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  • Does Conservation Practice and Site Age Influence Vegetation Structure and Avian Abundance in Restored Fields?
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Bryan M. Reiley; Thomas J. Benson

    Farmland set‐aside programs provide important habitat for many wildlife species, yet little information exists regarding how vegetation structure and species respond to conservation practice and site age. This information could provide managers with a guide for how to implement, enhance, and maintain wildlife benefits of conservation programs. We describe how vegetation structure and avian species

  • Natural Resource Undergraduate Students in the New Millennium
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Talesha J. Dokes; Gary J. Roloff; Kelly F. Millenbah; Bjørn H. K. Wolter; Robert A. Montgomery

    Historically, undergraduate college students enrolled in natural resources programs came from rural backgrounds and regularly participated in fishing, hunting, and trapping (i.e., consumptive activities). Student demographics shifted considerably over the past 30 years, with more natural resources students coming from urban backgrounds with lower levels of engagement in consumptive activities. Some

  • Caspian Tern Response to Managed Reductions in Nesting Habitat
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Ethan Schniedermeyer; Daniel D. Roby; Donald E. Lyons; Yasuko Suzuki; Ken Collis

    Predation on smolts by Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) has been identified as a factor limiting the restoration of some populations of anadromous salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from the Columbia River basin that are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Implementation of a management plan to reduce numbers of Caspian terns nesting at the 2 largest colonies in the Columbia Plateau region of

  • A Decision Support Tool to Guide the Use of Nest Exclosures for Piping Plover Conservation
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Abigail J. Darrah; Jonathan B. Cohen; Paul M. Castelli

    Wire cages (exclosures) that exclude nest predators are regularly used for management of federally threatened and endangered populations of piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) and similar species. However, recent evidence that apparent nest abandonment related to exclosure use is indicative of adult mortality has led to concern about the technique. We developed a decision support tool named PiperEx

  • Population Viability of Golden‐cheeked Warblers in an Urbanizing Landscape
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Jennifer L. Reidy; Frank R. Thompson; Lisa O'Donnell

    Population viability analyses can assess species persistence under current or simulated future conditions and guide conservation and management efforts for species of concern. We evaluated population viability of an endangered songbird, the golden‐cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), over a 50‐year period using empirically derived population parameters collected from 2009 to 2015 on the Balcones

  • Regaining the History of Deer Populations and Densities in the Southeastern United States
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Brice B. Hanberry; Phillip Hanberry

    Despite widespread interest in white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern United States, historical deer populations and densities have not been compiled into one accessible source. We digitized maps from 1950, 1970, 1982, and 2003 and reviewed literature to quantify population sizes and densities in the Southeast, although previous estimates may not be accurate. Deer population

  • Influence of Deer Hunting and Residual Stand Structure on Tree Regeneration in Deciduous Forests
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams

    Chronically overabundant white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations have made it difficult to regenerate desirable woody species throughout much of their range in the eastern United States and southern Canada. Neither silvicultural prescriptions nor deer management alone have resulted in successful forest regeneration. We tallied woody stems (≥1 m tall, <10 cm diameter) on 62 hunted and

  • Costs and Precision of Fecal DNA Mark–Recapture versus Traditional Mark–Resight
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Stephen S. Pfeiler; Mary M. Conner; Jane S. Mckeever; Thomas R. Stephenson; David W. German; Rachel S. Crowhurst; Paige R. Prentice; Clinton W. Epps

    Wildlife managers often need to estimate population abundance to make well‐informed decisions. However, obtaining such estimates can be difficult and costly, particularly for species with small populations, wide distributions, and spatial clustering of individuals. For this reason, DNA surveys and capture–recapture modeling has become increasingly common where direct observation is consistently difficult

  • Effect of Lure on Detecting Mammals with Camera Traps
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-05
    Mason Fidino; Gabriella R. Barnas; Elizabeth W. Lehrer; Maureen H. Murray; Seth B. Magle

    Motion‐triggered camera traps are subject to imperfect detection and thus camera‐trapping surveys often try to increase species detectability as part of the study design. One possible way to increase detectability is to use lures, which may encourage a species to investigate a given area. Yet the effectiveness of lures is primarily grounded in anecdotal support. We quantified the effect of a common

