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  • US imperiled species are most vulnerable to habitat loss on private lands
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Adam J Eichenwald; Michael J Evans; Jacob W Malcom

    To stem the ongoing loss of biodiversity, conservation practitioners must distinguish between effective and ineffective approaches for protecting species habitats. Using Google Earth Engine and 31 years of Landsat images, we quantified changes in the habitats of 24 vertebrates listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) and on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Co‐producing knowledge: the Integrated Ecosystem Model for resource management in Arctic Alaska
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Eugénie S Euskirchen; Kristin Timm; Amy L Breen; Stephen Gray; T Scott Rupp; Philip Martin; Joel H Reynolds; Amanda Sesser; Karen Murphy; Jeremy S Littell; Alec Bennett; W Robert Bolton; Tobey Carman; Hélène Genet; Brad Griffith; Tom Kurkowski; Mark J Lara; Sergei Marchenko; Dmitry Nicolsky; Santosh Panda; Vladimir Romanovsky; Ruth Rutter; Colin L Tucker; A David McGuire

    Assessments of climate‐change effects on ecosystem processes and services in high‐latitude regions are hindered by a lack of decision‐support tools capable of forecasting possible future landscapes. We describe a collaborative effort to develop and apply the Integrated Ecosystem Model (IEM) for Alaska and northwestern Canada to explore how climate change influences interactions among disturbance regimes

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Recurring outburst floods from drained lakes: an emerging Arctic hazard
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Christopher D Arp; Benjamin M Jones; Kenneth M Hinkel; Douglas L Kane; Matthew S Whitman; Richard Kemnitz

    New development in regions with rapidly changing climates may experience unforeseen hazards. Thermokarst lakes (bodies of freshwater that collect in depressions formed by thawing permafrost) cover 20% of Arctic lowlands and are naturally prone to causing catastrophic flooding. Cumulative lake drainage over time has resulted in up to 60% landscape coverage by drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs)

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Aboveground soil supports high levels of biological activity in oil palm plantations
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Anton Potapov; Roman Bonnier; Dorothee Sandmann; Simin Wang; Rahayu Widyastuti; Stefan Scheu; Valentyna Krashevska

    Oil palm plantations are expanding rapidly throughout Southeast Asia due to increasing global food demand, thereby putting greater pressure on local ecosystems. These plantations usually replace rainforests, resulting in major losses of soil structure and fertility, and belowground biodiversity. However, despite causing soil degradation, oil palms may provide a novel microhabitat for soil biota in

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • The dilemma of altitudinal shifts: caught between high temperature and low oxygen
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Dean Jacobsen

    Global warming is expected to drive species toward higher altitudes. Indeed, most documented range shifts are upward, but observed shifts are often far from model predictions, and even downward shifts are common. Can such counterintuitive observations be explained? Metabolic oxygen demand rises with temperature in ectothermic animals, but levels of metabolic sensitivity to temperature increases (Q10)

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Changes in China's water resources in the early 21st century
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Shengli Tao; Heng Zhang; Yuhao Feng; Jiangling Zhu; Qiong Cai; Xinyu Xiong; Suhui Ma; Leqi Fang; Wenjing Fang; Di Tian; Xia Zhao; Jingyun Fang

    Nearly 19% of the world's population lives in China, yet the country contains only 7% of the planet's fresh water. Combining remotely sensed data and ground‐based measurements, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of recent changes in China's water resources. Beginning in the 21st century, glaciers in western China have been melting at very high rates; lakes on the Tibetan Plateau have been expanding

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • From eDNA to citizen science: emerging tools for the early detection of invasive species
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Eric R Larson; Brittney M Graham; Rafael Achury; Jaime J Coon; Melissa K Daniels; Daniel K Gambrell; Kacie L Jonasen; Gregory D King; Nicholas LaRacuente; Tolulope IN Perrin‐Stowe; Emily M Reed; Christopher J Rice; Selina A Ruzi; Margaret W Thairu; Jared C Wilson; Andrew V Suarez

    Biological invasions are a form of global change threatening biodiversity, ecosystem stability, and human health, and cost government agencies billions of dollars in remediation and eradication programs. Attempts to eradicate introduced species are most successful when detection of newly established populations occurs early in the invasion process. We review existing and emerging tools – specifically

