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  • The Computer-Aided Rough Patterns of Christopher Alexander
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Diana Cristobal Olave

    This paper analyzes Christopher Alexander’s combined use of mathematical graphs and hand-made diagrams, and argues that such affinities marked the insertion of roughness into architectural computational thinking. Within the techno-scientific context of American postwar architecture, the techniques of transcription and calculation used by Alexander at the Center for Environmental Structure reveal the

  • Origin of Irregular Star Polygons in Ground Projection Plans of Muqarnas
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Asli Agirbas, Gulnur Yildiz

    Many muqarnas contain star polygons in their ground projection plans. Such star polygons usually have equal edge lengths. In this study, the geometric background of irregular star polygons with unequal edge lengths, observed in some ground projection plans of muqarnas, was investigated. The plan of the muqarnas at the main gate of the Atik Valide Mosque was examined according to the theoretical framework

  • Composition and Shape of Hadrianic Domes
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Luca Cipriani, Filippo Fantini, Silvia Bertacchi

    In-depth studies on the design of the domes of the Octagonal Hall of the Small Baths and the Vestibule of the Golden Court at Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli have been conducted starting from 3D surveys carried out with active and passive sensors. Through the comparison of the ichnographia and orthographia of these emblematic examples of architectural experimentation, common elements and features have emerged

  • The Mathematics of the Viereckschanzen of the La Tène Culture
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Albert Kainzinger

    The development of script-using ancient civilizations and their achievements in sciences such as astronomy and mathematics have been well researched. Illiterate cultures were able to attain an adequate level of knowledge and transferred this knowledge to succeeding generations via oral tradition and mnemonic artefacts. The constructions of the square ditched enclosures (Viereckschanzen) of the last

  • Parameterizing the Curvilinear Roofs of Traditional Chinese Architecture
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Yuan Shen, Enhe Zhang, Yanxiao Feng, Siyuan Liu, Julian Wang

    The curvilinear roofs of ancient Chinese wooden architecture feature unique functional, hierarchical, and aesthetic elements. However, the digitalization of these roofs has yet to be explored because of the lack of accurate mathematical models for these roof geometries. This research aims to parameterize the design and construction rules for these roofs as stipulated in the Yingzao fashi. We first

  • Stereotomy of Vaulted Systems of the École Polytechnique
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Federico Fallavollita, Marta Salvatore

    This study investigates the contributions made by Gaspard Monge and the students of his School to the stereotomy of vaulted systems in France between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The complexity of the apparatuses and the generality of the proposed solutions express the extent of the contributions that descriptive geometry made to the applications that preceded it. First among these stereotomy

  • The Structural Effects of Micro-Geometry on Masonry Vaults
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Marco Alforno, Fiammetta Venuti, Alessia Monaco

    Masonry vaults are able to withstand their dead load and external forces thanks to their curved surface, therefore geometry plays a major role in their structural behaviour. Besides the well-known effects of the macro-geometry (overall shape and dimensions), micro-geometry (details of the masonry apparatus) is also expected to play a key role. The study seeks to determine the advantages (constructional

  • Vision and Representation in Architecture and Mathematics
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Kim Williams

    Editor-in-Chief Kim Williams examines the role of vision and interpretation in establishing relationships between architecture and mathematics, and introduces the articles in Nexus Network Journal vol. 22 no. 3 (2020).

  • The Illusory Architecture of the Camera di Giove in Sassuolo
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Michele Russo, Alessandra Marina Giugliano, Laura Carnevali

    The prospective illusionism of vaulted systems is a research field in which the study of geometry, survey, and architectural representation converge. The painting defines a precise scale and orientation relationship with the observer, while the morphology of the vaulted system increases the architecture’s spatiality. Therefore, the study of quadrature framed in vaulted surfaces implies investigating

  • On the Modelling of Vaulted Structures of Equal Strength
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Dimitrije Nikolić, Vladimir Živaljević

    The optimization of vaulted structures has primarily concentrated on the determination of the structure midsurface, governing the direction of forces flow, and the thickness variation, affecting the corresponding stress developed in a structure. The problems related to such optimizations are the so-called catenary of equal strength and its later three-dimensional equivalent, the membrane of equal strength

  • From Scripting to Structural Computation of Conical Vaults
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Paolo Borin, Alberto Longhin, Andrea Giordano, Giovanna Xotta