  • Milkweed Establishment in Restored Central Missouri Prairie
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Eric W. Kurzejeski; Larry D. Vangilder; Nason L. Saltsgaver; Wesley A. Hanks

    The decline of the Eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) population continues to be a major concern among conservationists. Numerous publications and organizations suggest that establishing milkweed (Asclepias spp.), at a landscape scale, is necessary to increase the monarch population. The translocation of commercially grown containerized plugs is commonly recommended to establish

  • Songbird Use of Native and Invasive Fruit in the Northeastern USA
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Michelle A. Labbé; David I. King

    Fruit is consumed by songbirds, yet whether or not it comprises an important component of habitat quality depends on the extent to which it is used by birds. In addition, there is evidence fruits of exotic invasive species may be nutritionally inferior to fruits of native species, so the influence of plant invasion on bird body condition is of interest to managers. Birds that consume invasive fruits

  • Hydrological Management for Submersed Aquatic Vegetation in South Carolina Coastal Impoundments
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-15
    Beau A. Bauer; Richard M. Kaminski; J. Drew Lanham; Patrick D. Gerard; Ernie P. Wiggers

    We conducted a field experiment to test effects of complete drawdown to dried substrates versus partial (shallow water, 0–10 cm) drawdown on widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) and other native submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) biomass (dry) in managed brackish tidal impoundments (hereafter, impoundments) in the Ashepoo, Combahee, and Edisto Rivers Basin, South Carolina, USA. We sampled SAV in 20 impoundments

  • Testing a New Passive Acoustic Recording Unit to Monitor Wolves
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Shannon M. Barber‐Meyer; Vicente Palacios; Barbara Marti‐Domken; Lori J. Schmidt

    As part of a broader trial of noninvasive methods to research wild wolves (Canis lupus) in Minnesota, USA, we explored whether wolves could be remotely monitored using a new, inexpensive, remotely deployable, noninvasive, passive acoustic recording device, the AudioMoth. We tested the efficacy of AudioMoths in detecting wolf howls and factors influencing detection by placing them at set distances from

  • A Rump‐mount Harness Design Improvement for Greater Sage‐grouse
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Alyssa A. Kircher; Anthony D. Apa; Brett L. Walker; R. Scott Lutz

    Marking birds with radiotransmitters to ascertain movements and demographic parameters has been a common practice for >50 years. Previous research provides evidence that transmitters may negatively affect some avian species, including gallinaceous birds. Investigators now commonly use rump‐mount transmitters with leg‐loop harnesses to monitor greater sage‐grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), but there

  • Nest Predators of Ducks in the Boreal Forest
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Matthew E. Dyson; Stuart M. Slattery; Bradley C. Fedy

    Nest predation is often the primary cause of nest failure for ducks throughout North America. Tremendous efforts have been made to identify predators responsible for nest predation to benefit the conservation and management of ducks. However, we are unaware of empirical evidence that identifies predators of duck nests in the boreal forest, which is an important breeding area. We used camera traps on

  • Camera Trap Feasibility for Ecological Studies of Elusive Forest Deer
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-05
    Francisco Grotta‐Neto; Pedro H. F. Peres; Ubiratan Piovezan; Fernando C. Passos; José M. B. Duarte

    The difficulty in observing and capturing elusive species in the wild is one of the main reasons for the limited number of studies on such species. This knowledge gap affects the development of conservation and management plans. Hence, testing the feasibility of research tools is essential for the future use and reliability of such tools. Camera traps increasingly are used as an alternative to capturing

  • Assessment of Lead‐Free .22 LR Bullets for Shooting European Rabbits
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Jordan O. Hampton; Anthony J. DeNicola; David M. Forsyth

    In response to health threats posed by toxic lead to humans and scavenging wildlife, there is currently a focus on transitioning from lead‐based to lead‐free bullets for shooting (harvesting, culling, or recreational hunting) of wild animals. However, the efficacy of lead‐free bullets for shooting small mammals has seldom been evaluated. We compared the animal welfare outcomes and costs of using lead‐based

  • Reliability of External Characteristics to Age Barrow's Goldeneye
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Tyler L. Lewis; Daniel Esler; Danica H. Hogan; W. Sean Boyd; Timothy D. Bowman; Jonathan Thompson