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Complex responses of global insect pests to climate warming
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Philipp Lehmann; Tea Ammunét; Madeleine Barton; Andrea Battisti; Sanford D Eigenbrode; Jane Uhd Jepsen; Gregor Kalinkat; Seppo Neuvonen; Pekka Niemelä; John S Terblanche; Bjørn Økland; Christer Björkman

    Although it is well known that insects are sensitive to temperature, how they will be affected by ongoing global warming remains uncertain because these responses are multifaceted and ecologically complex. We reviewed the effects of climate warming on 31 globally important phytophagous (plant‐eating) insect pests to determine whether general trends in their responses to warming were detectable. We

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Exit strategies for wildlife conservation: why they are rare and why every institution needs one
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Carlos R Ruiz‐Miranda; L Ignacio Vilchis; Ronald R Swaisgood

    Exit strategies – plans to end involvement in a project once selected criteria have been reached – are rare in conservation planning but can play a vital role in the conservation planning process; such strategies also prepare the institution, its staff, its partners, and a wider group of stakeholders for eventual success or failure and signal when it is time to move on. Exit strategies may indicate

    更新日期:2020-02-03
  • Rewilding of Fukushima's human evacuation zone
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Phillip C Lyons; Kei Okuda; Matthew T Hamilton; Thomas G Hinton; James C Beasley

    There is substantial interest in understanding the ecological impacts of the nuclear accidents at the Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. However, population‐level data for large mammals have been limited, and there remains much speculation regarding the status of wildlife species in these areas. Using a network of remote cameras placed along a gradient of radiological contamination

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Who studies where? Boosting tropical conservation research where it is most needed
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Ana L Reboredo Segovia; Donato Romano; Paul R Armsworth

    Despite the mounting threats that tropical ecosystems face, conservation in the tropics remains severely under‐researched relative to temperate systems. Efforts to address this knowledge gap have so far largely failed to analyze the relationship between an author's choice of study site and that author's country of origin. We examined factors that motivate both foreign and domestic scientists to conduct

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Importance of Indigenous Peoples’ lands for the conservation of Intact Forest Landscapes
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    John E Fa; James EM Watson; Ian Leiper; Peter Potapov; Tom D Evans; Neil D Burgess; Zsolt Molnár; Álvaro Fernández‐Llamazares; Tom Duncan; Stephanie Wang; Beau J Austin; Harry Jonas; Cathy J Robinson; Pernilla Malmer; Kerstin K Zander; Micha V Jackson; Erle Ellis; Eduardo S Brondizio; Stephen T Garnett

    Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs) are critical strongholds for the environmental services that they provide, not least for their role in climate protection. On the basis of information about the distributions of IFLs and Indigenous Peoples’ lands, we examined the importance of these areas for conserving the world's remaining intact forests. We determined that at least 36% of IFLs are within Indigenous

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Catalyzing fisheries conservation investment
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Timothy P Fitzgerald; Phoebe R Higgins; Emma Quilligan; Suresh A Sethi; John Tobin‐de la Puente

    Wild‐caught fish account for approximately one‐half of all seafood consumed globally, yet there is strong evidence that improved science and management are needed to ensure the biological, economic, and social sustainability of this critical food source. Presently, insufficient resources are allocated to achieve such sustainability, but conservation finance offers promising new sources of funding for

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Citizen science in developing countries: how to improve volunteer participation
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Fabrice Requier; Georg KS Andersson; Facundo J Oddi; Lucas A Garibaldi

    Citizen science is a powerful tool for connecting members of the public with research and for obtaining large amounts of data. However, it is far less commonly implemented in developing countries than in developed countries. We conducted a large‐scale citizen‐science program monitoring honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony losses in Argentina to examine how a national consortium composed of local coordinators

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Crowd‐sourced data reveal social–ecological mismatches in phenology driven by climate
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Ian K Breckheimer, Elli J Theobald, Nicoleta C Cristea, Anna K Wilson, Jessica D Lundquist, Regina M Rochefort, Janneke HilleRisLambers

    Shifts in phenology that are driven by climate change have substantial impacts on ecosystems, but the effects of these ecological shifts on coupled social–ecological systems remain largely unexplored. Using a large database of crowd‐sourced photographs from the image‐hosting website Flickr, we show that early snow disappearance conditions similar to those expected by the late 21st century cause the

