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  • The NAD + -mediated self-inhibition mechanism of pro-neurodegenerative Sarm1
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Yuefeng Jiang; Tingting Liu; Chia-Hsueh Lee; Qing Chang; Jing Yang; Zhe Zhang

    Pathological degeneration of axons disrupts neural circuits and represents one of the hallmarks of neurodegeneration1–4. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor motif-containing protein 1 (Sarm1) is a central regulator of this neurodegenerative process5–8, and its Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain exerts the pro-neurodegenerative action through the NADase activity9,10. However, the mechanism

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Dense and pleiotropic regulatory information in a developmental enhancer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Timothy Fuqua; Jeff Jordan; Maria Elize van Breugel; Aliaksandr Halavatyi; Christian Tischer; Peter Polidoro; Namiko Abe; Albert Tsai; Richard S. Mann; David L. Stern; Justin Crocker

    Changes in gene regulation underlie much of phenotypic evolution1. However, our understanding of the potential for regulatory evolution is biased, because most evidence comes from either natural variation or limited experimental perturbations2. Using an automated robotics pipeline, we surveyed an unbiased mutation library for a developmental enhancer in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that almost

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Global priority areas for ecosystem restoration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Bernardo B. N. Strassburg; Alvaro Iribarrem; Hawthorne L. Beyer; Carlos Leandro Cordeiro; Renato Crouzeilles; Catarina C. Jakovac; André Braga Junqueira; Eduardo Lacerda; Agnieszka E. Latawiec; Andrew Balmford; Thomas M. Brooks; Stuart H. M. Butchart; Robin L. Chazdon; Karl-Heinz Erb; Pedro Brancalion; Graeme Buchanan; David Cooper; Sandra Díaz; Paul F. Donald; Valerie Kapos; David Leclère; Lera Miles;

    Extensive ecosystem restoration is increasingly seen as being central to conserving biodiversity1 and stabilizing the climate of the Earth2. Although ambitious national and global targets have been set, global priority areas that account for spatial variation in benefits and costs have yet to be identified. Here we develop and apply a multicriteria optimization approach that identifies priority areas

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Surface coordination layer passivates oxidation of copper
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Jian Peng; Bili Chen; Zhichang Wang; Jing Guo; Binghui Wu; Shuqiang Hao; Qinghua Zhang; Lin Gu; Qin Zhou; Zhi Liu; Shuqin Hong; Sifan You; Ang Fu; Zaifa Shi; Hao Xie; Duanyun Cao; Chang-Jian Lin; Gang Fu; Lan-Sun Zheng; Ying Jiang; Nanfeng Zheng

    Owing to its high thermal and electrical conductivities, its ductility and its overall non-toxicity1,2,3, copper is widely used in daily applications and in industry, particularly in anti-oxidation technologies. However, many widespread anti-oxidation techniques, such as alloying and electroplating1,2, often degrade some physical properties (for example, thermal and electrical conductivities and colour)

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Inherited causes of clonal haematopoiesis in 97,691 whole genomes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Alexander G. Bick; Joshua S. Weinstock; Satish K. Nandakumar; Charles P. Fulco; Erik L. Bao; Seyedeh M. Zekavat; Mindy D. Szeto; Xiaotian Liao; Matthew J. Leventhal; Joseph Nasser; Kyle Chang; Cecelia Laurie; Bala Bharathi Burugula; Christopher J. Gibson; Amy E. Lin; Margaret A. Taub; Francois Aguet; Kristin Ardlie; Braxton D. Mitchell; Kathleen C. Barnes; Arden Moscati; Myriam Fornage; Susan Redline;

    Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2,3,4 and coronary heart disease5—this phenomenon is termed clonal

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • PIEZO2 in sensory neurons and urothelial cells coordinates urination
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Kara L. Marshall; Dimah Saade; Nima Ghitani; Adam M. Coombs; Marcin Szczot; Jason Keller; Tracy Ogata; Ihab Daou; Lisa T. Stowers; Carsten G. Bönnemann; Alexander T. Chesler; Ardem Patapoutian

    Henry Miller stated that “to relieve a full bladder is one of the great human joys”. Urination is critically important in health and ailments of the lower urinary tract cause high pathological burden. Although there have been advances in understanding the central circuitry in the brain that facilitates urination1,2,3, there is a lack of in-depth mechanistic insight into the process. In addition to

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • H  i 21-centimetre emission from an ensemble of galaxies at an average redshift of one
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Aditya Chowdhury; Nissim Kanekar; Jayaram N. Chengalur; Shiv Sethi; K. S. Dwarakanath

    Baryonic processes in galaxy evolution include the infall of gas onto galaxies to form neutral atomic hydrogen, which is then converted to the molecular state (H2), and, finally, the conversion of H2 to stars. Understanding galaxy evolution thus requires an understanding of the evolution of stars and of neutral atomic and molecular hydrogen. For the stars, the cosmic star-formation rate density is

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Room-temperature superconductivity in a carbonaceous sulfur hydride
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Elliot Snider; Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon; Raymond McBride; Mathew Debessai; Hiranya Vindana; Kevin Vencatasamy; Keith V. Lawler; Ashkan Salamat; Ranga P. Dias