    Accurate assignment of age class is critical for understanding most demographic processes. For waterfowl, most techniques for determining age class require birds in hand, reducing utility for quickly and efficiently sampling a large portion of the population. As an alternative, we sought to establish an observation‐based methodology, achievable in the field with standard optics, for determining age

  • Modification and Validation of Low‐Cost Recreational GPS Loggers for Tortoises
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Lance M. Paden; Kimberly M. Andrews

    Some chelonians, such as the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), spend much of their time underground in burrows. Often, they will retreat into these burrows when approached. This predator avoidance behavior may potentially influence the spatial use patterns that researchers directly observe via manual telemetry. In an effort to record the movements of gopher tortoises using affordable methods that

  • Nesting Ecology of Northern Bobwhite on a Working Farm
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Andy D. Richardson; Anthony J. Kroeger; Christopher E. Moorman; Craig A. Harper; Beth Gardner; Mark D. Jones; Benjy M. Strope

    Creating early successional vegetation on working farms can increase northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhite) abundance with little reduction in crop production, but specific effects of field border establishment on bobwhite nesting ecology are not well understood. We monitored bobwhite nesting on a 1,740‐ha working farm with 19% of property managed for early successional vegetation

  • Influence of Solvents on Steroid Extraction from Animal Feces and Quantification Using Enzyme Immunoassay
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Yihua Wang; Xiaolong Hu; Gang Liu; Defu Hu; Dongping Liu

    Organic solvents, such as methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH), are commonly used to extract and preserve steroids from animal excreta (feces, urine). As a result, the target substances are often in the solvent when they are subsequently analyzed using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). We examined steroid extraction from the feces of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii; collected in Sichuan Province, China

  • Voluntary Conservation, Not Regulation, Will Be Key to Monarch Butterfly Recovery
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Jonathan R. Mawdsley; Tim Simmons; Daniel Rubinoff

    Despite obvious challenges and evidence of recent decline at certain overwintering sites, the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) remains widespread and ubiquitous throughout much of its recorded range within the United States, and adults still migrate in the tens of millions to overwintering sites in México. We share scientific as well as practical concerns with the initiative to list the monarch

  • Consumption of Wild‐Harvested Meat in Society
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Amber D. Goguen; Shawn J. Riley

    Wild‐harvested meat, defined as meat obtained through legal hunting of free‐ranging wildlife, has been part of the food system for most of human existence. Nonetheless, description and measurement of current roles wild‐harvested meat plays in nonsubsistence communities is lacking. To better understand this system and inform policy choices, we sought to identify characteristics of consumers, their consumption

  • Effective Pronghorn Translocation Methodology: A Long‐Term Summary
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Whitney J. Gann; Shawn S. Gray; Robert O. Dittmar; Carlos E. Gonzalez; Louis A. Harveson

    Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) populations in North America were once estimated at nearly 30 million. However, unrestricted harvest of pronghorn was one of the major factors that led to 25,000 individuals by 1924. Through rigorous management, pronghorn populations rebounded to an estimated 1 million individuals by 1984. Within Texas, USA, by the late 1980s, the pronghorn population had recovered

  • Validating Deployment of Aerially Delivered Toxic Bait Cartridges for Control of Invasive Brown Treesnakes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Scott M. Goetz; Amy A. Yackel Adams; Shane R. Siers

    Aerial application of management tools can provide a cost‐effective means to conserve or control wildlife populations at the landscape scale. Large spatial scales, however, present difficulties when assessing in situ reliability and integrity of the devices themselves. We demonstrate application of a distance‐sampling density estimation approach to assess the performance of a newly developed toxicant

  • Gambel's Quail Survey Variability and Implications for Survey Design in the Mojave Desert
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Cory T. Overton; Michael L. Casazza; Daniel Connelly; Scott Gardner

    Careful design of a wildlife population monitoring strategy is necessary to obtain accurate and precise results whether the purpose of the survey is development of habitat suitability models, to estimate abundance, or assess site occupancy. Important characteristics to consider in survey design are sources of elevated variability, particularly within‐subject variability, which increases the amount

  • Evaluation of Noninvasive Survey Methods for Detecting Endangered Shrews
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Erin N. Tennant; Brian L. Cypher; Lawrence R. Saslaw; Tory L. Westall; Jacklyn L. Mohay; Erica C. Kelly; Christine L. Van Horn Job