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Hotspots of nitrogen deposition in the world's urban areas: a global data synthesis
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Stephen M Decina, Lucy R Hutyra, Pamela H Templer

    Human activities have altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, elevating rates of atmospheric N deposition up to tenfold above pre‐industrial levels, with consequences for ecosystem function and human health. To date, most N deposition studies have been carried out in rural areas; however, there has been a recent surge of N deposition studies conducted in urban ecosystems due to the increased recognition

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Back to the future: rethinking socioecological systems underlying high nature value farmlands
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Angela Lomba, Francisco Moreira, Sebastian Klimek, Robert HG Jongman, Caroline Sullivan, James Moran, Xavier Poux, João P Honrado, Teresa Pinto‐Correia, Tobias Plieninger, David I McCracken

    Farmlands are currently among the dominant uses of the land. When managed under low‐input farming systems, farmlands are associated with diverse cultural and natural heritages around the world. Known in Europe as high nature value (HNV) farmlands, these agricultural landscapes and their associated farming systems evolved as tightly coupled socioecological systems, and are essential to biodiversity

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Successful molecular detection studies require clear communication among diverse research partners
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Brittany A Mosher, Riley F Bernard, Jeffrey M Lorch, David AW Miller, Katherine LD Richgels, C LeAnn White, Evan H Campbell Grant

    Molecular detection techniques are powerful tools used in ecological applications ranging from diet analyses to pathogen surveillance. Research partnerships that use these tools often involve collaboration among professionals with expertise in field biology, laboratory techniques, quantitative modeling, wildlife disease, and natural resource management. However, in many cases, each of these collaborators

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Conserving transboundary wildlife migrations: recent insights from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Arthur D Middleton, Hall Sawyer, Jerod A Merkle, Matthew J Kauffman, Eric K Cole, Sarah R Dewey, Justin A Gude, David D Gustine, Douglas E McWhirter, Kelly M Proffitt, PJ White

    Animal migrations are ecologically, culturally, and economically important. Ungulate populations in many parts of Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas migrate long distances to access seasonally available resources, traversing vast landscapes in large numbers. Yet some migrations are declining, raising concerns among scientists and natural resource managers. We synthesize recent advances in ungulate

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Natural variation in coral reef trophic structure across environmental gradients
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Adel Heenan, Gareth J Williams, Ivor D Williams

    Policies designed to address current challenges to the sustainability of fisheries generally use an ecosystem‐based approach – one that incorporates interactions between fishes, fishers, and the environment. Fishing alters the trophic structure among coral reef fish but properly assessing those impacts requires an understanding of how and why that structure varies naturally across scales. Using a combination

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Anthropogenic mortality in mammals increases with the human footprint
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Jacob E Hill, Travis L DeVault, Guiming Wang, Jerrold L Belant

    Over the Earth's terrestrial surface, wildlife species are adversely affected by an increasing number of anthropogenic impacts to the landscape, collectively termed the “human footprint”. However, there is limited understanding of how the human footprint influences cause‐specific mortality in wildlife. We conducted a synthesis of cause‐specific mortality of North American terrestrial mammals, compiling

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • City sicker? A meta‐analysis of wildlife health and urbanization
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Maureen H Murray, Cecilia A Sánchez, Daniel J Becker, Kaylee A Byers, Katherine EL Worsley‐Tonks, Meggan E Craft

    Urban development can alter resource availability, land use, and community composition, which, in turn, influences wildlife health. Generalizable relationships between wildlife health and urbanization have yet to be quantified and could vary across different measures of health and among species. We present a phylogenetic meta‐analysis of 516 comparisons of the toxicant loads, parasitism, body condition

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Quantifying the contribution of citizen science to broad‐scale ecological databases
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Autumn C Poisson, Ian M McCullough, Kendra S Cheruvelil, Kevin C Elliott, Jo A Latimore, Patricia A Soranno

    Ecological research increasingly relies on broad‐scale databases containing information collected by personnel from a variety of sources, including government agencies, universities, and citizen‐science programs. However, the contribution of citizen‐science programs to these databases is not well known. We analyzed one such database to quantify the contribution of citizen science to lake water‐quality

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Marine top predators as climate and ecosystem sentinels
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Elliott L Hazen, Briana Abrahms, Stephanie Brodie, Gemma Carroll, Michael G Jacox, Matthew S Savoca, Kylie L Scales, William J Sydeman, Steven J Bograd