    One of the long-standing challenges in experimental physics is the observation of room-temperature superconductivity1,2. Recently, high-temperature conventional superconductivity in hydrogen-rich materials has been reported in several systems under high pressure3,4,5. An important discovery leading to room-temperature superconductivity is the pressure-driven disproportionation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • The cellular basis of distinct thirst modalities
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Allan-Hermann Pool; Tongtong Wang; David A. Stafford; Rebecca K. Chance; Sangjun Lee; John Ngai; Yuki Oka

    Fluid intake is an essential innate behaviour that is mainly caused by two distinct types of thirst1,2,3. Increased blood osmolality induces osmotic thirst that drives animals to consume pure water. Conversely, the loss of body fluid induces hypovolaemic thirst, in which animals seek both water and minerals (salts) to recover blood volume. Circumventricular organs in the lamina terminalis are critical

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • An unexpectedly large count of trees in the West African Sahara and Sahel
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Martin Brandt; Compton J. Tucker; Ankit Kariryaa; Kjeld Rasmussen; Christin Abel; Jennifer Small; Jerome Chave; Laura Vang Rasmussen; Pierre Hiernaux; Abdoul Aziz Diouf; Laurent Kergoat; Ole Mertz; Christian Igel; Fabian Gieseke; Johannes Schöning; Sizhuo Li; Katherine Melocik; Jesse Meyer; Scott Sinno; Eric Romero; Erin Glennie; Amandine Montagu; Morgane Dendoncker; Rasmus Fensholt

    A large proportion of dryland trees and shrubs (hereafter referred to collectively as trees) grow in isolation, without canopy closure. These non-forest trees have a crucial role in biodiversity, and provide ecosystem services such as carbon storage, food resources and shelter for humans and animals1,2. However, most public interest relating to trees is devoted to forests, and trees outside of forests

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Efficient and stable blue quantum dot light-emitting diode
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Taehyung Kim; Kwang-Hee Kim; Sungwoo Kim; Seon-Myeong Choi; Hyosook Jang; Hong-Kyu Seo; Heejae Lee; Dae-Young Chung; Eunjoo Jang

    The visualization of accurate colour information using quantum dots has been explored for decades, and commercial products employing environmentally friendly materials are currently available as backlights1. However, next-generation electroluminescent displays based on quantum dots require the development of an efficient and stable cadmium-free blue-light-emitting device, which has remained a challenge

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • RAD51-dependent recruitment of TERRA lncRNA to telomeres through R-loops
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Marianna Feretzaki; Michaela Pospisilova; Rita Valador Fernandes; Thomas Lunardi; Lumir Krejci; Joachim Lingner

    Telomeres—repeated, noncoding nucleotide motifs and associated proteins that are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes—mediate genome stability and determine cellular lifespan1. Telomeric-repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) is a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are transcribed from chromosome ends2,3; these RNAs in turn regulate telomeric chromatin structure and telomere maintenance through

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • A system hierarchy for brain-inspired computing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Youhui Zhang; Peng Qu; Yu Ji; Weihao Zhang; Guangrong Gao; Guanrui Wang; Sen Song; Guoqi Li; Wenguang Chen; Weimin Zheng; Feng Chen; Jing Pei; Rong Zhao; Mingguo Zhao; Luping Shi

    Neuromorphic computing draws inspiration from the brain to provide computing technology and architecture with the potential to drive the next wave of computer engineering1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. Such brain-inspired computing also provides a promising platform for the development of artificial general intelligence14,15. However, unlike conventional computing systems, which have a well established

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Capillary cell-type specialization in the alveolus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Astrid Gillich; Fan Zhang; Colleen G. Farmer; Kyle J. Travaglini; Serena Y. Tan; Mingxia Gu; Bin Zhou; Jeffrey A. Feinstein; Mark A. Krasnow; Ross J. Metzger

    In the mammalian lung, an apparently homogenous mesh of capillary vessels surrounds each alveolus, forming the vast respiratory surface across which oxygen transfers to the blood1. Here we use single-cell analysis to elucidate the cell types, development, renewal and evolution of the alveolar capillary endothelium. We show that alveolar capillaries are mosaics; similar to the epithelium that lines

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Inherited myeloproliferative neoplasm risk affects haematopoietic stem cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Erik L. Bao; Satish K. Nandakumar; Xiaotian Liao; Alexander G. Bick; Juha Karjalainen; Marcin Tabaka; Olga I. Gan; Aki S. Havulinna; Tuomo T. J. Kiiskinen; Caleb A. Lareau; Aitzkoa L. de Lapuente Portilla; Bo Li; Connor Emdin; Veryan Codd; Christopher P. Nelson; Christopher J. Walker; Claire Churchhouse; Albert de la Chapelle; Daryl E. Klein; Björn Nilsson; Peter W. F. Wilson; Kelly Cho; Saiju Pyarajan;

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Building cratonic keels in Precambrian plate tectonics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    A. L. Perchuk; T. V. Gerya; V. S. Zakharov; W. L. Griffin

