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  • Breeding for purpose: Sole‐ and dual‐use barley
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Xiaodong Chen; Bin Zhao; Changhao Ji; Bin Zhu; Rui Wang

    Barley in south central China can be either harvested at early‐dough stage as a sole‐use (SU) forage crop or as a dual‐use (DU) crop that is grazed at early jointing stage for forage and harvested at mature stage for grain. A two‐year field experiment was conducted to compare genotypic differences in yield and quality of forage and grain for both SU and DU production. Barley genotypes differed significantly

  • Estimating cover crop biomass nitrogen credits with Sentinel‐2 imagery and sites covariates
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Yushu Xia; Kaiyu Guan; Ken Copenhaver; Michelle Wander

    Cover crops can positively impact productivity and the environment. While improved estimates of cover crop N benefits could help promote their adoption, little information is currently available at the broad scale. We conducted a multi‐site study to determine whether use of satellite images and site factors could fill this gap. Six spectral indices were extracted from Sentinel‐2 satellite imagery and

  • Evaluation of maize varieties for mechanical grain harvesting in mid‐latitude region, China
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Zhentao Zhang; Bo Ming; Hongwei Liang; Zhaofu Huang; Keru Wang; Xiaoguang Yang; Zhigang Wang; Ruizhi Xie; Peng Hou; Ruixia Zhao; Shaokun Li

    How to allocate heat resources during yield formation and grains drying in the field to ensure food security while reducing the grain moisture content (GMC) is an important issue in maize production in China. In this study, we established three production scenarios (traditional production (TPS, GMC>30% at harvest), mid‐moisture grain harvest (MMHS, GMC≤25% at harvest), and low‐moisture grain harvest

  • Biomass potential of drill interseeded cover crops in corn in Kentucky
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Victoria L. Stanton; Erin R. Haramoto

    Drill interseeding is an alternative method for establishing annual cover crops (CCs), but regional weather and management practices, including soil‐residual herbicides, could impact its success. Split‐plot field experiments in Princeton, KY, assessed establishment and biomass of drill‐interseeded annual ryegrass [Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L

  • Leaf nitrogen sufficiency level guidelines for midseason fertilization in corn
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Caio L. dos Santos; Trenton L. Roberts; Larry C. Purcell

    Improving N management guidelines in corn (Zea mays L.) production systems can reduce fertilization costs and potential negative environmental impacts. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of leaf nitrogen (LN) concentration as a tool to improve midseason N management in corn production. The experiment was conducted on 8 site‐years with furrow irrigation. There were 11 N fertilization

  • Yield components of dryland winter Wheat genotypes and response to seeding rate
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Johnathon D. Holman; Lucas A. Haag; Alan J. Schlegel; Yared Assefa

    Seeding at the optimum rate is among many decisions considered crucial for crop production. The main objective of this research was to evaluate seeding rate responses for popular dryland winter wheat varieties and determine if variety specific seeding rates were warranted. The study was conducted from 2015 through 2018 at Colby, Garden City, and Tribune, KS. The response of four winter wheat varieties

  • Biological traits of six sterile oat biotypes in response to planting time
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Gulshan Mahajan; Bhagirath S. Chauhan

    Sterile oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu) is a problematic weed in winter crops of Australia. Biotypes of sterile oat adapted to the local environment may vary in environmental plasticity, which could increase their invasiveness. A 2‐yr (winter growing seasons of 2018 and 2019) study in Australia investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid‐, and late season) on the growth and reproduction

  • Corn and soybean yields and returns are greater in rotations with wheat
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Ken Janovicek; Dave Hooker; Alfons Weersink; Richard Vyn; Bill Deen

    Simple rotations containing only corn (Zea mays L.) and/or soybean (Glycine max. L.) dominate landscapes despite agronomic, soil health, and environmental benefits associated with diversification. We hypothesise that inclusion of wheat in corn/soybean (CS) rotations increases yield and net returns and that this benefit is becoming larger over time. Yields from rotation‐tillage trials located near Elora

  • Conservation tillage is compatible with manure injection in corn silage systems
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-17
    M.L. Battaglia; Q.M. Ketterings; G. Godwin; K.J. Czymmek

