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  • A multi-level programming for shale gas-water supply chains accounting for tradeoffs between economic and environmental concerns
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.334) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Yizhong Chen; Xi Cheng; Jing Li; Li He

    This study develops a multi-level programming model for the planning shale gas-water supply chains. A set of leader-follower-interactive objectives with emphases of water consumption, economic performance, and pollutant discharge are integrated into a sequential decision-making process. Satisfactory degree is introduced to tackle the computationally challenging problem based on an interactive fuzzy approach. Operational decisions regarding water resources allocation, transportation mode selection, and pollutant discharge control would be achieved. Results reveal that the environmentally- or economically-aggressive strategies would be generated when a single goal for optimizing economic benefits or pollutant discharge. The multi-objective decisions are limited by the selected weights. However, the multi-level model would provide more comprehensive schemes due to its sequential consideration of the economic/environmental concerns. Findings from the multi-level model can facilitate (a) balancing the conflicts among different decision makers, (b) timing and siting for shale gas production, and (c) managing water resources for pollutant discharge control.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Regression and independence based variable importance measure
    Comput. Chem. Eng. (IF 3.334) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Xinmin Zhang; Takuya Wada; Koichi Fujiwara; Manabu Kano

    Evaluating the importance of input (predictor) variables is of interest in many applications of statistical models. However, nonlinearity and correlation among variables make it difficult to measure variable importance accurately. In this work, a novel variable importance measure, called regression and independence based variable importance (RIVI), is proposed. RIVI is designed by integrating Gaussian process regression (GPR) and Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC) so that it is applicable to nonlinear systems. The results of two numerical examples demonstrate that RIVI is superior to several conventional measures including the Pearson correlation coefficient, PLS-β, PLS-VIP, Lasso, HSIC, and permutation importance with random forest in the variable identification accuracy.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Evaluation of the residual stresses in metallic materials produced by additive manufacturing technology: effect of microstructure
    Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. (IF 4.463) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Fardad Azarmi; Igor Sevostianov

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys opens tremendous opportunities in production of parts with complex shapes and geometries. One of the main challenges is formation of residual stress during fabrication processes which substantially affects service life of engineering components. This paper provides a brief introduction to different types, formation mechanisms, and measurement techniques of the residual stress in metals produced by AM technology. The highlight of this study is to propose a novel quantitative model to estimate residual stress in 3D printed metallic components using micromechanical analysis. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is examined by comparison with the experimental data available in literature.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Facile and scalable synthesis of nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon for high performance supercapacitors
    Korean J. Chem. Eng. (IF 2.476) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Lei Fan, Peizheng Sun, Li Yang, Zhilong Xu, Jie Han

    Abstract Nitrogen-doped carbon has been receiving tremendous research interest due to its exotic electrochemical performance and catalyzing capability. Nevertheless, large-scale synthesis of ordered, mesoporous, nitrogen-doped carbon for supercapacitors is rarely reported due to the complexity and uncontrollable property of polymerization of carbon/nitrogen precursors. In this work, we report a facile and efficient approach for mass production of nitrogen-doped carbon, with a narrow pore size distribution and a sheet morphology, via a simple solution casting of biomass-based mixture. Upon drying, the gelatin molecules self-assemble into sheets, and guide the homogeneous loading of sacrificial silica nanospheres. Further carbonization and template removal procedures allow the low-cost production of nitrogen-doped carbon sheets in the absence of complex polymerization. As a result, nitrogen-doped carbon sheets possess a high nitrogen content and ordered, interconnected mesoporous channels, with porosity parameters being carbonization temperature and template size dependence. Additionally, nitrogen-doped, ordered carbon sheets exhibit high performance for supercapacitor application, including high specific capacitances and energy/power densities. This work demonstrates a unique route to synthesizing ordered mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon sheets via a scalable, low-cost method, which may shed light on many other applications aside from energy storage, such as water splitting, catalysis and sensor.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Electrochemical characteristics of high-capacity Mg/V 2 O 5 hybrid batteries with Mg-Li dual salt electrolytes
    Korean J. Chem. Eng. (IF 2.476) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Haebeen Kim, Duri Kim, Min Young Hong, Ji Heon Ryu

    Abstract Mg-Li hybrid cells are constructed and evaluated using a V2O5 positive electrode, a Mg metal negative electrode, and Mg-Li dual salt electrolytes. When a crystalline V2O5 (c-V2O5) and an Al current collector are used, side reactions can occur even at the upper voltage limit of 2.4 V (vs. Mg/Mg2+). However, when an amorphous V2O5 (a-V2O5) is used with a Ti current collector, the side reactions are greatly reduced and the cycle performance is improved. The discharge capacity and Coulombic efficiency at the second cycle are 187 mA h g−;1 and 94.9%, respectively. a-V2O5 is more electrochemically stable than c-V2O5, the Mg/a-V2O5 cell shows a discharge voltage of ∼1.5 V and a specific capacity of 148 mA h g−1 even after 20 cycles. Therefore, the a-V2O5 is a potential host material for Mg-Li hybrid batteries.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Carbon supported palladium-copper bimetallic catalysts for promoting electrochemical oxidation of formic acid and its utilization in direct formic acid fuel cells
    Korean J. Chem. Eng. (IF 2.476) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Jongwon Yang, Seungwon Yang, Yongjin Chung, Yongchai Kwon