    The ancient cores of continents (cratons) are underlain by mantle keels—volumes of melt-depleted, mechanically resistant, buoyant and diamondiferous mantle up to 350 kilometres thick, which have remained isolated from the hotter and denser convecting mantle for more than two billion years. Mantle keels formed only in the Early Earth (approximately 1.5 to 3.5 billion years ago in the Precambrian eon);

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Cell-type-specific 3D epigenomes in the developing human cortex
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Michael Song; Mark-Phillip Pebworth; Xiaoyu Yang; Armen Abnousi; Changxu Fan; Jia Wen; Jonathan D. Rosen; Mayank N. K. Choudhary; Xiekui Cui; Ian R. Jones; Seth Bergenholtz; Ugomma C. Eze; Ivan Juric; Bingkun Li; Lenka Maliskova; Jerry Lee; Weifang Liu; Alex A. Pollen; Yun Li; Ting Wang; Ming Hu; Arnold R. Kriegstein; Yin Shen

    Lineage-specific epigenomic changes during human corticogenesis have been difficult to study owing to challenges with sample availability and tissue heterogeneity. For example, previous studies using single-cell RNA sequencing identified at least 9 major cell types and up to 26 distinct subtypes in the dorsal cortex alone1,2. Here we characterize cell-type-specific cis-regulatory chromatin interactions

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Evidence for 28 genetic disorders discovered by combining healthcare and research data
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Joanna Kaplanis; Kaitlin E. Samocha; Laurens Wiel; Zhancheng Zhang; Kevin J. Arvai; Ruth Y. Eberhardt; Giuseppe Gallone; Stefan H. Lelieveld; Hilary C. Martin; Jeremy F. McRae; Patrick J. Short; Rebecca I. Torene; Elke de Boer; Petr Danecek; Eugene J. Gardner; Ni Huang; Jenny Lord; Iñigo Martincorena; Rolph Pfundt; Margot R. F. Reijnders; Alison Yeung; Helger G. Yntema; Lisenka E. L. M. Vissers; Jane

    De novo mutations in protein-coding genes are a well-established cause of developmental disorders1. However, genes known to be associated with developmental disorders account for only a minority of the observed excess of such de novo mutations1,2. Here, to identify previously undescribed genes associated with developmental disorders, we integrate healthcare and research exome-sequence data from 31

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Mechanism of strand exchange from RecA–DNA synaptic and D-loop structures
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Haijuan Yang; Chun Zhou; Ankita Dhar; Nikola P. Pavletich

    The strand-exchange reaction is central to homologous recombination. It is catalysed by the RecA family of ATPases, which form a helical filament with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and ATP. This filament binds to a donor double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to form synaptic filaments, which search for homology and then catalyse the exchange of the complementary strand, forming either a new heteroduplex or—if

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Computational planning of the synthesis of complex natural products
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Barbara Mikulak-Klucznik; Patrycja Gołębiowska; Alison A. Bayly; Oskar Popik; Tomasz Klucznik; Sara Szymkuć; Ewa P. Gajewska; Piotr Dittwald; Olga Staszewska-Krajewska; Wiktor Beker; Tomasz Badowski; Karl A. Scheidt; Karol Molga; Jacek Młynarski; Milan Mrksich; Bartosz A. Grzybowski

    Teaching computers to plan multistep organic syntheses has been a challenge for over 50 years1–7. Since early pioneering contributions, including programs such as LHASA1,7 (with reaction choices at each step made by human operator), the field has progressed greatly and there are now multiple software platforms6,8–13 capable of completely autonomous planning. Still, these programs ‘think’ only one step

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody structures inform therapeutic strategies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Christopher O. Barnes; Claudia A. Jette; Morgan E. Abernathy; Kim-Marie A. Dam; Shannon R. Esswein; Harry B. Gristick; Andrey G. Malyutin; Naima G. Sharaf; Kathryn E. Huey-Tubman; Yu E. Lee; Davide F. Robbiani; Michel C. Nussenzweig; Anthony P. West; Pamela J. Bjorkman

    The COVID-19 pandemic presents an urgent health crisis. Human neutralizing antibodies (hNAbs) that target the host ACE2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike1–5 show therapeutic promise and are being evaluated clincally6–8. To determine structural correlates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, we solved 8 new structures of distinct COVID-19 hNAbs5 in complex with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer or

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Fc-optimized antibodies elicit CD8 immunity to viral respiratory infection
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Stylianos Bournazos; Davide Corti; Herbert W. Virgin; Jeffrey V. Ravetch

    Antibodies against viral pathogens represent promising therapeutic modalities for the control of infection, and several studies have previously established that their antiviral efficacy requires the coordinated function of both Fab and Fc domains1. The Fc domain engages a wide spectrum of receptors (FcγRs) on discrete cells of the immune system to trigger the clearance of virus and killing of infected

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • A STAT3 palmitoylation cycle promotes T H 17 differentiation and colitis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Mingming Zhang; Lixing Zhou; Yuejie Xu; Min Yang; Yilai Xu; Garrison Paul Komaniecki; Tatsiana Kosciuk; Xiao Chen; Xuan Lu; Xiaoping Zou; Maurine E. Linder; Hening Lin

