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  • Molecular insights into the complex mechanics of plant epidermal cell walls
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Yao Zhang, Jingyi Yu, Xuan Wang, Daniel M. Durachko, Sulin Zhang, Daniel J. Cosgrove

    Plants have evolved complex nanofibril-based cell walls to meet diverse biological and physical constraints. How strength and extensibility emerge from the nanoscale-to-mesoscale organization of growing cell walls has long been unresolved. We sought to clarify the mechanical roles of cellulose and matrix polysaccharides by developing a coarse-grained model based on polymer physics that recapitulates

  • Extreme oxidant amounts produced by lightning in storm clouds
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    W. H. Brune, P. J. McFarland, E. Bruning, S. Waugh, D. MacGorman, D. O. Miller, J. M. Jenkins, X. Ren, J. Mao, J. Peischl

    Lightning increases the atmosphere’s ability to cleanse itself by producing nitric oxide (NO), leading to atmospheric chemistry that forms ozone (O3) and the atmosphere’s primary oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). Our analysis of a 2012 airborne study of deep convection and chemistry demonstrates that lightning also directly generates the oxidants OH and the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2). Extreme amounts

  • Cell-specific transcriptional control of mitochondrial metabolism by TIF1γ drives erythropoiesis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Marlies P. Rossmann, Karen Hoi, Victoria Chan, Brian J. Abraham, Song Yang, James Mullahoo, Malvina Papanastasiou, Ying Wang, Ilaria Elia, Julie R. Perlin, Elliott J. Hagedorn, Sara Hetzel, Raha Weigert, Sejal Vyas, Partha P. Nag, Lucas B. Sullivan, Curtis R. Warren, Bilguujin Dorjsuren, Eugenia Custo Greig, Isaac Adatto, Chad A. Cowan, Stuart L. Schreiber, Richard A. Young, Alexander Meissner, Marcia

    Transcription and metabolism both influence cell function, but dedicated transcriptional control of metabolic pathways that regulate cell fate has rarely been defined. We discovered, using a chemical suppressor screen, that inhibition of the pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) rescues erythroid differentiation in bloodless zebrafish moonshine (mon) mutant embryos defective

  • Electric field control of superconductivity at the LaAlO3/KTaO3(111) interface
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Zheng Chen, Yuan Liu, Hui Zhang, Zhongran Liu, He Tian, Yanqiu Sun, Meng Zhang, Yi Zhou, Jirong Sun, Yanwu Xie

    The oxide interface between LaAlO3 and KTaO3(111) can harbor a superconducting state. We report that by applying a gate voltage (VG) across KTaO3, the interface can be continuously tuned from superconducting into insulating states, yielding a dome-shaped Tc-VG dependence, where Tc is the transition temperature. The electric gating has only a minor effect on carrier density but a strong one on mobility

  • Lack of transgenerational effects of ionizing radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Meredith Yeager, Mitchell J. Machiela, Prachi Kothiyal, Michael Dean, Clara Bodelon, Shalabh Suman, Mingyi Wang, Lisa Mirabello, Chase W. Nelson, Weiyin Zhou, Cameron Palmer, Bari Ballew, Leandro M. Colli, Neal D. Freedman, Casey Dagnall, Amy Hutchinson, Vibha Vij, Yosi Maruvka, Maureen Hatch, Iryna Illienko, Yuri Belayev, Nori Nakamura, Vadim Chumak, Elena Bakhanova, David Belyi, Victor Kryuchkov

    Effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl nuclear accident remain a topic of interest. We investigated germline de novo mutations (DNMs) in children born to parents employed as cleanup workers or exposed to occupational and environmental ionizing radiation after the accident. Whole-genome sequencing of 130 children (born 1987–2002) and their parents did not reveal an increase in the rates, distributions

  • The chain of chirality transfer in tellurium nanocrystals
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Assaf Ben-Moshe, Alessandra da Silva, Alexander Müller, Anas Abu-Odeh, Patrick Harrison, Jacob Waelder, Farnaz Niroui, Colin Ophus, Andrew M. Minor, Mark Asta, Wolfgang Theis, Peter Ercius, A. Paul Alivisatos

    Despite persistent and extensive observations of crystals with chiral shapes, the mechanisms underlying their formation are not well understood. Although past studies suggest that chiral shapes can form because of crystallization in the presence of chiral additives, or because of an intrinsic tendency that stems from the crystal structure, there are many cases in which these explanations are not suitable

  • Macroevolutionary stability predicts interaction patterns of species in seed dispersal networks
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Gustavo Burin, Paulo R. Guimarães, Tiago B. Quental

    Assessing deep-time mechanisms affecting the assembly of ecological networks is key to understanding biodiversity changes on broader time scales. We combined analyses of diversification rates with interaction network descriptors from 468 bird species belonging to 29 seed dispersal networks to show that bird species that contribute most to the network structure of plant–frugivore interactions belong