    Abstract Carbon supported palladium-copper (Pd-Cu) bimetallic catalysts (PdxCuy/Cs) are fabricated by modified polyol method to enhance the reaction rate of formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) and the performance of direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) through weakening the bond with the intermediate of formic acid. According to the evaluations, when the ratio of Pd and Cu is 3 : 1 (Pd3Cu1/C), catalytic activity is best. Its maximum current density is 1.68-times better than that of commercial Pd/C. Even from the optical and spectroscopic characterizations, such as TEM, EDS, XPS and XRD, Pd3Cu1/C shows an optimal particle size and a higher degree of alloying. This is because in Pd3Cu1/C catalyst, the d-band center that induces the weakening in adsorption of formate anion groups to Pd surface is most positively shifted, and this positive shift promotes the reaction rate of FAOR, which is the rate determining step. When the performance of DFAFCs using the PdxCuy/C catalysts is measured, the maximum power density (MPD) of DFAFC using Pd3Cu1/C catalyst is 158 mW cm−2, and this is the best MPD compared to that of DFAFCs using other PdxCuy/C catalysts. In addition, in a comparison with commercial Pd/C catalyst, when the same amount of catalyst is loaded, MPD of DFAFC using Pd3Cu1/C catalyst is 22.5% higher than that of DFAFC using commercial Pd/C.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Controlling morphology and catalysis capability of Sn/Ce porous coordination polymers by cerium coordination for catalytic conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
    J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. E. (IF 3.834) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Siyu Sun; Xingyuan Lu; Xianling Meng; Peijun Ji

    A novel porous coordination polymer (namely SnCe) has been synthesized by simultaneous coordination of Tin (Sn (IV)) and cerium (Ce (III/IV)) with the two ligands 5-sulfoisophthalic acid (SPA) and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC). The morphology and surface area of SnCe can be controlled by the cerium-involved interfacial coordination, by taking advantage of the discrepancy of coordination ability between the two metal ions. The shape and size of the SnCes has a close relationship with the molar ratio of Sn to Ce. The mechanism of the formation of SnCe was investigated by electron microscopy measurement (scanning electron microscope) and XRD patterns. The catalysis capability was also controlled, with Sn (IV) and Ce (III/IV) as the Lewis acid sites and the sulfonate groups of SPA as the Brønsted acid sites. The Lewis acid sites can catalyze isomerization of glucose into fructose, and the Brønsted acid sites can catalyze the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with a high efficiency. Thus, SnCe combines the bifunctional catalysis capability for producing HMF (an important platform chemical) from glucose. This work found that the morphology of catalyst has an effect on the catalyst capability. At the similar reaction conditions, the catalyst exhibits higher conversion and selectivity than those reported.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Nanocomposite membranes consisting of poly(ethylene oxide)/ionic liquid/ZnO for CO2 separation
    J. Ind. Eng. Chem. (IF 4.978) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    Seung Yeon Rhyu; Younghyun Cho; Sang Wook Kang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
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  • Direct Z-scheme Ag3PO4/Bi4Ti3O12 heterojunction with enhanced photocatalytic performance for sulfamethoxazole degradation
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    Chenlu Liu; Jingjing Xu; Junfeng Niu; Mindong Chen; Yonghui Zhou

    This paper introduces a Z-scheme Ag3PO4/Bi4Ti3O12 heterojunction composite photocatalyst prepared by an in-situ growth method. The photocatalytic properties of the prepared samples under visible light irradiation were studied by degrading sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The results of photocatalytic experiments and cycle experiments showed that Ag3PO4/Bi4Ti3O12-20% composite exhibited much better photocatalytic activity and stability than pure Ag3PO4 and pure Bi4Ti3O12. The capture experiment results showed that h+ is the main active substance in the process of SMX degradation. In addition, we proposed a possible photocatalytic mechanism based on the results of experiment and characterization. The formation of a direct Z-Scheme photocatalytic system promoted the separation of carriers, thereby improving the stability and activity of the composite samples.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation by supported microporous carbon for degradation of tetracycline via non-radical mechanism
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Jia Li; Jialu Zhu; Lizhu Fang; Yulun Nie; Na Tian; Xike Tian; Liqiang Lu; Zhaoxin Zhou; Chao Yang; Yong Li
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enhanced nano-aerosol loading performance of multilayer PVDF nanofiber electret filters
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Qiangqiang Sun; Wallace Woon-Fong Leung