    Cysteine palmitoylation (S-palmitoylation) is a reversible post-translational modification that is installed by the DHHC family of palmitoyltransferases and is reversed by several acyl protein thioesterases1,2. Although thousands of human proteins are known to undergo S-palmitoylation, how this modification is regulated to modulate specific biological functions is poorly understood. Here we report

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Environmental drivers of megafauna and hominin extinction in Southeast Asia
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Julien Louys; Patrick Roberts

    Southeast Asia has emerged as an important region for understanding hominin and mammalian migrations and extinctions. High-profile discoveries have shown that Southeast Asia has been home to at least five members of the genus Homo1,2,3. Considerable turnover in Pleistocene megafauna has previously been linked with these hominins or with climate change4, although the region is often left out of discussions

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Innate and plastic mechanisms for maternal behaviour in auditory cortex
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Jennifer K. Schiavo; Silvana Valtcheva; Chloe J. Bair-Marshall; Soomin C. Song; Kathleen A. Martin; Robert C. Froemke

    Infant cries evoke powerful responses in parents1,2,3,4. Whether parental animals are intrinsically sensitive to neonatal vocalizations, or instead learn about vocal cues for parenting responses is unclear. In mice, pup-naive virgin females do not recognize the meaning of pup distress calls, but retrieve isolated pups to the nest after having been co-housed with a mother and litter5,6,7,8,9. Distress

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • The genomic landscapes of individual melanocytes from human skin
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Jessica Tang; Eleanor Fewings; Darwin Chang; Hanlin Zeng; Shanshan Liu; Aparna Jorapur; Rachel L. Belote; Andrew S. McNeal; Tuyet M. Tan; Iwei Yeh; Sarah T. Arron; Robert L. Judson-Torres; Boris C. Bastian; A. Hunter Shain

    Every cell in the human body has a unique set of somatic mutations, but it remains difficult to comprehensively genotype an individual cell1. Here we describe ways to overcome this obstacle in the context of normal human skin, thus offering a glimpse into the genomic landscapes of individual melanocytes from human skin. As expected, sun-shielded melanocytes had fewer mutations than sun-exposed melanocytes

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • eIF2α controls memory consolidation via excitatory and somatostatin neurons
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Vijendra Sharma; Rapita Sood; Abdessattar Khlaifia; Mohammad Javad Eslamizade; Tzu-Yu Hung; Danning Lou; Azam Asgarihafshejani; Maya Lalzar; Stephen J. Kiniry; Matthew P. Stokes; Noah Cohen; Alissa J. Nelson; Kathryn Abell; Anthony P. Possemato; Shunit Gal-Ben-Ari; Vinh T. Truong; Peng Wang; Adonis Yiannakas; Fatemeh Saffarzadeh; A. Claudio Cuello; Karim Nader; Randal J. Kaufman; Mauro Costa-Mattioli;

    An important tenet of learning and memory is the notion of a molecular switch that promotes the formation of long-term memory1,2,3,4. The regulation of proteostasis is a critical and rate-limiting step in the consolidation of new memories5,6,7,8,9,10. One of the most effective and prevalent ways to enhance memory is by regulating the synthesis of proteins controlled by the translation initiation factor

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Relatives of rubella virus in diverse mammals
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Andrew J. Bennett; Adrian C. Paskey; Arnt Ebinger; Florian Pfaff; Grit Priemer; Dirk Höper; Angele Breithaupt; Elisa Heuser; Rainer G. Ulrich; Jens H. Kuhn; Kimberly A. Bishop-Lilly; Martin Beer; Tony L. Goldberg

    Since 1814, when rubella was first described, the origins of the disease and its causative agent, rubella virus (Matonaviridae: Rubivirus), have remained unclear1. Here we describe ruhugu virus and rustrela virus in Africa and Europe, respectively, which are, to our knowledge, the first known relatives of rubella virus. Ruhugu virus, which is the closest relative of rubella virus, was found in apparently

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Phenotypic landscape of intestinal organoid regeneration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Ilya Lukonin; Denise Serra; Ludivine Challet Meylan; Katrin Volkmann; Janine Baaten; Rui Zhao; Shelly Meeusen; Karyn Colman; Francisca Maurer; Michael B. Stadler; Jeremy Jenkins; Prisca Liberali

    The development of intestinal organoids from single adult intestinal stem cells in vitro recapitulates the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium1,2. Here we unravel the mechanisms that orchestrate both organoid formation and the regeneration of intestinal tissue, using an image-based screen to assay an annotated library of compounds. We generate multivariate feature profiles for hundreds

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Emergent electromagnetic induction in a helical-spin magnet
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Tomoyuki Yokouchi; Fumitaka Kagawa; Max Hirschberger; Yoshichika Otani; Naoto Nagaosa; Yoshinori Tokura

    An inductor, one of the most fundamental circuit elements in modern electronic devices, generates a voltage proportional to the time derivative of the input current1. Conventional inductors typically consist of a helical coil and induce a voltage as a counteraction to time-varying magnetic flux penetrating the coil, following Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. The magnitude of this conventional

