当前期刊: Desalination Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Polymer ion-exchange membranes for capacitive deionization of aqueous media with low and high salt concentration
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yuan Zhang; Pattarachai Srimuk; Mesut Aslan; Markus Gallei; Volker Presser
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Towards enhanced antifouling and flux performances of thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane via constructing a sandwich-like carbon nanotubes-coated support
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Luyao Deng; Qun Wang; Xiaochan An; Zhuangzhi Li; Yunxia Hu

    In this work, we fabricated a sandwich-like single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-coated support for the preparation of high-performance antifouling thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membrane. This sandwich-like support was prepared through the deposition of polydopamine modified SWCNTs (PDA-SWCNTs) on both sides of the polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membrane. The CNTs top layer was found to facilitate the formation of polyamide layer. The CNTs back layer provided an antifouling surface for the prevention of foulants adsorption and intrusion into the PES support. Results demonstrate that the CNTs back layer imparted superior rejection towards bovine serum albumin (BSA) (~98.1%) and enhanced hydrophilicity. The TFC FO membrane (TFC-modified) having the sandwich-like SWCNTs-coated support exhibited excellent perm-selectivity with the water flux Jw of 35.7 Lm−2 h−1 and the reverse salt flux Js of 1.42 gm−2 h−1 when tested in the mode of active layer facing to draw solution (AL-DS) using 1 M NaCl as a draw solution. Dynamic fouling experiments confirm that the TFC-modified membrane possessed effective antifouling performances with a low relative fouling degree (RFD) of 19.0% during the cross-flow run and 8.4% during the BSA adsorption test, which were much lower than the corresponding values of 36.1% and 15.4% for the TFC-control membrane.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Application of heterogeneous ion exchange membranes for simultaneous separation and recovery of lithium and boron from aqueous solution with bipolar membrane electrodialysis (EDBM)
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Deniz İpekçi; Nalan Kabay; Samuel Bunani; Esra Altıok; Müşerref Arda; Kazuharu Yoshizuka; Syouhei Nishihama
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • 更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Enhanced water collection of bio-inspired functional surfaces in high-speed flow for high performance demister
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Sun Woo Kim; Jaehyun Kim; Sung Soon Park; Dong Rip Kim

    Performance enhancement of thermal desalination processes requires the excellent water separation capabilities in demisters. However, in high-speed gas flow, the re-entrainment of captured water from the surfaces to the gas flow can considerably decrease the water collection capabilities and the corresponding separation efficiency. Herein, we report fabrication of micro-structured polymer surfaces with excellent water capturing properties in low- and high-speed gas flow conditions by using a facile molding process. Inspired by the surfaces of bio-species, the fabricated surfaces possess vertically-aligned micro-scale cone arrays and sets of microchannels to significantly enhance the capillary pressure. As a result, those hybrid-structured surfaces exhibit up to 2.4 and 4.7 times higher excellent water collection capabilities than control planar at low- and high-speed flow conditions, respectively. In addition, the mist eliminator with the hybrid surfaces performs 1.8 times higher water collection behavior than the control mist eliminator with bare surfaces. The results show the promise of developing the surfaces with engineered structures for significantly enhancing water collection without changing the shapes of flow passages in target objects.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • 更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Hyper-branched dendritic structure modified PVDF electrospun membranes for air gap membrane distillation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mohammad Reza Shirzad Kebria; Ahmad Rahimpour; Saeed Khoshhal Salestan; S. Fatemeh Seyedpour; Arman Jafari; Fatemeh Banisheykholeslami; Naser Tavajohi Hassan Kiadeh
    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Water distillation performance of carbon nanotube membrane: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Elnaz Norouzi; Chanwoo Park

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a great potential as membrane material for water distillation because of its smooth and hydrophobic surface. We numerically investigated the distillation performance of CNT membrane for direct contact membrane distillation using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulation by varying diameters and lengths of the CNT and system operating conditions such as temperature, temperature difference between feed (hot) and permeate (cold) reservoirs, and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in the feed reservoir. It was found from the NEMD simulations that the distillation performance is enhanced by increasing system temperature, reservoir temperature difference, and CNT diameter, and decreasing CNT length, atomic attraction strength between water molecules and CNT, and NaCl concentration. The NEMD simulation overpredicts the water vapor transport by approximately an order of magnitude as compared with the results from the Knudsen diffusion model. The simulated flooding pressure is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction by the Young-Laplace equation using the MD-calculated contact angle. Most importantly, the permeability of the CNT membrane is two orders-of-magnitudes higher than a common polymer-based membrane made of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) due to almost two order-of-magnitude higher Knudsen diffusion of the CNT membrane than that of the PTFE membrane.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Synthesis of ion-exchange polyaniline-carbon composite electrodes for capacitive deionization
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Oneeb ul Haq; Jae-Hwan Choi; Youn-Sik Lee

    The electrodes made of polyaniline-activated carbon (PANI-AC) composite were reported to significantly improve the capacitive deionization (CDI) cell performance compared with the cell assembled using AC electrodes alone. In this study, we synthesized ion-exchange (–NH2+ and –SOH3−) PANI-AC composites, and assembled a CDI cell using them as electrodes. The performance of the ion-exchange PANI-AC cell was higher than that of the PANI-AC cell, and slightly higher than or at least comparable to that of membrane CDI cell (MCDI). The improved performance of the ion-exchange PANI-AC cell compared with the simple PANI-AC cell is attributed to the functional groups in the PANI chains that act similar to that of an ion-exchange membrane in MCDI cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Removal of calcium and magnesium from lithium concentrated solution by solvent extraction method using D2EHPA
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Dong Shi; Bin Cui; Lijuan Li; Min Xu; Yuze Zhang; Xiaowu Peng; Licheng Zhang; Fugen Song; Lianmin Ji