    Using traditional capture methods, shrews typically have low capture and high trap‐mortality rates. To reduce effects from live‐trapping and attempt to increase detection success, we investigated 3 potential noninvasive survey methods for shrews (Soricidae): track tubes, scat tubes, and camera traps. These 3 techniques were tested in areas of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, with high detection

  • Using a Bayesian Multistate Occupancy Model to Assess Seabird and Shorebird Status in Glacier Bay, Alaska
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Steven L. Whitlock; Tania M. Lewis; James T. Peterson

    The U.S. Department of Interior National Park Service is charged with both monitoring avian communities and evaluating the influence of visitors to National Parks on sensitive species; however, this task is challenging considering that sampling programs often involve multiple species, each with differing behavior, habitat requirements, and detectability. Our objectives were to build a model to describe

  • A Large‐Scale Experiment to Evaluate Control of Invasive Muskrats
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Daan Bos, E. Emiel van Loon, Erik Klop, Ron Ydenberg

    The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is an invasive species in Europe. The extensive waterways of the Netherlands provide ideal habitat for muskrats, and a large population established itself after arrival in 1941. A control program was put into effect immediately because muskrat burrowing can compromise the integrity of dikes and, hence, poses a significant public safety risk. The current (2015) annual

  • A Comparison of Two Methods to Monitor Translocated Prairie Dogs
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Danielle A. Sack, Daniel W. Tripp

    The effects of sylvatic plague and habitat fragmentation present species conservation challenges for prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and other wildlife species they support. Active reestablishment of extirpated prairie dog colonies may become increasingly necessary to achieve some conservation goals. We compared a passive‐integrated‐transponder (PIT) tag monitoring system and trail camera photographs to

  • Safe Use of Butorphanol–Azaperone–Medetomidine to Immobilize Free‐Ranging White‐tailed Deer
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Joseph R. McDermott, Wendy Leuenberger, Caleb A. Haymes, Garrett B. Clevinger, Jonathan K. Trudeau, Tim C. Carter, John T. Hast, Gabriel S. W. Jenkins, Will E. Bowling, John J. Cox

    Butorphanol–Azaperone–Medetomidine (BAM) is a relatively new drug mixture compounded for the past decade to immobilize mammals, particularly ungulates. Despite its increased use in recent years, scant research has quantified the physiologic responses of immobilized animals or assessed its relative efficacy using different trapping methods. We tested the safety and efficacy of BAM for use in the immobilization

  • Factors Influencing Trapping Success of Northern Bobwhites
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Adam C. Behney, Joseph M. Wolske, Thomas M. Cucinotta, Carolin Tappe

    Capturing animals is a critical component of many ecological research projects. Factors that increase capture success can save time, money, and improve inference. Even though northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) are intensively studied, little information exists on factors that influence trapping success. Using baited walk‐in funnel traps during 2019, we examined how putting cover over traps, scraping

  • Movement Ecology of Spring Wild Turkey Hunters on Public Lands in South Carolina, USA
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Alaina P. Gerrits, Patrick H. Wightman, Jay R. Cantrell, Charles Ruth, Michael J. Chamberlain, Bret A. Collier

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo spp., hereafter turkey) are the second most pursued big game species in the United States. Turkey hunting occurs primarily during spring, and on publicly owned lands managers often monitor hunter numbers and harvest as components of managing hunter opportunity and satisfaction. Contemporary research has shown that hunting activity on public lands can influence male

  • Seasonal and Regional Differences in Economic Benefits of Turkey Hunting
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Binod P. Chapagain, Neelam C. Poudyal, Omkar Joshi, Cristina Watkins, Roger D. Applegate

    Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris; hereafter, turkey) hunting is a popular outdoor recreation activity in many states, including Tennessee, USA. Despite its cultural and social significance, economic benefits associated with turkey hunting are largely unknown. Past economic studies either focused on other big game species or provided generic value for big game, and do not offer benefit estimates

  • Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Diversity of Ring‐necked Pheasants in the Upper Midwest United States
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Hernán Vázquez‐Miranda, Magdalena J. Olson, Robert M. Zink