    Adoption of conservation tillage practices has increased over the past 30 years in the United States. Research is needed to evaluate if reduced tillage practices are compatible with manure injection on dairy farms. Two corn (Zea mays L.) silage studies were conducted in New York to evaluate the impact of zone tillage depth and tillage intensity on early plant growth and soil nitrate‐N, and corn silage

  • Peanut response to co‐inoculation of Bradyrhizobium spp. and Azospirillum brasilense and molybdenum application in sandy soil of the Brazilian Cerrado
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Fábio Steiner; Ludmila Freitas Marques de Queiroz; Alan Mario Zuffo; Kátia Cristina da Silva; Isabela Machado de Oliveira Lima

    The use of plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) associated with rhizobia may improve biological N fixation, nutrient acquisition, and grain yield of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). However, few studies have reported the effect of inoculation of rhizobia and PGPR in association with Mo in tropical soil conditions. This study examined the effectiveness of (co)inoculation with Bradyrhizobium

  • Are polycultures for silage pragmatic medleys or gallimaufries?
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Amanda B. Burton; Julie Baniszewski; Greg W. Roth; John F. Tooker; Armen R. Kemanian

    Polycultures, mixtures of different crop species in the same field, may provide both production and ecological benefits. Silage production in annual cropping systems may incorporate polycultures and take advantage of species’ niche partitioning, potentially stabilizing yield variation due to abiotic stress. Using maize (Zea mays L.) silage as the basis of our 3‐year study, we tested the impact on crop

  • A semi‐commercial case study of willow biomass production in the northeastern USA
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Felipe Montes; Eric S. Fabio; Lawrence B. Smart; Tom Richard; Rodrigo Massip Añó; Armen Kemanian

    Shrub willow (Salix spp and hybrids) is a biomass crop well adapted to the northeastern United States. We assessed the biomass productivity of six willow cultivars in a 14.5‐ha field in Pennsylvania through two rotation cycles of three years each, comparing the realized and biophysical yield potential. We also evaluated the relationship of yield with plant density and the harvest efficiency. The realized

  • Review on unmanned aerial vehicles, remote sensors, imagery processing, and their applications in agriculture
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Daniel Olson; James Anderson

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the sensors they can be equipped with are becoming more technologically advanced and common place within the agricultural industry. The output analyses from UAV captured data helps drive decisions for improving input efficiency in agricultural systems, which can result in maximum return on investment and reduced environmental impact. Advances in UAV technologies provides

  • Effect of mono‐, relay‐, and double‐crop systems on yield and profitability
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Raj K. Shrestha; Eric Richer; William B. Clevenger; Matthew Davis; Laura E. Lindsey

    Diversification and intensification of cropping systems are of interest due to potential for increased farm income. However, yield and profitability of multi‐crop systems need to be understood, especially in northern environments where the growing season is short. The objective of this study was to evaluate yield and profitability of monocrop (MC), relay intercrop (RI), and double crop (DC) systems

  • Greenhouse gas emissions from an irrigated cropping rotation with dairy manure utilization in a semiarid climate
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Robert S. Dungan; April B. Leytem; David D. Tarkalson

    This long‐term study was established to increase knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from irrigated cropping systems utilizing dairy manure solids and compost in semiarid southern Idaho. The objective of this field study was to determine the effect of synthetic N fertilizer (urea or SuperU [enhanced‐efficiency synthetic fertilizer]), composted dairy manure, dairy manure (fall or spring applied)

  • Scheduling rice irrigation using soil moisture thresholds for furrow irrigation and intermittent flooding
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Justin L. Chlapecka; Jarrod T. Hardke; Trenton L. Roberts; Matthew G. Mann; Ali Ablao

    Alternative methods of rice (Oryza sativa L.) irrigation are gaining increasing popularity across the Mid‐South, but an allowable soil moisture deficit stress has not been defined. This study was conducted in 2018 and 2019 to determine the soil moisture threshold for furrow‐irrigated rice (FIR) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) rice production systems to minimize irrigation water use while still