    In this work, a solvent extraction process for Ca2+ and Mg2+ removal from Li+ concentrated solution consisted of 30 g/L Li+, 1.5 g/L Ca2+ and 1.5 g/L Mg2+ was proposed, using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as extractant. The extraction process was a cation exchange mechanism, and the extraction sequence was Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Li+ > Na+. Under the optimum condition of 66% saponification degree, 3/2 phase ratio and three-stage extraction, the extraction efficiency of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Li+ reached 99.00%, 98.57% and 15.28%, respectively. The extracted cations could be completely stripped by HCl solution, and the co-extracted Li+ could be selectively stripped and separated from Ca2+ and Mg2+ using higher concentration HCl solution at higher phase ratio. A whole removal process for Ca2+ and Mg2+ involving extraction, scrubbing, stripping and saponification sections was put forward, and the process stability was continuously tested on centrifugal extractors. Removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+ reached 99.05% and 98.48% respectively. Meanwhile, the loss ratio of Li+ was as low as 5.22%.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Performance enhancement of waste heat extraction from generator of a wind turbine for freshwater production via employing various nanofluids
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Hadi Rostamzadeh; Saeed Rostami

    Water shortage issues are growing through the globe at higher rate than population growth. On the bright side, various methods are devised to capture energy from renewable energy or waste heat from different sectors. Among all inspected approaches, waste heat capturing through cooling process of the wind turbines' generators for desalination at small scale is paid less attention. However, in large wind farms, the scale of this dissipated thermal heat becomes appreciable which can drive several desalination units. Due to the above-pointed facts, the waste heat of a wind turbine with nominal capacity of 7358 kW and height of 24 m for desalinating seawater is inspected here, using a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) unit. Also, five nanoparticles of Cu, CuO, TiO2, Al2O3, and SiO2 with base fluid of water are used through the cooling process of the wind turbine's generator in order to produce more freshwater. The devised set-up is evaluated in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics for different selected nanofluids. It is found that wind turbine has the highest exergy destruction of 1125 kW, followed by heater. Also, the total exergy destruction (for all nanofluids) is calculated approximately 1387 kW. Also, among all employed nanoparticles, Cu/water mixture has the highest performance since it produces more freshwater, while SiO2/water mixture has the lowest performance. Moreover, the total energy efficiency reaches its maximum value in the range of 26.25–26.5% at wind speed of 11.5 m/s.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Recent advances in nanofibrous membranes: Production and applications in water treatment and desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Haleema Saleem; Levent Trabzon; Ali Kilic; Syed Javaid Zaidi
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Experimental investigation on novel desalination system via gas hydrate
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Jia-nan Zheng; Mingjun Yang

    Freshwater scarcity has been troubling the high-quality development of many countries and regions, and seawater desalination is a vital source of freshwater. Recently, gas hydrate based desalination (GHBD) technology attracts much attention because of bringing no extra pollution to water. We developed a novel multifunctional desalination apparatus via gas hydrate with various operation modes and separation methods. In this study, the desalination characters under different separation modes were conducted using simulated seawater, and the hydrate-purging method with a desalination efficiency of more than 80% was selected to desalt the natural seawater sample. In addition, the purging method can greatly improve the desalination effects of both squeezed hydrate column and loose hydrates. The experimental results indicate that the removal efficiencies of different ions in the seawater were similar and their difference was related to the strength of ionic hydration. And above all, we designed and conducted a continuous desalination process including multiple injection, separation, washing and purging operations. The ultimate desalination efficiency using hydrate-purging method was over 80%, and the freshwater recovery was above 30% with 200 mL initial seawater in this study. The experimental proposal and results of this study are of great significance to the development of GHBD technology.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Heat and mass transfer evaluation of air-gap diffusion distillation by ε-NTU method
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lin Xu; Shiming Xu; Xi Wu; Ping Wang; Dongxu Jin; Junyong Hu; Lei Li; Le Chen; Qiang Leng; Debing Wu

    The effectiveness-number of transfer units (ε-NTU) method was used to develop the heat and mass transfer model of air-gap diffusion distillation (AGDD). In this model, the latent heat transfer of vapor in air-gap was regarded as an equivalent convective heat transfer to make a relationship with NTU. Compared with the full numerical model developed in our previous work, the new model was simple and performing with dramatic high computational efficiency. The accuracy of the model was as well as the full numerical model. The influences of structure and operation parameters on the performances of AGDD system were discussed furtherly by employing the model. Results shown that the air-gap height, the inlet temperature and feed flow rate of hot stream could be regarded as the strong parameters effected significantly on the performances of the system in comparison with the air-gap thickness and inlet temperature and salt concentration of cold stream. Therefore, these strong parameters should be considered firstly for improving the heat and mass transfer of AGDD.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Efficient adsorbent for recovering uranium from seawater prepared by grafting amidoxime groups on chloromethylated MIL-101(Cr) via diaminomaleonitrile intermediate
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lijia Liu; Yueguang Fang; Yujiang Meng; Xinyi Wang; Fuqiu Ma; Chunhong Zhang; Hongxing Dong

    Here, reaction of a chloromethylated metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101 with diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) following with an amidoximation reaction successfully produced a novel amidoxime functionalized porous material (MIL-101-AO). The chelation of amidoxime group to uranium and the large specific surface area afforded MIL-101-AO excellent selective adsorption ability for U (VI) in aqueous solutions (586 mg·g−1). Furthermore, MIL-101-AO showed much stronger selective adsorption for U (VI) than other co-existing metallic ions in the artificial seawater (removal rate reached 96%). The influence factors on the adsorption process were evaluated by batch adsorption experiments under different condition. The process of adsorbing uranium on MIL-101-AO fitted with the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The △H° and △G° values of uranium adsorption indicated that it was an endothermic heat process; a higher adsorption temperature could promote the adsorption on MIL-101-AO. All the experimental results indicated that MIL-101-AO was an adsorbent with the application value of extracting uranium in seawater.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Enhanced performance of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” treating nitrogen-laden saline wastewater resulting from sorbitol addition: Enzyme activities and kinetics
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lijing Bai; Jin Li; Basanta Kumar Biswal; Guanghao Chen