    The rapid pace of environmental change in the Anthropocene necessitates the development of a new suite of tools for measuring ecosystem dynamics. Sentinel species can provide insight into ecosystem function, identify hidden risks to human health, and predict future change. As sentinels, marine apex (top) predators offer a unique perspective into ocean processes, given that they can move across ocean

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Climate risks to Amazon agriculture suggest a rationale to conserve local ecosystems
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Marcos H Costa, Leonardo C Fleck, Avery S Cohn, Gabriel M Abrahão, Paulo M Brando, Michael T Coe, Rong Fu, Deborah Lawrence, Gabrielle F Pires, Raphael Pousa, Britaldo S Soares‐Filho

    In southern Amazonia, more than half of all cropland is devoted to the production of two rainfed crops per year, an agricultural practice known as “double cropping” (DC). Climate change, including feedbacks between changes in land use and the local climate, is shortening the extent of the historical rainy season in southern Amazonia, increasing the risk of future detrimental environmental conditions

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Satellites will address critical science priorities for quantifying ocean carbon
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Jamie D Shutler, Rik Wanninkhof, Philip D Nightingale, David K Woolf, Dorothee CE Bakker, Andy Watson, Ian Ashton, Thomas Holding, Bertrand Chapron, Yves Quilfen, Chris Fairall, Ute Schuster, Masakatsu Nakajima, Craig J Donlon

    The ability to routinely quantify global carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption by the oceans has become crucial: it provides a powerful constraint for establishing global and regional carbon (C) budgets, and enables identification of the ecological impacts and risks of this uptake on the marine environment. Advances in understanding, technology, and international coordination have made it possible to measure

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Integrating geographically isolated wetlands into land management decisions.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2017-08-01
    Heather E Golden,Irena F Creed,Genevieve Ali,Nandita B Basu,Brian P Neff,Mark C Rains,Daniel L McLaughlin,Laurie C Alexander,Ali A Ameli,Jay R Christensen,Grey R Evenson,Charles N Jones,Charles R Lane,Megan Lang

    Wetlands across the globe provide extensive ecosystem services. However, many wetlands - especially those surrounded by uplands, often referred to as geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) - remain poorly protected. Protection and restoration of wetlands frequently requires information on their hydrologic connectivity to other surface waters, and their cumulative watershed-scale effects. The integration

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A world without parasites: exploring the hidden ecology of infection.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2015-10-01
    Chelsea L Wood,Pieter Tj Johnson

    Parasites have historically been considered a scourge, deserving of annihilation. Although parasite eradications rank among humanity's greatest achievements, new research is shedding light on the collateral effects of parasite loss. Here, we explore a "world without parasites": a thought experiment for illuminating the ecological roles that parasites play in ecosystems. While there is robust evidence

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2014-06-04
    Melissa R McHale,David N Bunn,Steward Ta Pickett,Wayne Twine

    Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the "Global North"), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • From superspreaders to disease hotspots: linking transmission across hosts and space.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2013-03-14
    Sara H Paull,Sejin Song,Katherine M McClure,Loren C Sackett,A Marm Kilpatrick,Pieter T J Johnson

    Since the identification and imprisonment of "Typhoid Mary," a woman who infected at least 47 people with typhoid in the early 1900s, epidemiologists have recognized that 'superspreading' hosts play a key role in disease epidemics. Such variability in transmission also exists among species within a community (amplification hosts) and among habitat patches across a landscape (disease 'hotspots'), underscoring

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ecological theory to enhance infectious disease control and public health policy.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2005-02-01
    Katherine F Smith,Andrew P Dobson,F Ellis McKenzie,Leslie A Real,David L Smith,Mark L Wilson

    Through the work of international public health organizations and advancements in the biological and technological sciences, substantial progress has been made in our ability to prevent, control, locally eliminate, and in one case eradicate infectious diseases. Yet each successful control or local elimination has been met with the emergence of new pathogens, the evolution of novel strains, or different