  • Silicon uptake and translocation in low‐silica rice mutants investigated by isotope fractionation
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Jingjie Zhou; Yan Sun; Han Xiao; Qingxu Ma; Linlin Si; Liang Ni; Lianghuan Wu

    Si alleviates biotic and abiotic stress in plants and many studies have been conducted in Si uptake by the roots. However, there is limited information about Si translocation during grain filling and the Si transport pathways regulating plant Si uptake. In the present study, we performed a 2‐year field trial on the wild‐type rice varieties Oochikara and Taichung‐65 and their corresponding mutants lsi1

  • Effect of rice planting date and optimal planting window for Southwest Louisiana
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Tommaso Cerioli; Thanos Gentimis; Steven D. Linscombe; Adam N. Famoso

    Rice yield and grain quality are highly influenced by the planting date; thus, it is crucial to determine the optimal planting window for an area of cultivation. In this study, date of planting experiments conducted at the LSU AgCenter Rice Research Station from 2011‐2018 were analyzed to quantify the effect of planting date, genotype, and year on key agronomic traits. Planting date was strongly associated

  • Impact of putting green management on visible wear damage caused by foot traffic
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Thomas A. Nikolai; Douglas E. Karcher; Aaron D. Hathaway; Daniel O'Brien

    A 2‐yr study was conducted at Michigan State University (MSU) and the University of Arkansas (UARK) to identify creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) putting green management practices that minimize or exacerbate visible wear damage (VWD) caused by aggressive golf shoes or cleats. Management treatments included different levels of grooming (none vs. three times weekly at a depth of 0.5 mm),

  • Chlorophyll meter‐based leaf nitrogen status to manage nitrogen in tropical potato production
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Fabiana M. Fernandes; Rogério P. Soratto; Adalton M. Fernandes; Emerson F. C. Souza

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a nitrogen (N) intensive crop, and meeting its requirements with N fertilization is the primary practice to improve N recovery and achieve suitable tuber yield. A 3‐site‐year (SY) study was conducted to assess SPAD‐502 chlorophyll meter efficacy for providing potato leaf real‐time N status to adjust N timing and rate using N sufficiency index (NSI) thresholds of 90

  • Evaluating high‐resolution optical and thermal reflectance of maize interseeded with cover crops across spatial scales using remotely sensed imagery
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Aaron Brooker; Karen Renner; Richard Price; Bruno Basso

    We evaluated the optical and thermal reflectance of maize (Zea mays L.) interseeded with cover crops using remotely sensed canopy temperature and multispectral imagery. In 2017 and 2018 annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and a mixture of annual ryegrass and crimson clover were interseeded in maize at V3 and V6 at

  • Bioinformatics Analysis of Aux/IAA Gene Family in Maize (Zea mays L.)
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Long Jiang; Zhongnan Li; Xiaoming Yu; Chunbo Liu

    Aux/IAA gene family is a kind of transcription factors in plants, which plays a regulatory role in the process of auxin regulating plant growth. In this study, the structural characteristics and gene expression patterns of Aux/IAA transcription factors in maize were analyzed by bioinformatics method, and 32 Aux/IAA genes from Arabidopsis and 40 Aux/IAA genes from maize were screened for phylogenetic

  • Biophysical and management factors causing yield gap in soybean in the subtropics of Brazil
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Eduardo Lago Tagliapietra; Alencar Junior Zanon; Nereu Augusto Streck; Darlan Scapini Balest; Solon Lemos da Rosa; Kelin Pribs Bexaira; Gean Leonardo Richter; Giovana Ghisleni Ribas; Michel Rocha da Silva

    Little is known about the relationships between soybean maturity grouping and the yield limiting factors in the subtropics. This information can be used to estimate soybean potential yield (Yp) and the water‐limited yield (Yw) and to optimize current soybean management practices to improve yield and resource use efficiency. The objectives were (i) to estimate the Yp, Yw and yield gaps of soybean in

  • Identification of a 1,274‐bp promoter of a Musa acuminata L. aquaporin gene (MaPIP1;1) which confers salinity stress inducibility in transgenic Arabidopsis
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Shun Song; Funing Ma; Dongmei Huang; Bin Wu; Chaozhi Ma; Jingyang Li; Yujia Li; Qing Wei; Qiurong Sun; Wenquan Wang; Yi Xu