    This paper discusses the use of scripting procedures and structural computation applied to the stonecutting of vaults. Starting from the conceptualization of trumpet squinches in various treatises, it offers an understanding of the parametric framework used. The operation is then replicated on Wallis’s conical edge surface as described by Guarino Guarini, demonstrating how to create complex surfaces

  • Brick Vaults by Slices in Choisy and Paredes
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Enrique Rabasa Díaz, Ana López-Mozo, Miguel Ángel Alonso-Rodríguez

    A brick barrel vault can be bonded basically according to three techniques depending on the arrangement of the bricks main planes: they can be radially orientated with respect to the vault axis (radial brick vault); they can be aligned with the vault surface (tile vault) or they can be vertical or slightly inclined, forming slices (vault by slices). The last two types do not require any formwork to

  • Geometry and Construction of the Eight-Loop Ribbed Vault
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Ricardo Garcia Baño, Macarena Salcedo Galera

    The evolution process of Gothic construction techniques towards the Renaissance implied a remarkable change in the design of ribbed vaults. The advance from pointed designs towards curved forms gave rise to the appearance of models with multiplied ribs. This meant a great variety and diversity of forms and the incorporation of curved ribs. The Manuscript Ms. 12686 of the National Library of Spain,

  • Single-Row Spherical Domes in Stereotomy Treatises
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Pedro M. Cabezos-Bernal, Juan J. Cisneros-Vivó

    This article focuses on analysing and modelling geometrically a complex vault typology known as single-row spherical dome, which was defined in several classic stereotomy treatises. The peculiarity of this kind of dome is that all their stone pieces are different, since there is a helical directrix defining the upper and lower edges of the pieces. Different solutions will be compared and analysed,

  • Application of the Semantic Network Method to Sightline Compensation Analysis of the Humble Administrator’s Garden
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Jun Dong, Yongjin Wang, Rongrong Yu

    Traditional Chinese private gardens (TCPGs) are a special type of seventeenth century landscaped architectural space that exhibit high levels of spatial complexity and variety, which are attributed to its patterns of spatial organisation. Sightline designs in these gardens are unique and ingenious. To date, only a few theories have tried to explain their spatial qualities from the perspective of visual

  • New Contributions on the Escuelas Pías Dome in Valencia
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Pablo Rodriguez-Navarro, Teresa Gil-Piqueras

    In the city of Valencia (Spain), domes covered by blue-glazed roofing tiles are common, but there is one that stands out above all others; the dome of the Escuelas Pías, one of the largest single-shell domes of Christianity. This dome is pending repair due to the appearance of large cracks. The present contribution aims to take us closer to the construction of the dome. By following a historical trajectory

  • Gromatic Images from New Discoveries in Pompeii
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Luisa Ferro, Giulio Magli, Massimo Osanna

    In recent archaeological investigations of Pompeii’s Regio V Houses, a series of new, rather enigmatic images on the floors of the entrance and of the tablinum of the House of Orion have been unearthed. The aim of the present paper is to analyze their placement in the context of the house plan, give a description of the images, and provide a hypothetical interpretation based on a clear analogy of their

  • Combinatorial Possibilities and Enumerations for Housing Designs: Gregory Ain’s Mar Vista Tract (1946–1948)
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Jin-Ho Park, Sejung Jung

    This article introduces a formal method with regard to point group symmetry in the analysis and construction of housing units and their arrangements. Gregory Ain’s Mar Vista Tract is the focus of this study. In this paper guiding principles of Ain’s housing unit layouts and their arrangements in a city block are examined with respect to the symmetry principle. With the same method, combinatorial possibilities

  • Parallelogrammum Prosopographicum
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Gregorio Astengo

    This paper investigates the ‘parallelogrammum prosopographicum’ (prosopographical parallelogram), a little-known device for drawing from life using parallel lines. The instrument, described in an article published in 1673 in the Philosophical Transactions, was adapted from Christoph Scheiner’s stereograph and designed as a practical method to bypass the visual effects of perspectival foreshortening

  • The Transparente in the Basilica of the Monastery of El Escorial
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Pilar Chías, Tomás Abad, Manuel de Miguel, Paz Llorente

    The presbytery of the basilica of the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial is closed on its eastern side by a monumental altarpiece that, apparently, is attached to the thick outer perimeter wall. However, at the height of the lower section and behind it, there is a vaulted space that has not yet been studied, and whose main interest is its function as a Transparente. This architectural device,

  • On the Use of Perspective in a Drawing Attributed to Diego Siloé
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Antonio Ampliato, Eduardo Acosta

    The drawing analysed in this article, conserved at the MNAC in Barcelona and attributed to the Spanish architect Diego Siloé (ca. 1490–1563), has never previously been studied in depth. It is a relatively rapidly executed sketch depicting a Renaissance urban setting, in which the authors not only demonstrate the sound use of one-point perspective, an extraordinary feat in Spain at that time, but also

  • Correction to: Modelling the Stars of the Sagrada Familia
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    María de los Desamparados López de Briñas Ferragut

    During production the name of the author was incorrectly written.