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Identifying technology solutions to bring conservation into the innovation era
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Gwenllian Iacona, Anurag Ramachandra, Jennifer McGowan, Alasdair Davies, Lucas Joppa, Lian Pin Koh, Eric Fegraus, Edward Game, Gurutzeta Guillera‐Arroita, Rob Harcourt, Karlina Indraswari, José J Lahoz‐Monfort, Jessica L Oliver, Hugh P Possingham, Adrian Ward, David W Watson, James EM Watson, Brendan A Wintle, Iadine Chadès

    Innovation has the potential to enable conservation science and practice to keep pace with the escalating threats to global biodiversity, but this potential will only be realized if such innovations are designed and developed to fulfill specific needs and solve well‐defined conservation problems. We propose that business‐world strategies for assessing the practicality of innovation can be applied to

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Using chemical language to shape future marine health
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Mahasweta Saha, Elisa Berdalet, Ylenia Carotenuto, Patrick Fink, Tilmann Harder, Uwe John, Fabrice Not, Georg Pohnert, Philippe Potin, Erik Selander, Wim Vyverman, Thomas Wichard, Valerio Zupo, Michael Steinke

    “Infochemicals” (information‐conveying chemicals) dominate much of the underwater communication in biological systems. They influence the movement and behavior of organisms, the ecological interactions between and across populations, and the trophic structure of marine food webs. However, relative to their terrestrial equivalents, the wider ecological and economic importance of marine infochemicals

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Anthropogenic noise in US national parks – sources and spatial extent
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Rachel T Buxton, Megan F McKenna, Daniel Mennitt, Emma Brown, Kurt Fristrup, Kevin R Crooks, Lisa M Angeloni, George Wittemyer

    In an era of unprecedented environmental change, US national parks are refuges of natural ecosystems and facilitate connections between humans and nature. However, anthropogenic noise is an increasingly pervasive threat in these parks. To diagnose noise levels and sources, we analyzed thousands of hours of acoustic recordings collected across park units and summarized results from continental‐scale

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Energy development reveals blind spots for ecosystem conservation in the Amazon Basin
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Elizabeth P Anderson, Tracey Osborne, Javier A Maldonado‐Ocampo, Megan Mills‐Novoa, Leandro Castello, Mariana Montoya, Andrea C Encalada, Clinton N Jenkins

    Energy development – as manifested by the proliferation of hydroelectric dams and increased oil and gas exploration – is a driver of change in Amazonian ecosystems. However, prevailing approaches to Amazonian ecosystem conservation that focus on terrestrial protected areas and Indigenous territories do not offer sufficient insurance against the risks associated with energy development. Here, we explore

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Non‐native species are a global issue for marine protected areas
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Josephine C Iacarella, Dominique Saheed, Anya Dunham, Natalie C Ban

    The global extent of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing as nations strive to meet UN conservation targets, yet non‐native species (NNS) are a critically overlooked stressor that threatens MPA conservation goals. Despite evidence that marine NNS affect protected species and habitats, there is limited understanding of the pervasiveness of this threat and the extent to which resource managers

    更新日期:2019-09-04
  • Side-swiped: Ecological cascades emanating from earthworm invasion.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Lee E Frelich,Bernd Blossey,Erin K Cameron,Andrea Dávalos,Nico Eisenhauer,Timothy Fahey,Olga Ferlian,Peter M Groffman,Evan Larson,Scott R Loss,John C Maerz,Victoria Nuzzo,Kyungsoo Yoo,Peter B Reich

    Non-native, invasive earthworms are altering soils throughout the world. Ecological cascades emanating from these changes stem from earthworm-caused changes in detritus processing occurring at a mid-point in the trophic pyramid, rather than the more familiar bottom-up or top-down cascades. They include fundamental changes (microcascades) in soil morphology, bulk density, nutrient leaching, and a shift

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • Plants in the city: understanding recruitment dynamics in urban landscapes
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Max R Piana, Myla FJ Aronson, Steward TA Pickett, Steven N Handel

    In cities, naturally regenerating plant populations are critical in sustaining both ecological function and ecosystem services. However, scientists have a limited understanding of the urban ecosystem conditions and stressors that influence basic life‐history processes and constraints for plant populations. Here, we synthesize current research on the recruitment dynamics of urban plants (processes associated

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • Surrogacy in invasion research and management: inferring “impact” from “invasiveness”
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Luke S O'Loughlin, Ben Gooden, Jacob N Barney, David B Lindenmayer

