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  • Predictors of urinary and blood Metal(loid) concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Pahriya Ashrap; Deborah J. Watkins; Bhramar Mukherjee; Jonathan Boss; Michael J. Richards; Zaira Rosario; Carmen M. Vélez-Vega; Akram Alshawabkeh; José F. Cordero; John D. Meeker

    Given the potential adverse health effects related to toxic trace metal exposure and insufficient or excessive levels of essential trace metals in pregnant women and their fetuses, the present study characterizes biomarkers of metal and metalloid exposure at repeated time points during pregnancy among women in Puerto Rico. We recruited 1040 pregnant women from prenatal clinics and collected urine, blood, and questionnaire data on demographics, product use, food consumption, and water usage at up to three visits. All samples were analyzed for 16 metal(loid)s: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), titanium (Ti), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Urine samples were additionally analyzed for molybdenum (Mo), platinum (Pt), antimony (Sb), tin (Sn), and tungsten (W). Mean concentrations of most metal(loid)s were higher among participants compared to the general US female population. We found weak to moderate correlations for inter-matrix comparisons, and moderate to strong correlations between several metal(loid)s measured within each biological matrix. Blood concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Hg, and Pb, and urinary concentrations of As, Ni, and Co, were shown to reflect reliable biomarkers of exposure. For other metals, repeated samples are recommended for exposure assessment in epidemiology studies. Predictors of metal(loid) biomarkers included fish and rice consumption (urinary As), fish and canned food (blood Hg), drinking public water (blood Pb), smoking (blood Cd), and iron/folic acid supplement use (urinary Cs, Mo, and Sb). Characterization of metal(loid) biomarker variation over time and between matrices, and identification of important exposure sources, may inform future epidemiology studies and exposure reduction strategies.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Environmental performance of an industrial biofilter: Relationship between photochemical oxidation and odorous impacts
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    J. Reyes; M.C. Gutiérrez; M. Toledo; L. Vera; L. Sánchez; J.A. Siles; M.A. Martín
    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Towards a risk evaluation of workers’ exposure to handborne and airborne microbial species as exemplified with waste collection workers
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Anne Mette Madsen; Margit W. Frederiksen; Mikkel Hyldeqvist Jacobsen; Kira Tendal

    Bioaerosol exposure is associated with health problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether it is possible to assess the risks posed by waste collection workers' exposure through identification and characterization of bacterial and fungal species, to which the workers are exposed. Using MALDI-TOF MS, microorganisms in waste collection workers' exposure through air, hand, and contact with the steering wheel were identified. Fungi found in high concentrations from the workers' exposure were characterized for the total inflammatory potential (TIP), cytotoxicity, and biofilm-forming capacity. In total, 180 different bacterial and 37 different fungal species in the workers' exposure samples were identified. Some of them belong to Risk Group 2, e.g. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus fumigatus, some have been associated with occupational health problems e.g. Penicillium citrinum and P. glabrum and some are described as emerging pathogens e.g. Aureobasidium pullulans. The TIP of fungal species was dose-dependent. High TIP values were found for Penicillium italicum, P. brevicompactum, P. citrinum, and P. glabrum. Several species were cytotoxic, e.g. A. niger and P. expansum, while some, e.g. P. chrysogenum, did not affect the cell viability. Based on waste workers’ average inhalation rate, they inhaled up to 2.3 × 104 cfu of A. niger, 7.4 × 104 cfu of P. expansum, and 4.0 × 106 cfu of P. italicum per work day. Some species e.g. A. niger and P. citrinum were able to form biofilm. In conclusion, the workers were exposed to several species of microorganisms of which some to varying degrees can be evaluated concerning risk. Thus, some microorganisms belong to Risk Group 2, and some are described as causing agents of occupational health problems, emerging pathogens, or intrinsically antibiotic resistant. For some other species very little is known. The TIP, cytotoxicity, and ability to form biofilm of the dominating fungi support and expand previous findings. These parameters depended on the species and the dose, thus highlighting the importance of species identification and exposure level in the risk assessment of exposure.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Effects of cold recovery technology on the microbial drinking water quality in unchlorinated distribution systems
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jawairia Imtiaz Ahmad; Gang Liu; Paul W.J.J. van der Wielen; Gertjan Medema; Jan Peter van der Hoek

    Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) are used to supply hygienically safe and biologically stable water for human consumption. The potential of thermal energy recovery from drinking water has been explored recently to provide cooling for buildings. Yet, the effects of increased water temperature induced by this “cold recovery” on the water quality in DWDSs are not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of cold recovery from DWDSs on the microbiological quality of drinking water. For this purpose, three pilot distribution systems were operated in parallel for 38 weeks. System 1 has an operational heat exchanger, mimicking the cold recovery system by maintaining the water temperature at 25 °C; system 2 operated with a non-operational heat exchanger and system 3 run without heat exchanger. The results showed no significant effects on drinking water quality: cell numbers and ATP concentrations remained around 3.5 × 105 cells/ml and 4 ng ATP/l, comparable observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (∼470–490) and similar Shannon indices (7.7–8.9). In the system with cold recovery, a higher relative abundance of Pseudomonas spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. was observed in the drinking water microbial community, but only when the cold recovery induced temperature difference (ΔT) was higher than 9 °C. In the 38 weeks’ old biofilm, higher ATP concentration (475 vs. 89 pg/cm2), lower diversity (observed OTUs: 88 vs. ≥200) and a different bacterial community composition (e.g. higher relative abundance of Novosphingobium spp.) were detected, which did not influence water quality. No impacts were observed for the selected opportunisitic pathogens after introducing cold recovery. It is concluded that cold recovery does not affect bacterial water quality. Further investigation for a longer period is commended to understand the dynamic responses of biofilm to the increased temperature caused by cold recovery.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Metal(loid) exposure assessment and biomarker responses in captive and free-ranging European brown bear (Ursus arctos)
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Maja Lazarus; Tatjana Orct; Agnieszka Sergiel; Lana Vranković; Vlatka Filipović Marijić; Dubravka Rašić; Slaven Reljić; Jasna Aladrović; Tomasz Zwijacz-Kozica; Filip Zięba; Jasna Jurasović; Marijana Erk; Robert Maślak; Nuria Selva; Đuro Huber

    We investigated the level of five non-essential metal(loid)s (As, Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb) and nine essential metals (Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo) in hair and blood components of captive and free-ranging European brown bear populations in Croatia and Poland. Metal(loid) associations with biomarkers of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione-peroxidase, GSH-Px; malondialdehyde, MDA) and metal exposure (metallothionein, MT) were estimated in this top predatory mammal. Lead was the most abundant non-essential metal(loid) in both blood and hair, with 4 of 35 individuals having blood levels over 100 μg/L. A positive association was found between Pb level and SOD activity in blood. Free-ranging bears had higher blood SOD activity, Mn, Zn and Cd levels, hair Co, Cd, Tl and Pb compared to captive individuals, while the opposite was true for Mg and hair Ca thereby reflecting habitat and diet differences. With increasing age, animals showed lower levels of SOD activity and certain essential metals. Females had higher SOD activity and blood levels of some essential metals than males. Hair showed a higher Fe and Co level when sampled during the growth phase and was not predictive of non-essential metal(loid) blood levels. The established metal(loid) baseline values will enable future risk assessment in both captive and wild European brown bear populations.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Climate adaptive crop-residue management for soil-function improvement; recommendations from field interventions at two agro-ecological zones in South Asia
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Dipayan Dey; Tshering Gyeltshen; Amitava Aich; Mrinmoyee Naskar; Arindam Roy

    Utilization of biomass energy from various agricultural wastes for local usages and its removal through open burning potentially increase emission of Green House Gases (GHGs), deteriorate air-quality, formation of tropospheric ozone and create trans-boundary health hazards in countries of South East Asia. The effect of common agro-waste management practices in soil quality and agricultural production system over this part of the world is not well documented. In the present three-years long study, spanning over two entirely different agro-ecological zones of India and Bhutan, highlights the impacts of the burning of agricultural waste in soil physio-chemical properties, biological properties and crop production. The current study also focuses on the alternative usage of crop residue to enhance soil organic carbon, soil moisture, soil nutrients and soil biological activity through the application of biochar and raw agricultural waste generated from the field. It was observed that crop residue used as raw mulch and biochar improved the agricultural production up to 36%–64% over the experimental fields of India and Bhutan. The results from the study disseminated among the local farmers and technological support were provided for practicing alternative crop residue management. Nearly 1450–1500 farmers in India and 100–125 farmers in Bhutan have adopted the agro-waste management practices of removal and re-application of agro-wastes in the field. A total of ∼26000 t of CO2 emission has been reduced in two intervention sites during the study period. The present action-research helps to propose future guidelines for environmental friendly crop residue utilization and management and simultaneously help to improve agricultural yield along with soil quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Emission characteristics of particulate matter, odors, and volatile organic compounds from the grilling of pork
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yun-Yeong Lee; Hyungjoo Park; Yoonjoo Seo; Jeonghee Yun; Jihyun Kwon; Kyung-Won Park; Sang-Beom Han; Kyung Chel Oh; Jun-Min Jeon; Kyung-Suk Cho
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Comparing biochar- and bentonite-supported Fe-based catalysts for selective degradation of antibiotics: Mechanisms and pathway
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Zhe Li; Yuqing Sun; Yang Yang; Yitong Han; Tongshuai Wang; Jiawei Chen; Daniel C.W. Tsang
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Modeling and optimization by particle swarm embedded neural network for adsorption of methylene blue by jicama peroxidase immobilized on buckypaper/polyvinyl alcohol membrane
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lau Yien Jun; Rama Rao Karri; Lau Sie Yon; N.M. Mubarak; Chua Han Bing; Khalid Mohammad; Priyanka Jagadish; E.C. Abdullah
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Validation of RUSLE K factor using aggregate stability in contrasted mediterranean eco-geomorphological landscapes (southern Spain)
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Juan F. Martínez-Murillo; Ricardo Remond; José D. Ruiz-Sinoga