    We compared mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of ring‐necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) from Midwestern United States (SD and NE, USA) to a molecular phylogeographic hypothesis of pheasants in the native Eurasian range to understand which subspecies are represented by wild and captive‐released birds. We found that these birds represent 2 Eurasian lineages, which we refer to generally as northern

  • Sharp‐tailed Grouse in the Nebraska Sandhills Select Residual Cover Patches for Nest Sites
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    William L. Vodehnal, Gregory L. Schenbeck, Daniel W. Uresk

    We evaluated selection and availability of residual cover (dead standing herbage) by sharp‐tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) at time of nest‐site selection in an intact and annually grazed grassland. We used radiotelemetry in 1988–1990 to locate 147 nests in the sandhills of Nebraska, USA, and classified 121 as initial nests and 26 as renests. We used visual obstruction readings (VOR) to measure

  • Coupling Tracking Technologies to Maximize Efficiency in Avian Research
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Christopher P. Kirol, Dylan C. Kesler, Brett L. Walker, Bradley C. Fedy

    Direct marking and tracking of wildlife using telemetry is widespread and critical to understanding many aspects of wildlife ecology. For most species, researchers must select between multiple tracking technologies that represent trade‐offs among data requirements, mass, and cost. Options tend to be more limited for smaller, volant species. We developed and tested a unique combination of a store‐on‐board

  • Efficacy of Acoustic Triangulation for Gray Wolves
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Jordyn R. O'Gara, Charlie A. Wieder, Elyse C. Mallinger, Alyx N. Simon, Adrian P. Wydeven, Erik R. Olson

    Acoustic triangulation is a unique, relatively noninvasive monitoring approach that can inform our understanding of a species’ distribution in time and space. Acoustic triangulation relies on standard triangulation techniques to determine the location of an acoustic event. Howl surveys are frequently used to survey wolves (Canis lupus) and other canids. We evaluated the efficacy of acoustic triangulation

  • Evaluating the Use of Drones Equipped with Thermal Sensors as an Effective Method for Estimating Wildlife
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Jared T. Beaver, Robert W. Baldwin, Max Messinger, Chad H. Newbolt, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Miles R. Silman

    Drones equipped with thermal sensors have shown ability to overcome some of the limitations often associated with traditional human‐occupied aerial surveys (e.g., low detection, high operational cost, human safety risk). However, their accuracy and reliability as a valid population technique have not been adequately tested. We tested the effectiveness of using a miniaturized thermal sensor equipped

  • Assessing Cumulative Exposure of Northern Gannets to Offshore Wind Farms
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    M. Wing Goodale, Anita Milman

    Offshore wind farms are rapidly being permitted along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Exposure of northern gannet (Morus bassanus) to multiple wind farms could affect the population because gannets are vulnerable to both displacement and collision. A critical question is whether wind‐farm siting decisions can reduce cumulative exposure of gannets. We quantified how 3 different wind‐farm siting

  • Understanding Sportsperson Retention and Reactivation Through License Purchasing Behavior
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Matthew P. Hinrichs, Nathaniel B. Price, Matthew P. Gruntorad, Kevin L. Pope, Joseph J. Fontaine, Christopher J. Chizinski

    Most state and provincial fish and wildlife agencies have access to important information about patterns in sportsperson participation through their license databases. Using transaction data from Nebraska Game and Parks Commission's electronic hunting and fishing license system, we tracked license purchases of Nebraska, USA, resident license holders in 2010 through 2017. We categorized sportspersons

  • Identifying Individual Jaguars and Ocelots via Pattern‐Recognition Software: Comparing HotSpotter and Wild‐ID
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-18
    Robert B. Nipko, Brogan E. Holcombe, Marcella J. Kelly

    Camera‐trapping is widespread in wildlife studies, especially for species with individually unique markings to which capture–recapture analytical techniques can be applied. The large volume of data such studies produce have encouraged researchers to increasingly look to computer‐assisted pattern‐recognition software to expedite individual identifications, but little work has been done to formally assess

  • Assessing Methods for Detecting Island Spotted Skunks
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Ellen C. Bolas, Rahel Sollmann, Kevin R. Crooks, Laura Shaskey, Christina L. Boser, Victoria J. Bakker, Adam Dillon, Dirk H. Van Vuren