    Aerosol loading behavior of PVDF nanofiber electret filters using neutrally charged nano- and submicron aerosols was investigated experimentally for the first time. The loading behavior include variations of filtration efficiency and pressure drop and distribution of deposited aerosols in the filters all having the same fiber basis weight (3.060 gsm). Through the filtration efficiency variations of uncharged/charged, single-/multi-layer filters with aerosol loading, it was observed that mechanical PVDF filters had continuously increasing filtration efficiency, while PVDF electret filters had initially decreasing and subsequently increasing filtration efficiency until reaching 100% due to diminishing electrostatic effect and enhancing mechanical effect. By combining the pressure drop evolution of different filters during aerosol loading and detailed SEM images of the loaded filters, we have demonstrated that multilayer PVDF filters, especially the electret ones, could significantly slow down the pace of filter clogging (skin effect) and elevate the aerosol holding capacity during depth filtration. Generally, the multilayer filters received the most aerosol deposit during depth filtration, whereas the single-layer filters received the most deposit during cake filtration. The multilayer nanofiber filters had approximately 70% aerosol deposit in the filter during depth filtration fully utilizing the full filter thickness, especially for the electret filters that had charged fibers, and only 30% deposit in the cake. On the contrary, the single-layer uncharged/charged nanofiber filters were exactly the reverse due to persistency of the skin effect with only 30% deposit in the filter mostly located in the upstream layer, yet 70% deposit in the cake. During depth filtration, the pressure drop per added mass deposit for the multilayer electret filter was very low at 11 Pa gsm-1, which was at least twice below any other nanofiber filters. This was all attributed to the uniform capture of aerosols by electrostatic effect across the entire filter depth from the upstream to downstream layers of the multilayer electret filter. The above conclusion was confirmed by the detailed SEM images taken across the different filter layers for the multilayer filter configuration. The 4-layer electret nanofiber filter with a 3.060-gsm basis weight has 4 times more aerosol holding capacity than the single uncharged/charged nanofiber filter with the same fiber basis weight in depth filtration. Based on the standpoint of highest efficiency and capacity with maximum pressure drop 800 Pa imposed on the filtration operation, the 4-layer electret was the best among all 4 filters. It had 52% more aerosol holding capacity than the single layer uncharged filter and 38% more capacity than the charged single-layer and the uncharged multilayer nanofiber filters. The multilayer PVDF electret filters have excellent filtration performance for long-term aerosol filtration and also great potential applications in the fields of personal health care and environmental protection.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Visible light-induced activation of peroxymonosulfate in the presence of ferric ions for the degradation of organic pollutants
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Najmul Hasan; Saewung Kim; Min Sik Kim; Nguyen Thi Thao Nguyen; Changha Lee; Jungwon Kim
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Chemical Conditioning for Wet Magnetic Separation of Printed Circuit Board Dust Using Octyl Phenol Ethoxylate
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Oluwayimika Olasunkanmi OLUOKUN; Iyiola Olatunji OTUNNIYI

    Magnetic separation of ferromagnetic particles from fine dust recovered from airbag during printed circuit board (PCB) comminution appears quite rational, but under magnetic field, dust particle separation is problematic due to diverse particle morphology, electrostatics, induced magnetism and does not wet. These effects frustrate PCB dust magnetic separation, wet or dry. Chemical conditioning of the PCB dust pulp with octyl phenol ethoxylate (OPE) was conceived to combat these effects by altering the surface tension of water to wet and disperse the dust particles for efficient wet magnetic separation. At optimum OPE concentration used, which gave 56 dynes/cm solution, Fe and Ni recoveries in the 150 – 212 µm dust, were 97 and 94 %, respectively, under wet high intensity magnet (3150 Gauss); these dropped to 92 and 85 %, under low intensity magnet (1370 Gauss) , but misplacement of paramagnetic elements such as gold, copper reduced from 22 % to 5.4 % Au and 5.4 % to 2.2% Cu. The best Separation Efficiency, considering the major economic elements, is up to 83 % in a single roughing step under the low intensity wet magnetic separation. With evolution in PCB dust complex material streams for beneficiation, chemical conditioning has appeared as a vital factor to make wet magnetic separation effective.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Phosphorus separation from metallurgical-grade silicon by magnesium alloying and acid leaching
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Mengyi Zhu; Alexander Azarov; Eduard Monakhov; Kai Tang; Jafar Safarian
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enhanced photodegradation performance of Rhodamine B with g-C3N4 modified by carbon nanotubes
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Guohong Liu; Menglong Liao; Zhaohan Zhang; Hongyue Wang; Dahong Chen; Yujie Feng
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • GWF-NH2 enhanced OSN membrane with trifluoromethyl groups in polyamide layer for rapid methanol recycling
    Sep. Purif. Technol. (IF 5.107) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Sun-Jie Xu; Qian Shen; Yi-Hao Tong; Zhe-Qin Dong; Zhen-Liang Xu
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Pressure and osmotically driven membrane processes: A review of the benefits and production of nano-enhanced membranes for desalination
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Basma Al-Najar; Christian D. Peters; Hanan Albuflasa; Nicholas P. Hankins

    This review focuses on current research attempts to develop nano-enhanced polymeric desalination membranes. The novel contribution made by this work as compared to many recent reviews on membrane enhancement is that a critical review is made of the effect that the morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the applied nanomaterials have on the efficiency of desalination membranes. The focus on nanomaterials in this review is on both applying new chemical compositions at various concentrations, and also on altering the nanomaterials' morphology and other properties to reach the optimal membrane efficiency for desalination applications. The synthesis route has a major role of tuning the physical and chemical properties of the nanomaterials, and hence, the membrane morphological parameters can be altered, all of which are summarised in this review. The review surveys different types of nanomaterials used for membrane fabrication, such as single elements, metal oxides and nanotubes. Furthermore, mixed oxide composites and polymer/nanomaterial combinations are also considered for membrane enhancement. A wide application range is investigated for modified membranes in pressure and osmotically driven membrane processes for desalination, including reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, osmotically assisted reverse osmosis and pressure assisted forward osmosis.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • A polyamide membrane with tubular crumples incorporating carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes for high water flux
    Desalination (IF 6.035) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Wen Yang; Hang Xu; Wei Chen; Zhen Shen; Mingmei Ding; Tao Lin; Hui Tao; Qing Kong; Guang Yang; Zongli Xie