  • Triangulation Algorithms for Generating As-Is Floor Plans
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Filipe Jorge da Silva Brandão, Alexandra Paio, Adriano Lopes

    Precisely capturing context is a fundamental first step in dealing with built environments. Previous research has demonstrated that existing methods for generating as-is floor plans of non-orthogonal rooms by non-expert users do not produce geometrically accurate results. The present paper proposes the adaptation of empirical triangulation methods, traditionally used by architects and other building

  • Interpreting Lecce Vaults with Analytical-Geometrical Models
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Assunta Pelliccio, Marco Saccucci

    The paper introduces a generalised geometrical model capable to reproduce, with the assignment of four parameters, all the different types of the edge Lecce vaults, a system used to build with a natural fascinating sandstone the vaulted ceilings of noble palaces, churches and houses of Salento (southern Italy). Born as modification of Arab and Spanish domes these vaults, authentic pieces of art, are

  • Fractal Patterns as Fitness Criteria in Genetic Algorithms Applied as a Design Tool in Architecture
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    John Charles Driscoll

    This paper explores the generative use of a genetic algorithm incorporating a computer-based fractal dimension tool termed “DBVgen”. Fractals offer a quantitative and qualitative relation between nature, the built environment and computational mechanics and in this paper are explored as a bridge between these realms. The primary objective was to develop and employ a sophisticated analytic tool within

  • Modelling the Stars of the Sagrada Familia
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    María Desamparados de los López de Briñas Ferragut

    In the Nativity façade of the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, a few three-dimensional star shapes appear. Although it is widely accepted that Gaudí hardly ever used polyhedra in his works, the analysis of the shape of these stars reveals that, under an organic appearance, there is a hidden morphology that can be explained by using theoretical models of star polyhedra. In this paper will be discussed

  • The House of the White Man: A Mathematical Description
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Elena Marchetti, Luisa Rossi Costa

    Johannes Itten, along with Walter Gropius and others, was one of the most important founders of the Bauhaus in Weimar, and a teacher at the same time. Even if Itten was not a mathematician, he had a great interest in different geometric forms, and revealed a great mathematical intuition. Itten realized “by hand” the important Fire Tower, applying translations, reductions and rotations of cubes and

  • Visual-Asymmetry in Adolf Loos’s Moller House : A Computational Analysis Testing Propositions About Performance and Spectation
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Wenzhi Huangfu, Michael J. Ostwald, Thomas Chung

    Architectural historians describe Adolf Loos’s 1928 Moller House as having an interior spatial arrangement that constructs unequal or asymmetrical visual interactions between inhabitants, putting some on display and positioning others as observers. However, there is disagreement about the specific way the Moller House creates these relationships. This paper uses the ASVI computational technique to

  • Islamic Geometric Patterns in Higher Dimensions
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Sam Moradzadeh, Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi

    The purpose of this paper is to develop the Islamic geometric patterns from planar coordinates to three or higher dimensions through their repeat units. We use historical plane methods, polygons in contact (PIC) and point-joined, in our deductive approaches. The mentioned approach makes use of a novel method of tessellation that generates 3D Islamic patterns called “interior polyhedral stellations”

  • The Search for Pattern in Architecture and Mathematics
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Kim Williams

    Editor-in-Chief Kim Williams examines the role of the search for pattern in establishing relationships between architecture and mathematics, and introduces the articles in Nexus Network Journal vol. 22 no. 2 (2020).

  • Publisher Correction to: Leonardo’s Missing Sketch for the Adoration of the Magi
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Tomás García-Salgado

    During production the italics that distinguish m for modules from m for meters were inadvertently suppressed.

