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  • Voluntary Conservation, Not Regulation, Will Be Key to Monarch Butterfly Recovery
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Jonathan R. Mawdsley; Tim Simmons; Daniel Rubinoff

    Despite obvious challenges and evidence of recent decline at certain overwintering sites, the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus ) remains widespread and ubiquitous throughout much of its recorded range within the United States, and adults still migrate in the tens of millions to overwintering sites in México. We share scientific as well as practical concerns with the initiative to list the monarch

  • Consumption of Wild‐Harvested Meat in Society
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Amber D. Goguen; Shawn J. Riley

    Wild‐harvested meat, defined as meat obtained through legal hunting of free‐ranging wildlife, has been part of the food system for most of human existence. Nonetheless, description and measurement of current roles wild‐harvested meat plays in nonsubsistence communities is lacking. To better understand this system and inform policy choices, we sought to identify characteristics of consumers, their consumption

  • Effective Pronghorn Translocation Methodology: A Long‐Term Summary
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Whitney J. Gann; Shawn S. Gray; Robert O. Dittmar; Carlos E. Gonzalez; Louis A. Harveson

    Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana ) populations in North America were once estimated at nearly 30 million. However, unrestricted harvest of pronghorn was one of the major factors that led to 25,000 individuals by 1924. Through rigorous management, pronghorn populations rebounded to an estimated 1 million individuals by 1984. Within Texas, USA, by the late 1980s, the pronghorn population had recovered

  • Validating Deployment of Aerially Delivered Toxic Bait Cartridges for Control of Invasive Brown Treesnakes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Scott M. Goetz; Amy A. Yackel Adams; Shane R. Siers

    Aerial application of management tools can provide a cost‐effective means to conserve or control wildlife populations at the landscape scale. Large spatial scales, however, present difficulties when assessing in situ reliability and integrity of the devices themselves. We demonstrate application of a distance‐sampling density estimation approach to assess the performance of a newly developed toxicant

  • Gambel's Quail Survey Variability and Implications for Survey Design in the Mojave Desert
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Cory T. Overton; Michael L. Casazza; Daniel Connelly; Scott Gardner

    Careful design of a wildlife population monitoring strategy is necessary to obtain accurate and precise results whether the purpose of the survey is development of habitat suitability models, to estimate abundance, or assess site occupancy. Important characteristics to consider in survey design are sources of elevated variability, particularly within‐subject variability, which increases the amount

  • Evaluation of Noninvasive Survey Methods for Detecting Endangered Shrews
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Erin N. Tennant; Brian L. Cypher; Lawrence R. Saslaw; Tory L. Westall; Jacklyn L. Mohay; Erica C. Kelly; Christine L. Van Horn Job

    Using traditional capture methods, shrews typically have low capture and high trap‐mortality rates. To reduce effects from live‐trapping and attempt to increase detection success, we investigated 3 potential noninvasive survey methods for shrews (Soricidae): track tubes, scat tubes, and camera traps. These 3 techniques were tested in areas of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, with high detection

  • Using a Bayesian Multistate Occupancy Model to Assess Seabird and Shorebird Status in Glacier Bay, Alaska
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Steven L. Whitlock; Tania M. Lewis; James T. Peterson

    The U.S. Department of Interior National Park Service is charged with both monitoring avian communities and evaluating the influence of visitors to National Parks on sensitive species; however, this task is challenging considering that sampling programs often involve multiple species, each with differing behavior, habitat requirements, and detectability. Our objectives were to build a model to describe

  • A Large‐Scale Experiment to Evaluate Control of Invasive Muskrats
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Daan Bos; E. Emiel van Loon; Erik Klop; Ron Ydenberg

    The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus ) is an invasive species in Europe. The extensive waterways of the Netherlands provide ideal habitat for muskrats, and a large population established itself after arrival in 1941. A control program was put into effect immediately because muskrat burrowing can compromise the integrity of dikes and, hence, poses a significant public safety risk. The current (2015) annual

  • A Comparison of Two Methods to Monitor Translocated Prairie Dogs
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Danielle A. Sack; Daniel W. Tripp

    The effects of sylvatic plague and habitat fragmentation present species conservation challenges for prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and other wildlife species they support. Active reestablishment of extirpated prairie dog colonies may become increasingly necessary to achieve some conservation goals. We compared a passive‐integrated‐transponder (PIT) tag monitoring system and trail camera photographs to