    Membranes having excellent water permeability and high salt rejection are needed for developing nanofiltration technology. In the present work, a modified interfacial polymerization involving low-concentration monomers was utilized to synthesize an ultrathin polyamide (PA) layer. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-SWCNT) were embedded into the ultrathin PA layer. The resultant additional molecular transportation pathways could reduce the trade-off effect. Besides, the morphology of ultrathin PA layer was sensitive to the presence of nanofillers, and contributed to a rougher surface of the thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane. As a result, the permeable area was increased, which is beneficial for water permeation. At the optimized COOH-SWCNT dosage of 0.001 wt%, even tubular crumples appeared on the fabricated membranes. Thereby, the membrane achieved an ultrahigh water permeance of 22.67 L·m−2·h−1·bar−1 while maintain a high rejection for divalent salt. For example, the rejection of Na2SO4 and MgSO4 were 95.69% and 90.03%, respectively. These excellent results were achieved using low loadings of nanofillers and under relatively low pressure (3.5 bar). The current work provides a feasible method to adjust the morphologies of NF membrane for improving its performance. And this is a promising approach due to its simplicity, and low consumptions of materials and energy.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enhancing hardness of Inconel 718 deposits using the aging effects of cold metal transfer-based additive manufacturing
    Mater. Sci. Eng. A (IF 4.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Donghyun Van; G.P. Dinda; Jaewoong Park; Jyoti Mazumder; Seung Hwan Lee

    The effects of successive deposition using continuous heat from a plasma arc on a multi-layer Inconel 718 deposit was investigated using a wire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process with cold metal transfer (CMT). Deposits consisting of 10 layers were manufactured, where interpass time was the only process parameter varied. The shape of the deposits was determined by the interpass time, while microstructural characteristics (growth of dendrite, segregation of chemical component, formation of various phases, etc.) developed due to successive deposition. An aging effect was observed, which caused precipitation of the γ″ and γ′ strengthening phases and the δ phase. The highest hardness value was measured in the middle section of each deposit due to precipitation of the strengthening phases. The cooling rate was calculated using the thermal profile of the deposition process and was found to be slower using the CMT-based WAAM process than that of other additive manufacturing (AM) processes that use laser or electron beams. The results presented here also demonstrated that in-situ heat treatment during deposition is possible using this CMT-based WAAM approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Microstructure evolution and gradient performance of 24CrNiMo steel prepared via laser melting deposition
    Mater. Sci. Eng. A (IF 4.081) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Xueliang Kang; Shiyun Dong; Ping Men; Xiaoting Liu; Shixing Yan; Hongbin Wang; Binshi Xu

    Gradient 24CrNiMo steel was successfully fabricated via laser melting deposition (LMD). To explain the gradient properties of the sample, the microstructures of single-track and bulk samples were examined. Additionally, the texture characteristics and mechanical properties were investigated. The results indicated that as the molten pool cooled from a high temperature, the microstructure of the molten pool experienced a transformation of liquid → austenite → martensite because of the high cooling rate. The microstructure of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) transformed into austenite when heated, and the austenite transformed into martensite when cooled; thus, the microstructure in the HAZ was identical to that in the molten pool after cooling. Consequently, the surface of the bulk sample mainly consisted of martensite and a small quantity of lower bainite owing to the heat accumulation, while the microstructure in the interior of the bulk sample transformed from martensite into tempered martensite owing to the thermal cycling. Thus, the surface of the sample exhibited high strength and hardness, while the interior had better plasticity. The fracture mechanism exhibited dimple rupture features on both the surface and in the interior of the bulk sample; however, the interior had better toughness than the surface. A <100> texture was observed on the surface of the LMD sample, but the orientation of the grains was random in the interior of the sample owing to the multiple nucleation cycles of the grains.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Lysosome-targetable Carbon dots for Highly Efficient Photothermal/Photodynamic Synergistic Cancer Therapy and Photoacoustic/Two-photon Excited Fluorescence Imaging
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Shaojing Zhao; Shuilin Wu; Qingyan Jia; Li Huang; Minhuan Lan; Pengfei Wang; Wenjun Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Peptide-Driven Assembly of Al/CuO Energetic Nanocomposite Material
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Zhanxin Song; Miaomiao Jin; Mo Xian; Chengdong Wang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enhancing Au(III) adsorption capacity and selectivity via Engineering MOF with mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Chen Wang; Guo Lin; Jiling Zhao; Shixing Wang; Libo Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Self-cleaning photoactive cotton fabric modified with nanocrystalline TiO2 for efficient degradation of volatile organic compounds and DNA contaminants
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Maria Solovyeva; Dmitry Selishchev; Svetlana Cherepanova; Grigory Stepanov; Evgeny Zhuravlev; Vladimir Richter; Denis V. Kozlov
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Implantable Composite Fibres with Self-supplied H2O2 for Localized Chemodynamic Therapy
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Gang Wang; Jiayu Gao; Yike Fu; Zhaohui Ren; Jie Huang; Xiang Li; Gaorong Han
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Carbon-wrapped cobalt nanoparticles on graphene aerogel for solid-state room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Qianru Ma; Guangyuan Du; Bingshu Guo; Wenwen Tang; Yutao Li; Maowen Xu; Changming Li
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Self-assembly of binary oppositely charged polysaccharides into polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel film for facile and efficient Pb2+ removal
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Xinyu Hu; Linlin Yan; Yongmei Wang; Man Xu