    Island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) are endemic to 2 of the California Channel Islands (CA, USA)—Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. The status of skunks is uncertain, although incidental captures in traps set for island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) suggest that skunks have declined to low numbers. We superimposed wildlife cameras at fox traps in 2016 and 2017 to provide a second measure of skunk

  • Balancing Waterfowl Hunting Opportunity and Quality to Recruit, Retain, and Reactivate
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Michael L. Schummer, John Simpson, J. Brian Davis, Brendan Shirkey, Kenneth E. Wallen

    Waterfowl hunter numbers and waterfowl populations were closely correlated until the past 2 decades when hunter numbers declined despite near‐record breeding population estimates for ducks in North America. As a result, efforts to recruit, retain, and reactivate (R3) waterfowl hunters have been promoted by the North American Waterfowl Management Plan community because hunters are a key source of funding

  • Using Ultrasonic Acoustics to Detect Cryptic Flying Squirrels: Effects of Season and Habitat Quality
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Corinne A. Diggins, L. Michelle Gilley, Christine A. Kelly, W. Mark Ford

    New technologies allow for more efficient and effective monitoring of rare or elusive species. However, standardizing protocol to ensure high detection rates is important prior to widespread use of a new technique. The use of ultrasonic acoustic detectors to survey for flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) is a novel method that is more efficient than traditional methods. However, certain methodologies

  • Modelling Annual Southern Appalachian Acorn Production Using Visual Surveys
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    Acorn production varies considerably among species, locations, and years with potential effects on populations of acorn‐consuming wildlife, oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration, and forest ecology. Methods to estimate annual acorn crop size include acorn‐trapping (quantitative) or visual surveys (indices or ranks). Forest managers need a tool for converting visual survey data to quantitative estimates of

  • Gene Transcript Profiling in Desert Bighorn Sheep
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Lizabeth Bowen, Kathleen Longshore, Peregrine Wolff, Robert Klinger, Michael Cox, Sarah Bullock, Shannon Waters, A. Keith Miles

    Respiratory disease is a key factor affecting the conservation and recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Innovative, minimally invasive tools such as gene transcription–based diagnostics have the potential to improve our understanding of the broad range of factors that can affect the health of wild sheep. Evaluation of transcript levels for genes representative of multiple internal

  • Weather and Exposure Period Affect Coyote Detection at Camera Traps
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Anastasia E. Madsen, Lucia Corral, Joseph J. Fontaine

    Camera traps are an increasingly popular means to monitor wildlife populations. However, like other techniques for measuring populations, camera traps are subject to sources of error that may bias population estimates. Past studies accounting for detection error have failed to account for a simple but potentially widely pervasive source of environmental error: weather conditions. Using 5,108,416 photographs

  • Golf Courses as Potential Habitat for Urban Coyotes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Ashley M. Wurth, E. Hance Ellington, Stanley D. Gehrt

    Wildlife increasingly live in and adapt to urban landscapes as natural habitat becomes urbanized. Many carnivores take advantage of undeveloped or open developed areas called green spaces, such as parks or cemeteries, to meet their requirements in urban areas. For instance, coyotes (Canis latrans) expanded their range across most of North America into metropolitan areas and even within highly developed

  • Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area of Influence of Baits
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Jacquelyn E. McRae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. VerCauteren, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

    Baiting is a fundamental strategy for the global management of wild pigs (Sus scrofa); however, little information exists on how anthropogenic bait affects wild pig movements on a landscape. We investigated factors that are important in determining the spatial area of attraction for wild pigs to bait (‘area of influence’ of a bait site) using data from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and locations

  • A Modified Suture Technique for Attaching Radiotransmitters to Northern Bobwhite Chicks
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Theron M. Terhune, Danny Caudill, V. Heather Terhune, James A. Martin

    Reliable and unbiased information is needed for informing management decisions relevant to all animal life stages. Radiomarking is commonly used for adult birds, but this approach is more challenging for galliform chicks. Following preliminary experimentation of multiple attachment methods, we selected 2 radiotransmitter attachment techniques, gluing and suturing, to test on 11‐day‐old northern bobwhite

  • Band Wear and Effects on Recovery and Survival Estimates of Diving Ducks
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Michael L. Szymanski, Todd W. Arnold, Pamela R. Garrettson, Alan D. Afton

