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  • Deflection driven evolution of asteroid impact risk under large uncertainties
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Clemens M. Rumpf; Donovan L. Mathias; Lorien F. Wheeler; Jessie L. Dotson; Brent Barbee; Javier Roa; Paul Chodas; Davide Farnocchia

    The threat of asteroid impacts on the Earth can be mitigated through deflection missions. The deflection capability has previously been omitted in asteroid impact risk analysis work that quantifies impact damage on the Earth. Here we investigate the effect of pre-designed deflection missions on the risk profile of the fictitious impact scenario 2019 PDC. The impact risk analysis is based on a statistical

  • Robotic Lunar Surface Operations 2
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Alex Austin; Brent Sherwood; John Elliott; Anthony Colaprete; Kris Zacny; Philip Metzger; Michael Sims; Harrison Schmitt; Sandra Magnus; Terry Fong; Miles Smith; Raul Polit Casillas; A. Scott Howe; Gerald Voecks; Mar Vaquero; Vincent Vendiola

    Results are reported from a new lunar base study with a concise architectural program: build and operate a human-tended base that produces enough oxygen and hydrogen from lunar polar ice In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) for four flights per year of a reusable lander shuttling between the Lunar Gateway and the base. The study examines for the modern era issues first developed and reconciled by the

  • Miniature docking mechanism for CubeSats
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Francesco Branz; Lorenzo Olivieri; Francesco Sansone; Alessandro Francesconi

    This paper presents the design and characterization of a miniature docking mechanism for nanosatellites. Potential applications are several, including servicing of orbital vehicles (e.g. refuelling, components replacement, deorbiting or reboosting) and assembly of large structures (e.g. telescopes, antennas). The mechanism responds to the constant demand of enabling technologies from the booming small

  • Involvement of receptor for advanced glycation end products in microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in mice
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Tatsuro Egawa; Kohei Kido; Takumi Yokokawa; Mami Fujibayashi; Katsumasa Goto; Tatsuya Hayashi

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) may be involved in the mechanism of skeletal muscle atrophy. However, the involvement of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) axis in microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of RAGE inhibition on microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and

  • Keynote: A girl in the man-on-the-moon program: Camaraderie and discrimination during the apollo years and beyond
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Rhoda Shaller Hornstein

    The author reported for duty 51 years ago, in the summer of 1968, to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, one month after graduating with honors from the University of Maryland. Her position was entry level Aerospace Technologist (AST), within the Data Operations Branch of the Manned Flight Planning and Analysis Division. Her duties included the testing and development of the Goddard Real Time System

  • Trajectory planning for hypersonic reentry vehicle satisfying deterministic and probabilistic constraints
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Runqi Chai; Antonios Tsourdos; Al Savvaris; Senchun Chai; Yuanqing Xia

    The present work explores the optimal flight of aero-assisted reentry vehicles during the atmospheric entry flight phase with the consideration of both deterministic and control chance constraints. To describe the mission profile, a chance-constrained optimal control model is established. Due to the existence of probabilistic constraints (chance constraints), standard numerical trajectory planning

  • Evaluation of NEA deflection techniques. A fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making analysis for planetary defense
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    J.M. Sánchez-Lozano; M. Fernández-Martínez; A.A. Saucedo-Fernández; Josep M. Trigo-Rodriguez

    Current statistics on the flux of impactors on the Earth reveal that asteroids with a diameter larger than few hundreds of meters are unlikely to reach the Earth’s orbit, although their potential effects on the life of our planet could be quite catastrophic. The present article assesses a set consisting of four deflection approaches, namely: kinetic impactor, ion beam deflection, enhanced gravity tractor

  • Mathematical modelling and parametric study of a planar Tumbleweed rover demonstrator
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Paurav A. Sardeshmukh; Christopher D. Yoder; Daria J. Talaski; Andre P. Mazzoleni

    Spherical wind-blown Tumbleweed rovers have the potential to significantly expand the type of interplanetary terrain that can be explored on planets such as Mars. Multiple tumbleweed designs have been studied by NASA’s Langley Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and one promising design, the box-kite model, relies on internal sails to maneuver over rough terrains with the help of mass actuation

  • Thermal protection systems for space vehicles: A review on technology development, current challenges and future prospects
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Obinna Uyanna; Hamidreza Najafi