    Herein, a novel polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) hydrogel film has been fabricated through self-assembly of two oppositely charged polysaccharides salecan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) for Pb2+ removal. The formation of PEC network structure via electrostatic interactions was confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, XPS and TGA. The change of salecan/CMCS ratio had obvious influence on the swelling capacity, morphology and rheological properties of the hydrogel films. The adsorption capacity of Pb2+ was specifically investigated by tuning the salecan/CMCS ratio, other ions, pH, ion concentration and contact time. Furthermore, the equilibrium isotherms were better fitted with Langmuir model, indicating monolayer adsorption behaviour. The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ according to Langmuir model was 418.4 mg/g, higher than that of some other adsorbents. The adsorption kinetics was well modelled by pseudo-second-order and Crank model, suggesting chemisorption and internal diffusion control mechanism. The PEC hydrogel film also exhibited excellent reusability after 5 adsorption/desorption cycles without obvious changes in the adsorption capacity. Overall, these results not only highlight a new idea for the utilization of salecan, but also provide a green method for the rational design of highly efficient adsorbent for Pb2+ removal.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Biological sulfamethoxazole degradation along with anaerobically digested centrate treatment by immobilized microalgal-bacterial consortium: Performance, mechanism and shifts in bacterial and microalgal communities
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Binghan Xie; Xiaobin Tang; How Yong Ng; Shihai Deng; Xueqing Shi; Weilong Song; Shujuan Huang; Guibai Li; Heng Liang

    Though microalgal-bacterial consortium in photobioreactor (PBR) has been investigated to the anaerobically digested centrate (ADC) treatment, the impact and degradation of micropollutant sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in this system has never been reported. In this research, three microalgal-bacterial consortiums were parallel operated with suspended Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), immobilized C. vulgaris and immobilized C. vulgaris-powdered activated carbon (PAC), namely PBR (SCV), PBR (ICV) and PBR (ICV+PAC), respectively. The impact of SMX on the ADC treatment performance, C. vulgaris growth and microbial community shifts were investigated. The performance of SMX removal and potential SMX degradation mechanism by the microalgal-bacterial consortium were explored. The results showed that SMX significantly inhibited PBR (SCV) with unsatisfactory C. vulgaris growth, ADC treatment and SMX removal. Comparatively, immobilized microalgae beads protected microalgae in PBR (ICV) and PBR (ICV+PAC) obtaining higher proportion of living C. vulgaris of 85.1% and 86.2%, respectively, comparing to that of 74.6% in PBR (SCV) (p < 0.05). Moreover, microalgae immobilization coupled with PAC adsorption mitigated toxicity of SMX and accelerated the formation of stable microalgal-bacterial consortium. Thus, PBR (ICV+PAC) obtained the maximum SMX removal (99.0 ± 0.2%) and the highest ADC treatment performance (COD, TN and TP removal of 72.12 ± 1.34 %, 98.47 ± 0.69 % and 98.49 ± 0.73 %, respectively). Bacterial diversity was dramatically reduced by SMX in the PBR (SCV), which was significantly mitigated by microalgae immobilization in PBR (ICV) and PBR (ICV+PAC). The enrichment of functional genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas and Hydrogenophaga were conducive to SMX degradation; while the dominant microalgae of specie of C. vulgaris was not perturbed by SMX. The pathways of SMX degradation involved oxazole ring fracture, mononitration effect, S-N bond and C-N bond broken. This research revealed the inhibition of SMX on PBR (SCV) and demonstrated the potential of PBR (ICV+PAC) on SMX degradation with simultaneous ADC treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Dual-network nanoporous NiFe2O4/NiO composites for high performance Li-ion battery anodes
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Zhifeng Wang; Xiaomin Zhang; Xiaoli Liu; Weiqing Zhang; Yongguang Zhang; Yongyan Li; Chunling Qin; Weimin Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • High Yield of Isosorbide Production from Sorbitol Dehydration Catalysed By Amberlyst 36 under Mild Condition
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Muhammad Ridzuan Kamaruzaman; Xiao Xia Jiang; Xiu De Hu; Sim Yee Chin