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Microglia-organized scar-free spinal cord repair in neonatal mice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Yi Li; Xuelian He; Riki Kawaguchi; Yu Zhang; Qing Wang; Aboozar Monavarfeshani; Zhiyun Yang; Bo Chen; Zhongju Shi; Huyan Meng; Songlin Zhou; Junjie Zhu; Anne Jacobi; Vivek Swarup; Phillip G. Popovich; Daniel H. Geschwind; Zhigang He

    Spinal cord injury in mammals is thought to trigger scar formation with little regeneration of axons1,2,3,4. Here we show that a crush injury to the spinal cord in neonatal mice leads to scar-free healing that permits the growth of long projecting axons through the lesion. Depletion of microglia in neonatal mice disrupts this healing process and stalls the regrowth of axons, suggesting that microglia

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Spontaneous travelling cortical waves gate perception in behaving primates
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Zachary W. Davis; Lyle Muller; Julio Martinez-Trujillo; Terrence Sejnowski; John H. Reynolds

    Perceptual sensitivity varies from moment to moment. One potential source of this variability is spontaneous fluctuations in cortical activity that can travel as waves1. Spontaneous travelling waves have been reported during anaesthesia2,3,4,5,6,7, but it is not known whether they have a role during waking perception. Here, using newly developed analytic techniques to characterize the moment-to-moment

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Four annular structures in a protostellar disk less than 500,000 years old
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Dominique M. Segura-Cox; Anika Schmiedeke; Jaime E. Pineda; Ian W. Stephens; Manuel Fernández-López; Leslie W. Looney; Paola Caselli; Zhi-Yun Li; Lee G. Mundy; Woojin Kwon; Robert J. Harris

    Annular structures (rings and gaps) in disks around pre-main-sequence stars have been detected in abundance towards class II protostellar objects that are approximately 1,000,000 years old1. These structures are often interpreted as evidence of planet formation1,2,3, with planetary-mass bodies carving rings and gaps in the disk4. This implies that planet formation may already be underway in even younger

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • A comprehensive quantification of global nitrous oxide sources and sinks
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Hanqin Tian; Rongting Xu; Josep G. Canadell; Rona L. Thompson; Wilfried Winiwarter; Parvadha Suntharalingam; Eric A. Davidson; Philippe Ciais; Robert B. Jackson; Greet Janssens-Maenhout; Michael J. Prather; Pierre Regnier; Naiqing Pan; Shufen Pan; Glen P. Peters; Hao Shi; Francesco N. Tubiello; Sönke Zaehle; Feng Zhou; Almut Arneth; Gianna Battaglia; Sarah Berthet; Laurent Bopp; Alexander F. Bouwman;

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), like carbon dioxide, is a long-lived greenhouse gas that accumulates in the atmosphere. Over the past 150 years, increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations have contributed to stratospheric ozone depletion1 and climate change2, with the current rate of increase estimated at 2 per cent per decade. Existing national inventories do not provide a full picture of N2O emissions, owing

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Sean L. Maxwell; Victor Cazalis; Nigel Dudley; Michael Hoffmann; Ana S. L. Rodrigues; Sue Stolton; Piero Visconti; Stephen Woodley; Naomi Kingston; Edward Lewis; Martine Maron; Bernardo B. N. Strassburg; Amelia Wenger; Harry D. Jonas; Oscar Venter; James E. M. Watson

    Humanity will soon define a new era for nature—one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. However, persistent shortfalls in ecological representation and management effectiveness diminish

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Amygdala inhibitory neurons as loci for translation in emotional memories
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Prerana Shrestha; Zhe Shan; Maggie Mamcarz; Karen San Agustin Ruiz; Adam T. Zerihoun; Chien-Yu Juan; Pedro M. Herrero-Vidal; Jerry Pelletier; Nathaniel Heintz; Eric Klann

    To survive in a dynamic environment, animals need to identify and appropriately respond to stimuli that signal danger1. Survival also depends on suppressing the threat-response during a stimulus that predicts the absence of threat (safety)2,3,4,5. An understanding of the biological substrates of emotional memories during a task in which animals learn to flexibly execute defensive responses to a threat-predictive

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Programmable photonic circuits
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Wim Bogaerts; Daniel Pérez; José Capmany; David A. B. Miller; Joyce Poon; Dirk Englund; Francesco Morichetti; Andrea Melloni

    The growing maturity of integrated photonic technology makes it possible to build increasingly large and complex photonic circuits on the surface of a chip. Today, most of these circuits are designed for a specific application, but the increase in complexity has introduced a generation of photonic circuits that can be programmed using software for a wide variety of functions through a mesh of on-chip

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neanderthals
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Hugo Zeberg; Svante Pääbo

    A recent genetic association study1 identified a gene cluster on chromosome 3 as a risk locus for respiratory failure upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. A new study2 comprising 3,199 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls finds that this is the major genetic risk factor for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization (COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative). Here, we show that the risk is conferred by

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b1 elicits human antibody and T H 1 T-cell responses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Ugur Sahin; Alexander Muik; Evelyna Derhovanessian; Isabel Vogler; Lena M. Kranz; Mathias Vormehr; Alina Baum; Kristen Pascal; Jasmin Quandt; Daniel Maurus; Sebastian Brachtendorf; Verena Lörks; Julian Sikorski; Rolf Hilker; Dirk Becker; Ann-Kathrin Eller; Jan Grützner; Carsten Boesler; Corinna Rosenbaum; Marie-Cristine Kühnle; Ulrich Luxemburger; Alexandra Kemmer-Brück; David Langer; Martin Bexon;