  • Shared B cell memory to coronaviruses and other pathogens varies in human age groups and tissues
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Fan Yang, Sandra C. A. Nielsen, Ramona A. Hoh, Katharina Röltgen, Oliver Fabian Wirz, Emily Haraguchi, Grace H. Jean, Ji-Yeun Lee, Tho D. Pham, Katherine J. L. Jackson, Krishna M. Roskin, Yi Liu, Khoa Nguyen, Robert S. Ohgami, Eleanor M. Osborne, Kari C. Nadeau, Claus U. Niemann, Julie Parsonnet, Scott D. Boyd

    Vaccination and infection promote the formation, tissue distribution, and clonal evolution of B cells, which encode humoral immune memory. We evaluated pediatric and adult blood and deceased adult organ donor tissues to determine convergent antigen-specific antibody genes of similar sequences shared between individuals. B cell memory varied for different pathogens. Polysaccharide antigen–specific clones

  • 60Fe and 244Pu deposited on Earth constrain the r-process yields of recent nearby supernovae
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    A. Wallner, M. B. Froehlich, M. A. C. Hotchkis, N. Kinoshita, M. Paul, M. Martschini, S. Pavetich, S. G. Tims, N. Kivel, D. Schumann, M. Honda, H. Matsuzaki, T. Yamagata

    Half of the chemical elements heavier than iron are produced by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). The sites and yields of this process are disputed, with candidates including some types of supernovae (SNe) and mergers of neutron stars. We search for two isotopic signatures in a sample of Pacific Ocean crust—iron-60 (60Fe) (half-life, 2.6 million years), which is predominantly produced

  • Watersheds may not recover from drought
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Tim J. Peterson, M. Saft, M. C. Peel, A. John

    The Millennium Drought (southeastern Australia) provided a natural experiment to challenge the assumption that watershed streamflow always recovers from drought. Seven years after the drought, the runoff (as a fraction of precipitation) had not recovered in 37% of watersheds, and the number of recovered watersheds was not increasing. When recovery did occur, it was not explained by watershed wetness

  • Radiation-related genomic profile of papillary thyroid carcinoma after the Chernobyl accident
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Lindsay M. Morton, Danielle M. Karyadi, Chip Stewart, Tetiana I. Bogdanova, Eric T. Dawson, Mia K. Steinberg, Jieqiong Dai, Stephen W. Hartley, Sara J. Schonfeld, Joshua N. Sampson, Yosef E. Maruvka, Vidushi Kapoor, Dale A. Ramsden, Juan Carvajal-Garcia, Charles M. Perou, Joel S. Parker, Marko Krznaric, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F. Boland, Amy Hutchinson, Belynda D. Hicks, Casey L. Dagnall, Julie M.

    The 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident increased papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence in surrounding regions, particularly for radioactive iodine (131I)–exposed children. We analyzed genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic characteristics of 440 PTCs from Ukraine (from 359 individuals with estimated childhood 131I exposure and 81 unexposed children born after 1986). PTCs displayed radiation

  • SLFN2 protection of tRNAs from stress-induced cleavage is essential for T cell–mediated immunity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Tao Yue, Xiaoming Zhan, Duanwu Zhang, Ruchi Jain, Kuan-wen Wang, Jin Huk Choi, Takuma Misawa, Lijing Su, Jiexia Quan, Sara Hildebrand, Darui Xu, Xiaohong Li, Emre Turer, Lei Sun, Eva Marie Y. Moresco, Bruce Beutler

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase in activated T cells because of metabolic activity induced to support T cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that these ROS trigger an oxidative stress response that leads to translation repression. This response is countered by Schlafen 2 (SLFN2), which directly binds transfer RNAs (tRNAs) to protect them from cleavage by the ribonuclease angiogenin

  • Arene diversification through distal C(sp2)−H functionalization
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Uttam Dutta, Sudip Maiti, Trisha Bhattacharya, Debabrata Maiti

    Transition metal–catalyzed aryl C−H activation is a powerful synthetic tool as it offers step and atom-economical routes to site-selective functionalization. Compared with proximal ortho-C−H activation, distal (meta- and/or para-) C−H activation remains more challenging due to the inaccessibility of these sites in the formation of energetically favorable organometallic pretransition states. Directing

  • A prometastatic splicing program regulated by SNRPA1 interactions with structured RNA elements
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Lisa Fish, Matvei Khoroshkin, Albertas Navickas, Kristle Garcia, Bruce Culbertson, Benjamin Hänisch, Steven Zhang, Hoang C. B. Nguyen, Larisa M. Soto, Maria Dermit, Faraz K. Mardakheh, Henrik Molina, Claudio Alarcón, Hamed S. Najafabadi, Hani Goodarzi

    Aberrant alternative splicing is a hallmark of cancer, yet the underlying regulatory programs that control this process remain largely unknown. Here, we report a systematic effort to decipher the RNA structural code that shapes pathological splicing during breast cancer metastasis. We discovered a previously unknown structural splicing enhancer that is enriched near cassette exons with increased inclusion

  • A cell type–specific cortico-subcortical brain circuit for investigatory and novelty-seeking behavior
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-14
    Mehran Ahmadlou, Janou H. W. Houba, Jacqueline F. M. van Vierbergen, Maria Giannouli, Geoffrey-Alexander Gimenez, Christiaan van Weeghel, Maryam Darbanfouladi, Maryam Yasamin Shirazi, Julia Dziubek, Mejdy Kacem, Fred de Winter, J. Alexander Heimel