  • Safe Use of Butorphanol–Azaperone–Medetomidine to Immobilize Free‐Ranging White‐tailed Deer
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Joseph R. McDermott; Wendy Leuenberger; Caleb A. Haymes; Garrett B. Clevinger; Jonathan K. Trudeau; Tim C. Carter; John T. Hast; Gabriel S. W. Jenkins; Will E. Bowling; John J. Cox

    Butorphanol–Azaperone–Medetomidine (BAM) is a relatively new drug mixture compounded for the past decade to immobilize mammals, particularly ungulates. Despite its increased use in recent years, scant research has quantified the physiologic responses of immobilized animals or assessed its relative efficacy using different trapping methods. We tested the safety and efficacy of BAM for use in the immobilization

  • Factors Influencing Trapping Success of Northern Bobwhites
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Adam C. Behney; Joseph M. Wolske; Thomas M. Cucinotta; Carolin Tappe

    Capturing animals is a critical component of many ecological research projects. Factors that increase capture success can save time, money, and improve inference. Even though northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus ) are intensively studied, little information exists on factors that influence trapping success. Using baited walk‐in funnel traps during 2019, we examined how putting cover over traps,

  • Movement Ecology of Spring Wild Turkey Hunters on Public Lands in South Carolina, USA
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Alaina P. Gerrits; Patrick H. Wightman; Jay R. Cantrell; Charles Ruth; Michael J. Chamberlain; Bret A. Collier

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo spp., hereafter turkey) are the second most pursued big game species in the United States. Turkey hunting occurs primarily during spring, and on publicly owned lands managers often monitor hunter numbers and harvest as components of managing hunter opportunity and satisfaction. Contemporary research has shown that hunting activity on public lands can influence male

  • Seasonal and Regional Differences in Economic Benefits of Turkey Hunting
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Binod P. Chapagain; Neelam C. Poudyal; Omkar Joshi; Cristina Watkins; Roger D. Applegate

    Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris ; hereafter, turkey) hunting is a popular outdoor recreation activity in many states, including Tennessee, USA. Despite its cultural and social significance, economic benefits associated with turkey hunting are largely unknown. Past economic studies either focused on other big game species or provided generic value for big game, and do not offer benefit estimates

  • Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Diversity of Ring‐necked Pheasants in the Upper Midwest United States
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Hernán Vázquez‐Miranda; Magdalena J. Olson; Robert M. Zink

    We compared mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of ring‐necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus ) from Midwestern United States (SD and NE, USA) to a molecular phylogeographic hypothesis of pheasants in the native Eurasian range to understand which subspecies are represented by wild and captive‐released birds. We found that these birds represent 2 Eurasian lineages, which we refer to generally as northern

  • Sharp‐tailed Grouse in the Nebraska Sandhills Select Residual Cover Patches for Nest Sites
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    William L. Vodehnal; Gregory L. Schenbeck; Daniel W. Uresk

    We evaluated selection and availability of residual cover (dead standing herbage) by sharp‐tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus ) at time of nest‐site selection in an intact and annually grazed grassland. We used radiotelemetry in 1988–1990 to locate 147 nests in the sandhills of Nebraska, USA, and classified 121 as initial nests and 26 as renests. We used visual obstruction readings (VOR) to measure

  • Coupling Tracking Technologies to Maximize Efficiency in Avian Research
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Christopher P. Kirol; Dylan C. Kesler; Brett L. Walker; Bradley C. Fedy

    Direct marking and tracking of wildlife using telemetry is widespread and critical to understanding many aspects of wildlife ecology. For most species, researchers must select between multiple tracking technologies that represent trade‐offs among data requirements, mass, and cost. Options tend to be more limited for smaller, volant species. We developed and tested a unique combination of a store‐on‐board

  • Efficacy of Acoustic Triangulation for Gray Wolves
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Jordyn R. O'Gara; Charlie A. Wieder; Elyse C. Mallinger; Alyx N. Simon; Adrian P. Wydeven; Erik R. Olson

    Acoustic triangulation is a unique, relatively noninvasive monitoring approach that can inform our understanding of a species’ distribution in time and space. Acoustic triangulation relies on standard triangulation techniques to determine the location of an acoustic event. Howl surveys are frequently used to survey wolves (Canis lupus ) and other canids. We evaluated the efficacy of acoustic triangulation