    Mediterranean mountains are facing great environmental and socioeconomic challenges in the current framework of Global Change. One of these is soil degradation, which is one of the major threats in those territories. Soil degradation is more dramatic where eco-geomorphology and land uses with less vegetation cover promote soil erosion. Soil erosion is influenced by soil erodibility, which can be assessed by different methodologies, e.g. RUSLE K factor and aggregate stability of soils. This study deals with the validation of RUSLE K factor by means of soil aggregate stability analysed in two-contrasted watersheds from one Mediterranean mountainous region in South of Spain, under sub-humid and semiarid climatic conditions. In both of them, landscape dynamic from 1956 to 2016 was analysed in order to characterize the modifications in land uses. A total of 361-soil samples was also taken covering all land uses for analysing aggregate stability of soils as well as those soil properties needed to calculate the RUSLE K factor. The results indicated that: i) landscape dynamic was influenced by changes in land uses contributing mainly to an increment in vegetation cover in the rainiest watershed; ii) the analysed soil properties showed very few significant differences between watersheds and between land uses, especially regarding organic matter content; and iii) the validation of K Factor using aggregate stability was better in the rainiest watershed and, within this one, in the natural land uses and irrigated cultivations, meaning where the biotic factors were more influential. These results implicated more researches are necessary, principally, focussed on the validation of the RUSLE K parameter using different fractions of aggregates as well as considering other eco-geomorphological parameters.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Effect of incineration temperature on chromium speciation in real chromium-rich tannery sludge under air atmosphere
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yonglin Yang; Hongrui Ma; Xiangping Chen; Chao Zhu; Xiaojie Li

    As a hazardous waste, the disposal of chromium enriched tannery sludge has attracted increasing public concern due to its potential adverse risks towards the environment. And incineration is considered to be an effective method to stabilize heavy metals, like Cr, in solid phase during tannery sludge treatment. In this study, real chromium enriched tannery sludge without pre-treatment was incinerated at 300°C–1200 °C under air atmosphere to investigate the transformation of chromium speciation. Here detailed thermal behavior, phase transformation and chromium speciation were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD and XPS, respectively. Experimental results show that content of Cr(VI) increases gradually with the increase of temperature from 300 °C to 500 °C and reaches a maximal level of 46% total Cr at 500 °C, with different Cr(VI) species of CaCrO4, MgCrO4 and Cr5O12. However, the content of Cr(VI) decreases gradually with the further increase of temperature, with only about 5% Cr(VI) at high temperature of 1200 °C, due to formation of Cr(III) species of Cr2O3 crystallite and MgCr2O4 spinel. Besides, a growing number of hexagonally shaped flake-like crystallite Cr2O3 can be discovered from characterization results of XRD and SEM. Finally, the reduction of CaCrO4 to Cr2O3 in the presence of SiO2 is thermodynamically feasible over 700 °C, indicating possible transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) through controlled incineration temperature.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • 更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution and adult lung function, with focus on small airway obstruction
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Anaïs Havet; Sébastien Hulo; Damien Cuny; Margaux Riant; Florent Occelli; Nathalie Cherot-Kornobis; Jonathan Giovannelli; Régis Matran; Philippe Amouyel; Jean-Louis Edmé; Luc Dauchet

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution is linked to a decline in lung function, data on flow at low lung volumes that may be more specific of small airway obstruction are still scarce. We aimed to study the associations between residential exposure to air pollution and lung function, with specific focus on small airways obstruction. We assessed 2995 French participants (aged between 40 and 65) in the ELISABET cross-sectional survey. Residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with a diameter <10 μm (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) were assessed. The spirometric parameters were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) and at 75% of FVC (FEF75). Coefficients in linear regression models were expressed as the z-score [95% confidence interval] for an increment of 5 μg/m3 in NO2 and 2 μg/m3 in PM10 and SO2. NO2 was associated with significantly lower values of FEV1 (−0.10 [-0.15;-0.05]), FVC (−0.06 [-0.11;-0.02]), FEV1/FVC (−0.07 [-0.11;-0.03]), FEF25-75 (−0.09 [-0.14;-0.05]) and FEF75 (−0.08 [-0.12;-0.04]). PM10 was associated with significantly lower values of FEV1 (−0.10 [-0.15;-0.04]), FVC (−0.06 [-0.11;-0.01]), FEV1/FVC (−0.06 [‒0.11;-0.01]), FEF25-75 (−0.08 [-0.13;-0.03]) and FEF75 (−0.08 [-0.12;-0.04]). SO2 was associated with significantly lower values of FEV1 (−0.09 [-0.16;-0.02]), FEV1/FVC (−0.07 [-0.13;-0.01]), FEF25-75 (−0.09 [-0.15;-0.02]) and FEF75 (−0.08 [-0.14;-0.03]) but not FVC (−0.05 [-0.11; 0.009]). Even though spatial variations in pollutant levels were low, residential exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with lower lung function, including lower FEF25-75 and FEF75 suggesting small airway obstruction.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Maternal-child exposure to metals during pregnancy in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil: The Rio Birth Cohort Study of Environmental Exposure and Childhood Development (PIPA project)
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Monica Seefelder de Assis Araujo; Nataly Damasceno Figueiredo; Volney M. Camara; Carmen I.R. Froes Asmus

    Background Environmental metal exposure during pregnancy can affect intrauterine growth and disrupt child development. Metal exposure in urban areas can occur through the air, water and food routes. The city of Rio de Janeiro is the second more populous of Brazil and the sixth most populous in the American continent and is characterized by a significant social-economic inequality and a large range of urban organization problems. Objectives To evaluate environmental heavy metal (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury) exposure in mother-newborns pairs in an urban area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods All pregnant women, over 16 years of age, who came to the University Maternity School for newborn delivery orientation, between October and November 2017, were invited to participate in the project. Socioeconomic, cultural, leisure, and living conditions data of from the parents were collected via questionnaire; whole maternal blood and umbilical cord blood samples were also collected. Results Of the 209 eligible pregnant women 142 (68%) accepted the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 131 (92.3%) mothers delivered live born children, and maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected from 117 mother-newborn pairs. Metal concentrations above the detection limit were detected in all maternal and cord blood samples. Strong correlations of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations between maternal and umbilical cord blood were observed. Median lead and arsenic concentrations in maternal and umbilical cord blood were higher than values reported in other studies conducted in Brazil and worldwide. Lead concentrations in 25% of the umbilical cord blood samples were near of 5 μg/dL (P75 = 4.92 μg/dL). Conclusion The results reported herein indicate the need for the establishment of health surveillance programs in Brazil, in order to investigate and monitor the health effects of environmental heavy metal exposure in children since the gestation period.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Effects of excessive impregnation, magnesium content, and pyrolysis temperature on MgO-coated watermelon rind biochar and its lead removal capacity
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jingzhuo Zhang; Deyi Hou; Zhengtao Shen; Fei Jin; David O'Connor; Shizhen Pan; Yong Sik Ok; Daniel C.W. Tsang; Nanthi S. Bolan; Daniel S. Alessi
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Photo-induced degradation of bio-toxic Ciprofloxacin using the porous 3D hybrid architecture of an atomically thin sulfur-doped g-C3N4/ZnO nanosheet
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Bramha Gupta; Ashok Kumar Gupta; Partha Sarathi Ghosal; Chandra Sekhar Tiwary
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Multi-media biomarkers: Integrating information to improve lead exposure assessment
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yuri Levin-Schwartz; Chris Gennings; Birgit Claus Henn; Brent A. Coull; Donatella Placidi; Roberto Lucchini; Donald R. Smith; Robert O. Wright