    Exploring the physical and social environment is essential for understanding the surrounding world. We do not know how novelty-seeking motivation initiates the complex sequence of actions that make up investigatory behavior. We found in mice that inhibitory neurons in the medial zona incerta (ZIm), a subthalamic brain region, are essential for the decision to investigate an object or a conspecific

  • Socioeconomic status determines COVID-19 incidence and related mortality in Santiago, Chile
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-13
    Gonzalo E. Mena, Pamela P. Martinez, Ayesha S. Mahmud, Pablo A. Marquet, Caroline O. Buckee, Mauricio Santillana

    The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted cities particularly hard. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of disease incidence and mortality, and their dependence on demographic and socioeconomic strata in Santiago, a highly segregated city and the capital of Chile. Our analyses show a strong association between socioeconomic status and both COVID-19 outcomes and public health capacity. People

  • Structural basis of ribosomal frameshifting during translation of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-13
    Pramod R. Bhatt, Alain Scaiola, Gary Loughran, Marc Leibundgut, Annika Kratzel, Romane Meurs, René Dreos, Kate M. O’Connor, Angus McMillan, Jeffrey W. Bode, Volker Thiel, David Gatfield, John F. Atkins, Nenad Ban

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is a key event during translation of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome allowing synthesis of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and downstream proteins. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a translating mammalian ribosome primed for frameshifting on the viral RNA. The viral RNA adopts a pseudoknot structure that lodges at the entry to the ribosomal

  • Very weak bonds to artificial atoms formed by quantum corrals
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-13
    Fabian Stilp, Andreas Bereczuk, Julian Berwanger, Nadine Mundigl, Klaus Richter, Franz J. Giessibl

    We explored the bonding properties of the quantum corral (a circle of 48 iron atoms placed on a copper surface) reported by Crommie, Lutz and Eigler in 1993, along with variants, as an artificial atom using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The original corral geometry confines 102 electrons to 28 discrete energy states, and we find that these states can form a bond to the front atom of the AFM with

  • A rooted phylogeny resolves early bacterial evolution
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Gareth A. Coleman, Adrián A. Davín, Tara A. Mahendrarajah, Lénárd L. Szánthó, Anja Spang, Philip Hugenholtz, Gergely J. Szöllősi, Tom A. Williams

    A rooted bacterial tree is necessary to understand early evolution, but the position of the root is contested. Here, we model the evolution of 11,272 gene families to identify the root, extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and the nature of the last bacterial common ancestor (LBCA). Our analyses root the tree between the major clades Terrabacteria and Gracilicutes and suggest that LBCA was a free-living

  • Sex chromosome transformation and the origin of a male-specific X chromosome in the creeping vole
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Matthew B. Couger, Scott W. Roy, Noelle Anderson, Landen Gozashti, Stacy Pirro, Lindsay S. Millward, Michelle Kim, Duncan Kilburn, Kelvin J. Liu, Todd M. Wilson, Clinton W. Epps, Laurie Dizney, Luis A. Ruedas, Polly Campbell

    The mammalian sex chromosome system (XX female/XY male) is ancient and highly conserved. The sex chromosome karyotype of the creeping vole (Microtus oregoni) represents a long-standing anomaly, with an X chromosome that is unpaired in females (X0) and exclusively maternally transmitted. We produced a highly contiguous male genome assembly, together with short-read genomes and transcriptomes for both

  • The early origin of a birdlike inner ear and the evolution of dinosaurian movement and vocalization
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Michael Hanson, Eva A. Hoffman, Mark A. Norell, Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar

    Reptiles, including birds, exhibit a range of behaviorally relevant adaptations that are reflected in changes to the structure of the inner ear. These adaptations include the capacity for flight and sensitivity to high-frequency sound. We used three-dimensional morphometric analyses of a large sample of extant and extinct reptiles to investigate inner ear correlates of locomotor ability and hearing

  • Evolution of vision and hearing modalities in theropod dinosaurs
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Jonah N. Choiniere, James M. Neenan, Lars Schmitz, David P. Ford, Kimberley E. J. Chapelle, Amy M. Balanoff, Justin S. Sipla, Justin A. Georgi, Stig A. Walsh, Mark A. Norell, Xing Xu, James M. Clark, Roger B. J. Benson

    Owls and nightbirds are nocturnal hunters of active prey that combine visual and hearing adaptations to overcome limits on sensory performance in low light. Such sensory innovations are unknown in nonavialan theropod dinosaurs and are poorly characterized on the line that leads to birds. We investigate morphofunctional proxies of vision and hearing in living and extinct theropods and demonstrate deep

  • Reversible fusion and fission of graphene oxide–based fibers
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Dan Chang, Jingran Liu, Bo Fang, Zhen Xu, Zheng Li, Yilun Liu, Laurence Brassart, Fan Guo, Weiwei Gao, Chao Gao

    Stimuli-responsive fusion and fission are widely observed in both bio-organizations and artificial molecular assemblies. However, the design of a system with structure and property persistence during repeated fusion and fission remains challenging. We show reversible fusion and fission of wet-spun graphene oxide (GO) fibers, in which a number of macroscopic fibers can fuse into a thicker one and can