  • Measuring Visual Complexity of Sedad Eldem’s SSK Complex and Its Historical Context: A Comparative Analysis Using Fractal Dimensions
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Mario Lodeweik Lionar, Özgür Ediz

    Located in the District of Zeyrek in Istanbul, Turkey, and completed in the 1960s, the Sosyal Sigortalar Kurumu (SSK) or Social Security Agency Complex is currently accepted as one of the most important works of the architect Sedad Hakkı Eldem as well as one of the key modern buildings in Turkey. The most admired characteristic of this complex is how it is harmonically integrated into its historical

  • Skeletons, Shapes, and the Shift from Surface to Structure in Architectural Geometry
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Theodora Vardouli

    Architects who digitally manipulate geometry confront a rift between what is being displayed on the screen (metric shapes) and what is being computed (their non-metric skeletons). This article critically reads this relationship between surface appearance and abstract structure against a historical backdrop of changing attitudes toward the visual world in postwar architectural and mathematical cultures

  • Baldassare Peruzzi and Theatrical Scenery in Accelerated Perspective
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Philip Steadman

    From the early sixteenth century, stage sets in the Italian theatre were constructed in accelerated perspective. The stage and scenery were shallow, but the sets give illusions of much deeper spaces—typically piazzas and receding streets surrounded by buildings. The best-known example is Sebastiano Serlio’s temporary theatre of 1539 described in his second book on Architecture. This paper argues that

  • Geometry of Curves and Surfaces in Contemporary Chair Design
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Alberto Lastra, Manuel De Miguel

    In the present work, we focus on some of the current trends used in furniture design, from a dual point of view: differential geometry of curves and surfaces, and the existing perspective deriving from the usual techniques of computer-aided design. The contributions of architects such as Alvar Aalto, Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer, Arne Jacobsen and Charles and Ray Eames to contemporary chair design

  • N -Dimensional Space and Perspective: The Mathematics Behind the Interpretation of Ancient Perspective
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Laura Carlevaris

    The discoveries of Herculaneum and Pompeii and the broadened scope of geography in the eighteenth century, and developments in mathematics and physics that began in the nineteenth and continued into the twentieth, renewed studies of ancient works of art led to the creation of opposing factions regarding the “question of perspective”: those who maintained the existence of a single possible perspective

  • Ancient Aegean Measurement Systems Analysed Through the Treasury of Atreus
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Maria Teresa Como

    Here the debated issue of units of length in building construction practice in ancient Aegean architecture is focused through the case study of the Mycaenean tholos tomb, the Treasury of Atreus. Recent architectural analysis of the monument highlights a geometric mesh underlying its architectural form, which reveals the coexistence of more than one unit of length and the geometric relations among them

  • Modelling Based on a Certified Level of Accuracy: The Case of the Solimene Façade
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Adriana Rossi, Umberto Palmieri

    The advances in surveying techniques based on high resolution 3D laser scanners and photo shot data sets make it possible to measure the deviation between the numerical experimental model and the mathematical model. The former model is discontinuous but objectively defined on the bases of the precision of the instrument whereas the latter is continuous but abstract in its analogically idealized geometrical

  • Hand Drawing in the Definition of the First Digital Curves
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Fernando Díaz Moreno

    The first digitization systems successfully used in curves with origin in mathematical calculations or experimental tests proved useless when they were the result of heuristic methods developed under aesthetic criteria. Renault engineer Pierre Bézier and Citroën engineer Paul de Casteljau found the solution by focusing on the period of ideation of shapes and not on their subsequent translation and

  • Byzantine Floor Patterns of Interlocking Twisted Cable Loops
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Emil Makovicky

    The twisted-cable type of patterns is found as Late Roman–Byzantine and early Umayyad floor patterns, with considerable uniformity in texture, colors, and technique. They consist of ‘cables’ which together form circles, circle segments, squares and other visually prominent ornamental elements. Cables mostly form complex closed loops, joined at points of local overlap by interlocking ‘knots’. The loops

  • A Gothic-Renaissance Synthesis in a Diego de Riaño Vault
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Antonio Ampliato, Eduardo Acosta

    The aim of this article is to explain the design and construction processes employed in the ribbed vault prolonged by translation which Diego de Riaño (†1534) built in the antesacristy of the church of Santa María in Carmona. The vault represents an outstanding synthesis between the Late Gothic diagonal ribs and severies and the emerging systems that adopt the form of orthogonal grids and tend towards

  • Mathematical Commentary on Le Corbusier’s Modulor
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Natasha Rozhkovskaya

    This contribution presents mathematical comments on Le Corbusier’s scale of proportions the Modulor. The analysis covers the structure of the scale, approximation routines, errors of the geometric deduction, and the evaluation of the postulates of harmonious design.