    Wildlife biologists commonly use marked individuals to estimate population size and vital rates. If markers are lost or become too illegible to be reported (which we define as functional loss), population size and vital rates derived from marked individuals could be biased. We double‐banded 4,990 lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and 1,429 redheads (A. americana) with a traditionally used band made of

  • Are Composition Surveys for Mule Deer Along Roads or From Helicopters Biased? Lessons from the Field
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Mary M. Conner, Jane S. McKeever

    Monitoring sex and age ratios (i.e., population composition) is common practice in deer (Odocoileus spp.) management because these estimates are used to determine population vital rates, as well as assess effects of hunting regulations and other management actions. However, there is longstanding recognition of potential biases in sex and age ratios that can arise from differences in deer behavior and

  • A Rapid Population Assessment Method for Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras at 3 Study Sites
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Nathan P. Snow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jesse S. Lewis

    Reliable and efficient population estimates are a critical need for effective management of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). We evaluated the use of 10‐day camera grids for rapid population assessment (RPA) of wild pigs at 3 study sites that varied in vegetation communities and wild pig densities. Study areas included Buck Island Ranch, Florida; Tejon Ranch, California; and the Savannah River Site

  • Evaluation of Cottontail Pellets Collected in Suboptimal Conditions for DNA Analysis
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Christopher M. Whipps, Amanda E. Cheeseman, K. Alice Lindsay, Jonathan B. Cohen

    Occupancy monitoring of the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) relies on collections of fecal pellets made following a snowfall, and subsequent genetic screening to distinguish New England cottontail pellets from those of the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). In years when snowy conditions are not common, less frequent sampling may result in data

  • Comparison of Merriam's Turkey Harvest Strategies and Survival in Northern Arizona
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Thomas C. McCall, Matthew J. Clement, Brian F. Wakeling

    We compared annual survival and hunting‐related mortality of female Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) between a period of relatively liberal hunting regulation (before 1990) and after implementation of a more conservative hunting regulation (after 1991) in Arizona, USA, to determine how those regulation changes affected hunting opportunity. Between January 2013 and October 2016, we used

  • Evaluating Responses by Sympatric Ungulates to Fence Modifications Across the Northern Great Plains
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Paul F. Jones, Andrew F. Jakes, Amanda M. MacDonald, Jason A. Hanlon, Daniel R. Eacker, Brian H. Martin, Mark Hebblewhite

    Across North America, incentive programs have assisted landholders with the construction of fences, often considered “wildlife friendly,” to assist in grazing management, which has resulted in a proliferation of fencing on the landscape. Many suggested “wildlife‐friendly” fence modifications have not been evaluated for their effectiveness on the targeted species or evaluated to assess consequences

  • Assessing Nutritional Condition of Mule Deer Using a Photographic Index
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Rachel A. Smiley, Chadwick D. Rittenhouse, Tony W. Mong, Kevin L. Monteith

    Understanding nutritional condition of animals can provide insight into underlying drivers of population dynamics. To estimate nutritional condition, indices require capture or mortality of animals to obtain measurements of body fat. Advances in technology provide an opportunity to acquire estimates of nutritional condition in a noninvasive way if ocular estimates can be validated. We developed and

  • Field Chemical Immobilization of Andean and Pampas Cats in the High‐Altitude Andes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Cintia G. Tellaeche, Juan I. Reppucci, Estela M. Luengos Vidal, Deana L. Clifford, Mauro Lucherini

    Three protocols (Ketamine–Medetomidine, Ketamine–Xylazine and Ketamine–Medetomidine–Midazolam) were used to immobilize 2 sympatric wild cat species, the critically endangered Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita), and the relatively more common Pampas cat (L. colocolo), in the high Andes Mountains of Argentina between September 2011 and May 2016. Based on 8 Andean cat capture events and 9 Pampas cat capture

  • Monitoring a New England Cottontail Reintroduction with Noninvasive Genetic Sampling
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Melissa L. Bauer, Brett Ferry, Heidi Holman, Adrienne I. Kovach

    Careful monitoring of reintroduced threatened species is essential for informing conservation strategies and evaluating reintroduction efforts in an adaptive management context. We used noninvasive genetic sampling to monitor a reintroduction of a threatened shrubland specialist, the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis), in southeastern New Hampshire, USA. We monitored the apparent survival

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