    Isosorbide (ISB), one of the important polyols, can be produced through the sequential intramolecular dehydration of sorbitol (SL) derived from an abundance renewable biomass resources. The advantages of its rigid structure have granted the ISB a wide application in the polymer industries. An acidic catalyst in the liquid phase was conventionally used in the dehydration process. This homogeneously catalysed reaction gave low ISB yield and required additional downstream processes to separate the catalyst. The present study employed solid acidic ion exchange resin, Amberlyst 36 in the SL dehydration at a mild condition. The effect of important operating parameters such as stirring speed, catalyst loading, temperature and reaction time was investigated. The increase of catalyst loading from 5 to 7 wt% did not significantly affect the ISB yield. A higher temperature increased the reaction rate whereas a prolonged reaction time increased the conversion of SL and yield of ISB to the maximum. In terms of giving a higher ISB yield during SL dehydration, AM 36 was found to outperform the other resin catalysts reported in the literature. Both SL conversion and ISB yield of >99% were recorded after a 4 h reaction at 423 K with catalyst loading of 5 wt% and stirring speed of 300 RPM. The reaction kinetics was evaluated under a mass transfer resistances free condition at the reaction temperature ranged from 373 K to 423 K. The kinetic data well fitted to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH2) model that took side reaction into account. The activation energy for dehydration SL to ST, dehydration ST to ISB and dehydration of SL to other side products such as humins were 109.22, 109.46 and 104.17 kJ/mol respectively.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Characterization and biogas production potentials of aqueous phase produced from hydrothermal carbonization of biomass - major components and their binary mixtures
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Muhammad Usman; Shuang Ren; Mengyuan Ji; Sompong O-Thong; Yichao Qian; Gang Luo; Shicheng Zhang

    Hydrothermal carbonization aqueous phase (HTC-AP) can be used for methane production by anaerobic digestion (AD). However, it generally had low conversion efficiency due to the formation of complex dissolved organic matters, which depends upon the components of biomass. The present study investigated the characteristics, methane potentials, and recalcitrant chemicals of HTC-AP produced from different combinations of model compounds carbohydrate (α-cellulose, C) and protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) with mass ratios of 1:0, 0.75:0.25, 0.5:0.5, 0.75:0.25 and 0:1. The methane yields of samples 1:0 (pure C) and 0:1 (pure BSA) were 192 mL/g COD and 187 mL/g COD, respectively, while it was decreased to 105.5 CH4 mL/g COD for sample 0.75:0.25 (C/BSA), indicating more recalcitrant organics were produced with the combination of C and BSA. It was found that the mean MW (209157) of sample 0.75:0.25 was much higher than the other samples (<7000 Da). While the highest percentage (51 %) of hard bio-degradable hydrophobic DOC, humics, and building blocks organics were also observed in this sample by LC-OCD-OND analysis. Furthermore, a high value of SUVA index 2.56 was noted, indicating the presence of a large number of aromatic compounds. In addition, fluorescent compounds mainly relating to humic-like substances were also detected by 3D-EEM. GC-MS analysis showed higher concentrations of pyrazine and its derivatives were present in sample 0.75:0.25, which indicated the occurrence of a serious Maillard reaction. The continuous experiment further verified the lower biodegradability of sample 0.75:0.25 with a methane yield of 108 mL/g COD. It also showed that only 18.9 % of the fluorescent components were degraded and 13 recalcitrant chemicals were identified to be hard bio-degradable organics in AD process.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Highly efficient catalytic adsorbents designed by an “adaption” strategy for removal of elemental mercury
    Chem. Eng. J. (IF 8.355) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Hui Wang; Wangsheng Yu; Xu Peng; Zewen Chen; Shengji Wu; Qinqin Yu; Wei Yang; Jie Zhou
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Understanding Loss of Containment of Non-radiological Chemotoxic Materials in the Civil Nuclear and Process Industries
    Process Saf. Environ. Prot. (IF 4.384) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Matt Clay; Moray Kidd; Andrew Gale; Tim Boardman; Jim Murphy; Tony Wynn; Steven Naylor; Jo Ellwood

    Loss of containment of toxic and flammable inventories from process plant is associated with a long history of major accidents including fires, explosions and toxic releases. Such accidents affect both workers and the offsite public. These issues are often associated with the onshore process industries which incorporate a very wide range of segments including pharmaceutical manufacture, tank storage, downstream oil & gas, fine and speciality chemical manufacture as well as many others. What may be less well appreciated is that while the Civil Nuclear sector has a key focus on containment of radiological materials, it also maintains significant inventories of flammable and toxic materials, which it terms ‘chemotoxic’ hazards. It follows that a very broad range of industries have a desire to prevent and mitigate the potential for loss of containment events which release chemotoxic materials. Existing sources of loss of containment intelligence include the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) and other databases which can be interrogated to glean process safety insights. Such systems incorporate some limited coding of data, but often feature much greater detail within unstructured free text. Systematic interrogation of such free text fields could yield greater detail within process safety insights as well as a potentially larger number of records with which to draw insight. The Discovering Safety Programme is a multidisciplinary initiative funded by the Lloyd’s Register Foundation. The programme aims to improve plateaued safety performance through better insight via data analysis tools including text mining and natural language processing. This paper describes the early stages of a project within the Discovering Safety Programme to obtain process safety insights from HSE’s regulatory database. This work includes analysis of coded information, proposals to extract intelligence from unstructured free text and also exploration of whether process safety intelligence can be extracted from a subset of occupational safety incidents. The paper describes the findings from industry consultation, including the civil nuclear sector.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • The impact of signboard‐building color combinations on color harmony and legibility
    Color Res. Appl. (IF 1.027) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Seahwa Won; YounJin Lee; YungKyung Park