    Nitrogen removal performance and key enzyme activities of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” with sorbitol addition were investigated in nitrogen-laden saline wastewater treatment. Nitrogen removal through “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” first increased and then decreased with sorbitol addition. Optimal ammonia removal rate and nitrite removal rate were 0.53 and 0.67 kg/(m3·d) at 0.8 mM sorbitol, which increased by 39.5% and 71.8%, respectively. Moreover, appropriate sorbitol content could resist salt stress and decrease extracellular polymeric substances content of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica”. Independent of sorbitol concentration, hydrazine dehydrogenase and nitrite reductase activities were enhanced about 1.37–2.36 folds. Remodified Logistic model was the most appropriate to analyze nitrogen removal process with sorbitol addition. Fitted Rmax (%/h) could be converted into Vmax (kg/(m3·d)) to predict optimal substrate conversion rates of “Candidatus Brocadia sinica” treating nitrogen-laden saline wastewater with various sorbitol contents.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • An insight into the promotion effect of Na+/vacancy ordering on desalination performance of NaxCoO2
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Ruijuan Zhou; Xiaoxu Guo; Xiaoman Li; Yongshuai Kang; Min Luo
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Effect of Fe(II) on simultaneous marine anammox and Feammox treating nitrogen-laden saline wastewater under low temperature: Enhanced performance and kinetics
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Li Feng; Jin Li; Haoran Ma; Guanghao Chen

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used to study enhanced nitrogen removal of marine anammox bacteria (MAB) treating nitrogen-laden saline wastewater with Fe(II) addition. The reactor was operated at 15 °C with influent pH of 7.5 ± 0.1. At 4 mg/L Fe(II), ammonia removal rate (ARR) and nitrite removal rate (NRR) increased to 0.85 and 0.90 kg/(m3·d), respectively. Specific anammox activity (SAA) sharply increased to 0.76 kg/(kg·d). Both marine anammox and marine Feammox reaction occurred simultaneously. ΔNO2−-N/ΔNH4+-N was lower than theoretical ratio due to marine Feammox. When Fe(II) was >25 mg/L, the maximal substrate conversion rate increased from 2.97 to 3.47 kg/(m3·d) within 1 h. High Fe(II) concentration (> 25 mg/L) had no negative effect on marine anammox but could inhibit marine Feammox process. The optimal Fe(II) dose was 25 mg/L for marine Feammox. The remodified Logistic model was appropriate to analyze nitrogen removal independent of Fe(II) concentration, and the modified Boltzmann model could only be used to analyze nitrogen removal at high Fe(II) concentration. At 10 mg/L Fe(II), the fitted λ value declined from 0.52 h to 0.34 h. The lag time of MAB was shorten greatly.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Facultative hybrid RO-PRO concept to improve economic performance of PRO: Feasibility and maximizing efficiency
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Bastiaan Blankert; Youngjin Kim; Hans Vrouwenvelder; Noreddine Ghaffour
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Risk evaluation of large-scale seawater desalination projects based on an integrated fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and analytic hierarchy process method
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Yin Zhang; Ruihao Wang; Pengfei Huang; Xiaoli Wang; Shenghui Wang

    Desalination projects play a vital role in the water supply of coastal regions with scarce water resources. The risks associated with desalination projects are worth investigating, especially for large-scale projects. This paper presents the risk identification and evaluation processes of large-scale desalination projects. Two levels of risk indicators are identified and the first-level risks include water intake and outfall risk, processing risk, financial risk and circumstance risk. With the identified risk indicators, an integrated fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is introduced to conduct quantitative risk evaluations for large-scale desalination projects. Twenty experts in desalination-related fields are invited to vote to determine the weighting vectors for the FCE through the AHP. They also participate in deciding the membership matrixes in the FCE for three practical desalination projects. The evaluation results indicate that the overall risks of all the considered projects are at the “Very low” level. Finally, to diminish the potential risks, several instructions and recommendations are suggested that depend on the evaluation outcomes. It is expected that the current risk evaluation research will make remarkable contributions to the risk management and control of large-scale desalination projects and further promote the development of the desalination industry.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Fe3O4/PVDF-HFP photothermal membrane with in-situ heating for sustainable, stable and efficient pilot-scale solar-driven membrane distillation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Wenpeng Li; Yiqing Chen; Lei Yao; Xiangzhong Ren; Yongliang Li; Libo Deng
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • 更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Modeling thermal and geometrical effects on non-condensable gas desorption in horizontal-tube bundles of falling film evaporation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Luopeng Yang; Linhua Zhang; Angui Li; Jinyan Wu

    Non-condensable gas (NCG) released in the multi-effect distillation associated with a thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) seawater desalination seriously deteriorates the heat transfer efficiency. Due to the complicated coupled nature between NCG desorption and heat transfer process, little attention has been paid to local NCG desorption conditions which contribute to improving thermal efficiency of MED-TVC. Chemical desorption continuously releases more CO2 than O2 and N2 released by physical desorption. A numerical model, considering heat and mass transfer, flow dynamics and chemical reactions, predicts chemical reaction time, evaporation rate and CO2 desorption rate for varying thermal and geometrical parameters. The predicted CO2 desorption rate is in a good agreement with the running data of a venting system in a reference MED-TVC desalination plant. An increasing evaporation temperature, which results in a decrease in chemical reaction time and element volume, contributes to decreasing a specific CO2 desorption rate. With an increase in inlet heating steam velocity, the specific CO2 desorption rate decreases due to the increasing element volume and decreasing specific evaporation rate. The specific CO2 desorption rate increases with an increase in tube diameter and a decrease in dimensionless tube pitch due to the opposite effects of heat transfer and element volume.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Hydrodynamic slip enhanced nanofluidic reverse electrodialysis for salinity gradient energy harvesting
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Rui Long; Yanan Zhao; Zhengfei Kuang; Zhichun Liu; Wei Liu