    Salt stress will seriously influence alt stress in banana (Musa L.) induces MaPIP1;1, which enhances the salt resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis. The promoter pMaPIP1;1, located 13,62 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, was isolated from the banana genome, and four pMaPIP1;1::GUS fusion constructs namely M‐P1, M‐P2, M‐P3, and M‐P4 were used to transform into Arabidopsis. In this work,

  • Diallel analysis for resistance to northern leaf blight in popcorn under contrasting nitrogen availability
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa; Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Junior; Marcelo Vivas; Rafael Nunes de Almeida; Janielli Maganha Silva Vivas; Valter Jário de Lima; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira

    Nitrogen‐use efficient and leaf‐disease resistant corn cultivars are important to reduce costs and increase sustainability in farming. Studies have shown that non‐additive genes may enhance nutrient‐use efficiency and disease resistance in corn crops. This work aimed to analyze the responses of popcorn hybrids to Northern leaf blight (NLB) under contrasting nitrogen availability. We evaluated NLB incidence

  • Effect of nitrogen rates on the growth and grain yield of a leaf early‐senescent rice mutant
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Yunji Xu; Ke Li; Kuanyu Zhu; Yinfang Tian; Qing Yu; Weiyang Zhang; Zhiqin Wang

    Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in regulating leaf senescence and yield formation in rice. However, little information is known about the effects of N rates on the growth and grain yield of rice plants with leaf early senescence. This study used a leaf early‐senescent rice mutant (osled) and its wild type (93‐11) and investigated how N rates of 0 kg ha–1 (0N), 240 kg ha–1 (240N) and 360 kg ha–1 (360N)

  • Rhizobacterial communities, enzyme activity, and soil properties affect rice seedling's nitrogen use
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Hangyu Dong; Haoyuan Sun; Shuxiu Fan; Linlin Jiang; Dianrong Ma

    Microorganisms are crucial in mediating N cycles in soil and produce impact on the health and nutrition of the host plant. The seedling stage is one of the most critical periods of crop growth and development. However, the information regarding the underlying interactions between soil microbial community, soil nutrient, enzyme activities, and microbial biomass, and whether they associate with nitrogen

  • Calibrating AquaCrop model using genetic algorithm with multi‐objective functions applying different weight factors
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-05
    Daxin Guo; Jørgen Eivind Olesen; Johannes W.M. Pullens; Changjiang Guo; Xiaoyi Ma

    Fast and efficient calibration is essential for the effective application of crop models. However, many formulas, parameters and nonlinear responses in crop models make calibration difficult and time‐consuming. Using an intelligent optimization algorithm to calibrate the model has advantages in global search ability, optimization speed and automatic calibration compared to the manual trial and error

  • Is volunteer wheat an economic weed in annual winter wheat production?
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2021-01-05
    Stewart B. Wuest; Nicholas G. Genna; Judit Barroso

    Annual winter grasses are competitive weeds in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) due to their similar life cycle, root system, and morphology. Volunteer wheat is clearly a weed when infesting a crop of a different species. However, should substantial expense be invested in reducing volunteer wheat in a subsequent wheat crop? The effects of volunteer wheat in winter wheat were investigated in three fields

  • Effects of different rice straw on soil microbial community structure
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Li Liu; Mengjiao Ding; Lukuo Zhou; Yi Chen; Haiping Li; Faming Zhang; Gang Li; Zifang Zhou; Yi Zhang; Xixin Zhou

    Straw incorporation is an important measure to improve soil fertility and soil acidification. However, fresh straw that is returned to the field cannot be decomposed in a short time. Accumulation of undecomposed straw in the soil changes humus composition and the C structure. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of decomposed straw on soil fertility and microbial communities. Soil samples

  • Integrating canopy sensing and soil nitrogen for improved corn nitrogen management
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-29
    Gabriel Dias Paiao; Fabián G. Fernández; Jared A. Spackman; Daniel E. Kaiser; Sanford Weisberg