    Exposure assessment traditionally relies on biomarkers that measure chemical concentrations in individual biological media (i.e., blood, urine, etc.). However, chemicals distribute unevenly among different biological media, thus each medium provides incomplete information about body burden. We propose that machine learning and statistical approaches can create integrated exposure estimates from multiple biomarker matrices that better represent overall body burden, which we term multi-media biomarkers (MMBs). We measured lead (Pb) in blood, urine, hair and nails from 253 Italian adolescents aged 11–14 years from the Public Health Impact of Metals Exposure (PHIME) cohort. We derived aggregated MMBs from the four biomarkers and then tested their association with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) IQ scores. We used three approaches to derive the Pb MMB: one supervised learning technique, weighted quantile sum regression (WQS), and two unsupervised learning techniques, independent component analysis (ICA) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Overall, the Pb MMB derived using WQS was most consistently associated with IQ scores and was the only method to be statistically significant for Verbal IQ, Performance IQ and Total IQ. A one standard deviation increase in the WQS MMB was associated with lower Verbal IQ (β [95% CI] = −2.2 points [-3.7, −0.6]), Performance IQ (−1.9 points [-3.5, −0.4]) and Total IQ (−2.1 points [-3.8, −0.5]). Blood Pb was negatively associated with only Verbal IQ, with a one standard deviation increase in blood Pb being associated with a −1.7 point (95% CI: [-3.3, −0.1]) decrease in Verbal IQ. Increases of one standard deviation in the ICA MMB were associated with lower Verbal IQ (−1.7 points [-3.3, −0.1]) and lower Total IQ (−1.7 points [-3.3, −0.1]). Similarly, an increase of one standard deviation in the NMF MMB was associated with lower Verbal IQ (−1.8 points [-3.4, −0.2]) and lower Total IQ (−1.8 points [-3.4, −0.2]). Weights highlighting the contributions of each medium to the MMB revealed that blood Pb was the largest contributor to most MMBs, although the weights varied from more than 80% for the ICA and NMF MMBs to between 30% and 54% for the WQS-derived MMBs. Our results suggest that MMBs better reflect the total body burden of a chemical that may be acting on target organs than individual biomarkers. Estimating MMBs improved our ability to estimate the full impact of Pb on IQ. Compared to individual Pb biomarkers including blood, a Pb MMB derived using WQS was more strongly associated with IQ scores. MMBs may increase statistical power when the choice of exposure medium is unclear, or when sample size is small. Future work will need to validate these methods in other cohorts and for other chemicals.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Natural amino acids as potential chelators for soil remediation
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Noam Dolev; Zhanna Katz; Zvi Ludmer; Amos Ullmann; Neima Brauner; Roman Goikhman

    The soils contaminated by toxic metals are often remediated using EDTA and similar non-biodegradable chelators. Most chelators are in fact synthetic amino acid derivatives, whereas natural proteinogenic amino acids (PAAs) have not been systematically explored as remediation agents, despite their well-known metal chelating abilities and environmental benefits. Our study represents a comprehensive research exploring 16 structurally and functionally different PAAs as potential remediating agents, applied to 3 different heavy metal-contaminated samples. The study was mostly focused on extracting Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The reaction parameters were screened and optimized. It was found that the efficiencies of extracting Cu, Ni, and Zn by Threonine, Aspartic acid and Histidine were comparable to those by EDTA, whereas non-polar side chain–containing PAAs demonstrated consistently lower PTM extraction rates compared to other PAAs. The sulfur-containing Cysteine appeared to be efficient to extract Cd (to some extent), Ni and Zn, but not Cu, due to chemical reasons. The structure-functional correlations were identified, described, and found to be independent on the specific samples. Possible molecular mechanisms of metal extraction from soils by PAAs are discussed. In contrast to EDTA, the soil-essential elements are almost not extracted by PAAs. This important feature of the PAAs, along with their availability, observed selectivity, competitive efficiency, non-toxicity and even fertilizing properties, make them particularly soil-friendly, and thus, potentially applicable chelators in certain remediation processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Occupational radiation exposure of health professionals and cancer risk assessment for Lithuanian nuclear medicine workers
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    D. Adliene; B. Griciene; K. Skovorodko; J. Laurikaitiene; J. Puiso

    Background Reconstruction and analysis of low doses received by the occupationally exposed medical radiation workers, especially nuclear medicine staff dealing with radioisotopes may significantly contribute to the understanding of radiation impact on individuals, assess and predict radiation related risks for the development of cancer or other specific diseases. Methods A pool of 2059 annual effective doses corresponding to 272 job's positions occupied by nuclear medicine and radiology workers for a certain time period over 26 years in five Lithuanian hospitals was investigated in order to analyze the occupational exposure tendencies to medical staff. Requested data, measured in terms of whole body dose, personal dose equivalent Hp(10), was obtained from the National Register of Sources of Ionizing Radiation and Occupational Exposure. Considering that nuclear medicine staff is dealing with open sources/radioisotopes, doses to extremities, Hp(0.07), were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) of LiF:Mg, Ti type. Lifetime risk estimations for the development of specific cancer (thyroid cancer and leukemia) for exposed radiation workers were performed using risk models included in BEIR VII report (BEIR VII, 2006). The conservative assessment of the thyroid exposure was performed using RadRAT 4.1.1 tool. Results Doses to radiology technologists and radiology nurses were found to be highest over the years. However, their annual doses never exceeded dose limit of 20 mSv and were following the same decreasing tendency as the doses of other personnel. There was no increase of doses to nuclear medicine staff observed after installation of two new PET/CT machines, indicating increased radiation protection culture and application of relevant technical and protective measures by the staff. Measured fingertip doses were 2–3 times higher than the hand doses measured with TLD ring and were dependent on the type and frequency of the nuclear medicine examination procedure and on the type and activity of isotopes used for examination. Conclusions For the first time, retrospective dose evaluation for the cohort of medical radiation workers was performed in the country. It enabled estimation of lifetime attributable risk for the development of two cancer types: thyroid and leukemia cancer among occupationally exposed medical radiation staff. Projected risk was low, ∼10−5, however it was found that the risk of thyroid cancer for female staff was 5.7 times higher than for the males. Obtained results will be used for the predictive assessment of possible radiation induced health effects to occupationally exposed medical radiation workers.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Florfenicol restructured the microbial interaction network for wastewater treatment by microbial electrolysis cells
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Zhaojing Zhang; Yuanyuan Qu; Shuzhen Li; Kai Feng; Weiwei Cai; Huaqun Yin; Shang Wang; Wenzong Liu; Aijie Wang; Ye Deng
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Unignorable toxicity of formaldehyde on electroactive bacteria in bioelectrochemical systems
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Tian Li; Fan Chen; Qixing Zhou; Xin Wang; Chengmei Liao; Lean Zhou; Lili Wan; Jingkun An; Yuxuan Wan; Nan Li
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Mapping groundwater resiliency under climate change scenarios: A case study of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sangam Shrestha; Sanjiv Neupane; Mohanasundaram Shanmugam; Vishnu P. Pandey

    Groundwater resources of Kathmandu Valley in Nepal are under immense pressure from multiple stresses, including climate change. Due to over-extraction, groundwater resources are depleting, leading to social, environmental and economic problems. Climate change might add further pressure by altering groundwater recharge rates and availability of groundwater. Mapping groundwater resilience to climate change can aid in understanding the dynamics of groundwater systems, facilitating the development of strategies for sustainable groundwater management. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the impact of climate change on groundwater resources and mapping the groundwater resiliency of Kathmandu Valley under different climate change scenarios. The future climate projected using the climate data of RCM's namely ACCESS-CSIRO-CCAM, CNRM-CM5-CSIRO-CCAM and MPI-ESM-LR-CSIRO-CCAM for three future periods: near future (2010–2039), mid future (2040–2069) and far future (2070–2099) under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios were bias corrected and fed into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrological model, to estimate future groundwater recharge. The results showed a projected decrease in groundwater recharge in future ranging from 3.3 to 50.7 mm/yr under RCP 4.5 and 19–102.1 mm/yr under RCP 8.5 scenario. The GMS-MODFLOW model was employed to estimate the future groundwater level of Kathmandu Valley. The model revealed that the groundwater level is projected to decrease in future. Based on the results, a groundwater resiliency map of Kathmandu Valley was developed. The results suggest that groundwater in the northern and southern area of the valley are highly resilient to climate change compared to the central area. The results will be very useful in the formulation and implementation of adaptation strategies to offset the negative impacts of climate change on the groundwater resources of Kathmandu Valley.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Formation of biofilms from new pipelines at both ends of the drinking water distribution system and comparison of disinfection by-products formation potential
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Huanyu Chen; Zongyuan Wei; Guangyu Sun; Hang Su; Jingqing Liu; Baolan Hu; Xiaoyan Zhou; Liping Lou
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Source, contribution and microbial N-cycle of N-compounds in China fresh snow
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Dongdan Yuan; Weidong Wang; Chunlei Liu; Liya Xu; Hexin Fei; Xiaoling Wang; Mengnan Shen; Shanyun Wang; Mengzi Wang; Guibing Zhu

    The importance and contribution of nitrogen compounds and the related microbial nitrogen cycling processes in fresh snow are not well understood under the current research background. We collected fresh snow samples from 21 cities that 80% are from China during 2016 and 2017. Principal component analysis showed that SO42− were in the first principal component, and N-compounds were the second. Furthermore, the main pollutant ions SO42− and NO3− were from anthropogenic sources, and SO42− contributed (61%) more to the pollution load than NO3− (29%), which were confirmed through a series of precipitation mechanism analysis. We selected five N-cycle processes (consist of oxidation and reduction processes) for molecular biology experiments, including Ammonia-oxidation process, Nitrite-oxidation process, Denitrification process, Anaerobic-ammoxidation process (Anammox) and Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium process (DNRA). Except ammonia-oxidizing archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) amoA genes (above 107 copies g−1), molecular assays of key functional genes in various nitrogen conversion processes showed a belowed detection limit number, and AOB abundance was always higher than AOA. The determination of the microbial transformation rate using the 15N-isotope tracer technique showed that the potential rate of five N-conversion processes was very low, which is basically consistent with the results from molecular biology studies. Taken together, our results illustrated that microbial nitrogen cycle processes are not the primary biological processes causing the pollution in China fresh snow.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Periconceptional exposure to air pollution and congenital hypospadias among full-term infants
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ching-chun Huang; Shih-chun Pan; Bing-yu Chen; Yue Leon Guo

    Background Evidence regarding whether prenatal exposure to air pollution increases the risk of hypospadias remains limited. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between exposure to ambient air pollution during early pregnancy and the incidence of hypospadias. Methods We conducted a 1:10 case-control study using the Taiwanese Birth Registry database. Male full-term infants reported to have hypospadias were defined as cases, and controls were randomly selected from male full-term infants without any congenital anomaly. The monthly average of ambient air pollutants, including PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5–10, NO2, NOx, O3, and O3 8-h maximum, from 3 months before conception to 6 months post conception was retrieved from air quality monitoring stations and interpolated to the level of township using the kriging method. Multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate the associations. Results A total of 200 hypospadias cases, with 2000 healthy controls sampled, were reported during 2007–2014. The results revealed that PM2.5 exposure during the first 3 months after conception (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.65, per interquartile range [IQR] = 15.6 μg/m3) and O3 exposure during the first month after conception (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.82, per IQR = 8.0 ppb) were associated with a higher incidence of hypospadias. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that early gestational exposure to ambient air pollution increases the risk of hypospadias among full-term infants.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Estimating and mapping cigarette butt littering in urban environments: A GIS approach
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Roberto Valiente; Francisco Escobar; Jamie Pearce; Usama Bilal; Manuel Franco; Xisca Sureda

    Background Cigarette butts are some of the most common form of litter in the World, causing severe environmental damage. Analysing spatial distribution of cigarette butts in the urban environment may lead to useful insights for further interventions to reduce this form of litter. In this study, we present a GIS-based methodology to estimate the density of cigarette butts across a large urban area. Methods We collected information about discarded cigarette butts in outdoor public spaces by systematic social observation in a diverse sample of areas in Madrid, Spain. We used these data to estimate the density of cigarette butts in public spaces around the entire city by performing GIS analyses based on Kernel Density Estimations. Last, we validated these measures using on-field observations in a set of locations across the city. Results Hospitality venues and public transportation stops were the places with the highest concentrations of cigarette butts, followed by the entrances to educational venues and playgrounds. Central districts showed the highest amount of cigarette butts in contrast to peripheral ones. We found that our measure had good validity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.784. Discussion This is the first study estimating and mapping cigarette butt litter in a large urban area. We identified a set of outdoor public places with high concentrations of cigarette butts and found geographical unevenness in the distribution of this pervasive form of litter across the study area. Our findings demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of cigarette butts in the urban environment and the need for interventions to reduce its impact on both people's health and the environment.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Urinary cobalt and ferritin in four-years-old children
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Eva Junqué; Joan O. Grimalt; Ana Fernández-Somoano; Adonina Tardón

    Cobalt (Co) is an essential trace element but may cause toxic effects upon occupational or environmental exposure. The present study is aimed to determine the urine concentrations of Co in four years-old children in the INMA-Asturias cohort (Spain) and to assess the factors determining the observed levels. This cohort is located in a heavily industrialized zone with strong potential for metal exposure. Some diet components such as consumption of sweets were meaningfully associated with higher urine Co concentrations. Traffic pollution also showed a noteworthy positive association with Co levels. Family tobacco consumption did not show substantial association with the urine concentrations of this metal in the INMA-Asturias children. A significant inverse association between urine Co and venous blood ferritin was found. Iron deficiency anemic children had significantly higher concentrations of Co than those with normal levels, e.g. median values 1.9 μg/g creatinine and 1.0 μg/g creatinine, respectively. This association could be explained by an increased expression of DMT1, a divalent metal transporter that captures higher levels of iron in deficiency states of this metal. This transporter is non-specific and not only captures iron but also other divalent metals such as Co. The presence of this metal in iron deficiency anemic children may represent an additional disturbing health factor that must be considered during treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Dragons, black swans and decisions
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Ben J.M. Ale; Des N.D. Hartford; David H. Slater

    Since Nassim Taleb coined black swan as an event that occurred as a complete surprise for everybody, the metaphor of the black swan has been applied to a much wider variety of events. Black swan events now comprise events that are a surprise for some but not for others, events that have a low likelihood, events that were not believed to be possible but still proved to be possible, events that were dismissed as being too improbable to worry about but happened anyway. For a decision maker the black swan problem is choosing where to put effort to prevent, or mitigate events for which there are warnings, or for which the possibility has been put forward. Does the fact that there are thousands of books written about fire breathing dragons warrant the development of an Anti-Dragon Defense Shield? The black swan may have been a surprise for Willem de Vlamingh in 1697, it was not a surprise for the inhabitants of Australia, for which the appearance of tall white humans was their “black swan event”. In this paper we explore the options available to decision makers when confronted with the various sorts of swan (or dragon) events.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and ozone formation potentials of volatile organic compounds from three typical functional areas in China
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Hao Luo; Guiying Li; Jiangyao Chen; Qinhao Lin; Shengtao Ma; Yujie Wang; Taicheng An

    Background Ozone is currently one of the most important air pollutants. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily react with atmospheric radicals to form ozone. In-field measurement of VOCs may help in estimating the local VOC photochemical pollution level. Method This study examined the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of VOCs during winter at three typical sites of varying classification in China; industrial (Guangzhou Economic and Technological Development District (GETDD)), urban (Guangzhou higher education mega center (HEMC)), and rural (Pingyuan county (PYC)), using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). Results The concentrations of total VOCs (TVOCs) at the GETDD, HEMC and PYC sites were 352.5, 129.2 and 75.1 ppb, respectively. The dominant category of VOCs is nitrogen-containing VOCs (NVOCs, accounting for 43.3% of TVOCs) at GETDD, of which C4H11N (m/z+ = 74.10, butyl amine) was the predominant chemical species (80.5%). In contrast, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were the most abundant at HEMC and PYC, accounting for 60.2% and 64.1% of the total VOCs, respectively; here, CH4O (m/z+ = 33.026, methanol) was the major compound, accounting for 40.5% of the VOCs at HEMC and 50.9% at PYC. The ratios of toluene to benzene (T/B) were calculated for different measured sites, as the ratios of T/B can reveal source resolution of aromatic VOCs. The average contributions to total ozone formation potentials (OFP) of the total measured VOCs in each area were 604.9, 315.9 and 111.7 μg/m3 at GETDD, HEMC and PYC, respectively; the highest OFP contributors of the identified VOCs were aliphatic hydrocarbons (AlHs) at GETDD, aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) at HEMC, and OVOCs at PYC. Conclusions OFP assessment indicated that the photochemical pollution caused by VOCs at GETDD was serious, and was also significant in the HEMC region. The dominant VOC OFP groups (AlHs and AHs) should be prioritized for control, in order to help reduce these effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Review: Indicator bacteriophages in sludge, biosolids, sediments and soils
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Julia Martín-Díaz; Francisco Lucena; Anicet R. Blanch; Juan Jofre

    Solid or semisolid matrices polluted with fecal remnants can be highly loaded with pathogens, especially viruses, and play a substantial role in the persistence and dispersion of pathogens in the water cycle. Water quality regulations and guidelines are increasingly including bacteriophages infecting enteric bacteria as indicators of fecal and/or viral pollution. However, more data are needed about viral indicators in contaminated solids to develop effective sanitation strategies for the management of raw and treated sludge, fecal sludge, manures and slurries. Also, the exact role of sediments and soil in the transmission cycle of viral pathogens still needs to be determined. This review aims to provide an update on available data for concentrations of indicator bacteriophages in different solid matrices as well as their resistance to treatments and persistence in solids. The conclusion reached is that there is a need for improved and standardized methodologies for bacteriophage extraction, detection and enumeration in solids. Reports indicate that these contain higher levels of somatic coliphages in comparison with traditional bacterial indicators and F-specific RNA coliphages. Water body sediments and soil have been found to be notable reservoirs of somatic coliphages, which are more persistent in nature and resistant to sludge treatments than Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms and F-specific RNA coliphages. Thus, somatic coliphages show up as excellent complementary indicators for the prediction of pathogenic viruses in solids.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Air pollution associated respiratory mortality risk alleviated by residential greenness in the Chinese Elderly Health Service Cohort
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Shengzhi Sun; Chinmoy Sarkar; Sarika Kumari; Peter James; Wangnan Cao; Ruby Siu-yin Lee; Linwei Tian; Chris Webster
    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality parameters of glacial lakes from Rodnei mountains, Romania
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Oana Mare Roșca; Thomas Dippong; Monica Marian; Cristina Mihali; Lucia Mihalescu; Maria-Alexandra Hoaghia; Marian Jelea

    The aim of this paper is to assess the water quality from several lakes in Rodnei Mountains National Park, in order to establish the extent to which the anthropic activities, such as livestock and tourism affect the water characteristics. The paper presents the quality status of 13 water samples, collected from different mountain lakes from Romania, by monitoring 25 quality indicators, 21 metals and metalloids. The results indicate relatively high content of NH4+ (0.96 mg/L), NO2− (0.240 mg/L), Ca (38.44 mg/L), Mg (4.35 mg/L), Fe (288 mg/L), Cu (34.46 μg/L) and high values for turbidity (5.31 NTU), chemical oxygen demand (10.00 mgO2/L) and suspended materials (88.0 mg/L). Microbiological analyses were performed for 14 types of bacteria. In some samples, the faecal coliforms (1100 bacteria/mL), faecal streptococci (39 bacteria/mL) and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria at 37 °C (300 bacteria/mL) were relatively in a high content. The metal pollution indices (heavy metal pollution index –HPI, heavy metal evaluation index –HEI and the degree of contamination -Cd) indicated as well that the water samples presented no metal pollution. Values ranged from 5.17 to 27.84 for HPI, 0.55 to 5.07 for HEI and −8.45 to −3.93 for Cd were obtained. The water quality index (WQI) indicated excellent and good quality for the studied samples, with a mean of 22.6 and a range from 11.4 to 46.9.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • New insights into the microbial degradation and catalytic mechanism of synthetic pyrethroids
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Hui Zhan; Yaohua Huang; Ziqiu Lin; Pankaj Bhatt; Shaohua Chen

    The significant applications of pyrethroid insecticides in agro-ecosystem and household environments have raised serious environmental concerns. Environmental bioremediation has emerged as an effective and eco-friendly approach to remove or neutralize hazardous compounds. Bioaugmentation accelerates pyrethroid degradation in liquid cultures and soil. Pyrethroid-degrading microorganisms have been extensively studied to cope with pyrethroid residues. Microorganisms primarily hydrolyze the ester bonds of pyrethroids, and their degradation pathways have been elaborated. The functional genes and enzymes involved in microbial degradation have also been screened and studied. Carboxylesterase plays a key role in pyrethroid degradation by cleaving its carboxylester linkage. The catalytic mechanism is dependent on a specific catalytic triad, consisting of three amino acid residues (glutamine, histidine, and serine) within the active site of the carboxylesterase enzyme. Pyrethroid-degrading strains and enzymes have proven to be effective for the bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated environments. In this review, we have summarized newly isolated pyrethroid-degrading strains and proposed the degradation pathways along with key functional genes/enzymes. To develop an efficient bioremediation strategy, pyrethroid-degrading microorganisms should be comprehensively explored.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Cord blood DNA methylation of DNMT3A mediates the association between in utero arsenic exposure and birth outcomes: Results from a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Anne K. Bozack; Andres Cardenas; John Geldhof; Quazi Quamruzzaman; Mahmuder Rahman; Golam Mostofa; David C. Christiani; Molly L. Kile

    Background Fetal epigenetic programming plays a critical role in development. DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A), which is involved in de novo DNA methylation (DNAm), is a prime candidate gene as a mediator between prenatal exposures and birth outcomes. We evaluated the relationships between in utero arsenic (As) exposure, birth outcomes, and DNMT3A DNAm. Methods In a prospective Bangladeshi birth cohort, cord blood DNAm of three DNMT3A CpGs was measured using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Maternal toenail As concentrations at birth were measured to estimate in utero exposure. Among vaginal births (N = 413), structural equation models (SEMs) were used to evaluate relationships between DNMT3A methylation, log2 (toenail As), birth weight, and gestational age. Results In an adjusted SEM including birth weight and gestational age, maternal toenail As levels were associated with DNMT3A DNAm (B = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.66) and gestational age (B = −0.19 weeks; 95% CI: 0.36, −0.03). DNMT3A DNAm was associated with gestational age (B = −0.10 weeks; 95% CI: 0.16, −0.04) and birth weight (B = −11.0 g; 95% CI: 21.5, 0.4). There was a significant indirect effect of As on gestational age mediated through DNMT3A DNAm (B = −0.04; 95% CI: 0.08, −0.01), and there were significant indirect effects of maternal toenail As levels on birth weight through pathways including gestational age (B = −14.4 g; 95% CI: 29.2, −1.9), DNMT3A DNAm and gestational age (B = −3.1 g; 95% CI: 6.6, −0.8), and maternal weight gain and gestational age (B = −5.1 g; 95% CI: 9.6, −1.5). The total effect of a doubling in maternal toenail As concentration is a decrease in gestational age of 2.1 days (95% CI: 0.9, 3.3) and a decrease in birth weight of 29 g (95% CI: 14, 46). Conclusions DNMT3A plays a critical role in fetal epigenetic programming. In utero arsenic exposure was associated with greater methylation of CpGs in DNMT3A which partially mediated associations between prenatal As exposure and birth outcomes. Additional studies are needed to verify this finding.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Coupled photocatalytic-bacterial degradation of pyrene: Removal enhancement and bacterial community responses
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Zhirui Qin; Zhenhua Zhao; Wentao Jiao; Ziyu Han; Liling Xia; Yinqing Fang; Shiyu Wang; Longjie Ji; Ying Jiang

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of pollutants that ubiquitously present in environment and hard to be degraded by microorganisms. Herein, we reported a novel photocatalytic-bacterial coupled removal system to treat PAH-polluted water. Using pyrene as the model pollutant, we demonstrated that the removal percentage of different groups was in order: 63.89% ± 1.03% (Vis-Biological) > 61.27% ± 1.08% (UV-Biological) > 59.58% ± 1.15% (UV) > 57.41% ± 1.13% (Vis) > 6.65% ± 0.72% (Biological) > 1.70% ± 0.34% (Control), showing the coupled system significantly improved the removal percentage of pyrene. Additionally, we observed that the coupled system driven by visible light showed higher removal percentage than UV light, exhibiting a good potential for future application. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that alpha diversity (richness, evenness and diversity) got promoted and data of the relative abundance showed that Pseudomonadaceae was substituted as the dominant bacteria for Planococcaceae, with some other functional bacteria quickly acclimatizing in the bacterial community. Difference analysis indicated that over half of top fifteen genera were generally different significantly (p < 0.001) among two different samples, and UV light altered structure and composition of bacterial community more than visible light. Functional features’ change suggested that the bacterial community not only protected itself but also participated in degrading pyrene. Overall, our study offered a new method for PAH degradation and contributed to further understanding of coupled catalytic-bacterial degradation processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Lead in drinking water at North Carolina childcare centers: Piloting a citizen science-based testing strategy
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Jennifer Hoponick Redmon; Keith E. Levine; Anna M. Aceituno; Kristin Litzenberger; Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • 更新日期:2020-01-13
  • A preliminary pan-European assessment of pollution loads from urban runoff
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    A. Pistocchi

    Acknowledging the difficulty of modelling pollution conveyed by urban runoff, this contribution presents a first pan-European quantification of loads from this diffuse source. We estimate annual loads of 5-days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and total suspended solids (TSS) using a simple event mean concentration (EMC) model initially proposed by Heaney et al., 1976. On a European scale, this yields discharges corresponding to untreated wastewater of about 31 million population equivalents (PE) for BOD5, about 18.5 million PE for N and P and about 280 million for TSS. These represent 51% of the pollution coming from treated wastewater for BOD5, 15% for N and P and 461% for TSS. Although the model applied for the assessment was developed more than 40 years ago, the results are consistent with those obtained using more recent parameterizations, except for a tendency to underestimate P loads. Although lack of data on pollution from urban runoff makes model verification impossible, and the uncertainty on EMC models is known to be very high, urban runoff emerges as a significant source of pollution, and should be properly addressed as such. Reducing runoff volume from urban areas through improved water retention is not only key to pollution control, but also a no-regret option thanks to its co-benefits, especially when incorporated at early stages of planning and design.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Malathion induced cancer-linked gene expression in human lymphocytes
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ramakrishnan Anjitha; Anet Antony; Olakkaran Shilpa; Kizhakke P. Anupama; Shanthala Mallikarjunaiah; Hunasanahally P. Gurushankara
    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Prenatal exposure to traffic and ambient air pollution and infant weight and adiposity: The Healthy Start study
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Anne P. Starling; Brianna F. Moore; Deborah S.K. Thomas; Jennifer L. Peel; Weiming Zhang; John L. Adgate; Sheryl Magzamen; Sheena E. Martenies; William B. Allshouse; Dana Dabelea

    Background Prenatal exposures to ambient air pollution and traffic have been associated with adverse birth outcomes, and may also lead to an increased risk of obesity. Obesity risk may be reflected in changes in body composition in infancy. Objective To estimate associations between prenatal ambient air pollution and traffic exposure, and infant weight and adiposity in a Colorado-based prospective cohort study. Methods Participants were 1125 mother-infant pairs with term births. Birth weight was recorded from medical records and body composition measures (fat mass, fat-free mass, and adiposity [percent fat mass]) were evaluated via air displacement plethysmography at birth (n = 951) and at ∼5 months (n = 574). Maternal residential address was used to calculate distance to nearest roadway, traffic density, and ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) via inverse-distance weighted interpolation of stationary monitoring data, averaged by trimester and throughout pregnancy. Adjusted linear regression models estimated associations between exposures and infant weight and body composition. Results Participants were urban residents and diverse in race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Average ambient air pollutant concentrations were generally low; the median, interquartile range (IQR), and range of third trimester concentrations were 7.3 μg/m3 (IQR: 1.3, range: 3.3–12.7) for PM2.5 and 46.3 ppb (IQR: 18.4, range: 21.7–63.2) for 8-h maximum O3. Overall there were few associations between traffic and air pollution exposures and infant outcomes. Third trimester O3 was associated with greater adiposity at follow-up (2.2% per IQR, 95% CI 0.1, 4.3), and with greater rates of change in fat mass (1.8 g/day, 95% CI 0.5, 3.2) and adiposity (2.1%/100 days, 95% CI 0.4, 3.7) from birth to follow-up. Conclusions We found limited evidence of an association between prenatal traffic and ambient air pollution exposure and infant body composition. Suggestive associations between prenatal ozone exposure and early postnatal changes in body composition merit further investigation.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Does environmental pollution inhibit urbanization in China? A new perspective through residents’ medical and health costs
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Haitao Wu; Zhiqiang Gai; Yunxia Guo; Yunwei Li; Yu Hao; Zhi-Nan Lu