  • Evaluating the Use of Drones Equipped with Thermal Sensors as an Effective Method for Estimating Wildlife
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Jared T. Beaver; Robert W. Baldwin; Max Messinger; Chad H. Newbolt; Stephen S. Ditchkoff; Miles R. Silman

    Drones equipped with thermal sensors have shown ability to overcome some of the limitations often associated with traditional human‐occupied aerial surveys (e.g., low detection, high operational cost, human safety risk). However, their accuracy and reliability as a valid population technique have not been adequately tested. We tested the effectiveness of using a miniaturized thermal sensor equipped

  • Band Wear and Effects on Recovery and Survival Estimates of Diving Ducks
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Michael L. Szymanski; Todd W. Arnold; Pamela R. Garrettson; Alan D. Afton

    Wildlife biologists commonly use marked individuals to estimate population size and vital rates. If markers are lost or become too illegible to be reported (which we define as functional loss), population size and vital rates derived from marked individuals could be biased. We double‐banded 4,990 lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and 1,429 redheads (A. americana) with a traditionally used band made of

  • Noose Carpets: A Novel Method to Capture Rails
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Eamon J. Harrity; Courtney J. Conway

    Avian research may require investigators to capture birds for many reasons, including to collect measurements and attach leg bands or transmitters. The effectiveness and efficiency of capture techniques varies by species, habitat, and time of year. Rails are particularly challenging to capture because of their secretive behavior and the dense vegetation they inhabit. As such, basic natural history

  • Comparison of Merriam's Turkey Harvest Strategies and Survival in Northern Arizona
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Thomas C. McCall; Matthew J. Clement; Brian F. Wakeling

    We compared annual survival and hunting‐related mortality of female Merriam's turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) between a period of relatively liberal hunting regulation (before 1990) and after implementation of a more conservative hunting regulation (after 1991) in Arizona, USA, to determine how those regulation changes affected hunting opportunity. Between January 2013 and October 2016, we used

  • Ratcheting up Rigor in Wildlife Management Decision Making
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Angela K. Fuller; Daniel J. Decker; Michael V. Schiavone; Ann B. Forstchen

    The wildlife management institution has been transforming to ensure relevance and positive conservation outcomes into the future. Continuous improvement of decision making is one aspect of this transformation. Managers and policy makers with responsibility for wildlife decisions have an exceedingly challenging job because the set of objectives they wish to achieve is so complex, multifaceted, and often

  • Using Local Ecological Knowledge in Louisiana to Infer Distribution and Abundance of the Alligator Snapping Turtle
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Cybil C. Huntzinger; Irvin Louque; Eddie K. Lyons; Peter V. Lindeman; Will Selman

    Local ecological knowledge (LEK) collected via formal questionnaires and informal surveys can be a useful tool to aid in species conservation, particularly with species that are rare or difficult to detect. The alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is a large aquatic turtle species that was heavily harvested by the commercial fishing industry beginning in the 1960s. This led to population

  • A Review of Gopher Tortoise Demography and Movements in Production Pine Forest Landscapes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Rachel E. Greene; Tracey D. Tuberville; Michael J. Chamberlain; Darren A. Miller; T. Bently Wigley; James A. Martin

    The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus; hereafter, tortoise), an ecosystem engineer in open pine (Pinus spp.) woodlands of the southeastern United States, often inhabits production pine forests (PPFs), defined here as even‐aged pine forests managed primarily for timber products, which is a common forest type in the tortoise's range. As a result of frequent disturbance from forest management activities

  • Benefits of Head‐starting for Blanding's Turtle Size Distributions and Recruitment
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Daniel Thompson; Gary Glowacki; Daniel Ludwig; Rachel Reklau; Andrew R. Kuhns; Callie Klatt Golba; Richard King

    Head‐starting is a widely used turtle conservation measure but its effectiveness is incompletely known. We evaluated the success of 2 long‐term Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) head‐starting programs in northeastern Illinois, USA, focusing on the effect that head‐starting has on turtle population body‐size distributions and whether head‐started turtles are successfully recruited as reproductive

  • The Right Light: Tiger Salamander Capture Rates and Spectral Sensitivity
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Eric B. Liebgold; Karen L. Carleton