    Nanofluidic reverse electrodialysis offers an alternative way to harvest the widely-existing salinity gradient energy. In this study, we investigate the impacts of surface hydrodynamic slip modification on the ionic current rectification and salinity gradient energy conversion via a conical nanopore by thermodynamic analysis and numerical simulation. Results reveal that in the configuration where hydrodynamic slip modification is employed on the surface near the tip side, a small modification fraction contributes to the ionic current rectification due to significantly enhanced ion enrichment, while a larger hydrodynamic slip modification fraction goes against the ionic current rectification for deteriorated ion enhancement and induced counter-electric field concentration gradient near the base side. For energy conversion, at low concentration ratios, a large modification fraction brings an obvious augment on the electric power. However, it decreases energy conversion efficiency. At a concentration ratio of 100-fold, the electric power is increased by 60.7%, when half of the nanopore wall is modified into hydrodynamic slip. And the energy conversion efficiency is decreased by 6.41%. These findings shed light on the role of hydrodynamic slip modification on the ion transportation and salinity gradient energy conversion, and help developing high performance nanofluidic systems via hydrodynamic slip modifications.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Performance enhancement of a conventional multi-effect desalination (MED) system by heat pump cycles
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Hadi Rostamzadeh; Hamed Ghiasirad; Majid Amidpour; Yasaman Amidpour

    Multi-effect desalination (MED) systems are highly promising for high salinity seawaters at large scales, and hence are used broadly in desalination plants. Despite the fact that the MED systems can be driven by various renewable or waste heat energies, many of the available renewable technologies are expensive in some parts of the globe. Hence, proposing and developing high-efficient mechanical-based MED units can be an encouraging alternative. In pursuance of this objective, two innovative mechanical-driven MED units are devised, simulated and the results are compared with those of the conventional MED-MVC (mechanical vapor compression) unit. For this aim, absorption-compression heat pump (ACHP) and vapor compression heat pump (VCHP) systems are used for integrating with the MED unit. Under a constant input power of 1845 kW it is found that proposing the MED-VCHP system instead of the conventional MED-MVC system improves gain-output-ratio (GOR), performance ratio (PR), freshwater rate, specific work consumption (SWC), exergy efficiency, exergy destruction rate, and exergy of loss by 1%, 12.86%, 12.64%, 11.45%, 10.78%, 3.3%, and 10.86% respectively. However, the unit cost of distilled water (UCDW) of the MED-VCHP system is around 6.7% higher than that of the MED-MVC system. Also, the MED-VCHP system uses less exergy of fuel than the MED-MVC system due to its high seawater exergy. Furthermore, it is found that one can decrease the overall exergy loss rate from 145.4 kW to 129.6 kW when the MED-VCHP system is used instead of the MED-MVC system.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Influence on the adsorption of phenol on single-walled carbon nanotubes caused by NaCl and an electrostatic field in saline
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Yong Han; Qianrui Zhang; Leichao Wu

    In the present study, the molecular dynamics simulation method was used to investigate the influence on the adsorption capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to phenol caused by NaCl and an external electrostatic field in saline by calculating the structural parameters, the hydrogen bonding, the interaction energy and the viscosity of the solution system. The results show that when the numbers of added NaCl molecules are ten, twenty and thirty, the coordination number of phenol around the SWCNTs decreases from 150 to 144, 143 and 141, the coordination number of water around phenol increases from 2.133 to 2.257, 2.301 and 3.345, the lifetime of hydrogen bonds between phenol and water increases from 7.02 ps to 7.09 ps, 7.16 ps and 7.22 ps, the interaction energy of SWCNT and phenol decreases from −1571 kJ·mol−1 to −1374.05 kJ·mol−1, −1341 kJ·mol−1 and −1326 kJ·mol−1, and the viscosity of solution increases from 0.70 mPa·s to 0.73 mPa·s, 0.74 mPa·s and 0.76 mPa·s, respectively. These results indicate that the presence of NaCl can decrease the number of phenol molecules around SWCNTs, enhance the hydration of phenol, reduce the phenol's hydrophobic performance, and decrease the interaction between the phenol molecules and the viscosity of the phenol solution, which indicates that the added NaCl can weaken the adsorption capacity of SWCNTs to phenol. Furthermore, when an electrostatic field is applied in saline (with twenty NaCl molecules), the number of salt ions around the SWCNTs decreases, leading to an increase in the adsorption sites for phenol on the surface of the SWCNTs. The electrostatic field can also decrease the interaction energy between water and phenol (from −4662 kJ·mol−1 to −4490 kJ·mol−1) and increase the interaction energy between SWCNT and phenol (from −1361 kJ·mol−1 to −1552 kJ·mol−1); thus, the adsorption between phenol and SWCNT can be enhanced. However, the presence of NaCl suppresses this enhancement caused by the electrostatic field.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Low-temperature multiple-effect desalination/organic Rankine cycle system with a novel integration for fresh water and electrical energy production
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    J.A. Aguilar-Jiménez; N. Velázquez; R. López-Zavala; R. Beltrán; L. Hernández-Callejo; L.A. González-Uribe; V. Alonso-Gómez
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • The application feasibility of graphene oxide membranes for pressure-driven desalination in a dead-end flow system
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Ruirui Hu; Guoke Zhao; Yijia He; Hongwei Zhu

    Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have been demonstrated to possess promising prospects in pressure-driven desalination, in which the desalting performance is generally investigated in a dead-end flow system by following the test procedure for polymers. However, there exists a blind zone in desalination test whether the as-reported “retention” is reliable, as there is no experimental evidence to support that the stable salt rejection has been achieved. On this basis, for the first time, we investigated the long-term desalting performance of GO membranes on five different salts, including Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl, MgSO4, and MgCl2, in a conventional dead-end flow device by following the two typical experiment processes for GO membranes. Surprisingly, it was found that the salt rejection of GO membranes dropped down to 0 with the prolongation of testing time. The result indicated that GO membranes were not capable of rejecting salts steadily under pressure-driven conditions. The “salt rejection” in present reports, is only the initial highest value based on their test method. In this study, the underlying mechanism was also elucidated. With extending test time, the metal cations in salt solution would be gradually adsorbed on GO membranes, which shields the negative surface potential, thus leading to the loss of desalination performance. This finding not only rationalizes the challenge of GO membranes in pressure-driven desalination in a dead-end flow system but also prompts us to reassess the feasibility of GO membranes in desalination applications based on Donnan exclusion.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Eco-friendly facile synthesis of glucose–derived microporous carbon spheres electrodes with enhanced performance for water capacitive deionization
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Shaimaa K. Mohamed; Mahmoud Abuelhamd; Nageh K. Allam; Ahmed Shahat; Mohamed Ramadan; Hassan M.A. Hassan
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Influence of operating conditions on the desalination performance of a symmetric pre-conditioned Ti3C2Tx-MXene membrane capacitive deionization system
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Lutfi Agartan; Kanit Hantanasirisakul; Samantha Buczek; Bilen Akuzum; Khaled A. Mahmoud; Babak Anasori; Yury Gogotsi; E. Caglan Kumbur
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Pilot studies on synergetic impacts of energy utilization in hybrid desalination system: Multi-effect distillation and adsorption cycle (MED-AD)
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Hyuk Soo Son; Muhammad Wakil Shahzad; Noreddine Ghaffour; Kim Choon Ng
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Thermodynamic optimization of Multistage Pressure Retarded Osmosis (MPRO) with variable feed pressures for hypersaline solutions
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Sarper Sarp; Nidal Hilal

    Salinity gradient processes, such as Forward Osmosis and Pressure Retarded Osmosis, have been proven to be promising technologies for reducing the energy consumption in water treatment processes, for energy production, and for energy recovery. Based on the thermodynamic concepts, specifically Gibbs' Free Energy of Mixing, the concentration of the draw solution plays an important role in determining whether the selected salinity gradient process is economically feasible or not. An increase in the salinity of a draw solution does not only increase the osmotic pressure difference between the draw and feed solutions, but also allows a higher hydraulic pressure to be applied on the draw solution, which together greatly increases the volumetric flux of the draw solution per single pass when PRO is used. Even though higher power densities can be achieved by applying higher hydraulic pressures on the draw solution, this requires greater mechanical stability of the membrane to be able to withstand these higher hydraulic pressures. In order to increase the mechanical stability of the membranes, generally, thicker support layers can be applied, which have a direct negative impact on membrane permeability. Therefore, there is a limitation to the salinity of the draw solution which can be used in the PRO processes. This being dependent on the concentration of the hypersaline solution and hence overall hydraulic pressure, necessitating the use of an ultra-thick support layer for maximum energy production and/or recovery. In this theoretical and simulative optimization of the PRO process, we achieved the optimum energy recovery from a hypersaline solution (TDS ~ 300,000 mg/l) by using a multistage PRO (MPRO) system which included implementing variable applied feed pressures to each stage. The results showed that the volumetric flow rate of the hypersaline draw solution increased by up to a factor of 10 during the MPRO process in single pass, and the concentration of the hypersaline draw solution diluted up to 10× accordingly. Energy conversion efficiency of osmotic pressure to hydraulic pressure was found to be around 10% without variable feed pressure and approximately 20% with variable feed pressure.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Corrosion inhibition effect of a benzimidazole derivative on heat exchanger tubing materials during acid cleaning of multistage flash desalination plants
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Ikenna B. Onyeachu; Moses M. Solomon; Saviour A. Umoren; Ime B. Obot; Ahmad A. Sorour

    A benzimidazole derivative, 2-(2-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazole (2BPB) has been studied as a corrosion inhibitor for Cu-Ni 70/30 and 90/10 alloys in 1 mol/dm3 HCl solution at low and high temperatures using the weight loss, electrochemical (potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), & cyclic voltammetry (CV)), and surface characterization (scanning electron microscopy (SEM) & Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) techniques. The effect of immersion time (up to 72 h) and addition of iodide ions on the inhibition efficiency of 2BPB have also been investigated. At low temperature, 1.0 g/L 2BPB inhibits Cu-Ni 70/30 and 90/10 alloys by 88.9 ± 4.8% and 57.5 ± 1.3%, respectively. The performance of 2BPB improves with increase in immersion time and addition of iodide ions but slightly depreciates with rise in temperature. 2BPB acts as a mixed type corrosion inhibitor and adsorbs on the alloys surfaces through physical adsorption mechanism. SEM and FTIR results confirm the adsorption of 2BPB on the alloys surfaces. 2BPB is a potential low toxic candidate for the formulation of acid corrosion inhibitor for Cu-Ni alloys.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • NGO/PA layer with disordered arrangement hybrid PPS composite membrane for desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Yuan Gao; Kunmei Su; Xiaotian Wang; Maliang Zhang; Zhenhuan Li; Kang Jia
    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Preliminary assessment of innovative seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination powered by a hybrid solar photovoltaic (PV) - Tidal range energy system
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Agustín M. Delgado-Torres, Lourdes García-Rodríguez, María Jiménez del Moral

    This paper proposes an innovative desalination technology for sustainable off-grid systems taking advantage of complementary features of tidal range and solar PhotoVoltaic (PV) energies. According to the literature survey, this proposal has not been considered before. Since fresh water production can be easily stored, the key issue in designing SeaWater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants is to minimise the capital cost required per m3 of fresh water produced throughout the plant lifetime. In addition, water cost of renewable energy - driven desalination strongly depends on decisions concerning battery capacity and nominal power installed, thus hybrid systems play and important role in this regard. The energy analysis performed quantifies the temporal complementarity of tidal and solar resources in an exemplary case study of a semiarid plant location at Broome, Australia. An estimation of the yearly energy production profile of the tidal range power plant is calculated with a zero-dimensional numerical model whereas the System Advisor Model (SAM) is used for the solar PV plant. The main result obtained is the great temporary complementarity of tidal and solar photovoltaic resources for SWRO application. For a given size of the PV generator the inclusion of the tidal range power plant implies an increase of the operating time of the desalination plant at nominal capacity between 1.8 and 2.8 times compared to the only solar PV driven case. This result depends on the SWRO nominal capacity. The recommended design for the case study consists in off-grid desalination plants, with minimum battery capacity if any, powered by a hybrid energy system with a ratio of installed desalination capacities of 55·103 m3/d per each hydraulic turbine of 10 MW. This system can be operated at full load a 42% of the year maximizing the yearly fresh water production.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Freshwater and cooling production via integration of an ethane ejector expander transcritical refrigeration cycle and a humidification-dehumidification unit
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Towhid Gholizadeh, Mohammad Vajdi, Hadi Rostamzadeh