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) is an essential component of space vehicles to protect them against the aerothermal heating imposed on them during the atmospheric entry. Different types of TPS, including passive, semi-passive and active systems, have been developed and utilized in the last few decades. With the increasing demand for reusable launch vehicles (RLV) as well as new goals for interplanetary

  • Initial orbit association and long-term orbit prediction for low earth space objects using optical tracking data
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Eunji Lee; Sang-Young Park; Hyewon Hwang; Jin Choi; Sungki Cho; Jung Hyun Jo

    Ground-based optical tracking systems used in space surveillance provide no range information, and an observed arc is too short compared to the orbital period to provide enough dynamical information, especially for objects in low Earth orbit. Thus, multiple arcs of tracking data should be accumulated and associated in case of long-range orbit prediction. In this paper, a strategy to associate multiple

  • Titan aerogravity-assist maneuvers for Saturn/Enceladus missions
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Ye Lu; Sarag J. Saikia

    Mission analysis using aerogravity-assist (AGA) maneuver at Titan is presented in this paper. Considering Saturn arrival, Titan encounter, and different post-AGA orbits, the analysis uses vector diagrams to illustrate the relations among all conditions as well as design constraints. The analysis focuses on Enceladus mission concept and also present a summary result for Cassini-type Saturn system missions

  • Differences in affordance-based behaviors within an isolated and confined environment are related to sleep, emotional health and physiological parameters
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Alice D. LaGoy; Aaron M. Sinnott; Mikayla Ambarian; Gert-Jan Pepping; Richard J. Simpson; Nadia H. Agha; Joanne L. Bower; Candice A. Alfano; Christopher Connaboy

    Astronauts are required to operate within isolated, confined and extreme environments (ICE). Isolated, confined and controlled (ICC) environments, such as the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) site, provide ways of studying and predicting behavioral changes that occur in response to prolonged exposure to ICE environments. An important aspect of behavior is affordance perception. An affordance

  • Behavioral changes in Drosophila males after travel to international space station
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    N.G. Kamyshev; N.G. Besedina; J.V. Bragina; L.V. Danilenkova; S.A. Fedotov; A.A. Goncharova; E.A. Kamysheva; A.A. Burlakova; O.N. Larina

    Results of behavioral tests made postflight after two independent travels of Drosophila melanogaster to International Space Station (ISS) are presented. In Experiment 1, the first instar larvae were launched, and the eclosed imagoes gave the next generation that developed from the egg at ISS. After return to Earth the behavior of adult males of the next generation was examined. In Experiment 2, the

  • Application of a microwave cathode to a 200-W Hall thruster with comparison to a hollow cathode
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Takato Morishita; Ryudo Tsukizaki; Naoji Yamamoto; Kiyoshi Kinefuchi; Kazutaka Nishiyama

    A hollow cathode is an efficient electron source in the self-heating mode utilizing the discharge power. However, in sub-ampere currents, it needs keeper power to maintain the thermionic electron discharge, which could decrease the thrust efficiency. To address this problem, we propose using a microwave cathode, which is based on the flight model of a microwave ion thruster neutralizer cathode, as

  • NASA SEXTANT mission operations architecture
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Wayne H. Yu; Sean R. Semper; Jason W. Mitchell; Luke B. Winternitz; Munther A. Hassouneh; Samuel R. Price; Paul S. Ray; Kent S. Wood; Keith C. Gendreau; Zaven Arzoumanian

    The Station Explorer for X-Ray Timing and Navigation (SEXTANT) mission is a technology demonstra-tion enhancement to the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission, a NASA Astrophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity to the International Space Station (ISS) that was launched in June of 2017. The NICER instrument is a precision pointing X-ray telescope that tags pulsar sourced photon

  • Hybrid optimization of low-thrust many-revolution trajectories with coasting arcs and longitude targeting for propellant minimization
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    David Jimenez-Lluva; Bart Root

    Despite the ongoing advancements in low-thrust propulsion technology and the rise of all-electric satellite platforms, low-thrust spacecraft trajectory optimization remains a complex field of research. Shape-based approximations are predominant in interplanetary applications, but they are generally unsuitable for many-revolution trajectories, common in terrestrial applications. Indirect optimization

  • Neural network optimal control in astrodynamics: Application to the missed thrust problemmytitlenote
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Ari Rubinsztejn; Rohan Sood; Frank E. Laipert

    While high-efficiency propulsion techniques are enabling new mission concepts in deep space exploration, their limited thrust capabilities necessitate long thrusting arcs and make spacecraft more susceptible to missed thrust events. To correct for such mishaps, most spacecraft require updated trajectories that are relayed from Earth. While this solution is viable for spacecraft near Earth, in deep