    Knowledge of population dynamics is critical for species of conservation concern so wildlife researchers need to take advantage of biases in animals' behaviors that could help them monitor populations. This is particularly important for amphibians because many populations are declining and difficult to observe. Attraction of vertebrates to light is a well‐known navigational cue and some fisheries strategies

  • A Flexible Model‐based Approach to Delineate Wildlife Management Units
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Robert K. Swihart; Joe N. Caudell; Jarred M. Brooke; Zhao Ma

    Delineation of management units for harvested wildlife should strive to maximize homogeneity within each unit subject to constraints imposed by geography and heterogeneity in factors related to human‐caused changes in vital rates. Prior efforts to delineate management units for white‐tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) used regression to identify environmental and sociological factors related to female

  • Acoustic Surveys for Bats are Improved by Taking Habitat Type into Account
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Stephanie V. Findlay; Robert M. R. Barclay

    Passive monitoring of bat species via acoustics is a growing field and as a result there are various software programs available that allow for species identification. However, accuracy of these programs is variable and creating a local call library is essential when trying to identify acoustically similar species. In Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada, 3 Myotis species are difficult to distinguish

  • Optimizing Selection of Brown Bear Hair for Noninvasive Genetic Analysis
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Aaron J. Wirsing; Thomas P. Quinn; Jennifer R. Adams; Lisette P. Waits

    Many wildlife studies use noninvasive survey methods such as barbed wire to obtain hair samples for DNA analysis. If laboratory costs preclude processing all samples, it may be important to know a priori which samples are most likely to yield useful DNA. It may also be helpful to know whether apparently poor‐quality samples will yield useable DNA, and so be worth the time and cost of processing. To

  • Cost Effectiveness of Livestock Guardian Dogs for Predator Control
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Tina L. Saitone; Ellen M. Bruno

    Predation threatens the economic viability of sheep operations in the United States. Many producers recognize the need to complement lethal control methods with nonlethal strategies such as the use of livestock guardian dogs (LGDs), but little information exists on benefits and costs. We report on a comprehensive benefit–cost analysis of the decision to incorporate LGDs onto a sheep operation in Mendocino

  • Monitoring a New England Cottontail Reintroduction with Noninvasive Genetic Sampling
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Melissa L. Bauer; Brett Ferry; Heidi Holman; Adrienne I. Kovach

    Careful monitoring of reintroduced threatened species is essential for informing conservation strategies and evaluating reintroduction efforts in an adaptive management context. We used noninvasive genetic sampling to monitor a reintroduction of a threatened shrubland specialist, the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis), in southeastern New Hampshire, USA. We monitored the apparent survival

  • Mule Deer Habitat Selection Following Vegetation Thinning Treatments in New Mexico
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Grant E. Sorensen; David W. Kramer; James W. Cain; Chase A. Taylor; Philip S. Gipson; Mark C. Wallace; Robert D. Cox; Warren B. Ballard

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) survival and population growth in north‐central New Mexico, USA, was previously reported to be limited by nutritional constraints due to poor forage conditions in degraded habitats. Management recommendations suggested thinning of pinyon–juniper to improve habitat quality for mule deer. To evaluate the influence of these vegetation treatments, we monitored habitat selection

  • Evaluating Responses by Sympatric Ungulates to Fence Modifications Across the Northern Great Plains
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Paul F. Jones; Andrew F. Jakes; Amanda M. MacDonald; Jason A. Hanlon; Daniel R. Eacker; Brian H. Martin; Mark Hebblewhite

    Across North America, incentive programs have assisted landholders with the construction of fences, often considered “wildlife friendly,” to assist in grazing management, which has resulted in a proliferation of fencing on the landscape. Many suggested “wildlife‐friendly” fence modifications have not been evaluated for their effectiveness on the targeted species or evaluated to assess consequences

  • Are Composition Surveys for Mule Deer Along Roads or From Helicopters Biased? Lessons from the Field
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Mary M. Conner; Jane S. McKeever

    Monitoring sex and age ratios (i.e., population composition) is common practice in deer (Odocoileus spp.) management because these estimates are used to determine population vital rates, as well as assess effects of hunting regulations and other management actions. However, there is longstanding recognition of potential biases in sex and age ratios that can arise from differences in deer behavior and

  • Phylogenetic Patterns Suggest Broad Susceptibility to Chronic Wasting Disease Across Cervidae
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Jonathan R. Mawdsley