    Active canopy sensing may improve corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) management, but little has been done to evaluate soil N content to improve sensor's utility. This study investigated the usefulness of integrating canopy sensing tools and soil N content to estimate grain yield and N requirement at various corn development stages. Six to seven N rates at 35 to 45 kg urea‐N ha–1 increments were pre‐plant

  • Modelling maize and soybean responses to climatic change and soil degradation in a region of South America
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-25
    Lucía Casali; Juan M. Herrera; Gerardo Rubio

    Climatic change effects on crop yields are expected to be crop‐ and site‐specific. Here, DSSAT models were used to evaluate climatic change effects and mitigation strategies on maize and soybean yields in soils of the subtropical and semi‐arid region of Chaco. Simulations were performed for the DK747 and A8000 genotypes, calibrated for CERES‐Maize in a previous report and for CROPGRO‐Soybean in the

  • Integrated nitrogen amount and sources maximize maize nitrogen efficiency in the saline soils
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Qi Miao; Jishi Zhang; Yongliang Chen; Yanfang Xue; Zhenling Cui

    While the efficient N fertilization has become widely accepted for sustaining or improving nitrogen (N) use efficiency, many existing N fertilizer recommendations seldom considered N sources during implementation. To investigate the effect of N rates and sources on maize (Zea mays L.) production efficiency, soil quality and economic benefits, a field experiment was conducted in the coastal saline area

  • Nitrogen fertilizer needs of first‐year small grain forages following Alfalfa
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Collin A. Pound; Matt A. Yost; J. Earl Creech; Grant E. Cardon; Jody Gale; Kevin Heaton; Steven Price; Michael Pace; Trent Wilde; Boyd Kitchen

    Small grain forages are commonly grown following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Utah and the Intermountain West, especially during drought years as small grains require less irrigation than corn (Zea mays L.). Several studies have shown that corn following alfalfa rarely needs N fertilizer, yet few have evaluated N needs of small grains grown for forage. Objectives of this research were to determine

  • Tillage and nitrogen managements increased Wheat yield through promoting vigor growth and production of tillers
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Jinfeng Ding; Fujian Li; Dongyi Xu; Peng Wu; Min Zhu; Chunyan Li; Xinkai Zhu; Yinglong Chen; Wenshan Guo

    Adopting suitable tillage and fertilization technologies for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can address poor soil conditions and high residual nitrogen following rice (Oryza sativa L.) harvest to improve the sustainability of rice‐wheat rotation systems. A field experiment was conducted in 2016–2018 to investigate the influence of tillage methods and nitrogen rates on wheat seedling growth (at the beginning

  • Genotype‐by‐trait biplot and canonical correlations for spectral and agronomic traits in corn
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Dthenifer Cordeiro Santana; Marcela da Silva Flores; Mayara Favero Cotrim; Erina Vitório Rodrigues; Adriano dos Santos; Larissa Pereira Ribeiro Teodoro; Fabio Henrique Rojo Baio; Carlos Antonio da Silva Junior; Paulo Eduardo Teodoro

    The current challenge of corn crops is to reach high yield, seeking to supply the world's demand for food assertively, especially under different fertilization regimes and using the latest technology. The hypothesis of this research was that wavelengths and vegetation indices have a linear relationship with agronomic variables in corn. However, the objectives were to verify the formation of super‐traits

  • Corn yield response to subsurface drainage water recycling in the Midwestern United States
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Rebecca S. Willison; Kelly A. Nelson; Lori J. Abendroth; Giorgi Chighladze; Christopher H. Hay; Xinhua Jia; Jeppe Kjaersgaard; Benjamin D. Reinhart; Jeff S. Strock; Christopher K. Wikle

    Drainage water recycling (DWR) involves capture, storage, and reuse of surface and subsurface drainage water as irrigation to enhance crop production during critical times of the growing season. Our objectives were to synthesize 53 site‐years of data from 1996 to 2017 in the Midwestern U.S. to determine the effect of DWR using primarily subirrigation on corn grain yield and yield variability, and to

  • Experimental plan for tests with pea
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Francieli de Lima Tartaglia; Alessandro Dal'Col Lúcio; Maria Inês Diel; André Luís Tischler; Dionatan Ketzer Krysczun; João Alberto Zemolin; Lucas Encarnação Marques