  • Data quality assessment of Diffusion Coefficient Measurements in ternary mIXtures 4 (DCMIX4) experiment
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Aliaksandr Mialdun; Mounir M. Bou-Ali; Marco Braibanti; Fabrizio Croccolo; Ane Errarte; José Miguel Ezquerro; José Javier Fernández; Loreto García-Fernández; Quentin Galand; Yuri Gaponenko; Fina Gavaldà; Werner Köhler; Tatyana Lyubimova; José María Ortiz de Zárate; Jacobo Rodríguez; Xavier Ruiz; Ilya I. Ryzhkov; Marcel Schraml; Henri Bataller

    Thermodiffusion, which leads to a component separation in a mixture due to the thermal gradient, still does not have an unambiguous microscopic picture. Therefore, experimental studies, especially in convection free environment, are important. As part of the 4th campaign on the DCMIX project, thermodiffusion experiments on three compositions of the toluene-methanol-cyclohexane ternary mixture, on a

  • Crater-based attitude and position estimation for planetary exploration with weighted measurement uncertainty
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Shengying Zhu; Yi Xiu; Ning Zhang; Rui Xu; Pingyuan Cui

    A large number of crater features exist on the surface of interplanetary bodies. Autonomous navigation based on these crater features can obtain excellent navigation performance, which is one of the most important navigation methods for future planetary exploration. This paper presents a new method to estimate the attitude and position of spacecraft based on crater measurement uncertainty. Firstly

  • Mission and system architecture for an operational network of earth observation satellite nodes
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    S. Tonetti; S. Cornara; G. Vicario de Miguel; S. Pierotti; J. Cote; C. Araguz; E. Alarcón; A. Camps; D. Llaveria; E. Lancheros; J.A. Ruiz-de-Azua; E. Bou-Balust; P. Rodríguez; M. Sochacki; J. Narkiewicz; A. Golkar; I. Lluch i Cruz; H. Matevosyan

    Nowadays, constellations and distributed networks of satellites are emerging as clear development trends in the space system market to enable augmentation, enhancement, and possibilities of new applications for future Earth Observation (EO) missions. While the adoption of these satellite architectures is gaining momentum for the attaining of ever more stringent application requirements and stakeholder

  • Lessons from the lunar module program: The DIRECTOR’S conclusions
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Andrew Erickson

    Half a century after the first piloted lunar landing, it is time to consider the program, lessons, and legacy of the lander that made it possible. This article does so from the perspective of Joseph Gavin Jr., who led Apollo's Lunar Module (LM) Program from its unofficial origins as a controversial dream at Grumman as early as 1960, to its official inception by NASA in 1962, to its successful conclusion

  • Drop Your Thesis! 2018 results: 4.74 seconds of microgravity conditions to enable future cubesat landings on asteroids
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    F. Gautier; E. Sitepu; C. Le Blay; G. Kersey; J.P. Sánchez

    Space exploration has seen a growing number of asteroid missions being launched; mostly due to their scientific interest, but also on account of the potential impact threat and prospective valuable resources of their targets. Landing safely on the surface of an asteroid is one of the main technical challenges before obtaining in-situ observations and ground-truth data. Given the asteroid's extremely

  • Motion control of a space manipulator using fuzzy sliding mode control with reinforcement learning
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Zhicheng Xie; Tao Sun; Trevor Kwan; Xiaofeng Wu

    The free-flying space manipulators present challenges in controlling the motions of both the spacecraft bus and the manipulator, because of the highly-coupling system dynamics and the unknown space environment disturbances. Although the sliding mode controllers are robust to the unknown disturbances and system uncertainties, the chattering effect could affect the pointing accuracy and the lifetime

  • Impact of propulsion system characteristics on the potential for cost reduction of earth observation missions at very low altitudes
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Giacomo Bertolucci; Francesco Barato; Elena Toson; Daniele Pavarin

    Earth observation is one of the most important satellites’ applications. Past earth observation systems have used traditional space technology to achieve the best possible performance, but have been very expensive. Recently, thanks to advancements in technology and modern microelectronics, small satellites have become more and more useful at much lower costs, even if with reduced performance. The resolution

  • The economic impact analysis of satellite development and its application in Korea
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Jung Ho Park; Hojin Jung; Chang Ho Lim; Taejin Chang