    Chronic wasting disease presents significant management challenges for North American species of Cervidae, but susceptibility of other cervid taxa worldwide to this disease is largely unknown. A review of 7 published partial phylogenies for Cervidae indicates that known susceptible taxa are broadly distributed across each of these phylogenies, suggesting that there may be broad susceptibility to the

  • Vaginal Implant Transmitters as a Tool for Pronghorn Fawn Capture
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Emily R. Conant; Warren C. Conway; Mark C. Wallace; Nicole M. Tatman

    During a pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) translocation study in New Mexico, USA, in 2014, we outfitted 26 pregnant female pronghorn with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs) to better understand cause‐specific fawn mortality. All VITs were equipped with both temperature and photo (i.e., light) sensors. Partial expulsions were detected from VITs in April 2014, at least 2 weeks prior to fawn observations

  • Assessing Error in Locations of Conspicuous Wildlife Using Handheld GPS Units and Location Offset Methods
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Samantha G. Robinson; Chelsea E. Weithman; Henrietta A. Bellman; Stephen P. Prisley; James D. Fraser; Daniel H. Catlin; Sarah M. Karpanty

    Collecting spatially explicit locations of individual animals often is an important part of the study of habitat use. Obtaining accurate locations without disturbing an individual can be difficult for small species and may be limited for species of conservation concern, such as piping plover (Charadrius melodus), where a close approach is undesirable because of the potential for disturbance. To reduce

  • Density Estimation of Unmarked Populations Using Camera Traps in Heterogeneous Space
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-09
    Gai Luo; Weideng Wei; Qiang Dai; Jianghong Ran

    Camera traps are commonly used to monitor animal populations, but statistical estimators of density from camera‐trap data for species that cannot be individually identified are still in development, and few models take space use into account. We present a model to estimate the density of unmarked populations, which considers species’ space use. The model assumes that animal movements depend on space

  • Evaluation of Cottontail Pellets Collected in Suboptimal Conditions for DNA Analysis
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Christopher M. Whipps; Amanda E. Cheeseman; K. Alice Lindsay; Jonathan B. Cohen

    Occupancy monitoring of the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) relies on collections of fecal pellets made following a snowfall, and subsequent genetic screening to distinguish New England cottontail pellets from those of the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). In years when snowy conditions are not common, less frequent sampling may result in data

  • Identifying Birds' Collision Risk with Wind Turbines Using a Multidimensional Utilization Distribution Method
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Sam Khosravifard; Andrew K. Skidmore; Babak Naimi; Valentijn Venus; Antonio R. Muñoz; Albertus G. Toxopeus

    Renewable energy plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the expansion of wind farms has raised concerns about risks for bird collisions. We tested different methods used to understand whether birds' flight occurs over wind turbines and found kernel density estimators outperform other methods. Previous studies using kernel utilization distribution (KUD) have considered only

  • Evaluation of Acoustic Recording Devices to Survey Northern Bobwhite Populations
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Nathan G. Wilhite; Paige E. Howell; James A. Martin

    Reliable methods for monitoring wildlife populations are paramount to effective conservation and management. There are a variety of available techniques that vary in cost and feasibility. We field‐tested a commercially available acoustic recording device (ARD) in July and August of 2018 with the goal of standardizing the process of surveying northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) populations using

  • Assessing Nutritional Condition of Mule Deer Using a Photographic Index
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Rachel A. Smiley; Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Tony W. Mong; Kevin L. Monteith

    Understanding nutritional condition of animals can provide insight into underlying drivers of population dynamics. To estimate nutritional condition, indices require capture or mortality of animals to obtain measurements of body fat. Advances in technology provide an opportunity to acquire estimates of nutritional condition in a noninvasive way if ocular estimates can be validated. We developed and

  • Field Chemical Immobilization of Andean and Pampas Cats in the High‐Altitude Andes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Cintia G. Tellaeche; Juan I. Reppucci; Estela M. Luengos Vidal; Deana L. Clifford; Mauro Lucherini

    Three protocols (Ketamine–Medetomidine, Ketamine–Xylazine and Ketamine–Medetomidine–Midazolam) were used to immobilize 2 sympatric wild cat species, the critically endangered Andean cat (Leopardus jacobita), and the relatively more common Pampas cat (L. colocolo), in the high Andes Mountains of Argentina between September 2011 and May 2016. Based on 8 Andean cat capture events and 9 Pampas cat capture