    Health problems caused by environmental pollution may affect the process of urbanization in China. Therefore, this study, against the backdrop of promoting new-type urbanization, evaluates the level of China's urbanization comprehensively using the fully arranged polygon graphical index method. It uses a dynamic threshold panel model to study the potential non-linear relationship between environmental pollution (wastewater, sulfur dioxide, and solid wastes) and urbanization under different health costs of residents. Our findings show that environmental pollution has inhibited the improvement of comprehensive urbanization, population urbanization, economic urbanization, and living conditions urbanization, but promoted living environment urbanization, in China. It is worth noting that with the rise in residents' health costs, the inhibiting effect of environmental pollution on comprehensive urbanization, population urbanization, economic urbanization, and living conditions urbanization in China has gradually increased, but on living environment urbanization, it has decreased.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Biodegradation of skatole by Burkholderia sp. IDO3 and its successful bioaugmentation in activated sludge systems
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Qiao Ma; Hui Qu; Nan Meng; Shuzhen Li; Jingwei Wang; Shengwei Liu; Yuanyuan Qu; Yeqing Sun

    Skatole is the key malodorous compound in livestock and poultry waste and wastewater with a low odor threshold. It not only causes serious nuisance to residents and workers, but also poses threat to the environment and human health due to its biotoxicity and recalcitrant nature. Biological treatment is an eco-friendly and cost-effective approach for skatole removal, while the bacterial resources are scarce. Herein, the Burkholderia strain was reported to efficiently degrade skatole for the first time. Results showed that strain IDO3 maintained high skatole-degrading performance under the conditions of pH 4.0–9.0, rotate speed 0–250 rpm, and temperature 30–35 °C. RNA-seq analysis indicated that skatole activated the oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production levels in strain IDO3. The oxidoreductase activity item which contained 373 differently expressed genes was significantly impacted by Gene Ontology analysis. Furthermore, the bioaugmentation experiment demonstrated that strain IDO3 could notably increase the removal of skatole in activated sludge systems. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing data indicated that the alpha-diversity and bacterial community tended to be stable in the bioaugmented group after 8 days operation. PICRUSt analysis indicated that xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism, and membrane transport categories significantly increased, consistent with the improved skatole removal performance in the bioaugmented group. Burkholderia was survived and colonized to be the predominant population during the whole operation process (34.19–64.00%), confirming the feasibility of Burkholderia sp. IDO3 as the bioaugmentation agent in complex systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • “Unconventional oil and gas development and health outcomes: A scoping review of the epidemiological research”
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Nicole C. Deziel; Eran Brokovich; Itamar Grotto; Cassandra J. Clark; Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki; David Broday; Keren Agay-Shay

    Background Hydraulic fracturing together with directional and horizontal well drilling (unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development) has increased substantially over the last decade. UOG development is a complex process presenting many potential environmental health hazards, raising serious public concern. Aim To conduct a scoping review to assess what is known about the human health outcomes associated with exposure to UOG development. Methods We performed a literature search in MEDLINE and SCOPUS for epidemiological studies of exposure to UOG development and verified human health outcomes published through August 15, 2019. For each eligible study we extracted data on the study design, study population, health outcomes, exposure assessment approach, statistical methodology, and potential confounders. We reviewed the articles based on categories of health outcomes. Results We identified 806 published articles, most of which were published during the last three years. After screening, 40 peer-reviewed articles were selected for full text evaluation and of these, 29 articles met our inclusion criteria. Studies evaluated pregnancy outcomes, cancer incidence, hospitalizations, asthma exacerbations, sexually transmitted diseases, and injuries or mortality from traffic accidents. Our review found that 25 of the 29 studies reported at least one statistically significant association between the UOG exposure metric and an adverse health outcome. The most commonly studied endpoint was adverse birth outcomes, particularly preterm deliveries and low birth weight. Few studies evaluated the mediating pathways that may underpin these associations, highlighting a clear need for research on the potential exposure pathways and mechanisms underlying observed relationships. Conclusions This review highlights the heterogeneity among studies with respect to study design, outcome of interest, and exposure assessment methodology. Though replication in other populations is important, current research points to a growing body of evidence of health problems in communities living near UOG sites.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Grass pollen as a trigger of emergency department presentations and hospital admissions for respiratory conditions in the subtropics: A systematic review
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Marko Simunovic; Divya Dwarakanath; Beth Addison-Smith; Nugroho H. Susanto; Bircan Erbas; Philip Baker; Janet M. Davies

    Introduction It is unknown if high concentration of airborne grass pollen, where subtropical grasses (Chloridoideae and Panicoideae) dominate, is a risk factor for respiratory health. Here we systematically reviewed the association between airborne grass pollen exposure and asthma emergency department (ED) presentations and hospital admissions in subtropical climates. Objectives A systematic review was performed to identify and summarise studies that reported on respiratory health (asthma ED presentations and hospital admissions) and airborne grass pollen exposure in subtropical climates. Methods Searches were conducted in: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCO), Embase and Google Scholar databases (1966–2019). Risk of bias was assessed using a validated quality assessment tool. A meta-analysis was planned, however due to the heterogeneity in study design it was determined inappropriate and instead a narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion, with a total of 598,931 asthma ED presentation participants and 36,504 asthma hospital admission participants in six countries (Australia, India, Israel, Italy, Spain, USA). The narrative synthesis found airborne grass pollen appears to have a small and inconsistent increase on asthma ED presentations (judged as: probably little effect n = 5, may have little effect n = 4, no effect n = 2 and uncertain if there is an effect n = 4) and hospital admissions (judged as: probably increase slightly n = 2 probably little effect n = 1, may have a little effect n = 1, no effect n = 3 and we are uncertain if there is an effect n = 4) in the subtropics. Furthermore, the reported effect sizes were small and its clinical relevance may be difficult to discern. Conclusion Exposure to airborne grass pollen appears to have a small and inconsistent increase on asthma ED presentations and hospital admissions in the subtropics. These findings are comparable to reported observations from studies undertaken in temperate regions.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Prenatal exposure to mixtures of heavy metals and neurodevelopment in infants at 6 months
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Surabhi Shah-Kulkarni; Seulbi Lee; Kyoung Sook Jeong; Yun-Chul Hong; Hyesook Park; Mina Ha; Yangho Kim; Eun-Hee Ha

    Background Exposure to mixture of neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury and cadmium occurs at a specific point of time. When exposed to metal mixtures, one metal may act as an agonist or antagonist to another metal. Thus, it is important to study the effects of exposure to a combination of metals on children's development using advance statistical methods. Objectives In this study, we explored the effects of prenatal metal exposure including lead, mercury and cadmium in early pregnancy (12–20 weeks), late pregnancy (>28 weeks), and at birth on neurodevelopment of infants at 6 months of age. Methods We included 523 eligible mother-child pairs from the mothers and children environmental health (MOCEH) study, a prospective birth cohort study in Korea. We used linear regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and generalized additive models (GAM), to evaluate the effects of exposure to metal mixtures on neurodevelopment of infants aged 6 months. The Korean version of Bayley scale of infant and toddler development-II was used to measure the child's neurodevelopment. Results Linear regression models showed a significant negative effect of lead exposure during late pregnancy on the mental development index (MDI) [β = -2.51 (−4.92, −0.10)] scores of infants aged 6 months following co-exposure to mercury. Further, linear regression analysis showed a significant interaction between late pregnancy lead and mercury concentrations. BKMR analysis showed similar results as those obtained in linear regression models. These results were also replicated in the GAM. Stratification analysis showed that greater than 50 percentile concentration of mercury in late pregnancy potentiated the adverse effects of lead in late pregnancy on MDI [β = −4.33 (−7.66, −1.00)] and psychomotor development index (PDI) [β = −5.30 (−9.13, −1.46)] at 6 months of age. Prenatal cadmium exposure did not show a significant association with MDI and PDI at 6 months in the linear regression or BKMR analysis. Conclusion Based on all the statistical methods used, we demonstrated the effect of combined exposure to metals on the neurodevelopment of infants aged 6 months, with significant interaction between lead and mercury.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • 更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Can smartphone data identify the local environmental drivers of respiratory disease?
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Penelope J. Jones; Iain S. Koolhof; Amanda J. Wheeler; Grant J. Williamson; Christopher Lucani; Sharon L. Campbell; David M.J.S. Bowman; Fay H. Johnston