    Many countries began satellite development from the beginning of the space era and especially after the Apollo era. Korea started satellite development in 1992 by launching small satellite KITSAT-1 more than 20 years after the Apollo 11 lunar landing. Until now, Korea has developed 15 satellites including eight small satellites, five low earth orbit (LEO) Korean Multi-Purpose Satellites (KOMPSAT),

  • Relative control of an ion beam shepherd satellite in eccentric orbits
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    S. Khoroshylov

    The “ion-beam shepherd” is a contactless space debris removal concept, which implies that the shepherd satellite (SS) must be controlled to move at a certain small distance in front of a space debris object during the de-orbiting phase. As shown in recent studies, the strategy to control the relative motion of this formation using only one compensation thruster of the SS can significantly reduce propellant

  • Effect of multi-location swirl injection on the performance of hybrid rocket motor
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Bala Vignesh; Rajiv Kumar

    An attempt has been made in the present study to realize the effect of multi-location swirl injection on the improvement of regression rate and combustion efficiency of hybrid rocket by using two different length to diameter (L/D) ratio of the motor. It is 12 and 24. The fuel used for the study was Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) in the ratio of 50:50. The gaseous oxygen was used as

  • Feasibility study of a laser launch system for picosatellites and nanosatellites in low-earth orbits
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Tomoki Kamei; Makoto Matsui; Koichi Mori

    Laser propulsion is a space transportation system that obtains thrust from a laser beam that is transmitted from the ground as an energy source. In this study, we evaluated the launch performances of two types of laser propulsion systems in a circular orbit at an altitude of 500 km. One propulsion used the heating system of the laser-sustained plasma (LSP) type, and the other propulsion had the heating

  • Mars Sample Return Campaign Concept Status
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Brian K. Muirhead; Austin K. Nicholas; Jeffrey Umland; Orson Sutherland; Sanjay Vijendran

    This paper will provide an overview of current options and specific concepts for a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) architecture being jointly studied by NASA and ESA. Overall objectives and mission options will be described, including the architecture's constraints and notional timelines. The paper will highlight architecture-level trade studies, including specific elements and their status. The

  • Effect of discharge chamber geometry on ion loss in microwave discharge ion thruster
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Yoshitaka Tani; Yusuke Yamashita; Ryudo Tsukizaki; Kazutaka Nishiyama; Hitoshi Kuninaka

    The authors redesigned the discharge chamber for the μ10 microwave discharge ion thruster to improve its thrust performance and succeeded in enhancing the maximum beam current and thrust efficiency. However, it was found that the ion current ratio extracted from the discharge chamber with the redesigned configuration was lower than that obtained with the original configuration. To investigate the relationship

  • Fast restoration of smeared navigation images for asteroid approach phase
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Xiaoxuan Lu; Shengying Zhu; Zixuan Liang

    Optical navigation is one of the key technologies to enhance the autonomy of spacecrafts. However, optical images may undergo severe motion degradation during asteroid approach phase, which adversely affects the accuracy of navigation. To guarantee the navigation accuracy for future asteroid missions, this study proposes a novel restoration method for smeared navigation images captured by onboard optical

  • Attitude control: A key factor during the design of low-thrust propulsion for CubeSats
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Gary Quinsac; Boris Segret; Christophe Koppel; Benoît Mosser

    Orbital capability is a decisive step forward for nanosatellites in general and CubeSats in particular. Although trajectory maneuvers and their implementation have been thoroughly studied for classical satellites, the high level of constraints on CubeSats in terms of mass, volume and power, makes the transition delicate. Orbit, attitude and power control subsystems available for this format limit too

  • Lunar polar exploration mission for water prospection - JAXA's current status of joint study with ISRO
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Takeshi Hoshino; Sachiko Wakabayashi; Makiko Ohtake; Yuzuru Karouji; Takahiro Hayashi; Hitoshi Morimoto; Hiroaki Shiraishi; Takanobu Shimada; Tatsuaki Hashimoto; Hiroka Inoue; Ryo Hirasawa; Yoji Shirasawa; Hiroyasu Mizuno; Hiroshi Kanamori

    Currently, several polar explorations of the Moon are planned, because it has been suggested that water ice might be present in the lunar polar region based on remote sensing observation of the lunar surface using a neutron spectrometer and visible to infrared spectrometer. However, the precise amount and state of the water ice are still unknown. At the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), we