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of signboard‐building color combinations on color harmony and legibility. Two hundred and three participants rated 54 signboard‐building color combinations against two scales of color harmony and legibility. In this article, the terms “brick,” “stone,” and “glass” refer to three types of building exteriors used in the experiment (ie, brick masonry, greystone, and curtain walls, respectively). Major findings are as follows: (a) there was a positive linear correlation between color harmony and legibility in all three types of building exteriors, (b) the type of building exterior affected the color harmony and legibility of signboard colors, (c) no hue‐related patterns were observed, (d) the effects of chroma differences on color harmony were weak and the effects of chroma differences on legibility were moderate, (e) the effects of lightness differences on color harmony and legibility were strong in brick, but the effects of lightness differences were weak in stone and glass, (f) white color combinations (ie, color pairs including white signboards) turned out to be the most harmonious and legible, and (g) color combinations of light signboards and dark buildings (negative polarity) were rated most harmonious and legible, with the exception of vivid red (positive polarity). The findings of this study provide insight into the characteristics of harmonious and legible colors in the context of signboard design.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Micronization of Three Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using the Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution Technology
    Chem. Eng. Technol. (IF 2.418) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Chun-Hao Fang; Pei-Hua Chen; Yan-Ping Chen; Muoi Tang

    The rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS) technology was used in this study to re‐crystalize and micronize three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of monobenzone, ethylparaben and kojic acid. All unprocessed APIs (denoted as the original APIs in the following manuscript) had large mean particle size over 200 𝜇m with wide particle size distribution. Supercritical carbon dioxide was used as the solvent to extract each API in a high pressure vessel. The nearly saturated supercritical solution was then expanded through a capillary spray nozzle to ambient pressure state. The APIs were re‐crystallized in a very short time period. The final API particles with submicron sizes were obtained with much less intensity of crystallinity. The optimal RESS process parameters and the improved result of the in vitro dissolution test for the API of ethylparaben are reported.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Kinetic models for conventional and ultrasound assistant extraction of polyphenols from defatted fresh and distilled grape marc and its main components skins and seeds
    Chem. Eng. Res. Des. (IF 3.073) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    Andrea Natolino; Carla Da Porto

    Kinetic modeling is essential for industrial applications. The applicability of six mathematical models (parabolic diffusion, power law, Weibull’s equation, Elovich’s equation, second order rate, two- site kinetic models) to describe the kinetics of the conventional (CSLE) and ultrasound assistant extraction (UAE) of polyphenols (TPC) from fresh and distilled grape marc and its components, seeds and skins, after removal of non-polar compounds was studied. The best extraction yield of TPC for all the samples was obtained using UAE with ethanol-water mixture (57:43 v/v) as solvent, 200 W and 26 kHz after 30 min. The two-site kinetic model showed (R2 0.9965-1.000, NRMSD (%) 0.21-2.29) the best agreement with the experimental results. Important proanthocyanidins concentrations and significant antioxidant activity were observed both for fresh and distilled grape marc and its components. Fresh grape skins resulted particularly rich of oligomeric proanthocyanidins and the distilled ones of polymeric proanthocyanidins. These extracts could be used for different healthy purposes.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen contained in water using a static mixer
    Chem. Eng. Res. Des. (IF 3.073) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    A. Núnez-Flores; A. Sandoval; E. Mancilla; A. Hidalgo-Millán; G. Ascanio

    In this work, an experimental study on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the total degradation process of ibuprofen dissolved in water has been carried out. A comparative analysis of the use of TiO2 in suspension under different operating conditions has been performed using a static mixer to increase the agitation regime of the fluid inside a tubular reactor. The ibuprofen degradation level and carbon concentration were measured by means UV spectroscopy and TOC, respectively. On the other hand, the particle image velocimetry technique has been used to characterize the flow behavior. The presence of the static mixer produced high perturbations on the water flow, increasing the mixing rate of the generated OH• radicals in the solution as well as the contact of the suspended TiO2 particles with the contaminated water. A combination of the static mixer at the lowest flow rate increased the residence time in the radiated region resulting in the highest degradation rates. Additionally, the turbulent intensity played an important role on the intensification and improvement of the degradation activity, then it should be considered as key performance parameter of tubular reactors.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Wall heat transfer coefficient and effective radial conductivity of ceramic foam catalyst supports
    Chem. Eng. Res. Des. (IF 3.073) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    L. Turchetti; M.A. Murmura; G. Monteleone; M.C. Annesini
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Influence of removal efficiency on a moving granular bed filter
    Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif. (IF 3.031) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Yi-Shun Chen; Shu-San Hsiau; Jhan-Ruei Syu; Yi-Lun Chang

    High power generation efficiency and environmental performance are obtained in the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. Hot gas clean-up is a key technology in IGCC systems. In this paper, a moving granular bed filter was constructed to examine the effect on collection efficiency when variations in the working parameters, namely, the mass flow rate, the filtration superficial velocity, and the amount of dust particulates at the inlet were introduced. A method to enhance particulate removal was proposed and tested in a lab-scale experiment. In addition, the study analyses the motion of gas flow in the inlet gas device of filter system. The results indicated a low amount of dust in the outlet of filter system when a mass flow rate of 0.008 kg/s and a filtration superficial velocity of 0.42 m/s were used. Furthermore, this new method is suitable for IGCC and other industrial areas involving high-temperature environments.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Surface performances of Ti-6Al-4V substrates coated PVD multilayered films in biological environments
    Surf. Coat. Technol. (IF 3.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    R. Bahi; C. Nouveau; N.E. Beliardouh; C.E. Ramoul; S. Meddah; O. Ghelloudj