    An effective vaccine is needed to halt the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Recently, we reported safety, tolerability and antibody response data from an ongoing placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase 1/2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trial with BNT162b1, a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulated nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (mRNA)

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • An enzymatic Alder-ene reaction
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Masao Ohashi; Cooper S. Jamieson; Yujuan Cai; Dan Tan; Daiki Kanayama; Man-Cheng Tang; Sarah M. Anthony; Jason V. Chari; Joyann S. Barber; Elias Picazo; Thomas B. Kakule; Shugeng Cao; Neil K. Garg; Jiahai Zhou; K. N. Houk; Yi Tang

    An ongoing challenge in chemical research is to design catalysts that select the outcomes of the reactions of complex molecules. Chemists rely on organocatalysts or transition metal catalysts to control stereoselectivity, regioselectivity and periselectivity (selectivity among possible pericyclic reactions). Nature achieves these types of selectivity with a variety of enzymes such as the recently discovered

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Concentric liquid reactors for chemical synthesis and separation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Olgierd Cybulski; Miroslaw Dygas; Barbara Mikulak-Klucznik; Marta Siek; Tomasz Klucznik; Seong Yeol Choi; Robert J. Mitchell; Yaroslav I. Sobolev; Bartosz A. Grzybowski

    Recent years have witnessed increased interest in systems that are capable of supporting multistep chemical processes without the need for manual handling of intermediates. These systems have been based either on collections of batch reactors1 or on flow-chemistry designs2,3,4, both of which require considerable engineering effort to set up and control. Here we develop an out-of-equilibrium system

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Active particles induce large shape deformations in giant lipid vesicles
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Hanumantha Rao Vutukuri; Masoud Hoore; Clara Abaurrea-Velasco; Lennard van Buren; Alessandro Dutto; Thorsten Auth; Dmitry A. Fedosov; Gerhard Gompper; Jan Vermant

    Biological cells generate intricate structures by sculpting their membrane from within to actively sense and respond to external stimuli or to explore their environment1,2,3,4. Several pathogenic bacteria also provide examples of how localized forces strongly deform cell membranes from inside, leading to the invasion of neighbouring healthy mammalian cells5. Giant unilamellar vesicles have been successfully

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Tumoural activation of TLR3–SLIT2 axis in endothelium drives metastasis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Bernardo Tavora; Tobias Mederer; Kai J. Wessel; Simon Ruffing; Mahan Sadjadi; Marc Missmahl; Benjamin N. Ostendorf; Xuhang Liu; Ji-Young Kim; Olav Olsen; Alana L. Welm; Hani Goodarzi; Sohail F. Tavazoie

    Blood vessels support tumours by providing nutrients and oxygen, while also acting as conduits for the dissemination of cancer1. Here we use mouse models of breast and lung cancer to investigate whether endothelial cells also have active ‘instructive’ roles in the dissemination of cancer. We purified genetically tagged endothelial ribosomes and their associated transcripts from highly and poorly metastatic

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Bolometer operating at the threshold for circuit quantum electrodynamics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    R. Kokkoniemi; J.-P. Girard; D. Hazra; A. Laitinen; J. Govenius; R. E. Lake; I. Sallinen; V. Vesterinen; M. Partanen; J. Y. Tan; K. W. Chan; K. Y. Tan; P. Hakonen; M. Möttönen

    Radiation sensors based on the heating effect of absorbed radiation are typically simple to operate and flexible in terms of input frequency, so they are widely used in gas detection1, security2, terahertz imaging3, astrophysical observations4 and medical applications5. Several important applications are currently emerging from quantum technology and especially from electrical circuits that behave

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Innovations present in the primate interneuron repertoire
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Fenna M. Krienen; Melissa Goldman; Qiangge Zhang; Ricardo C. H. del Rosario; Marta Florio; Robert Machold; Arpiar Saunders; Kirsten Levandowski; Heather Zaniewski; Benjamin Schuman; Carolyn Wu; Alyssa Lutservitz; Christopher D. Mullally; Nora Reed; Elizabeth Bien; Laura Bortolin; Marian Fernandez-Otero; Jessica D. Lin; Alec Wysoker; James Nemesh; David Kulp; Monika Burns; Victor Tkachev; Richard Smith;

    Primates and rodents, which descended from a common ancestor around 90 million years ago1, exhibit profound differences in behaviour and cognitive capacity; the cellular basis for these differences is unknown. Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile RNA expression in 188,776 individual interneurons across homologous brain regions from three primates (human, macaque and marmoset), a rodent

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • A single bacterial genus maintains root growth in a complex microbiome
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Omri M. Finkel; Isai Salas-González; Gabriel Castrillo; Jonathan M. Conway; Theresa F. Law; Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira; Ellie D. Wilson; Connor R. Fitzpatrick; Corbin D. Jones; Jeffery L. Dangl