  • Supercritical water (SCW) investigations in the DECLIC and DECLIC-Evo: Past, present and future
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Michael C. Hicks; Uday G. Hegde; Carole Lecoutre; Samuel Marre; Yves Garrabos

    A series of microgravity investigations have been formulated to be performed in the DECLIC and DECLIC-Evo on board the International Space Station to provide a better understanding of fundamental processes that take place in water solutions at near-critical conditions. These investigations rely on the design heritage of an earlier fundamental physics study that explored the nearcritical behavior of

  • Design and mechanical behavior evaluation of flexible metal wheel for crewed lunar rover
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Meng Zou; Jianzhong Zhu; Kang Wang; Yuncheng Lin; Jingfu Jin; Lianbin He; Yingchun Qi

    In lunar exploration, flexible metal wheels are designed because the pneumatic tires and rigid wheels are not suitable for crewed lunar rovers. However, the load capacity of the existing flexible metal wheels cannot meet the requirements of heavy load. In this work, an innovative flexible metal wheel consisting of a single rim and twin carcasses was proposed. Firstly, the design method and the detailed

  • Nonlinear characteristics of the triggering combustion instabilities in solid rocket motors
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Zhuopu Wang; Peijin Liu; Bingning Jin; Wen Ao

    The triggering combustion instability in the solid rocket motor is investigated from a nonlinear dynamical system perspective. A coupling model taking both the nonlinear acoustics in the chamber and the unsteady combustion of the solid propellant into consideration is adopted. Its typical responses to different excitations are compared systematically for varying parameters. The boundaries for the different

  • Throttled explicit guidance for pinpoint landing under bounded thrust acceleration
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    T. Ito; S. Sakai

    Onboard computation of a fuel-optimal trajectory is an indispensable technology for future lunar and planetary missions with pinpoint landings. This paper proposes a throttled explicit guidance (TEG) scheme under bounded constant thrust acceleration. TEG is capable of achieving fuel-optimal large diversions with good accuracy and can find optimal solutions. Thus far, the TEG algorithm is unique as

  • Supercomputing and artificial intelligence for ensuring safety of space flights
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    N.N. Smirnov

    For analyzing the risks of Space missions and reliability of joint functioning of on board equipment the virtual simulations become one the most effective tools of ground based studies. Analyzing multiplicity of scenarios of malfunctions and taking decisions within the real time artificial intelligence systems should be used, which had been previously trained based on the data of physical and numerical

  • Optimum characteristic length of gas generator for liquid propellant rocket engine
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Taj Wali Khan; Ihtzaz Qamar

    Gas generator is an essential part of gas generator cycle Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine (LPRE). While designing the Gas Generator (GG), the selection of an unoptimized characteristic length result in an increase in mass flow rate of propellants required to drive turbine. As the exhaust of the gas generator is of little importance in the thrust of the engine, therefore, the specific impulse of the

  • Two-impulse, Bi-Parabolic, and Bi-Elliptical transfers between coplanar elliptical orbits
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Thomas Carter; Mayer Humi

    Necessary conditions for minimum characteristic velocity are applied to the problem of optimal impulsive transfer between arbitrary coplanar elliptical orbits. Additionally some existence and sufficient conditions for optimal transfer are presented. Equations for calculating optimal bi-parabolic transfers and optimal two-impulse transfers between orbits reduce to the problem of solving three nonlinear

  • ESA and the Arctic - The European Space Agency's contributions to a sustainable Arctic
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Ulrike M. Bohlmann; Valerie F. Koller

    The Arctic has become an area of particular relevance, where manifold interests meet with particular challenges, such as the harsh environment, a limited infrastructure and a low population density. Since many years, the European Space Agency (ESA) supports its Member States with interests in the Arctic. A variety of ESA programmes are directly or indirectly targeting the Arctic area for scientific

  • Models validation and code profiling in state-to-state simulations of shock heated air flows
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    L. Campoli; O. Kunova; E. Kustova; M. Melnik

    The objective of this study is to examine various combinations of vibration-chemical coupling models in high-temperature air and oxygen flows behind shock waves. Simulations are carried out in the frame of the state-to-state approach for detailed vibrational and chemical kinetics in the Euler approximation. Great variety of state-resolved models for the rate coefficients of vibrational energy transitions

  • Attitude maneuver of a satellite using movable masses
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Liang He; Tao Sheng; Krishna Dev Kumar; Yong Zhao; Dechao Ran; Xiaoqian Chen

    This paper investigates the attitude maneuver problem of a spacecraft containing internal movable masses with zero angular momentum. The spacecraft dynamics in one dimension is first studied using the proposed moving mass control system with predefined mass motion. Next, a small angle attitude maneuver method based on sliding mode control technique is designed to accomplish the reorientation when the

  • Short-term space safety analysis of LEO constellations and clusters
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    A. Rossi; A. Petit; D. McKnight

    The large satellite constellations currently planned and deployed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) bear some similarities with the clusters of derelict objects abandoned in different altitude bands in LEO. Given these similarities, an analysis of the collision risk associated with these orbital systems is performed with different analytical and numerical techniques. Different tools developed at IFAC-CNR for

  • Neuroplasticity as a foundation for human enhancements in space
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Margaret Boone Rappaport; Konrad Szocik; Christopher Corbally

    The space medicine literature reports changes in neurological systems of astronauts after spaceflight, which has caused understandable concern. Rehabilitative medicine provides a preliminary context to address these changes and creative efforts in preflight training and post-flight remediation have resulted. Research can now begin to determine the neurological changes that are most and least debilitating

  • An approach to mixed-fidelity system simulation of extravehicular activities
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Claas T. Olthoff

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing the next generation of spacesuits for use in future exploration missions. This effort, referred to as the Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (xEMU), has been underway since 2015 with the goal of demonstrating the new technologies during a mission to the International Space Station (ISS). Due to the complexity of

  • Electric sail static structural analysis with finite element approach
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Luisa Boni; Marco Bassetto; Giovanni Mengali; Alessandro A. Quarta

    The propulsive characteristics of an Electric Solar Wind Sail are usually evaluated using a simplified model in which all the sail tethers are coplanar and form a sort of rigid disk. However, the three-dimensional arrangement of the tethers is fundamental information in the study of the spacecraft performance, and must be accounted for in refined mission analyses. In this paper, a Finite Element approach

  • IAA-ICSSA-20-0X-XX aerodynamic control system for a deployable re-entry capsule
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Alberto Fedele; Salvatore Carannante; Michele Grassi; Raffaele Savino

    Deployable aerobrakes for Earth re-entry capsules may offer many advantages in the near future, including the opportunity to recover on Earth payloads and samples from Space with reduced risks and costs with respect to conventional systems. Such capsules can be accommodated in the selected launcher in folded configuration, optimizing the available volume, and when foreseen by the mission profile the

  • Combined spacecraft stabilization control after multiple impacts during the capture of a tumbling target by a space robot
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Dong Han; Panfeng Huang; Xiyao Liu; Yang Yang

    Target capture is a fundamental and essential task of space robots for on-orbit servicing in the future. Accordingly, it is important to study the method for space robot stabilization after impact during target capture. In this paper, the stabilization control problem of a combined spacecraft after multiple impacts during target capture is studied. A dual-integral sliding mode (DISM) control method

  • Long-term evolution and lifetime analysis of geostationary transfer orbits with solar radiation pressure
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Yue Wang; Xuhui Luo; Xiaojie Wu

    The dynamical evolution of geostationary transfer orbits (GTOs) is a fundamental issue for the space debris mitigation in this orbit region. In this paper, the long-term dynamical evolution and orbital lifetime of low-inclination GTOs are investigated based on the Semi-analytic Tool for End of Life Analysis software (STELA) with the solar radiation pressure (SRP) and Earth's shadow taken into account

  • Hybrid multi-objective orbit-raising optimization with operational constraints
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    David Morante; Manuel Sanjurjo-Rivo; Manuel Soler; José Manuel Sánchez-Pérez

    The optimal design of orbit raising trajectories is formulated within a multi-objective hybrid optimal control framework. The spacecraft can be equipped with chemical, electric or combined chemical-electric propulsion systems. The model incorporates realistic effects of the space environment and complex operational constraints. An automated solution strategy, based on two sequential steps, is proposed

  • Ignition and burn in a hybrid nuclear fuel for a pulsed rocket engine
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    B. Taylor; J. Cassibry; R. Adams

    This work explores the parameter space of a cylindrical hybrid nuclear fuel in support of a z-pinch driven pulsed fission-fusion (PuFF) engine. 0D power balance and 1D burn wave calculations have been performed to explore the parameter space of hybrid cylindrical nuclear fuels. The boundary of minimal initial conditions needed to reach breakeven are found within the context of the model. The effects

  • Hayabusa2's kinetic impact experiment: Operational planning and results
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Takanao Saiki; Yuto Takei; Yuya Mimasu; Hirotaka Sawada; Naoko Ogawa; Go Ono; Kent Yoshikawa; Fuyuto Terui; Masahiko Arakawa; Seiji Sugita; Sei-ichiro Watanabe; Makoto Yoshikawa; Satoru Nakazawa; Yuichi Tsuda

    Hayabusa2 is a Japanese interplanetary probe launched on December 3, 2014, which arrived at asteroid Ryugu on June 27, 2018. During its stay around Ryugu, it completed several challenging operations, including deploying two rovers and a lander, conducting two sample collections, and performing a kinetic impact experiment. The kinetic impact experiment was one of the biggest challenges of the Hayabusa2

  • Total electron content anomalies associated with earthquakes occurred during 1998–2019
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Munawar Shah; Arslan Ahmed; Muhsan Ehsan; Majid Khan; Muhammad Arslan Tariq; Andres Calabia; Zahid ur Rahman

    Statistical analyses on the intensification of seismic precursors before and after the earthquakes (EQs) from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based Total Electron Content (TEC) may provide evidences about the potential mechanisms of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In this paper, ionospheric anomalies before and after 1182 (Mw > 5.0) EQs during 1998–2019 at three different latitudinal zones

  • A brief history of spaceflight from 1961 to 2020: An analysis of missions and astronaut demographics
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Michael G. Smith; Michelle Kelley; Mathias Basner

    Human spaceflight and the characteristics of people who become astronauts have changed over time. Here we present an analysis of n = 1265 manned spaceflights by n = 562 astronauts from 1961 to 2020 to investigate historical trends over time and between space agencies in terms of astronaut demographics and spaceflight duration. Generalized linear models and generalized linear mixed models were implemented

  • Hybrid rockets with mixed N2O/CO2 oxidizers for Mars Ascent Vehicles
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Ozan Kara; Hakkı Karakaş; M. Arif Karabeyoğlu

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of sustained combustion in hybrid rocket motor configuration with oxidizers containing high concentrations of CO2, an in situ propellant suitable for Mars applications. Motor tests are performed by using N2O/CO2 mixtures as the oxidizer and paraffin fuel loaded with high concentrations metal powders. Fuel grains with aluminum and magnesium

  • Near-field plume-surface interaction and regolith erosion and dispersal during the lunar landing
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    A. Rahimi; O. Ejtehadi; K.H. Lee; R.S. Myong

    A rocket plume impinging on the lunar surface when a lunar lander approaches a landing site can cause significant dust dispersal. This study investigated the near-field rocket plume-lunar surface interaction and subsequent regolith erosion and particle dispersal. These subjects are challenging because of the complicated flow physics associated with the inherently multi-physics multi-scale problem,

  • Mixing enhancement of multi hydrogen jets through the cavity flameholder with extended pylon
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Zhixiong Li; M. Barzegar Gerdroodbary; M. Sheikholeslami; Ahmad Shafee; Houman Babazadeh; R. Moradi

    The cavity flameholder is the most efficient way for the mixing of the fuel through the supersonic combustion tank. In current article, the impact of the extended strut in the upstream of the chamber flame holder on the mixing efficiency of fuel is comprehensively scrutinized. The present work investigated the hydrogen distribution of the multi-jets in different directions. CFD method is applied for

  • Sloshing and pressurization tests for membrane tank: Tests, validation and models
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Jörg Klatte; Nicolas Darkow; Robert Gajdacz; Sylvain Goek

    This paper presents recent 1:1 scaled tests results for sloshing, pressurization and evacuation behaviour in membrane tanks used for spacecrafts and satellites. The first 1:1 scale sloshing test setup evaluates fluid reaction forces for axial, lateral and spin excitations at different fill level. Evaluation and determination of sloshing forces during relevant flight phases is important for flight stability

  • Sensor tasking for search and catalog maintenance of geosynchronous space objects
    Acta Astronaut. (IF 2.83) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Han Cai; Yang Yang; Steve Gehly; Changyong He; Moriba Jah

    The space object catalog provides orbital state and characteristic information of space objects for critical applications in space situational awareness. Maintaining accurate states for all objects in the catalog is essential, but it leads to large loads on sensors and limits the time available to search for new objects. This study proposes a novel sensor tasking method for search and catalog maintenance

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