    Correct experimental planning is important to obtain more reliable data with high experimental precision. In this way, the results obtained and the technical recommendations generated are more reliable and representative. Thus, the objective of this work is to estimate the plot and sample sizes and the number of repetitions for the variables number of pods per plant and mass of pods per plant for pea

  • Productivity and profitability of mechanized deep nitrogen fertilization in mechanical pot‐seedling transplanting rice in South China
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Lin Li; Zheng Zhang; Hua Tian; Umair Ashraf; Zhaowen Mo; Xiangru Tang; Meiyang Duan; Zaiman Wang; Yan Tiao; Shenggang Pan

    The deep nitrogen (N) fertilization coupled with mechanical pot‐seedling transplanting rice (DNF‐MPT) is an effective alternative to traditional transplanted rice with broadcasting fertilizer, however, little is known about its effects on grain yield, nutrient accumulation, and economic profitability. In present study, a two‐year field experiment was conducted in early seasons (March‐July) of 2019

  • Soil health conditions under cotton production in North Carolina
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Alan J. Franzluebbers

    Soil organic C (SOC) and N fractions are considered important indicators of soil health due to their multifunctional roles in storing and supplying nutrients, enhancing soil physical properties, and feeding soil biological activity and plant nutrition. Soil health condition from 120 fields under cotton cultivation in North Carolina was assessed from soil analyses associated with a survey of historical

  • Fertilizer nitrogen recovery of irrigated spring malt barley
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Christopher W. Rogers; Grant Loomis

    Well‐defined nitrogen (N) management in irrigated two‐row malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is critical for yield, quality, and to minimize environmental impacts. Data on fertilizer N recovery efficiency (FNRE) and the fate of fertilizer‐N in the soil is lacking. The study objective was to determine uptake and partitioning of 15N‐labeled urea in the plant and soil. Urea was either surface applied

  • Tall fescue management and environmental influences on soil, surface residue, and forage properties
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Alan Franzluebbers; Matt Poore

    Environmental characteristics within a region often form site‐specific agro‐ecological responses to management. Using 92 fall‐stockpiled tall fescue field trials in North Carolina and surrounding states, our objective was to test the influence of two management factors (forage utilization and pasture age) and two environmental factors (elevation and soil textural gradients) on soil properties at 0‐10‐cm

  • Climate change impacts on corn heat units for the Canadian Prairie provinces
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    David. J. Major; Sean M. McGinn; Karen A. Beauchemin

    Corn heat units (CHU) are used in Canada to rank corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids for maturity; however, maps showing expected CHU during the growing season have not been updated since 1976. The objective of this study was to: 1) examine historical weather data for the Canadian Prairie provinces and determine if there has been a change in the annual accumulation of CHU (ΣCHU), and 2) use updated technology

  • Global sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis for drought stress parameters in ORYZA (v3) model
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Junwei Tan; Shujun Zhao; Bo Liu; Yufeng Luo; Yuanlai Cui

    Drought stress parameters in a crop model have received little concern in literature. In this paper, a global sensitivity analysis on yield simulation was conducted for the drought stress parameters in ORYZA (v3) model, and sensitive parameters were identified for double season rice (early rice and late rice) by using the Extended FAST method in different scenarios involving two nitrogen applications

  • Soil carbon dynamics in Brazilian atlantic forest converted into pasture‐based dairy production systems
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Patricia Perondi Anchão Oliveira; Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues; Maria Fernanda Ferreira Menegucci Praes; André Faria Pedroso; Bia Anchão Oliveira; Marco Aurélio Sperança; Cristiam Bosi; Fernando Antônio Fernandes

    The conversion of Brazilian tropical forests into pastureland was a complex process, potentially harmful to the environment, heightened by degraded grazing systems that did not ensure sustainability and affected the ecosystem resilience. This study was conducted to determine the long‐term changes in soil Carbon stocks in Native Forest (FOR) converted to pasture‐based dairy systems (continuous grazing

  • Genetics influence postharvest measurements of flue‐cured tobacco more than nitrogen application rate
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-20
    Joseph A. Cheek; Matthew C. Vann; Ramsey S. Lewis; Loren R. Fisher