  • Leonardo’s Missing Sketch for the Adoration of the Magi
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Tomás García-Salgado

    I begin with a question: in Leonardo’s famous Adoration of the Magi at what distance is the observer from the temple in ruins? The main clue we have to find the answer is the preliminary sketch of the temple, but it is not the one he transferred to the painting. I believe that Leonardo most likely drew another sketch; a sketch that somehow has been lost without leaving a trace. Based on the painting

  • Oval Domes. The Case of the Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados of Valencia
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Vicenta Calvo Roselló, Esther Capilla Tamborero, Juan Carlos Navarro Fajardo

    The dome of the Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados of Valencia is an emblematic example of Valencian baroque architecture and painting. Its shape, oval or elliptical, has been the subject of controversy in various studies. The study of oval domes throughout history is a very interesting field of research because, among other things, the determination of the exact shape is important in order

  • Equinox in Petra: Land- and Skyscape in the Nabataean Capital
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
    Juan Antonio Belmonte, Antonio César González-García, Andrea Rodríguez-Antón, María Antonia Perera Betancor

    In earlier works, we had shown the actual possibility that the Nabataeans had used the Equinox, or an astronomical event equivalent to this, as an important milestone to control the calendar, stablish festivals and perform pilgrimages to important sacred sites. In this paper we present evidence that this was indeed the case. In a research carried out in Petra in March 2018, equinoctial phenomena were

  • Method of Construction of Decagonal Self-Similar Patterns
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Aziz Khamjane, Rachid Benslimane, Zouhair Ouazene

    Because of its unequal beauty and mathematical sophistication, Islamic art has received a great attention from several scientists. Hence, several works have been done to investigate its mathematical structure, and to discover its principle of construction. Up to now, no method of constructing new self-similar patterns were proposed. In this paper, we will present a method for constructing new self-similar

  • Tessellations in the Architecture of Pablo Palazuelo
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-09-21
    Gonzalo Sotelo Calvillo

    After studying the unpublished sketches of the Spanish artist Pablo Palazuelo, this essay proposes the existence of geometric patterns that order his designs. To illustrate the proposal, this paper selects three representative projects by Palazuelo that attempt to demonstrate the presence of a working process related to a mathematical substrate. Specifically, the use of an irregular tiling is proposed

  • Was There Ever an Arch in the So-Called Ark-e-Alishah?
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Amin Moradi, Mansour Houseinpour Mizab

    The main challenge of any structure is to withstand the thrust during and after construction process. The architectural remnants of the so-called structure of Ark-e-Alishah in Tabriz; Northwest Iran, was for a long time considered the last of a sequence of the large-scale monumental structures, with its hypothesized 29 m diameter arch being the most magnificent made in the Islamic World during Ilkhanid

  • Hyperboloid Modules for Deployable Structures
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Cristina Ramos-Jaime, José Sánchez-Sánchez

    This paper presents the process used to generate hyperboloid modules for deployable structures and the general equations for their design. These units are formed by three or more rods connected at a common articulated joint. During the opening process all the rods rotate in the same direction, and at the final unfolded stage each bar sits on its adjacent bar, activating a reciprocal self-locking system

  • Generating Square Kufic Patterns Using Cellular Automata
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Mojtaba Sabetfard, Hadi Nadimi

    This paper investigates square Kufic scripts, a type of architectural decorative art in Islamic culture, as a visual pattern. Considerable research has been carried out previously on the subject, treating the square Kufic scripts as text. In contrast, the visual approach of this paper proposes that the pattern generation in Kufic scripts needs to be investigated. The main contribution of this research

  • Introducing a New Method to Convert a 2D Hand-Drawn Perspective to a 3D Digital Model
    Nexus Netw. J. (IF 0.333) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Seyed Hossein Zargar, Jaleh Sadeghi, Mona Hashemi, Narjes Motallebi, Ali Andaji Garmaroodi

    Nowadays, computer-models play an important role in the presentation of architectural designs. Despite the widespread computer advances, many architects still find hand-drawn sketches useful. Some designers use existing rules to draw a specific perspective view of the observer on the paper. In this research, the very first steps of this conversion are studied and introduced as a preface for further

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