  • Interfacial toughening with self-assembled monolayers enhances perovskite solar cell reliability
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Zhenghong Dai, Srinivas K. Yadavalli, Min Chen, Ali Abbaspourtamijani, Yue Qi, Nitin P. Padture

    Iodine-terminated self-assembled monolayer (I-SAM) was used in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to achieve a 50% increase of adhesion toughness at the interface between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the halide perovskite thin film to enhance mechanical reliability. Treatment with I-SAM also increased the power conversion efficiency from 20.2% to 21.4%, reduced hysteresis, and improved operational

  • Direct observation of deterministic macroscopic entanglement
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Shlomi Kotler, Gabriel A. Peterson, Ezad Shojaee, Florent Lecocq, Katarina Cicak, Alex Kwiatkowski, Shawn Geller, Scott Glancy, Emanuel Knill, Raymond W. Simmonds, José Aumentado, John D. Teufel

    Quantum entanglement of mechanical systems emerges when distinct objects move with such a high degree of correlation that they can no longer be described separately. Although quantum mechanics presumably applies to objects of all sizes, directly observing entanglement becomes challenging as masses increase, requiring measurement and control with a vanishingly small error. Here, using pulsed electromechanics

  • Quantum mechanics–free subsystem with mechanical oscillators
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Laure Mercier de Lépinay, Caspar F. Ockeloen-Korppi, Matthew J. Woolley, Mika A. Sillanpää

    Quantum mechanics sets a limit for the precision of continuous measurement of the position of an oscillator. We show how it is possible to measure an oscillator without quantum back-action of the measurement by constructing one effective oscillator from two physical oscillators. We realize such a quantum mechanics–free subsystem using two micromechanical oscillators, and show the measurements of two

  • Reversible oxygen migration and phase transitions in hafnia-based ferroelectric devices
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Pavan Nukala, Majid Ahmadi, Yingfen Wei, Sytze de Graaf, Evgenios Stylianidis, Tuhin Chakrabortty, Sylvia Matzen, Henny W. Zandbergen, Alexander Björling, Dan Mannix, Dina Carbone, Bart Kooi, Beatriz Noheda

    Unconventional ferroelectricity exhibited by hafnia-based thin films—robust at nanoscale sizes—presents tremendous opportunities in nanoelectronics. However, the exact nature of polarization switching remains controversial. We investigated a La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 capacitor interfaced with various top electrodes while performing in situ electrical biasing using atomic-resolution microscopy with

  • The impact of population-wide rapid antigen testing on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in Slovakia
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Martin Pavelka, Kevin Van-Zandvoort, Sam Abbott, Katharine Sherratt, Marek Majdan, CMMID COVID-19 working group†, Inštitút Zdravotných Analýz†, Pavol Jarčuška, Marek Krajčí, Stefan Flasche, Sebastian Funk

    Slovakia conducted multiple rounds of population-wide rapid antigen testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2020, combined with a period of additional contact restrictions. Observed prevalence decreased by 58% (95% confidence interval: 57 to 58%) within 1 week in the 45 counties that were subject to two rounds of mass testing, an estimate that remained robust

  • X-ray screening identifies active site and allosteric inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Sebastian Günther, Patrick Y. A. Reinke, Yaiza Fernández-García, Julia Lieske, Thomas J. Lane, Helen M. Ginn, Faisal H. M. Koua, Christiane Ehrt, Wiebke Ewert, Dominik Oberthuer, Oleksandr Yefanov, Susanne Meier, Kristina Lorenzen, Boris Krichel, Janine-Denise Kopicki, Luca Gelisio, Wolfgang Brehm, Ilona Dunkel, Brandon Seychell, Henry Gieseler, Brenna Norton-Baker, Beatriz Escudero-Pérez, Martin Domaracky

    The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is creating tremendous human suffering. To date, no effective drug is available to directly treat the disease. In a search for a drug against COVID-19, we have performed a high-throughput x-ray crystallographic screen of two repurposing drug libraries against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), which is essential for viral replication. In contrast

  • Extreme altitudes during diurnal flights in a nocturnal songbird migrant
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Sissel Sjöberg, Gintaras Malmiga, Andreas Nord, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman, Maja Tarka, Mikkel Willemoes, Kasper Thorup, Bengt Hansson, Thomas Alerstam, Dennis Hasselquist

    Billions of nocturnally migrating songbirds fly across oceans and deserts on their annual journeys. Using multisensor data loggers, we show that great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) regularly prolong their otherwise strictly nocturnal flights into daytime when crossing the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Unexpectedly, when prolonging their flights, they climbed steeply at dawn,

  • Unearthing Neanderthal population history using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from cave sediments
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Benjamin Vernot, Elena I. Zavala, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Zenobia Jacobs, Viviane Slon, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Frédéric Romagné, Alice Pearson, Martin Petr, Nohemi Sala, Adrián Pablos, Arantza Aranburu, José María Bermúdez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell, Bo Li, Maciej T. Krajcarz, Andrey I. Krivoshapkin, Kseniya A. Kolobova, Maxim B. Kozlikin, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoly P. Derevianko, Bence Viola, Steffi