  • Berry Important? Wolf Provisions Pups with Berries in Northern Minnesota
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Austin T. Homkes; Thomas D. Gable; Steve K. Windels; Joseph K. Bump

    Wolves (Canis lupus) primarily provision pups by catching mammalian prey and bringing remains of the carcass to the pups at a den or rendezvous site via their mouths or stomach. In August 2017, we observed an adult wolf regurgitating wild blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) to pups at a rendezvous site in the Greater Voyageurs Ecosystem, Minnesota, USA, which is the only known observation of wolves provisioning

  • Assessing Cumulative Exposure of Northern Gannets to Offshore Wind Farms
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    M. Wing Goodale; Anita Milman

    Offshore wind farms are rapidly being permitted along the Atlantic Coast of the United States. Exposure of northern gannet (Morus bassanus ) to multiple wind farms could affect the population because gannets are vulnerable to both displacement and collision. A critical question is whether wind‐farm siting decisions can reduce cumulative exposure of gannets. We quantified how 3 different wind‐farm siting

  • Understanding Sportsperson Retention and Reactivation Through License Purchasing Behavior
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Matthew P. Hinrichs; Nathaniel B. Price; Matthew P. Gruntorad; Kevin L. Pope; Joseph J. Fontaine; Christopher J. Chizinski

    Most state and provincial fish and wildlife agencies have access to important information about patterns in sportsperson participation through their license databases. Using transaction data from Nebraska Game and Parks Commission's electronic hunting and fishing license system, we tracked license purchases of Nebraska, USA, resident license holders in 2010 through 2017. We categorized sportspersons

  • Identifying Individual Jaguars and Ocelots via Pattern‐Recognition Software: Comparing HotSpotter and Wild‐ID
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-18
    Robert B. Nipko; Brogan E. Holcombe; Marcella J. Kelly

    Camera‐trapping is widespread in wildlife studies, especially for species with individually unique markings to which capture–recapture analytical techniques can be applied. The large volume of data such studies produce have encouraged researchers to increasingly look to computer‐assisted pattern‐recognition software to expedite individual identifications, but little work has been done to formally assess

  • Assessing Methods for Detecting Island Spotted Skunks
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Ellen C. Bolas; Rahel Sollmann; Kevin R. Crooks; Laura Shaskey; Christina L. Boser; Victoria J. Bakker; Adam Dillon; Dirk H. Van Vuren

    Island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala ) are endemic to 2 of the California Channel Islands (CA, USA)—Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa. The status of skunks is uncertain, although incidental captures in traps set for island foxes (Urocyon littoralis ) suggest that skunks have declined to low numbers. We superimposed wildlife cameras at fox traps in 2016 and 2017 to provide a second measure of

  • Balancing Waterfowl Hunting Opportunity and Quality to Recruit, Retain, and Reactivate
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Michael L. Schummer; John Simpson; J. Brian Davis; Brendan Shirkey; Kenneth E. Wallen

    Waterfowl hunter numbers and waterfowl populations were closely correlated until the past 2 decades when hunter numbers declined despite near‐record breeding population estimates for ducks in North America. As a result, efforts to recruit, retain, and reactivate (R3) waterfowl hunters have been promoted by the North American Waterfowl Management Plan community because hunters are a key source of funding

  • Using Ultrasonic Acoustics to Detect Cryptic Flying Squirrels: Effects of Season and Habitat Quality
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Corinne A. Diggins; L. Michelle Gilley; Christine A. Kelly; W. Mark Ford

    New technologies allow for more efficient and effective monitoring of rare or elusive species. However, standardizing protocol to ensure high detection rates is important prior to widespread use of a new technique. The use of ultrasonic acoustic detectors to survey for flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) is a novel method that is more efficient than traditional methods. However, certain methodologies

  • Modelling Annual Southern Appalachian Acorn Production Using Visual Surveys
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    Acorn production varies considerably among species, locations, and years with potential effects on populations of acorn‐consuming wildlife, oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration, and forest ecology. Methods to estimate annual acorn crop size include acorn‐trapping (quantitative) or visual surveys (indices or ranks). Forest managers need a tool for converting visual survey data to quantitative estimates of

  • Gene Transcript Profiling in Desert Bighorn Sheep
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Lizabeth Bowen; Kathleen Longshore; Peregrine Wolff; Robert Klinger; Michael Cox; Sarah Bullock; Shannon Waters; A. Keith Miles