    Despite the fact that humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination systems can be driven by various renewable or waste heat energies, many of the available renewable technologies are expensive in some parts of the globe. Hence, proposing and developing high-efficient mechanical-based HDH units can be an encouraging alternative which is more highlighted in recent investigations. In pursuance of this objective, three innovative mechanical-driven HDH units are simulated and the results are compared with each other. The simulated hybrid desalination system consists of a HDH unit and an ethane ejector expander transcritical refrigeration cycle (ethane-EETRC). The simulated hybrid systems can produce freshwater and cooling load, simultaneously. The main difference between each system is the proposal of using two-stage compression and humidification-dehumidification processes at different scenarios. The results display that a maximum freshwater of 17.3 m3/day can be achieved when a two-stage HDH unit is used with a single-stage compression ethane-EETRC, resulting in CGOR (cogeneration-based gain output ratio), exergy efficiency, and cooling load of 6.56, 17.13% and146.9 kW, respectively. However, to achieve as high cooling load as 161.8 kW - with CGOR, exergy efficiency, and freshwater of 5.19, 18.1% and 11.97 m3/day, respectively - a configuration with two HDH units coupled with a two-stage ethane-EETRC is highly commendable. Moreover, the cost evaluation results indicated that unit overall cost of the product (UOCP) of the hybrid system with two HDH units integrated with a two-stage ethane-EETRC and the hybrid set-up with a two-stage HDH unit integrated with a single-stage ethane-EETRC is calculated 8.2 $/GJ and 8.93 $/GJ, respectively. At last, an intensive parametric evaluation of some influential parameters is presented.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • One-step fabrication of isotropic poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD)
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Miaomiao Tian, Shushan Yuan, Florian Decaesstecker, Junyong Zhu, Alexander Volodine, Bart Van der Bruggen
    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Enhanced water yield of solar desalination by thermal concentrated multistage distiller
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Lu Huang, Haifeng Jiang, Yipu Wang, Ziqiang Ouyang, Wenting Wang, Bing Yang, Huidong Liu, Xuejiao Hu

    Solar-driven evaporation for desalination has recently attracted much attention because of its high solar-thermal efficiency, simple structure, low cost, and little environmental impacts. In this paper, we reported a thermal concentrated multistage distiller for solar desalination application. The distiller consists of a thermal concentrator connected to a multistage evaporator-condenser structure. The thermal concentrator with a high solar absorptance of 0.935 and a low emittance of 0.150 on the upper surface can efficiently convert solar radiation into heat for high temperature vapor generation and reduce radiation loss. The multistage distiller with concentric expansion evaporator-condenser structure can efficiently recover the latent heat of vapor, and reduce the heat losses and water diffusion resistance. As a result, a high water yield of 2.2 kg m−2 h−1 was achieved in a 6-stage distiller under solar intensity of 1 kW m−2 and 3 times (3×) thermal concentration. The outdoor tests in rooftop demonstrated that the water yield can reached 3.9 kg m−2 per day even at a low solar intensity of 415 W m−2. This novel design with enhanced water yield provides an effective approach to harvest sunlight for small-scale solar desalination in remote regions.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Fabrication of interweaving hierarchical fibrous composite (iHFC) membranes for high-flux and robust direct contact membrane distillation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Xiaochan An, Yulin Bai, Guorong Xu, Baolei Xie, Yunxia Hu

    The industrialization of membrane distillation (MD) is hindered by lack of desirable membranes with high performance. Recently, the engineered electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENMs), such as dual- or multi-layered ENMs, have displayed superior permeations in MD compared with traditional membranes. However, it is still far from satisfactory due to membrane delamination and performance loss after long-term operation. Herein, inspired by the structure of nest with interweaved branches, we fabricated the interweaving hierarchical fibrous composite (iHFC) membrane comprising the interconnected poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PH) nanofibers and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microfibers via convectional electrospinning. The hydrophobic PH nanofibers provide an enhanced anti-wetting property and high salt rejection. The PET microfibers could significantly both lower the resistance of mass transfer and improve the heat insulation. Results show that the optimized iHFC membrane having the ratio of PH/PET 1.5/0.8 and membrane thickness 80 μm exhibits both high permeation flux of 65 LMH and stable high performance over 60 h when operated at 40 °C temperature difference. Moreover, the interweaving structure endows the iHFC membrane great mechanical strength and excellent long-term stability. It is believed that the strategy explored, and the unique membrane developed here could pave a path to boost the industrialization of MD membranes.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Numerical simulation of electrokinetic desalination using microporous permselective membranes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Jing Tang, Lingyan Gong, Jiafei Jiang, Zirui Li, Jongyoon Han