    Biological invasions are known drivers of biodiversity decline, yet the ecological impacts of invaders remain largely unmeasured in many contexts. Consequently, other measures of a species invasion (eg local abundance) are often used as surrogates (or “proxies”) to infer impact on recipient ecosystems. However, the use of surrogates for impact in invasion science and management is often implicit, and

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • Twenty‐five years of the Northwest Forest Plan: what have we learned?
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Thomas A Spies, Jonathan W Long, Susan Charnley, Paul F Hessburg, Bruce G Marcot, Gordon H Reeves, Damon B Lesmeister, Matthew J Reilly, Lee K Cerveny, Peter A Stine, Martin G Raphael

    The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) has guided the management of 17 federal forests in the US Pacific Northwest for the past 25 years. The existing management plans for these national forests – which were amended by the NWFP – are now being evaluated for revision under the US Forest Service's 2012 planning rule. To help inform federal land managers, we reviewed the scientific literature published since

    更新日期:2019-08-29
  • Researcher engagement in policy deemed societally beneficial yet unrewarded.
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Gerald G Singh,Vinicius F Farjalla,Bing Chen,Andrew E Pelling,Elvan Ceyhan,Martin Dominik,Eva Alisic,Jeremy Kerr,Noelle E Selin,Ghada Bassioni,Elena Bennett,Andrew H Kemp,Kai Ma Chan

    Maintaining the continued flow of benefits from science, as well as societal support for science, requires sustained engagement between the research community and the general public. On the basis of data from an international survey of 1092 participants (634 established researchers and 458 students) in 55 countries and 315 research institutions, we found that institutional recognition of engagement

    更新日期:2019-07-30
  • Determining natal origin for improved management of Atlantic bluefin tuna
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Naiara Rodríguez‐Ezpeleta, Natalia Díaz‐Arce, John F Walter, David E Richardson, Jay R Rooker, Leif Nøttestad, Alex R Hanke, James S Franks, Simeon Deguara, Matthew V Lauretta, Piero Addis, Jose Luis Varela, Igaratza Fraile, Nicolas Goñi, Noureddine Abid, Francisco Alemany, Isik K Oray, Joseph M Quattro, Fambaye N Sow, Tomoyuki Itoh, F Saadet Karakulak, Pedro J Pascual‐Alayón, Miguel N Santos, Yohei

    Effective sustainable management of marine fisheries requires that assessed management units (that is, fish stocks) correspond to biological populations. This issue has long been discussed in the context of Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT, Thunnus thynnus) management, which currently considers two unmixed stocks but does not take into account how individuals born in each of the two main spawning grounds

    更新日期:2019-07-30
  • A long‐term assessment of raptor displacement at a wind farm
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Regan Dohm, Christopher S Jennelle, Julie C Garvin, David Drake

    Wind energy development is advancing rapidly, but the potential ramifications of this growth on wildlife, particularly birds and bats, are not fully understood. Wind energy development may affect raptor (birds of prey) populations indirectly by displacing them from their previously occupied habitat; however, there are limited empirical data demonstrating this effect. We performed long‐term raptor surveys

    更新日期:2019-07-30
  • Coral reef ecosystem functioning: eight core processes and the role of biodiversity
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Simon J Brandl, Douglas B Rasher, Isabelle M Côté, Jordan M Casey, Emily S Darling, Jonathan S Lefcheck, J Emmett Duffy

    Coral reefs are in global decline. Reversing this trend is a primary management objective but doing so depends on understanding what keeps reefs in desirable states (ie “functional”). Although there is evidence that coral reefs thrive under certain conditions (eg moderate water temperatures, limited fishing pressure), the dynamic processes that promote ecosystem functioning and its internal drivers

    更新日期:2019-07-30
  • The outsized trophic footprint of marine urbanization
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Martino E Malerba, Craig R White, Dustin J Marshall

    Artificial structures are proliferating along coastlines worldwide, creating new habitat for heterotrophic filter feeders. The energy demand of this heterotrophic biomass is likely to be substantial, but is largely unquantified. Combining in situ surveys, laboratory assays, and information obtained from geographic information systems, we estimated the energy demands of sessile invertebrates found on

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Environmental DNA in lake sediment reveals biogeography of native genetic diversity
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Hedin T Nelson‐Chorney, Corey S Davis, Mark S Poesch, Rolf D Vinebrooke, Christopher M Carli, Mark K Taylor

    Understanding the historical distributions of species is vital to the conservation and restoration of native species, yet such information is often qualitative. We show that the paleolimnological history of threatened freshwater fishes can be reconstructed using species‐diagnostic markers amplified from environmental DNA deposited in lake sediments (lake sedDNA). This method was validated through the

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Underestimating the benefits of marine protected areas for the replenishment of fished populations
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Dustin J Marshall, Steven Gaines, Robert Warner, Diego R Barneche, Michael Bode

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are important tools for managing marine ecosystems. MPAs are expected to replenish nearby exploited populations through the natural dispersal of young, but the models that make these predictions rely on assumptions that have recently been demonstrated to be incorrect for most species of fish. A meta‐analysis showed that fish reproductive output scales “hyperallometrically”

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Is fire “for the birds”? How two rare species influence fire management across the US
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Scott L Stephens, Leda N Kobziar, Brandon M Collins, Raymond Davis, Peter Z Fulé, William Gaines, Joseph Ganey, James M Guldin, Paul F Hessburg, Kevin Hiers, Serra Hoagland, John J Keane, Ronald E Masters, Ann E McKellar, Warren Montague, Malcolm North, Thomas A Spies

    The US Endangered Species Act has enabled species conservation but has differentially impacted fire management and rare bird conservation in the southern and western US. In the South, prescribed fire and restoration‐based forest thinning are commonly used to conserve the endangered red‐cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis; RCW), whereas in the West, land managers continue to suppress fire across

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • The impact of green space and biodiversity on health
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Hakkan Lai, Emily J Flies, Philip Weinstein, Alistair Woodward

    Urban green spaces are associated with many health outcomes, but the mechanisms underlying these links remain unclear. One explanation is that biodiverse microbiomes in green spaces affect human health by modifying immune function. Our systematic review included studies that investigated the relationship between green space and either health or biodiversity. Reported effects of green space on health

    更新日期:2019-07-02
  • Punching above their weight: the ecological and social benefits of pop‐up parks
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Luis Mata; Georgia E Garrard; Fiona Fidler; Christopher D Ives; Cecily Maller; Joab Wilson; Freya Thomas; Sarah A Bekessy

    Current global enthusiasm for urban greening and bringing nature back into cities is unprecedented. Evidence of the socioecological benefits of large, permanent greenspaces is mounting, but the collective potential for pop‐up parks (PUPs) – small, temporary greenspaces – to augment urban ecosystem services is unknown. To showcase the potential of PUPs, we first highlight a case study demonstrating

    更新日期:2019-06-03
  • Island of opportunity: can New Guinea protect amphibians from a globally emerging pathogen?
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Deborah S Bower; Karen R Lips; Yolarnie Amepou; Stephen Richards; Chris Dahl; Elizah Nagombi; Miriam Supuma; Lisa Dabek; Ross A Alford; Lin Schwarzkopf; Mark Ziembicki; Jeffrey N Noro; Amir Hamidy; Graeme R Gillespie; Lee Berger; Carla Eisemberg; Yiming Li; Xuan Liu; Charlotte K Jennings; Burhan Tjaturadi; Andrew Peters; Andrew K Krockenberger; Dillian Nason; Mirza D Kusrini; Rebecca J Webb; Lee F

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) has caused the most widespread, disease‐induced declines and extinctions in vertebrates recorded to date. The largest climatically suitable landmass that may still be free of this fungus is New Guinea. The island is home to a sizeable proportion of the world's known frog species (an estimated 6%), as well as many additional, yet‐to‐be‐described

    更新日期:2019-06-03
  • Ecological islands: conserving biodiversity hotspots in a changing climate
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Jennifer Cartwright

    For decades, botanists have recognized that rare plants are clustered into ecological “islands”: small and isolated habitat patches produced by landscape features such as sinkholes and bedrock outcrops. Insular ecosystems often provide unusually stressful microhabitats for plant growth (due, for example, to their characteristically thin soils, high temperatures, extreme pH, or limited nutrients) to

    更新日期:2019-06-03
  • When pets become pests: the role of the exotic pet trade in producing invasive vertebrate animals
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Julie L Lockwood; Dustin J Welbourne; Christina M Romagosa; Phillip Cassey; Nicholas E Mandrak; Angela Strecker; Brian Leung; Oliver C Stringham; Bradley Udell; Diane J Episcopio‐Sturgeon; Michael F Tlusty; James Sinclair; Michael R Springborn; Elizabeth F Pienaar; Andrew L Rhyne; Reuben Keller