    Plants grow within a complex web of species that interact with each other and with the plant1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. These interactions are governed by a wide repertoire of chemical signals, and the resulting chemical landscape of the rhizosphere can strongly affect root health and development7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. Here, to understand how interactions between microorganisms influence root growth

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Repeat expansions confer WRN dependence in microsatellite-unstable cancers
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Niek van Wietmarschen; Sriram Sridharan; William J. Nathan; Anthony Tubbs; Edmond M. Chan; Elsa Callen; Wei Wu; Frida Belinky; Veenu Tripathi; Nancy Wong; Kyla Foster; Javad Noorbakhsh; Kiran Garimella; Abimael Cruz-Migoni; Joshua A. Sommers; Yongqing Huang; Ashir A. Borah; Jonathan T. Smith; Jeremie Kalfon; Nikolas Kesten; Kasper Fugger; Robert L. Walker; Egor Dolzhenko; Michael A. Eberle; Bruce E

    The RecQ DNA helicase WRN is a synthetic lethal target for cancer cells with microsatellite instability (MSI), a form of genetic hypermutability that arises from impaired mismatch repair1,2,3,4. Depletion of WRN induces widespread DNA double-strand breaks in MSI cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which WRN protects MSI-associated cancers from double-strand

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Structural basis for pH gating of the two-pore domain K + channel TASK2
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Baobin Li; Robert A. Rietmeijer; Stephen G. Brohawn

    TASK2 (also known as KCNK5) channels generate pH-gated leak-type K+ currents to control cellular electrical excitability1,2,3. TASK2 is involved in the regulation of breathing by chemosensory neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in the brainstem4,5,6 and pH homeostasis by kidney proximal tubule cells7,8. These roles depend on channel activation by intracellular and extracellular alkalization3,8,9

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Rate of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will exceed Holocene values this century
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Jason P. Briner; Joshua K. Cuzzone; Jessica A. Badgeley; Nicolás E. Young; Eric J. Steig; Mathieu Morlighem; Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel; Gregory J. Hakim; Joerg M. Schaefer; Jesse V. Johnson; Alia J. Lesnek; Elizabeth K. Thomas; Estelle Allan; Ole Bennike; Allison A. Cluett; Beata Csatho; Anne de Vernal; Jacob Downs; Eric Larour; Sophie Nowicki

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is losing mass at a high rate1. Given the short-term nature of the observational record, it is difficult to assess the historical importance of this mass-loss trend. Unlike records of greenhouse gas concentrations and global temperature, in which observations have been merged with palaeoclimate datasets, there are no comparably long records for rates of GIS mass change

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Graphene-based Josephson junction microwave bolometer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Gil-Ho Lee; Dmitri K. Efetov; Woochan Jung; Leonardo Ranzani; Evan D. Walsh; Thomas A. Ohki; Takashi Taniguchi; Kenji Watanabe; Philip Kim; Dirk Englund; Kin Chung Fong

    Sensitive microwave detectors are essential in radioastronomy1, dark-matter axion searches2 and superconducting quantum information science3,4. The conventional strategy to obtain higher-sensitivity bolometry is the nanofabrication of ever smaller devices to augment the thermal response5,6,7. However, it is difficult to obtain efficient photon coupling and to maintain the material properties in a device

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • A hypothalamic novelty signal modulates hippocampal memory
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Shuo Chen; Linmeng He; Arthur J. Y. Huang; Roman Boehringer; Vincent Robert; Marie E. Wintzer; Denis Polygalov; Adam Z. Weitemier; Yanqiu Tao; Mingxiao Gu; Steven J. Middleton; Kana Namiki; Hiroshi Hama; Ludivine Therreau; Vivien Chevaleyre; Hiroyuki Hioki; Atsushi Miyawaki; Rebecca A. Piskorowski; Thomas J. McHugh

    The ability to recognize information that is incongruous with previous experience is critical for survival. Novelty signals have therefore evolved in the mammalian brain to enhance attention, perception and memory1,2. Although the importance of regions such as the ventral tegmental area3,4 and locus coeruleus5 in broadly signalling novelty is well-established, these diffuse monoaminergic transmitters

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Negative feedback control of neuronal activity by microglia
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Ana Badimon; Hayley J. Strasburger; Pinar Ayata; Xinhong Chen; Aditya Nair; Ako Ikegami; Philip Hwang; Andrew T. Chan; Steven M. Graves; Joseph O. Uweru; Carola Ledderose; Munir Gunes Kutlu; Michael A. Wheeler; Anat Kahan; Masago Ishikawa; Ying-Chih Wang; Yong-Hwee E. Loh; Jean X. Jiang; D. James Surmeier; Simon C. Robson; Wolfgang G. Junger; Robert Sebra; Erin S. Calipari; Paul J. Kenny; Ukpong B

    Microglia, the brain’s resident macrophages, help to regulate brain function by removing dying neurons, pruning non-functional synapses, and producing ligands that support neuronal survival1. Here we show that microglia are also critical modulators of neuronal activity and associated behavioural responses in mice. Microglia respond to neuronal activation by suppressing neuronal activity, and ablation