    Respiratory disease is a key factor affecting the conservation and recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis ) populations. Innovative, minimally invasive tools such as gene transcription–based diagnostics have the potential to improve our understanding of the broad range of factors that can affect the health of wild sheep. Evaluation of transcript levels for genes representative of multiple internal

  • Weather and Exposure Period Affect Coyote Detection at Camera Traps
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Anastasia E. Madsen; Lucia Corral; Joseph J. Fontaine

    Camera traps are an increasingly popular means to monitor wildlife populations. However, like other techniques for measuring populations, camera traps are subject to sources of error that may bias population estimates. Past studies accounting for detection error have failed to account for a simple but potentially widely pervasive source of environmental error: weather conditions. Using 5,108,416 photographs

  • Golf Courses as Potential Habitat for Urban Coyotes
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Ashley M. Wurth; E. Hance Ellington; Stanley D. Gehrt

    Wildlife increasingly live in and adapt to urban landscapes as natural habitat becomes urbanized. Many carnivores take advantage of undeveloped or open developed areas called green spaces, such as parks or cemeteries, to meet their requirements in urban areas. For instance, coyotes (Canis latrans ) expanded their range across most of North America into metropolitan areas and even within highly developed

  • Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area of Influence of Baits
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Jacquelyn E. McRae; Peter E. Schlichting; Nathan P. Snow; Amy J. Davis; Kurt C. VerCauteren; John C. Kilgo; David A. Keiter; James C. Beasley; Kim M. Pepin

    Baiting is a fundamental strategy for the global management of wild pigs (Sus scrofa ); however, little information exists on how anthropogenic bait affects wild pig movements on a landscape. We investigated factors that are important in determining the spatial area of attraction for wild pigs to bait (‘area of influence’ of a bait site) using data from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and locations

  • A Modified Suture Technique for Attaching Radiotransmitters to Northern Bobwhite Chicks
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Theron M. Terhune; Danny Caudill; V. Heather Terhune; James A. Martin

    Reliable and unbiased information is needed for informing management decisions relevant to all animal life stages. Radiomarking is commonly used for adult birds, but this approach is more challenging for galliform chicks. Following preliminary experimentation of multiple attachment methods, we selected 2 radiotransmitter attachment techniques, gluing and suturing, to test on 11‐day‐old northern bobwhite

  • A Rapid Population Assessment Method for Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras at 3 Study Sites
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Peter E. Schlichting; James C. Beasley; Raoul K. Boughton; Amy J. Davis; Kim M. Pepin; Michael P. Glow; Nathan P. Snow; Ryan S. Miller; Kurt C. VerCauteren; Jesse S. Lewis

    Reliable and efficient population estimates are a critical need for effective management of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa ). We evaluated the use of 10‐day camera grids for rapid population assessment (RPA) of wild pigs at 3 study sites that varied in vegetation communities and wild pig densities. Study areas included Buck Island Ranch, Florida; Tejon Ranch, California; and the Savannah River Site

  • Web-based application for threatened woodland caribou population modeling.
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Daniel R Eacker,Mark Hebblewhite,Robin Steenweg,Mike Russell,Amy Flasko,Dave Hervieux

    Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are threatened in Canada, with population and distribution declines evident in most regions of the country. Causes of declines are linked to landscape change from forest fires and human development, notably forestry oil and gas activities, which result in caribou habitat loss and affect ecosystem food webs. The Federal Species at Risk Act requires effective

  • Using Spatial, Economic, and Ecological Opinion Data to Inform Gray Wolf Conservation.
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2016-09-01
    Meredith S Berry,Norma P Nickerson,Elizabeth Covelli Metcalf

    Public opinion can be an influential factor in wildlife management decisions. Evaluating public opinions can help legitimize, or delegitimize, management and facilitate long-term conservation goals. This is especially true for the controversial issues surrounding the management of predators. We surveyed Montana, USA, residents during summer of 2013 to measure public opinion regarding economic and ecological

  • Monitoring Whooping Crane Abundance Using Aerial Surveys: Influences on Detectability.
    Wildl. Soc. Bull. (IF 1.359) Pub Date : 2014-03-01
    Bradley N Strobel,Matthew J Butler

    The whooping crane (Grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in Texas, USA, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. Many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. To improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey

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