    The annual trade in exotic vertebrates as pets is a multi‐billion‐dollar global business. Thousands of species, and tens of millions of individual animals, are shipped both internationally and within countries to satisfy this demand. Most research on the exotic pet trade has focused on its contribution to native biodiversity loss and disease spread. Here, we synthesize information across taxa and research

    更新日期:2019-06-03
  • Widespread shortfalls in protected area resourcing undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Lauren Coad; James EM Watson; Jonas Geldmann; Neil D Burgess; Fiona Leverington; Marc Hockings; Kathryn Knights; Moreno Di Marco

    Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool in efforts to safeguard biodiversity against increasing anthropogenic threats. As signatories to the 2011–2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, 196 nations pledged support for expansion in the extent of the global PA estate and the quality of PA management. While this has resulted in substantial increases in PA designations, many sites lack the resources needed

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Wildfires as an ecosystem service
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Juli G Pausas; Jon E Keeley

    Wildfires are often perceived as destructive disturbances, but we propose that when integrating evolutionary and socioecological factors, fires in most ecosystems can be understood as natural processes that provide a variety of benefits to humankind. Wildfires generate open habitats that enable the evolution of a diversity of shade‐intolerant plants and animals that have long benefited humans. There

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Connectivity for species on the move: supporting climate‐driven range shifts
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Caitlin E Littlefield; Meade Krosby; Julia L Michalak; Joshua J Lawler

    Many species are already responding to global climate change by shifting their ranges to track suitable climatic conditions. However, habitat loss and fragmentation, coupled with the rapidity of climate change, make it difficult for species to keep pace. It is therefore unsurprising that enhancing landscape connectivity is the most frequently cited climate‐adaptation strategy for conserving biodiversity

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • The oldest trees in China and where to find them
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Jiajia Liu; Bao Yang; David B Lindenmayer

    Extremely old trees are valued and revered by residents in many countries. Yet information about the ages and locations of the oldest living trees is rarely available, especially at the national level. We compiled a series of dendrochronological datasets of the age and location of very old trees (≥1000 years old) across China, and found that there are at least 98 ancient living trees exceeding 1000

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • The ecological uncertainty of wildfire fuel breaks: examples from the sagebrush steppe
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Douglas J Shinneman; Matthew J Germino; David S Pilliod; Cameron L Aldridge; Nicole M Vaillant; Peter S Coates

    Fuel breaks are increasingly being implemented at broad scales (100s to 10,000s of square kilometers) in fire‐prone landscapes globally, yet there is little scientific information available regarding their ecological effects (eg habitat fragmentation). Fuel breaks are designed to reduce flammable vegetation (ie fuels), increase the safety and effectiveness of fire‐suppression operations, and ultimately

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Age and connection to nature: when is engagement critical?
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-04-01
    Joelene Hughes; Mike Rogerson; Jo Barton; Rachel Bragg

    Conservation organizations are increasingly aware of the need to motivate pro‐environmental behavior by connecting people with nature. However, to maximize the effectiveness of the limited resources available, there needs to be a better understanding of the variability in people's connection to nature shown at different ages. We examined connection to nature among people aged 5–75 years, using two

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Advancing urban wildlife research through a multi‐city collaboration
    Front. Ecol. Environ. (IF 10.935) Pub Date : 2019-04-01
    Seth B Magle; Mason Fidino; Elizabeth W Lehrer; Travis Gallo; Matthew P Mulligan; María Jazmín Ríos; Adam A Ahlers; Julia Angstmann; Amy Belaire; Barbara Dugelby; Ashley Gramza; Laurel Hartley; Brandon MacDougall; Travis Ryan; Carmen Salsbury; Heather Sander; Christopher Schell; Kelly Simon; Sarah St Onge; David Drake

    Research on urban wildlife can help promote coexistence and guide future interactions between humans and wildlife in developed regions, but most such investigations are limited to short‐term, single‐species studies, typically conducted within a single city. This restricted focus prevents scientists from recognizing global patterns and first principles regarding urban wildlife behavior and ecology.

    更新日期:2019-04-02
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