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis (or hay fever) are ubiquitous, chronic health conditions that seasonally affect a sizeable proportion of the population. Both are commonly triggered or exacerbated by environmental conditions including aeroallergens, air quality and weather. Smartphone technology offers new opportunities to identify environmental drivers by allowing large-scale, real-time collection of day-to-day symptoms. As yet, however, few studies have explored the potential of this technology to provide useful epidemiological data on environment-symptom relationships. Here, we use data from the smartphone app ‘AirRater’ to examine relationships between asthma and allergic rhinitis symptoms and weather, air quality and pollen loads in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. We draw on symptom data logged by app users over a three-year period and use time-series analysis to assess the relationship between symptoms and environmental co-variates. Symptoms are associated with particulate matter (IRR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04–1.08), maximum temperature (IRR 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13–1.44) and pollen taxa including Betula (IRR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02–1.07), Cupressaceae (IRR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04), Myrtaceae (IRR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10) and Poaceae (IRR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.09). The importance of these pollen taxa varies seasonally and more taxa are associated with allergic rhinitis (eye/nose) than asthma (lung) symptoms. Our results are congruent with established epidemiological evidence, while providing important local insights including the association between symptoms and Myrtaceae pollen. We conclude that smartphone-sourced data can be a useful tool in environmental epidemiology.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and blood pressure and effect modifications by behavioral factors
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Na Li; Gongbo Chen; Feifei Liu; Shuyuan Mao; Yisi Liu; Suyang Liu; Zongfu Mao; Yuanan Lu; Chongjian Wang; Yuming Guo; Hao Xiang; Shanshan Li
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Impacts of climate change on the public health of the Mediterranean Basin population - Current situation, projections, preparedness and adaptation
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Cristina Linares; Julio Díaz; Maya Negev; Gerardo Sánchez Martínez; Roberto Debono; Shlomit Paz

    The Mediterranean Basin is undergoing a warming trend with longer and warmer summers, an increase in the frequency and the severity of heat waves, changes in precipitation patterns and a reduction in rainfall amounts. In this unique populated region, which is characterized by significant gaps in the socio-economic levels particularly between the North (Europe) and South (Africa), parallel with population growth and migration, increased water demand and forest fires risk - the vulnerability of the Mediterranean population to human health risks increases significantly. Indeed, climatic changes impact the health of the Mediterranean population directly through extreme heat, drought or storms, or indirectly by changes in water availability, food provision and quality, air pollution and other stressors. The main health effects are related to extreme weather events (including extreme temperatures and floods), changes in the distribution of climate-sensitive diseases and changes in environmental and social conditions. The poorer countries, particularly in North Africa and the Levant, are at highest risk. Climate change affects the vulnerable sectors of the region, including an increasingly older population, with a larger percentage of those with chronic diseases, as well as poor people, which are therefore more susceptible to the effects of extreme temperatures. For those populations, a better surveillance and control systems are especially needed. In view of the climatic projections and the vulnerability of Mediterranean countries, climate change mitigation and adaptation become ever more imperative. It is important that prevention Health Action Plans will be implemented, particularly in those countries that currently have no prevention plans. Most adaptation measures are “win-win situation” from a health perspective, including reducing air pollution or providing shading solutions. Additionally, Mediterranean countries need to enhance cross-border collaboration, as adaptation to many of the health risks requires collaboration across borders and also across the different parts of the basin.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • A novel framework for decomposing PM2.5 variation and demographic change effects on human exposure using satellite observations
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Changqing Lin; Alexis K.H. Lau; Xiang Qian Lao; Jimmy C.H. Fung; Xingcheng Lu; Zhiyuan Li; Jun Ma; Chengcai Li; Andromeda H.S. Wong

    Human exposure to PM2.5, represented by population-weighted mean PM2.5 concentration (cρ), declines under three conditions: (1) mean PM2.5 concentration declines, (2) PM2.5 concentration within urban areas goes through more of a decrease than within rural areas, or (3) city planning relocates people into cleaner areas. Decomposing these effects on human exposure is essential to guide future environmental policies. The lack of ground PM2.5 observations limits the assessment of human exposure to PM2.5 over China. This study proposed a novel diagnostic framework using satellite observations to decompose the variation in cρ resulting from change in the mean PM2.5 concentration, spatial difference in PM2.5 change, and demographic change. In this framework, we decomposed cρ into mean PM2.5 concentration (c0) and pollution-population-coincidence induced PM2.5 exposure (PPCE). We then used this framework to decompose the variation in cρ over China within three recent Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (2001–2015). The results showed that the decline in c0 reduced cρ in most provinces within the eleventh and twelfth FYPs. The spatial difference in PM2.5 change reduced the PPCE and cρ in most provinces within the tenth and twelfth FYPs, with the most substantial reduction rate of −3.64 μg m−3·yr−1 in Tianjin within the twelfth FYP. Rural-to-urban migration resulting from rapid urbanization, however, increased the PPCE and cρ (by as much as 0.22 μg m−3·yr−1) in all provinces except Taiwan within all three FYPs. The demographic change reduced cρ in Taiwan because of the migration of population into less polluted areas. To better reduce human exposure, it is recommended that control efforts further target populous residential areas and urbanization planning relocates people into less polluted areas. Our decomposition framework paves a new way to decompose the human exposure to other air pollutants in China and other regions.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Global impact of ciguatoxins and ciguatera fish poisoning on fish, fisheries and consumers
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Lucía Soliño; Pedro Reis Costa

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most devastating food-borne illnesses caused by fish consumption. Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are potent neurotoxins synthesized by the benthic microalgae Gambierdiscus spp. and Fukuyoa spp. that are transmitted to fish by grazing and predation. Despite the high incidence of CFP, affecting an estimated number of 50,000 persons per year in tropical and subtropical latitudes, the factors underlying CTXs occurrence are still not well understood. Toxin transfer and dynamics in fish and food-webs are complex. Feeding habits and metabolic pathways determine the toxin profile and toxicity of fish, and migratory species may transport and spread the hazard. Furthermore, CTX effect on fish may be a limiting factor for fish recruitment and toxin prevalence. Recently, new occurrences of Gambierdiscus spp. in temperate areas have been concomitant with the detection of toxic fish and CFP incidents in non-endemic areas. CFP cases in Europe have led to implementation of monitoring programs and fisheries restrictions with considerable impact on local economies. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of CTXs, and most of them are high-valued commercial species. Thus, the risk uncertainty and the spread of Gambierdiscus have serious consequences for fisheries and food safety. Here, we present a critical review of CTXs impacts on fish, fisheries, and humans, based on the current knowledge on CFP incidence and CTXs prevalence in microalgae and fish.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and adverse effects on aquatic biota of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments: A case study of a typical aquaculture wetland, China
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Yang-Guang Gu; Chang-Liang Ke; Yan-Peng Gao; Qi Liu; Ya-Fang Li

    Aquaculture wetlands, particularly those located within urban areas, are fragile ecosystems which are generally heavily impacted by urban and aquaculture activities. However, there are, to date, no reports on adverse effects related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from aquaculture wetlands in metropolitan areas. The characterization, sources, and incidence of adverse effects on aquatic biota of PAHs were studied in the riverine and estuarine sediments of the Rongjiang River in an aquaculture wetland in Chaoshan metropolis. The total PAH concentrations varied from 46.0 to 1665.2 ng/g (dry weight), with a mean of 246.4 ng/g, indicating lower concentrations than those of other comparable rivers and estuaries worldwide. High-molecular-weight PAHs were the major PAH species, with fluorene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene as the dominant components. These PAHs are likely to be mainly derived from oil and coal/biomass combustion. Probability risk assessment indicated a moderate PAH ecological risk in the Rongjiang River and its estuary (RJE). Accordingly, a comprehensive management plan should be established to ensure sustainable aquaculture wetlands.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in urine samples collected in a subarctic region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Mylene Ratelle; Cheryl Khoury; Bryan Adlard; Brian Laird

    Traditional food consumption for Indigenous peoples is associated with improved nutrition and health but can also pose potential risks via exposure to contaminants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds of interest due to their widespread presence (e.g., their metabolites are detected in up to 100% of the Canadian population) and their toxicological potential. To better understand the range of exposures faced by Indigenous populations in northern Canada and to address a contaminant of emerging concern identified by the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, a multi-year biomonitoring study investigated levels of PAH exposure in subarctic First Nations communities of the Northwest Territories, Canada. Secondary data analysis of banked samples from a subset of the cross-sectional study was done. PAHs and cotinine markers in the urine samples (n = 97) of participants from two regions from the Mackenzie Valley (Dehcho and Sahtú) was completed by liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Also, participants completed a 24-hr recall food survey. When compared according to age/sex categories, the GM of several biomarkers (1-hydroxypyrene, 1-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 2-hydroxyphenanthrene, 2-naphthol, 3-hydroxyfluorene, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, 9-hydroxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene) appeared higher than observed for the general Canadian population. The PAHs levels observed were, however, below clinical levels associated with adverse health outcomes. Altogether, these elevated biomarkers are metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene. Statistically significant non-parametric associations were observed between several biomarkers and i) the consumption of cooked meat in the last 24 h; and, ii) smoking status (self-reported status and adjusted on urine cotinine level). This work is the first to report PAH levels in a northern Canadian population and provides local baseline data for monitoring the effects of changes to climate and lifestyle over time. These findings will support regional and territorial decision makers in identifying environmental health priorities.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Transcriptome profiling of the fungus Aspergillus nidulans exposed to a commercial glyphosate-based herbicide under conditions of apparent herbicide tolerance
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Robin Mesnage; Nathalie Oestreicher; Florence Poirier; Valérie Nicolas; Céline Boursier; Christian Vélot

    Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup®, are the most widely used non-selective, broad-spectrum herbicides. The release of these compounds in large amounts into the environment is susceptible to affect soil quality and health, especially because of the non-target effects on a large range of organisms including soil microorganisms. The soil filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, a well-characterized experimental model organism that can be used as a bio-indicator for agricultural soil health, has been previously shown to be highly affected by Roundup GT Plus (R450: 450 g/L of glyphosate) at concentrations far below recommended agricultural application rate, including at a dose that does not cause any macroscopic effect. In this study, we determined alterations in the transcriptome of A. nidulans when exposed to R450 at a dose corresponding to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for macroscopic parameters. A total of 1816 distinct genes had their expression altered. The most affected biological functions were protein synthesis, amino acids and secondary metabolisms, stress response, as well as detoxification pathways through cytochromes P450, glutathione-S-transferases, and ABC transporters. These results partly explain the molecular mechanisms underlying alterations in growth parameters detected at higher concentrations for this ascomycete fungus. In conclusion, our results highlight molecular disturbances in a soil fungus under conditions of apparent tolerance to the herbicide, and thus confirm the need to question the principle of “substantial equivalence” when applied to plants made tolerant to herbicides.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Methylmercury and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with immune dysregulation in young adults from the Seychelles child development study.
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Emeir M. McSorley; Edwin van Wijngaarden; Alison J. Yeates; Toni Spence; Maria S. Mulhern; Donald Harrington; Sally W. Thurston; Tanzy Love; Todd A. Jusko; Philip J. Allsopp; Marie C. Conway; Philip W. Davidson; Gary J. Myers; Gene E. Watson; Conrad F. Shamlaye; J.J. Strain

    Background Exposure to the environmental toxicant mercury (Hg) has been associated with immune dysregulation, including autoimmune disease, but few human studies have examined methylmercury (MeHg) exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We examined associations between MeHg exposure and biological markers of autoimmunity and inflammation while adjusting for long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Method At age 19 years, hair total Hg (Y19Hg), LCPUFA status, a panel of 13 antinuclear antibodies (ANA), total serum immunoglobulins (Ig) IgG, IgA, and IgM and serum markers of inflammation (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), IFN-γ, TNF-α) were measured in the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS) Main Cohort (n = 497). Multivariable regression models investigated the association between Y19Hg and biomarkers, adjusting for prenatal total hair Hg (MatHg) and other relevant covariates, and with and without adjustment for LCPUFA. Results With each 1 ppm increase in Y19Hg (mean 10.23 (SD 6.02) ppm) we observed a 4% increased odds in a positive Combined ANA following adjustment for the n6:n3 LCPUFA ratio (β = 0.036, 95%; CI: 0.001, 0.073). IgM was negatively associated with Y19Hg (β = −0.016, 95%CI: 0.016, −0.002) in models adjusted for n-3, n-6 LCPUFA and when separately adjusted for the n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio. No associations were observed with MatHg. Total n-3 LCPUFA status was associated with reduced odds of a positive anti-ribonuclear protein (RNP) A. The n-3 LCPUFA were negatively associated with IL-6, IL-10, CRP, IFN-γ, TNF-α and positively with TNF-α:IL-10. There were positive associations between the n-6:n-3 ratio and IL-6, IL-10, CRP, IFN-γ, TNF-α and a negative association with TNF-α:IL-10. Discussion The Y19Hg exposure was associated with higher ANA and lower IgM albeit only following adjustment for the n-3 LCPUFA or the n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear, but warrant follow up at an older age to determine any relationship to the onset of autoimmune disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Environmental contaminant 2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-(methoxymethyl)acetamide remediation via Xanthomonas axonopodis and Aspergillus niger
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Khuram Shahzad Ahmad

    Alachlor, a chloroacetanilide endocrine disruptor herbicide is precarious for humans as well as the environment. Though banned by the European Union and classified as moderately hazardous by WHO, yet it is nevertheless used in several countries posing austere human and environmental health issues. Alachlor attenuation was scrutinized through simulated biodegradation experiments using soil-isolated microbes. Bio-disintegrative assays of pure three fungal and one bacterial strain; Aspergillus flavus (AF), Penicillium chrysogenum (PC), Aspergillus niger (AN) and Xanthomonas axonopodis (XA), respectively were utilized. Initial Alachlor concentration (10 mg/L) was prepared with individual microbial suspension and monitored for 35 d. Alachlor bio-transformation was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. XA and AN displayed maximal potential to metabolise the herbicide while forming residues; 1-chloroacetyl, 2,3- dihydro-7 ethylindole, 7 ethylindole, 7-ethyl-3-methyl-2-methoxy-2,3-dihydroindole, N- (2,6-diethylphenyl)-methyleneamine and 7-Ethyl-N-methylindole. Alachlor degradation by AF, PC, AN and XA was found to be 17.1%, 5.5%, 72.6% and 82.1%, respectively, after 35 d. Microbes have displayed cometabolism as the main mechanism for Alachlor degradation. This research can influence imperative and significant environmental friendly bio-remedial strategies for xenobiotic eradication.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Reviewing estimates of the basic reproduction number for dengue, Zika and chikungunya across global climate zones
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Ying Liu; Kate Lillepold; Jan C. Semenza; Yesim Tozan; Mikkel B.M. Quam; Joacim Rocklöv

    Background Globally, dengue, Zika virus, and chikungunya are important viral mosquito-borne diseases that infect millions of people annually. Their geographic range includes not only tropical areas but also sub-tropical and temperate zones such as Japan and Italy. The relative severity of these arboviral disease outbreaks can vary depending on the setting. In this study we explore variation in the epidemiologic potential of outbreaks amongst these climatic zones and arboviruses in order to elucidate potential reasons behind such differences. Methodology We reviewed the peer-reviewed literature (PubMed) to obtain basic reproduction number (R0) estimates for dengue, Zika virus, and chikungunya from tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. We then used this data to compute R0 estimates for temperate and sub-tropical climate zones, which were estimated from outbreak curves in the initial outbreak phase. Lastly we compared these estimates across climate zones, defined by latitude. Results Of 2115 studies, we reviewed the full text of 128 studies and included 65 studies in our analysis. Our results suggest that the R0 of an arboviral outbreak depends on climate zone, with lower R0 estimates in temperate zones on average (R0 = 2.03) compared to tropical (R0 = 3.44) and sub-tropical zones (R0 = 10.29). The variation in R0 was considerable, ranging from 0.16 to 65. The largest R0 was for dengue (65) and was estimated by the Ross-Macdonald model in the tropical zone, whereas the smallest R0 of 0.16 was for Zika virus and was estimated statistically from the outbreak curves in a sub-tropical zone. Conclusions The results indicate climate zone to be an important determinant of the basic reproduction number, R0, for dengue, Zika virus, and chikungunya. The role of other factors as determinants of R0, such as methods, environmental and social conditions, and disease control should be further investigated. The results suggest R0 may increase in temperate regions in response to global warming and highlight the increasing need for strengthening preparedness and control operations.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Urinary bisphenol A and its analogues and haemato-biochemical alterations of pregnant women in Korea
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    So-Ra Kang; Bo-Hye Shin; Jeoung-A. Kwon; Chan-Wha Lee; Eun-Kyo Park; Eun-Young Park; Byungmi Kim

    Introduction Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) are chemical substitutes for, and may have similar physiological effects to, bisphenol A (BPA). Bisphenols provoke endocrine disorders and are cytotoxic, oxidize hemoglobin, and induce morphological changes in human red blood cells (RBC). It is more sensitive to changes in the RBC number and hemoglobin (Hb) level during pregnancy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bisphenols (BPs) and their substitute compounds on hemopoiesis and the serum biochemical parameters of pregnant women. Methods The study population comprised 196 pregnant women from the MAKE cohort study, recruitment for which occurred from 2017 to 2019. We measured the levels of BPA, BPF and BPS in urine samples and collected data on socioeconomic, lifestyle, and environmental factors at visits to the hospital. The associations between the levels of the three BPs and biochemical parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results The geometric mean urinary concentrations of specific gravity adjusted BPA, BPF, and BPS were 2.1, 0.2, and 0.1 μg/L, respectively. There was a significant negative association between the urinary concentration of BPA and the Hb level (β = −0.5, p = 0.02). After stratifying by the median concentrations of the three BPs, the maternal urinary BPA level had a significantly negative effect on the RBC count, HB level, and hematocrit in the high BPA concentration group (RBC, β = - 0.5, p = 0.001; Hb, β = −1.4, p = 0.002; Hct, β = −5.0, p = 0.001). Conclusions BPA has a harmful effect on hemato-biochemical changes that occur during pregnancy. Further studies should investigate the relation between widespread exposure to bisphenols and effects on human health.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Impact of extreme temperatures on ambulance dispatches in London, UK
    Environ. Res. (IF 5.026) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Kamolrat Sangkharat; Marliyyah A. Mahmood; John E. Thornes; Paul A. Fisher; Francis D. Pope
    更新日期:2020-01-04
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