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Integration of innate immune signaling by caspase-8 cleavage of N4BP1
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Alexander D. Gitlin; Klaus Heger; Alexander F. Schubert; Rohit Reja; Donghong Yan; Victoria C. Pham; Eric Suto; Juan Zhang; Youngsu C. Kwon; Emily C. Freund; Jing Kang; Anna Pham; Roger Caothien; Natasha Bacarro; Trent Hinkle; Min Xu; Brent S. McKenzie; Benjamin Haley; Wyne P. Lee; Jennie R. Lill; Merone Roose-Girma; Monika Dohse; Joshua D. Webster; Kim Newton; Vishva M. Dixit

    Mutations in the death receptor Fas1,2 or its ligand FasL3 cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), whereas mutations in caspase-8 or its adaptor FADD – which mediate cell death downstream of Fas/FasL – cause severe immunodeficiency in addition to ALPS4–6. Mouse models have corroborated a role for FADD-caspase-8 in promoting inflammatory responses7–12, but the mechanisms underlying immunodeficiency

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Cells of the adult human heart
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Monika Litviňuková; Carlos Talavera-López; Henrike Maatz; Daniel Reichart; Catherine L. Worth; Eric L. Lindberg; Masatoshi Kanda; Krzysztof Polanski; Matthias Heinig; Michael Lee; Emily R. Nadelmann; Kenny Roberts; Liz Tuck; Eirini S. Fasouli; Daniel M. DeLaughter; Barbara McDonough; Hiroko Wakimoto; Joshua M. Gorham; Sara Samari; Krishnaa T. Mahbubani; Kourosh Saeb-Parsy; Giannino Patone; Joseph J

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies require deeper understanding of the healthy heart’s molecular processes. Knowledge of the full repertoire of cardiac cells and their gene expression profiles is a fundamental first step in this endeavor. Here, using state-of-the-art analyses of large-scale single-cell

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Florian Krammer

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 in China and caused a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To mitigate the public health, economic and societal impacts of the virus, a vaccine is urgently needed. The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was initiated in early January 2020 when the sequence of the virus became available and moved at record speed

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Animal models for COVID-19.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    César Muñoz-Fontela,William E Dowling,Simon G P Funnell,Pierre-S Gsell,Ximena Riveros Balta,Randy A Albrecht,Hanne Andersen,Ralph S Baric,Miles W Carroll,Marco Cavaleri,Chuan Qin,Ian Crozier,Kai Dallmeier,Leon de Waal,Emmie de Wit,Leen Delang,Erik Dohm,W Paul Duprex,Darryl Falzarano,Courtney L Finch,Matthew B Frieman,Barney S Graham,Lisa Gralinski,Kate Guilfoyle,Bart L Haagmans,Geraldine A Hamilton

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans in late 2019 in China’s Hubei province. As of September 11, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 28 million people, and has caused more than 910,000 deaths

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Third-order nanocircuit elements for neuromorphic engineering.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Suhas Kumar,R Stanley Williams,Ziwen Wang

    Current hardware approaches to biomimetic or neuromorphic artificial intelligence rely on elaborate transistor circuits to simulate biological functions. However, these can instead be more faithfully emulated by higher-order circuit elements that naturally express neuromorphic nonlinear dynamics1,2,3,4. Generating neuromorphic action potentials in a circuit element theoretically requires a minimum

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • The hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Julius Garbe,Torsten Albrecht,Anders Levermann,Jonathan F Donges,Ricarda Winkelmann

    More than half of Earth’s freshwater resources are held by the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which thus represents by far the largest potential source for global sea-level rise under future warming conditions1. Its long-term stability determines the fate of our coastal cities and cultural heritage. Feedbacks between ice, atmosphere, ocean, and the solid Earth give rise to potential nonlinearities in its response

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Functional genomic landscape of cancer-intrinsic evasion of killing by T cells.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Keith A Lawson,Cristovão M Sousa,Xiaoyu Zhang,Eiru Kim,Rummy Akthar,Joseph J Caumanns,Yuxi Yao,Nicholas Mikolajewicz,Catherine Ross,Kevin R Brown,Abdelrahman Abou Zid,Zi Peng Fan,Shirley Hui,Jordan A Krall,Donald M Simons,Chloe J Slater,Victor De Jesus,Lujia Tang,Richa Singh,Joshua E Goldford,Sarah Martin,Qian Huang,Elizabeth A Francis,Andrea Habsid,Ryan Climie,David Tieu,Jiarun Wei,Ren Li,Amy Hin

    The genetic circuits that allow cancer cells to evade destruction by the host immune system remain poorly understood1,2,3. Here, to identify a phenotypically robust core set of genes and pathways that enable cancer cells to evade killing mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens across a panel of genetically diverse mouse cancer cell lines that were cultured

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Hippocampal CA2 sharp-wave ripples reactivate and promote social memory.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Azahara Oliva,Antonio Fernández-Ruiz,Felix Leroy,Steven A Siegelbaum

    The consolidation of spatial memory depends on the reactivation (‘replay’) of hippocampal place cells that were active during recent behaviour. Such reactivation is observed during sharp-wave ripples (SWRs)—synchronous oscillatory electrical events that occur during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and whose disruption impairs spatial memory3,5,6,8. Although the hippocampus also

    更新日期:2020-09-23
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