    A new scheme for parallelization of microchannels for ion concentration polarization-based seawater desalination is proposed. In the proposed system, microchannels/micropores are paralleled only in ion-selective membrane region and all other parts are simply merged. A two-dimensional simulation model is developed to study performances of such a system, by calculating the salt removal ratio (SRR) and the average velocity of fluid, under varied working conditions. Our results show that SRR >98% for seawater salinity (realizing drinkable water) is achievable. It is found that a stronger cross membrane voltage strengthens electrokinetic flow of the second kind (EOF2) and increases both SRR and flow velocity. Increasing pressure promotes fluid flow but decrease SRR and EOF2 significantly when the ion depletion zone is destroyed. Volumetric energy consumption and energy per ion removal (EPIR) were also characterized under varied electric field and pressure conditions. Energy consumption as low as 12.82 kWh/m3 was realized to convert seawater (salinity ~500 mM) to the desalinated water (salinity ~10 mM) at a flow speed of 0.56 mm/s. The overall cost of water for such a process was estimated as 2.08 $/m3, which is competitive for small-scale desalination applications.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Reverse osmosis membrane element integrity evaluation using imperfection model
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Claudia Niewersch, Christopher Rieth, Leaelaf Hailemariam, Guillem Gilabert Oriol, Justyna Warczok
    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • 更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Enhancing desalination performance of thin film composite membrane through layer by layer assembly of oppositely charged titania nanosheet
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Nor Akalili Ahmad, Pei Sean Goh, Kar Chun Wong, Abdul Karim Zulhairun, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Small-scale desalination of seawater by shock electrodialysis
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Mohammad A. Alkhadra, Tao Gao, Kameron M. Conforti, Huanhuan Tian, Martin Z. Bazant
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Experimental investigation at a summit above 13,000 ft on active solar still water purification powered by photovoltaic: A comparative study
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Seyed Masoud Parsa, Davoud Javadi Y, Amir Rahbar, Mahdi Majidniya, Mohsen Salimi, Yasaman Amidpour, Majid Amidpour
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Techno-economic evaluation of an element-scale forward osmosis-reverse osmosis hybrid process for seawater desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Sung Ju Im, Sanghyun Jeong, Seongpil Jeong, Am Jang

    The forward osmosis (FO)-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process is gaining attention in the desalination market because it can purify diluted seawater and the RO unit functions at low pressure conditions, resulting in a reduced total operational cost. However, FO element configuration affects the process performance, minimum flow rate, inlet pressure, product capacity, and draw solution (DS) dilution rate. Moreover, economic evaluation of the FO-RO hybrid process in the Middle East, which is the largest seawater desalination market, is required to obtain representative results. Realistic economic evaluation can be achieved with a real-performance database (DB) and specific assumptions. In this study, a techno-economic evaluation of the FO-RO hybrid process was conducted using real element-scale FO DB and simulation DB, and the results were compared with those of a stand-alone two stage RO process. Spiral wound FO (SWFO) and plate and frame (PFFO)-RO hybrid processes were more economical by 8.84% and 3.73%, respectively, when compared to two-stage RO. In the Middle East, the total cost of SWFO-RO was 45.1 M$ lesser than that of PFFO-RO due to its higher water flux and DS dilution rate. Therefore, the FO-RO hybrid process has high economic potential in the Middle East and elsewhere.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Electro-confinement membrane desalination by nanoporous carbon membrane
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Jing Ma, Guotong Qin, Wei Wei, Tianliang Xiao, Lei Jiang, Shaomin Liu
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Long-term experimental theoretical study on several single-basin solar stills
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    F. Muñoz, E. Barrera, A. Ruiz, E.M. Martínez, N. Chargoy

    In this paper, the long-term (12 month) behavior and productivity of four reinforced fiberglass solar stills (RFSSs) and one concrete solar still (CSS) are reported. They presented good performance with a few issues in the yield and at the inlet and outlet conduits of the stills. The mean yield and the efficiency were 2401 ml/m2 day and 26% for the RSS, and 1296 ml/m2 day and 18% for the CSS, respectively. The initial salinity of the water decreased from 35,000 to 12 mg/l in both types of stills. The Dunkle and Kumar–Tiwari models were employed for the comparative theoretical analysis. The Dunkle model yield was 27% higher than that of the experimental for the RFSSs and 42.5% higher for the CSS, whereas the Kumar–Tiwari model results were 17.4% and 36.9% higher, respectively. The thermal model was implemented and regression analysis was performed using the professional Engineering Equation Solver (EES) V10.240 software.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Multistage pressure-retarded osmosis configurations: A unifying framework and thermodynamic analysis
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Hyung Won Chung, Jaichander Swaminathan, John H. Lienhard

    Pressure-retarded osmosis has enjoyed increasing research interest over the last decade. Recent studies focusing on single-stage PRO designs have raised doubts regarding the long-term economic viability of the technology. While most of the analyses are based on single-stage operation, comprehensive analysis of multistage PRO which shows promise for better energetic performance is absent. Previous studies on multistage PRO differ in their design philosophies and performance metrics, leading to an incomplete assessment regarding the potential benefits of multistaging. In this paper, we develop a unifying framework to classify several existing multistage configurations. In addition, we analyze the multistage PRO system from a thermodynamic perspective. Among the two major multistage design strategies, namely interstage pressure control and independent feed inputs to each stage, we found the latter to be more effective towards increasing net power density. In comparison to a single-stage device, a 10-stage system achieves around 9% higher net power density while using the same membrane area.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • High performance electrochemical saline water desalination using silver and silver-chloride electrodes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Jaewuk Ahn, Jiho Lee, Seoni Kim, Choonsoo Kim, Jaehan Lee, P.M. Biesheuvel, Jeyong Yoon
    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • CFD-based genetic programming model for liquid entry pressure estimation of hydrophobic membranes
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Hooman Chamani, Pelin Yazgan-Birgi, Takeshi Matsuura, Dipak Rana, Mohamed I. Hassan Ali, Hassan A. Arafat, Christopher Q. Lan
    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Foldable multiple-energies harvester consisting of a thin ion-exchange membrane prepared by a two-step interfacial polymerization
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Chul Ho Park, Harim Bae, Kyung-Sang Ryu, Yang-Hyun Nam, Dae-Jin Kim, Gwang-Se Lee, Jin-Jae Lee, Seong Il Yoo, Byungki Kim