    Bones and teeth are important sources of Pleistocene hominin DNA, but are rarely recovered at archaeological sites. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been retrieved from cave sediments but provides limited value for studying population relationships. We therefore developed methods for the enrichment and analysis of nuclear DNA from sediments and applied them to cave deposits in western Europe and southern

  • Fossil apes and human evolution
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Sergio Almécija, Ashley S. Hammond, Nathan E. Thompson, Kelsey D. Pugh, Salvador Moyà-Solà, David M. Alba

    Humans diverged from apes (chimpanzees, specifically) toward the end of the Miocene ~9.3 million to 6.5 million years ago. Understanding the origins of the human lineage (hominins) requires reconstructing the morphology, behavior, and environment of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Modern hominoids (that is, humans and apes) share multiple features (for example, an orthograde body plan facilitating

  • The coding and long noncoding single-cell atlas of the developing human fetal striatum
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Vittoria Dickinson Bocchi, Paola Conforti, Elena Vezzoli, Dario Besusso, Claudio Cappadona, Tiziana Lischetti, Maura Galimberti, Valeria Ranzani, Raoul J. P. Bonnal, Marco De Simone, Grazisa Rossetti, Xiaoling He, Kenji Kamimoto, Ira Espuny-Camacho, Andrea Faedo, Federica Gervasoni, Romina Vuono, Samantha A. Morris, Jian Chen, Dan Felsenfeld, Giulio Pavesi, Roger A. Barker, Massimiliano Pagani, Elena

    Deciphering how the human striatum develops is necessary for understanding the diseases that affect this region. To decode the transcriptional modules that regulate this structure during development, we compiled a catalog of 1116 long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) identified de novo and then profiled 96,789 single cells from the early human fetal striatum. We found that D1 and D2 medium spiny

  • Environmental robustness of the global yeast genetic interaction network
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-07
    Michael Costanzo, Jing Hou, Vincent Messier, Justin Nelson, Mahfuzur Rahman, Benjamin VanderSluis, Wen Wang, Carles Pons, Catherine Ross, Matej Ušaj, Bryan-Joseph San Luis, Emira Shuteriqi, Elizabeth N. Koch, Patrick Aloy, Chad L. Myers, Charles Boone, Brenda Andrews

    Phenotypes associated with genetic variants can be altered by interactions with other genetic variants (GxG), with the environment (GxE), or both (GxGxE). Yeast genetic interactions have been mapped on a global scale, but the environmental influence on the plasticity of genetic networks has not been examined systematically. To assess environmental rewiring of genetic networks, we examined 14 diverse

  • Role of the ionic environment in enhancing the activity of reacting molecules in zeolite pores
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-06
    Niklas Pfriem, Peter H. Hintermeier, Sebastian Eckstein, Sungmin Kim, Qiang Liu, Hui Shi, Lara Milakovic, Yuanshuai Liu, Gary L. Haller, Eszter Baráth, Yue Liu, Johannes A. Lercher

    Tailoring the molecular environment around catalytically active site allows to enhance catalytic reactivity via a hitherto unexplored pathway. In zeolites, the presence of water creates an ionic environment via formation of hydrated hydronium ions and the negatively charged framework Al tetrahedra. The high density of cation-anion pairs determined by the aluminum concentration of a zeolite induces

  • Quantum walks on a programmable two-dimensional 62-qubit superconducting processor
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-06
    Ming Gong, Shiyu Wang, Chen Zha, Ming-Cheng Chen, He-Liang Huang, Yulin Wu, Qingling Zhu, Youwei Zhao, Shaowei Li, Shaojun Guo, Haoran Qian, Yangsen Ye, Fusheng Chen, Chong Ying, Jiale Yu, Daojin Fan, Dachao Wu, Hong Su, Hui Deng, Hao Rong, Kaili Zhang, Sirui Cao, Jin Lin, Yu Xu, Lihua Sun, Cheng Guo, Na Li, Futian Liang, V. M. Bastidas, Kae Nemoto, W. J. Munro, Yong-Heng Huo, Chao-Yang Lu, Cheng-Zhi

    Quantum walks are the quantum mechanical analog of classical random walks and an extremely powerful tool in quantum simulations, quantum search algorithms, and even for universal quantum computing. In our work, we have designed and fabricated an 8x8 two-dimensional square superconducting qubit array composed of 62 functional qubits. We used this device to demonstrate high fidelity single and two particle

  • Structures of the human Mediator and Mediator-bound preinitiation complex
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-06
    Xizi Chen, Xiaotong Yin, Jiabei Li, Zihan Wu, Yilun Qi, Xinxin Wang, Weida Liu, Yanhui Xu

    The 1.3-MDa transcription factor IID (TFIID) is required for preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly and RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription initiation on almost all genes. The 26-subunit Mediator stimulates transcription and cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7)-mediated phosphorylation of Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We determined the structures of human Mediator in the Tail module-extended

  • Prevalent, protective, and convergent IgG recognition of SARS-CoV-2 non-RBD spike epitopes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-04
    William N. Voss, Yixuan J. Hou, Nicole V. Johnson, George Delidakis, Jin Eyun Kim, Kamyab Javanmardi, Andrew P. Horton, Foteini Bartzoka, Chelsea J. Paresi, Yuri Tanno, Chia-Wei Chou, Shawn A. Abbasi, Whitney Pickens, Katia George, Daniel R. Boutz, Dalton M. Towers, Jonathan R. McDaniel, Daniel Billick, Jule Goike, Lori Rowe, Dhwani Batra, Jan Pohl, Justin Lee, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara

    The molecular composition and binding epitopes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that circulate in blood plasma following SARS-CoV-2 infection are unknown. Proteomic deconvolution of the IgG repertoire to the spike glycoprotein in convalescent subjects revealed that the response is directed predominantly (>80%) against epitopes residing outside the receptor-binding domain (RBD). In one subject

  • Resurgence of SARS-CoV-2: detection by community viral surveillance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-05-03
    Steven Riley, Kylie E. C. Ainslie, Oliver Eales, Caroline E. Walters, Haowei Wang, Christina Atchison, Claudio Fronterre, Peter J. Diggle, Deborah Ashby, Christl A. Donnelly, Graham Cooke, Wendy Barclay, Helen Ward, Ara Darzi, Paul Elliott

    Surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has mainly relied on case reporting which is biased by health service performance, test availability and test-seeking behaviors. We report a community-wide national representative surveillance program in England involving self-administered swab results from 594,000 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of symptoms, from May to beginning of September 2020

  • Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection rescues B and T cell responses to variants after first vaccine dose
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Catherine J. Reynolds, Corinna Pade, Joseph M. Gibbons, David K. Butler, Ashley D. Otter, Katia Menacho, Marianna Fontana, Angelique Smit, Jane E. Sackville-West, Teresa Cutino-Moguel, Mala K. Maini, Benjamin Chain, Mahdad Noursadeghi, UK COVIDsortium Immune Correlates Network‡, Tim Brooks, Amanda Semper, Charlotte Manisty, Thomas A. Treibel, James C. Moon, UK COVIDsortium Investigators‡, Ana M. Valdes

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccine rollout has coincided with the spread of variants of concern. We investigated if single dose vaccination, with or without prior infection, confers cross protective immunity to variants. We analyzed T and B cell responses after first dose vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 in healthcare workers (HCW) followed longitudinally, with or without prior Wuhan-Hu-1

  • Widespread reforestation before European influence on Amazonia
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    M. B. Bush, M. N. Nascimento, C. M. Åkesson, G. M. Cárdenes-Sandí, S. Y. Maezumi, H. Behling, A. Correa-Metrio, W. Church, S. N. Huisman, T. Kelly, F. E. Mayle, C. N. H. McMichael

    An estimated 90 to 95% of Indigenous people in Amazonia died after European contact. This population collapse is postulated to have caused decreases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at around 1610 CE, as a result of a wave of land abandonment in the wake of disease, slavery, and warfare, whereby the attendant reversion to forest substantially increased terrestrial carbon sequestration.

  • The human dimension of biodiversity changes on islands
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Sandra Nogué, Ana M. C. Santos, H. John B. Birks, Svante Björck, Alvaro Castilla-Beltrán, Simon Connor, Erik J. de Boer, Lea de Nascimento, Vivian A. Felde, José María Fernández-Palacios, Cynthia A. Froyd, Simon G. Haberle, Henry Hooghiemstra, Karl Ljung, Sietze J. Norder, Josep Peñuelas, Matthew Prebble, Janelle Stevenson, Robert J. Whittaker, Kathy J. Willis, Janet M. Wilmshurst, Manuel J. Steinbauer

    Islands are among the last regions on Earth settled and transformed by human activities, and they provide replicated model systems for analysis of how people affect ecological functions. By analyzing 27 representative fossil pollen sequences encompassing the past 5000 years from islands globally, we quantified the rates of vegetation compositional change before and after human arrival. After human

  • Equids engineer desert water availability
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Erick J. Lundgren, Daniel Ramp, Juliet C. Stromberg, Jianguo Wu, Nathan C. Nieto, Martin Sluk, Karla T. Moeller, Arian D. Wallach

    Megafauna play important roles in the biosphere, yet little is known about how they shape dryland ecosystems. We report on an overlooked form of ecosystem engineering by donkeys and horses. In the deserts of North America, digging of ≤2-meter wells to groundwater by feral equids increased the density of water features, reduced distances between waters, and, at times, provided the only water present

  • Electric field control of natural optical activity in a multiferroic helimagnet
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Ryoji Masuda, Yoshio Kaneko, Yoshinori Tokura, Youtarou Takahashi

    Controlling the chiral degree of freedom in matter has long been an important issue for many fields of science. The spin-spiral order, which exhibits a strong magnetoelectric coupling, gives rise to chirality irrespective of the atomic arrangement of matter. Here, we report the resonantly enhanced natural optical activity on the electrically active magnetic excitation, that is, electromagnon, in multiferroic

  • Atomic-scale ion transistor with ultrahigh diffusivity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Yahui Xue, Yang Xia, Sui Yang, Yousif Alsaid, King Yan Fong, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang

    Biological ion channels rapidly and selectively gate ion transport through atomic-scale filters to maintain vital life functions. We report an atomic-scale ion transistor exhibiting ultrafast and highly selective ion transport controlled by electrical gating in graphene channels around 3 angstroms in height, made from a single flake of reduced graphene oxide. The ion diffusion coefficient reaches two

  • A risk-based approach for managing hydraulic fracturing–induced seismicity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Ryan Schultz, Gregory C. Beroza, William L. Ellsworth

    Risks from induced earthquakes are a growing concern that needs effective management. For hydraulic fracturing of the Eagle Ford shale in southern Texas, we developed a risk-informed strategy for choosing red-light thresholds that require immediate well shut-in. We used a combination of datasets to simulate spatially heterogeneous nuisance and damage impacts. Simulated impacts are greater in the northeast

  • Parity-preserving and magnetic field–resilient superconductivity in InSb nanowires with Sn shells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    M. Pendharkar, B. Zhang, H. Wu, A. Zarassi, P. Zhang, C. P. Dempsey, J. S. Lee, S. D. Harrington, G. Badawy, S. Gazibegovic, R. L. M. Op het Veld, M. Rossi, J. Jung, A.-H. Chen, M. A. Verheijen, M. Hocevar, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, C. J. Palmstrøm, S. M. Frolov

    Improving materials used to make qubits is crucial to further progress in quantum information processing. Of particular interest are semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures that are expected to form the basis of topological quantum computing. We grew semiconductor indium antimonide nanowires that were coated with shells of tin of uniform thickness. No interdiffusion was observed at the interface

  • A widespread pathway for substitution of adenine by diaminopurine in phage genomes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Yan Zhou, Xuexia Xu, Yifeng Wei, Yu Cheng, Yu Guo, Ivan Khudyakov, Fuli Liu, Ping He, Zhangyue Song, Zhi Li, Yan Gao, Ee Lui Ang, Huimin Zhao, Yan Zhang, Suwen Zhao

    DNA modifications vary in form and function but generally do not alter Watson-Crick base pairing. Diaminopurine (Z) is an exception because it completely replaces adenine and forms three hydrogen bonds with thymine in cyanophage S-2L genomic DNA. However, the biosynthesis, prevalence, and importance of Z genomes remain unexplored. Here, we report a multienzyme system that supports Z-genome synthesis

  • A third purine biosynthetic pathway encoded by aminoadenine-based viral DNA genomes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Dona Sleiman, Pierre Simon Garcia, Marion Lagune, Jerome Loc’h, Ahmed Haouz, Najwa Taib, Pascal Röthlisberger, Simonetta Gribaldo, Philippe Marlière, Pierre Alexandre Kaminski

    Cells have two purine pathways that synthesize adenine and guanine ribonucleotides from phosphoribose via inosylate. A chemical hybrid between adenine and guanine, 2-aminoadenine (Z), replaces adenine in the DNA of the cyanobacterial virus S-2L. We show that S-2L and Vibrio phage PhiVC8 encode a third purine pathway catalyzed by PurZ, a distant paralog of succinoadenylate synthase (PurA), the enzyme

  • Noncanonical DNA polymerization by aminoadenine-based siphoviruses
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Valerie Pezo, Faten Jaziri, Pierre-Yves Bourguignon, Dominique Louis, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Jef Rozenski, Sylvie Pochet, Piet Herdewijn, Graham F. Hatfull, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Philippe Marliere

    Bacteriophage genomes harbor the broadest chemical diversity of nucleobases across all life forms. Certain DNA viruses that infect hosts as diverse as cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, and actinobacteria exhibit wholesale substitution of aminoadenine for adenine, thereby forming three hydrogen bonds with thymine and violating Watson-Crick pairing rules. Aminoadenine-encoded DNA polymerases, homologous

  • Structural impact on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by D614G substitution
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Jun Zhang, Yongfei Cai, Tianshu Xiao, Jianming Lu, Hanqin Peng, Sarah M. Sterling, Richard M. Walsh, Sophia Rits-Volloch, Haisun Zhu, Alec N. Woosley, Wei Yang, Piotr Sliz, Bing Chen

    Substitution for aspartic acid (D) by glycine (G) at position 614 in the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appears to facilitate rapid viral spread. The G614 strain and its recent variants are now the dominant circulating forms. Here, we report cryo–electron microscopy structures of a full-length G614 S trimer, which adopts three distinct prefusion conformations

  • Toxin-antitoxin RNA pairs safeguard CRISPR-Cas systems
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Ming Li, Luyao Gong, Feiyue Cheng, Haiying Yu, Dahe Zhao, Rui Wang, Tian Wang, Shengjie Zhang, Jian Zhou, Sergey A. Shmakov, Eugene V. Koonin, Hua Xiang

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide RNA-guided adaptive immunity in prokaryotes. We report that the multisubunit CRISPR effector Cascade transcriptionally regulates a toxin-antitoxin RNA pair, CreTA. CreT (Cascade-repressed toxin) is a bacteriostatic RNA that sequesters the rare arginine tRNAUCU (transfer RNA with anticodon UCU). CreA is a CRISPR RNA–resembling antitoxin RNA, which requires Cas6 for maturation

  • Structural insights into preinitiation complex assembly on core promoters
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Xizi Chen, Yilun Qi, Zihan Wu, Xinxin Wang, Jiabei Li, Dan Zhao, Haifeng Hou, Yan Li, Zishuo Yu, Weida Liu, Mo Wang, Yulei Ren, Ze Li, Huirong Yang, Yanhui Xu

    Transcription factor IID (TFIID) recognizes core promoters and supports preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)–mediated eukaryotic transcription. We determined the structures of human TFIID–based PIC in three stepwise assembly states and revealed two-track PIC assembly: stepwise promoter deposition to Pol II and extensive modular reorganization on track I (on TATA–TFIID-binding

  • Stepwise pathogenic evolution of Mycobacterium abscessus
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Josephine M. Bryant, Karen P. Brown, Sophie Burbaud, Isobel Everall, Juan M. Belardinelli, Daniela Rodriguez-Rincon, Dorothy M. Grogono, Chelsea M. Peterson, Deepshikha Verma, Ieuan E. Evans, Christopher Ruis, Aaron Weimann, Divya Arora, Sony Malhotra, Bridget Bannerman, Charlotte Passemar, Kerra Templeton, Gordon MacGregor, Kasim Jiwa, Andrew J. Fisher, Tom L. Blundell, Diane J. Ordway, Mary Jackson

    Although almost all mycobacterial species are saprophytic environmental organisms, a few, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have evolved to cause transmissible human infection. By analyzing the recent emergence and spread of the environmental organism M. abscessus through the global cystic fibrosis population, we have defined key, generalizable steps involved in the pathogenic evolution of mycobacteria

  • Chronoculture, harnessing the circadian clock to improve crop yield and sustainability
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Gareth Steed, Dora Cano Ramirez, Matthew A. Hannah, Alex A. R. Webb

    Human health is dependent on a plentiful and nutritious supply of food, primarily derived from crop plants. Rhythmic supply of light as a result of the day and night cycle led to the evolution of circadian clocks that modulate most plant physiology, photosynthesis, metabolism, and development. To regulate crop traits and adaptation, breeders have indirectly selected for variation at circadian genes

  • Modulation of MHC-E transport by viral decoy ligands is required for RhCMV/SIV vaccine efficacy
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-30
    Marieke C. Verweij, Scott G. Hansen, Ravi Iyer, Nessy John, Daniel Malouli, David Morrow, Isabel Scholz, Jennie Womack, Shaheed Abdulhaqq, Roxanne M. Gilbride, Colette M. Hughes, Abigail B. Ventura, Julia C. Ford, Andrea N. Selseth, Kelli Oswald, Rebecca Shoemaker, Brian Berkemeier, William J. Bosche, Michael Hull, Jason Shao, Jonah B. Sacha, Michael K. Axthelm, Paul T. Edlefsen, Jeffrey D. Lifson

    Strain 68-1 rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens elicit CD8+ T cells recognizing epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and MHC-E but not MHC-Ia. These immune responses mediate replication arrest of SIV in 50 to 60% of monkeys. We show that the peptide VMAPRTLLL (VL9) embedded within the RhCMV protein Rh67 promotes

  • Dynamic remodeling of host membranes by self-organizing bacterial effectors
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Ting-Sung Hsieh, Victor A. Lopez, Miles H. Black, Adam Osinski, Krzysztof Pawłowski, Diana R. Tomchick, Jen Liou, Vincent S. Tagliabracci

    During infection Legionella bacteria translocate a variety of effectors into host cells that modify host cell membrane trafficking for the benefit of the intracellular pathogen. Here we found a self-organizing system consisting of a bacterial phosphoinositide kinase and its opposing phosphatase that formed spatiotemporal patterns, including traveling waves, to remodel host cellular membranes. The Legionella

  • Household COVID-19 risk and in-person schooling
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Justin Lessler, M. Kate Grabowski, Kyra H. Grantz, Elena Badillo-Goicoechea, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Carly Lupton-Smith, Andrew S. Azman, Elizabeth A. Stuart

    In-person schooling has proved contentious and difficult to study throughout the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data from a massive online survey in the United States indicates an increased risk of COVID-19-related outcomes among respondents living with a child attending school in-person. School-based mitigation measures are associated with significant reductions in risk, particularly daily symptoms screens

  • Transformative climate adaptation in the United States: Trends and prospects
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Linda Shi, Susanne Moser

    As climate change intensifies, civil society is increasingly calling for transformative adaptation that redresses drivers of climate vulnerability. We review trends in how U.S. federal government, private industry and civil society are planning for climate adaptation. We find growing divergence in their approaches and impacts. This incoherence increases maladaptive investment in climate-blind infrastructure

  • Imaging translation dynamics in live embryos reveals spatial heterogeneities
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-04-29
    Jeremy Dufourt, Maelle Bellec, Antonio Trullo, Matthieu Dejean, Sylvain De Rossi, Cyril Favard, Mounia Lagha

    Much is known about the factors involved in the translation of mRNA into protein; however, this multi-step process has not been imaged in living multicellular organisms. Here, we deploy the SunTag method to visualize and quantify the timing, location, and kinetics of the translation of single mRNAs in living Drosophila embryos. By focusing on the translation of the conserved major epithelial-mesenchymal

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