    Regulations under consideration by the US Food and Drug Administration and the World Health Organization propose that nicotine concentration in tobacco should be lowered to non‐addictive levels (0.3 to 0.5 mg g–1). The proposed standards are 90 to 95% lower than the nicotine concentration typically documented in commercially available cultivars. Research was conducted in six environments to evaluate

  • Design of on‐farm precision experiments to estimate site‐specific crop responses
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Carlos Agustín Alesso; Pablo Ariel Cipriotti; Germán Alberto Bollero; Nicolas Federico Martin

    Site‐specific prescriptions require estimating response functions to controllable inputs across the field. The methodology of applying geographically weighted regression to on‐farm precision experimentation studies opens new opportunities to study site‐specific responses to inputs in farmers' fields by locally estimating the regression coefficients. However, the effect of the experiment's spatial layout

  • Effect of latitude on maize kernel weight and grain yield across China
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Nazia Baloch; Wanmao Liu; Peng Hou; Bo Ming; Ruizhi Xie; Keru Wang; Yuee Liu; Shaokun Li

    Latitude influences maize kernel weight and grain yield by variation in climatic conditions such as temperature and solar radiation. In this study, the major aim is to examine the spatial variation in 1000‐kernel weight and grain yield of the same maize hybrids and to further understand the differences in the response of 1000‐kernel weight and maize grain yield to climatic factors under a wide range

  • Velvet bentgrass putting green quality, water retention, and infiltration as affected by topdressing sand size and rate
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-15
    Ruying Wang; James A. Murphy; Daniel Giménez

    Velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina L.) putting greens require intensive sand topdressing programs for thatch management, however, their high shoot density combined with the low mowing heights make it challenging to maintain smooth, sand‐free putting surface when topdressing is applied at high rates. A field trial was initiated to determine the effects of sand size and topdressing rate on a ‘Greenwich’

  • Phytoextraction of Pb and As from agricultural soils by different intercropping density of Boehmeria nivea (L.) and Pteris vittata (L.)
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-15
    Dong Wang; ShouJing Zhu; YanWei Lu; Rui Zeng; ZhiXin Hu; Xiang Li; YuCheng Jie

    This study aimed to analyze the heavy metal absorption characteristics of different plant species and planting patterns on Pb and As levels in soil. Two ramie [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Guad.] varieties (Zhongzhu‐1 and Xiangzhu‐3), and Pteris vittata L. were cultivated in monoculture and intercropping patterns in soil polluted with heavy metals (Pb and As). The plant traits and biomasses of Zhongzhu‐1 and

  • Maize yield under Urochloa ruziziensis intercropping and previous crop nitrogen fertilization
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-15
    Fábio Luíz Checchio Mingotte; Celso Antônio Jardim; Camila Baptista do Amaral; Anderson Prates Coelho; Orlando Ferreira Morello; Fábio Tiraboschi Leal; Leandro Borges Lemos; Domingos Fornasieri Filho

    Maize intercropping with forage crops and nitrogen under no‐tillage management have led to discrepant results regarding the impact on crop yield. Therefore, understanding various production systems is necessary to assist producers in decision making. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate whether maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping with Urochloa ruziziensis promotes differences in the agronomic performance

  • Traffic form and season of wear affect responses of fine fescues
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-13
    Hui Chen; Bradley S. Park; James A. Murphy

    The performance of fine fescue (Festuca spp.) species and cultivars may differ by traffic form or the season of wear simulation. Two trials were initiated in 2012 to evaluate the effect of traffic form (abrasive wear versus cleated traffic) and season of wear (spring, summer or autumn) on ten fine fescues seeded in North, Brunswick, NJ. Plots were visually assessed for the fullness of turfgrass canopy

  • Seed inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense and nitrogen fertilization for no‐till cereal production
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Eduardo Fávero Caires; Angelo Rafael Bini; Leonardo Felipe Camargo Barão; Adriano Haliski; Vanderson Modolon Duart; Kaynnã da Silva Ricardo