    This study reports on the fabrication of a multiple-energies harvester capable of producing electrical energy from membrane potential induced by mechanical and thermal energy sources. A two-step interfacial polymerization method was introduced to synthesize a thin ion-exchange membrane, in which membrane potential can be induced and maintained under low pressure and temperature gradients. To increase the potential applications of this work, a flexible, compressible, and foldable energy harvester was developed by incorporating the as-synthesized membranes. The investigation into the mechanical energy output of the harvester found it to have a sensitivity of 1.74 V/N and a power density of 4.26 mW/m2. Equally, when a thermal gradient was applied to the harvester, results showed a Seebeck coefficient of approximately 1 mV/K and a power density of 0.16 mW/m2.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Field demonstration of a cost-optimized solar powered electrodialysis reversal desalination system in rural India
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Wei He, Susan Amrose, Natasha C. Wright, Tonio Buonassisi, Ian M. Peters, Amos G. Winter

    This study provides experimental validation of a previously published optimal design theory for photovoltaic (PV)-powered electrodialysis reversal (EDR) desalination systems. The prior work describes the co-optimization of PV and EDR subsystems, and flexible operation to accommodate daily and annual solar irradiance variability, significantly reducing water cost. This study presents the fabrication of a PV-EDR pilot system designed using the co-optimization theory and field testing results from the rural village of Chelluru, India. Testing in the field enabled observation and evaluation of real-world factors on system performance, resulting in updates to the previous theory to include unaccounted factors that affect costs, including: filling and draining of water tanks, salt and water accumulation in tanks from prior batches, unexpected energy losses due to locally purchased converters, and scaling in the ED stack. Therefore, water cost in the PV-EDR pilot system was updated from previous estimates based on field performance. The estimated capital cost and lifetime cost of the Chelluru system are 34% and 45% lower, respectively, than the corresponding costs if the PV-EDR system was designed using conventional design practice. The theory and experimental insights presented in this paper will enable desalination engineers to better design and optimize PV-EDR systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Simultaneous cooling and provision of make-up water by forward osmosis for post-combustion CO2 capture
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Lei Zheng, William E. Price, Tao He, Long D. Nghiem
    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Impacts of flow channel geometry, hydrodynamic and membrane properties on osmotic backwash of RO membranes—CFD modeling and simulation
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-24
    Kwanho Jeong, Minkyu Park, Seungjae Oh, Joon Ha Kim

    The presence of the spacer and biofilm can accompany the high complexity of the mass and momentum transport in an osmotic backwash (OBW) process of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. For more reliable simulations, it would be essential to consider such highly complex transport phenomena across the membranes and through membrane flow channels. Therefore, we simulated the effects of spacer designs, hydrodynamic, and membrane properties on OBW in the scenario of biofouling on RO membrane surfaces. To this end, the OBW process was numerically modeled in two-dimensional spacer-filled crossflow channels based on the finite element method. Subsequently, the concentration and velocity fields inside of the membrane, biofilm, and flow channels were analyzed. Results showed that the submerged spacer could enhance the water and salt mass transfer in the membrane channel, to a greater extent than the cavity and zigzag spacers, which can ultimately enhance the OBW efficiency for a foulant removal. Additionally, the OBW performance is chiefly impacted by the structure parameter of the porous support layer. Also, the existence of biofilm in the feed channel can render the feed concentration and membrane water permeability more sensitive to the OBW process than the non-fouled channel.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Experimental study on seawater desalination through supercooled water dynamic ice making
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Dong Chen, Chaosheng Zhang, Hongwei Rong, Chunhai Wei, Siyu Gou

    The existing methods for seawater freezing desalination include direct crystal suspension freezing and indirect progressive contact freezing (IPCF). However, freeze desalination is rarely used because of the low rates of desalination and freshwater production along with the relatively high treatment costs. In this study, we evaluated a new freeze desalination method using supercooled water dynamic ice making. The proposed method had a theoretical energy consumption of only 58% of that needed for IPCF. With gravity filtration separation of the produced ice–water mixture for 20 min or centrifugal dehydration for 1 min, a 0.5% salt content standard for freshwater and a 60% freshwater yield were attained. In addition, the method produced ice crystals with minimal impurities, after brine attached to the surface was removed through centrifugal dehydration, a 0.05% salt content standard for drinking water was achieved.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A techno-economic process model for pressure retarded osmosis based energy recovery in desalination plants
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Joshua Benjamin, Mauricio E. Arias, Qiong Zhang

    Existing desalination plants face the challenges of high energy costs and environmental impacts from brine disposal. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a technology that could mitigate these issues. PRO works by capturing the potential energy in the salinity gradient between brine and dilute (e.g. freshwater/wastewater) solutions. In this study, we developed a Python-based model called Propmod that uses both internal and user-defined inputs to simulate how a full-scale PRO system performs energetically and economically. The Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination Plant was used as a case study, and if a PRO system was installed in this plant, it could potentially save 9% of the energy consumed per m3 of permeate, while also diluting the brine from 66 to 41 ppt. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on the net present value of potential full-scale PRO systems indicated that the most influential parameters on PRO system performance are membrane characteristics (salt permeability, water permeability, and structural parameter), as well as energy price and feed water transmission pipe size and length. Overall, PRO systems were found to be competitive with other forms of renewable energy in areas that allow systems to be designed with higher rates of energy generation and minimal capital and operational costs.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Efficient removal of anionic dye by constructing thin-film composite membrane with high perm-selectivity and improved anti-dye-deposition property
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Yuchen Wu, Mingfu Gao, Weitao Chen, Zhenhua Lü, Sanchuan Yu, Meihong Liu, Congjie Gao
    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • Low surface energy nanofibrous membrane for enhanced wetting resistance in membrane distillation process
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Lei Jiao, Kangkang Yan, Jing Wang, Saisai Lin, Ge Li, Fei Bi, Lin Zhang
    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • NH2-Fe3O4-regulated graphene oxide membranes with well-defined laminar nanochannels for desalination of dye solutions
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Liangliang Dong, Minghui Li, Shuo Zhang, Xuejian Si, Yunxiang Bai, Chunfang Zhang
    更新日期:2019-11-20
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
上海纽约大学William Glover
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug