, particularly under anoxic conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Characterization and optimization of Fe(II)Cit-No reduction by Pseudomonas sp.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Nan Liu,Jin-Lin Jiang,Ling-Lin Cai,Wei Li

    Biological reduction of nitric oxide (NO), chelated by ferrous L (L: chelate reagent), to N2 is one of the core processes in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated technique for nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal from flue gases. In this study, a newly isolated strain, Pseudomonas sp., was used to reduce NO chelated by Fe(II)Cit (Cit: citrate) as Fe(II)Cit-NO, and some factors were investigated. The results showed that, at the NO concentration of 670 mg/m3, 65.9% of NO was totally reduced within 25 h under anaerobic conditions, and the optimal conditions for the bioreduction of NO were found. The strain of Pseudomonas sp. could efficiently use glucose as the carbon source for Fe(II)Cit-NO reduction. Though each complex could be reduced by its own dedicated bacterial strain, Fe(III)Cit could also be reduced by the strain of Pseudomonas sp. The nitrite ion, NO2-, could inhibit cell growth and thus affect the Fe(III) reduction process. These findings provide some useful data for Fe(II)Cit-NO reduction, scrubber solution regeneration and NOx removal process design.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Treatment of aqueous and simulated wastewater of Luganil blue N dye--a new electrochemical approach.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Sarala Puttappa,Venkatesha Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    Treatment of aqueous solution containing Luganil blue N (LBN) azo dye was performed by an electrochemical method under galvanostatic conditions using an undivided cell with platinum electrodes as working and auxiliary electrodes and standard calomel as the reference electrode. The aqueous solution of NaCl was used as the supporting electrolyte. Preliminary voltammetric studies were performed to establish the mode of degradation process. The effect of polarity of the electrode on degradation and decolouration rate was studied. The effect of the supporting electrolytes, concentration of NaCl, electrolysis time, solution pH and initial dye concentration on degradation rate were evaluated. The optimized operating conditions were used for the treatment of simulated wastewater containing LBN dye. The electrolysis process was monitored by an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer and measuring the chemical oxygen demand of the electrolysed solutions. The degradation products were identified using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry studies, and a suitable mechanism for the LBN dye degradation was proposed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Application of the International Water Association activated sludge models to describe aerobic sludge digestion.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    M Ghorbani,C Eskicioglu

    Batch and semi-continuous flow aerobic digesters were used to stabilize thickened waste-activated sludge at different initial conditions and mean solids retention times. Under dynamic conditions, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids (VSS) and total and particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD and PCOD) were monitored in the batch reactors and effluent from the semi-continuous flow reactors. Activated Sludge Model (ASM) no. 1 and ASM no. 3 were applied to measured data (calibration data set) to evaluate the consistency and performances of models at different flow regimes for digester COD and VSS modelling. The results indicated that both ASM1 and ASM3 predicted digester COD, VSS and PCOD concentrations well (R2, Ra2 > or = 0.93). Parameter estimation concluded that compared to ASM1, ASM3 parameters were more consistent across different batch and semi-continuous flow runs with different operating conditions. Model validation on a data set independent from the calibration data successfully predicted digester COD (R2 = 0.88) and VSS (R2 = 0.94) concentrations by ASM3, while ASM1 overestimated both reactor COD (R2 = 0.74) and VSS concentrations (R2 = 0.79) after 15 days of aerobic batch digestion.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    Yanlin Zhang,Jonathan W C Wong,Zhenyong Zhao,Ammaiyappan Selvam

    Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effects of nickel(II) and chromium(VI) on oxygen demand, nitrogen and metal removal in a sequencing batch reactor.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    S M Khor,S L Ng,P E Lim,C E Seng

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects ofNi(II) and Cr(VI) individually and in combination on the simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and metals under a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation. Three identical laboratory-scale SBRs were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE periods in a ratio of 1:12:1:2:8 for a cycle time of 24 h until the steady state was achieved. Nickel(II) at increasing concentrations up to 35 mg/L was added to one of the reactors; Cr(VI) at increasing concentrations up to 25 mg/L was added to a second reactor; while a combination of Ni(II) and Cr(VI) in equal concentrations up to 10 mg/L was added to a third reactor. The results demonstrate that both Ni(II) and Cr(VI) exerted a more pronounced inhibitory effect on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) than on COD removal. Synergistic and antagonistic inhibitory effects on the rates of COD and AN removal, respectively, were observed for the 50% Ni(II) and 50% Cr(VI) (w/w) mixture in the concentration range between 10 and 20 mg/L. The simultaneous presence of 50% Ni(II) and 50% Cr(VI) at a concentration of 20 mg/L resulted in system failure.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Isolation and characterization of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes from phenanthrene degraders Sphingomonas, sp. ZP1 and Pseudomonas sp. ZP2.
    Environ. Technol. (IF 1.918) Pub Date : 2012-03-24
    He-Ping Zhao,Sheng-Hua Liang,Xiaoe Yang

    Two bacterial strains, Sphingomonas sp. ZP1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri sp ZP2, were identified as having phenanthrene-degrading ability and were characterized. The activity of catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C230) of both strains was measured. With degradation of phenanthrene with an initial concentration of 250 ppm, the C230 activity of both strain ZP1 and ZP2 increased. The ZP1 strain consumed all phenanthrene at day 6, and strain ZP2 degraded 250 ppm of phenanthrene at around day 5; C230 activity in strain ZP1 reached its peak of 6.92 U at day 6, and C230 activity in strain ZP2 achieved 7.80 U as its peak at day 5. After all phenanthrene (250ppm) was consumed, C230 activity in both Sphingomonas sp. ZP1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri ZP2 decreased. Analysis of the C230 gene sequence indicated that gene PhnZP1 from strain ZP1 has close sequence similarity with the C230 gene from the nearest strain Sphingomonas. sp. KMG 425 (98% identity), 97% similarity with the C230 gene catA from S. paucimobilis sp. TZS-7, and 94% similar with catE gene from S. sp. HV3. The sequence of the C230 gene PhnZP2 of strain ZP2 has 98% similarity with the cmpE gene from strain S. sp., 92% similarity with the phnE gene from P. sp. DJ77 strain, and 90% similarity with all selected C230 genes from Pseudomonas genus strains.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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