    Cereal crops have a high N requirement in a high‐yield environment. However, N use efficiency is still low in agricultural production systems and little is known about the effects of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense in a high‐yield environment. A field experiment was conducted from 2012 to 2018 with a maize (Zea mays L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation under a continuous no‐till in southern

  • Wheat grain and straw yield, grain quality, and disease benefits associated with increased management intensity
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Mitchell G. Roth; Spyridon Mourtzinis; John M. Gaska; Brian Mueller; Adam Roth; Damon L. Smith; Shawn P. Conley

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third‐most cultivated field crop in the United States and a very important source of nutrition globally. The economic value of wheat motivates farmers to optimize yield and grain quality, which can be obtained with additional inputs that are often expensive. This study investigated three management intensity levels on grain yield, straw yield, grain test weight,

  • Suppression of Microdochium patch using rotations of mineral oil, sulfur, and phosphorous acid
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    C. Mattox; M. Dumelle; B. McDonald; M. Gould; C. Olsen; E. Braithwaite; A. Kowalewski

    Microdochium patch is a turfgrass disease caused by the fungal pathogen Microdochium nivale (Fr.) Samuels and I.C. Hallett that occurs in cool, humid conditions, which are commonplace in the United States Pacific Northwest and Northern Europe. Pesticide restrictions in certain areas make suppressing Microdochium patch challenging, and alternative control methods are desired. Previous research has shown

  • Formulation, application timing, and post‐application irrigation timing affect dislodgeable azoxystrobin from turfgrass
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    P.J. Maxwell; T.W. Gannon

    Azoxystrobin is a broad‐spectrum strobilurin fungicide used widely in turfgrass systems including lawns. Previous research has shown various management practices influence pesticide dislodgement from turfgrass; however, limited research has been performed to determine their effect on azoxystrobin dislodge. A field experiment was conducted in Raleigh, NC to quantify dislodgeable azoxystrobin (0.61 kg

  • Evaluating polymer coated fertilizer prototypes designed for planting along with maize seed
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Jason L. DeBruin; Rajeev L. Gorowara; Jeffrey Schussler; Ryan Pape; Melissa Grafton; Lu Liu; Jacy Macchia; Shane Kendra; Jihua Zhang; Robert Burch

    Side‐dress N is a management strategy in maize (Zea Mays L.) production that can increase yield, reduce N leaching and increase the probability that N remains post‐flowering. This management adds cost, is time‐sensitive and can be difficult due to field shape and topography. A plantable, polymer‐coated urea N bead of two sizes and two coating thicknesses was developed and field tested across multiple

  • Cross‐linked polymers INCREASE NUTRIENT SOrPTION in Degraded SoilS
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Rodrick D. Lentz; James A. Ippolito

    Cross‐linked polymer hydrogels, such as polyacrylamide co‐polymer (XPAM) or polyacrylate (XPAA) offer potential solutions for soil degradation, declines in soil resilience, and poor productivity in marginal soils. However, little is known about their long‐term effect on soil nutrient availability. This 9‐y, irrigated, outdoor, cropped pot study evaluated a single, one‐time addition of XPAM or XPAA

  • Macadamia intercropping into an inefficient adult coffee plantation is economically advantageous
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Marcos J. Perdoná; Rogério P. Soratto; Antonio J. Porto; Raquel N. Pinotti

    The paper's hypothesis was that intercropping macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche) in an Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantation would increase land‐use efficiency and economic results. An experiment was conducted in southeastern Brazil to evaluate the planting of macadamia intercropped into a declining adult coffee plantation where trees were prunned, removed, or neither on the

  • Comparing rates of mineral oil, sulfur, and phosphorous acid on Microdochium patch suppression and turfgrass quality
    Agron. J. (IF 1.683) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    C. Mattox; M. Dumelle; B. McDonald; M. Gould; C. Olsen; C. Schmid; R. Wang; A. Kowalewski

    Microdochium patch is a turfgrass disease caused by the fungal pathogen Microdochium nivale (Fr.) Samuels and I.C. Hallett that occurs in climates similar to the cool, humid regions of North America's Pacific Northwest. Mineral oil, sulfur (S), and phosphorous acid (H3PO3) have been shown to suppress Microdochium patch on annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) putting greens in western Oregon. Previous research

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