    Multilayered and nanostructured coatings of Ti based alloys (oxides and nitrides) are elaborated and tested for increasing protective properties such as corrosion and wear resistances. A pin-on-disc tribometer was used to evaluate the wear resistance in Hank's solution against bovine bone. Corrosion behavior in Hank's solution was determined by potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Besides, the specimen surfaces were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalyses. The results showed that optimal tribological properties were obtained in the case of coatings having TiN as top layer. The main wear mechanism was abrasive third body wear. In vitro corrosion tests at 37 °C showed that the better corrosion resistance was obtained when TiN was the top layer. However all of them exhibited good tribological properties, good corrosion resistance and then may be promising options for biomedical applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Thermoelectric behaviour of Bi-Te films on polymer substrates DC-sputtered at room-temperature in moving web deposition
    Surf. Coat. Technol. (IF 3.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Xudong Tao; Kening Wan; Joshua Deru; Emiliano Bilotti; Hazel E. Assender

    High-throughput roll-to-roll processing could be used to scale up the manufacture of flexible thermoelectric generators. Very thin thermoelectric layers can be manufactured at high throughput speed and low cost and, most importantly, are predicted to possess better thermoelectric properties than thicker layers. Here we present a study on a series of bismuth telluride films of different thickness (few nm to 370 nm), deposited on polymer substrates at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering. Unlike previous studies of deposition of bismuth telluride films onto heated substrates, an island-growth mode, indicated by AFM, was observed for Bi-Te films grown at room temperature. A period of growth in which the layer only partially coats the substrate, with only imperfect connections between islands, was observed. In this partially coated region, the coating exhibited an extremely high Seebeck coefficient. An energy barrier mechanism, similar to the interface effect in nanomaterials, is proposed to explain this phenomenon, along with a possible quantum confinement effect. We found that a thinner Bi-Te film could generate a greater power factor because of a quasi-decoupling of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity. In addition, ensuring that the sample passed directly under the sputtering target, and using a substrate smoothed with an acrylate layer were found to improve film properties, thus enhancing thermoelectric behaviour.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Direct laser hardening of AISI 1020 steel under controlled gas atmosphere
    Surf. Coat. Technol. (IF 3.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Niroj Maharjan; Wei Zhou; Naien Wu
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Fabrication of Cu species functionalized cotton fabric with oil/water separating reusability by in-situ reduction process
    Surf. Coat. Technol. (IF 3.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Weijing Zhao; Xinyan Xiao; Guangming Pan; Zhihao Ye

    Cu species (Cu/Cu2O/CuO NPs) functionalized fabric (Cu-fabric) with superhydrophobicity was fabricated through a simple in-situ reduction from Cu(OH)2-coated-fabric and an immersion process in n-octadecathiol (ODT) solution, in which cotton fabric served as bio-support material to immobilize Cu2+ in the presence of NH3·H2O. The surface morphology, elements composition, elements valance state and functional groups were detected by SEM, EDS, XPS and ATR-FTIR, respectively, and a formation mechanism of the Cu-fabric was proposed. The as-prepared Cu-fabric showed superhydrophobicity to deionized water, with a water contact angle (WCA) about 153.5° and a sliding angle (SA) about 10°, and good hydrophobicity to the other common household liquids. In addition, the Cu-fabric maintained chemical stability after 72 h under different extreme conditions, and mechanical durability after 200 cm of abrasion length. Furthermore, the separation efficiency of light oil/water mixtures with Cu-fabric was above 97% for n-dodecane, n-hexane, kerosene, cyclohexane and n-heptane and Cu-fabric maintains a high separation efficiency for n-dodecane and n-hexane after 30 separation cycles. The as-prepared Cu-fabric exhibited potential for practical application in oil/water separation of oil-contaminated industrial sewage in complicated environments.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Investigation of the influence of the thickness of nanolayers in wear-resistant layers of Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al)N coating on destruction in the cutting and wear of carbide cutting tools
    Surf. Coat. Technol. (IF 3.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Alexey Vereschaka; Vladimir Tabakov; Sergey Grigoriev; Nikolay Sitnikov; Filipp Milovich; Nikolay Andreev; Catherine Sotova; Natalya Kutina

    The paper presents the results of the investigation into the formation of the nanolayer structure of the Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al)N coating and its influence on the thickness of coatings, their resistance to fracture in scratch testing, and the wear resistance of coated tools in turning 1045 steel. The structure of the coatings with the nanolayer thicknesses of 302, 160, 70, 53, 38, 24, 16, and 10 nm was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution (HR) TEM. It is shown that the grain sizes in the nanolayers decrease to certain values with an increase in the thickness of the nanolayers, and then, with a further decrease in the nanolayer thickness, the grain sizes of the nanolayer grow as the interlayer interfaces cease to produce a restraining effect on the growth of the grains. The study found that the nanolayer thickness influenced the wear of carbide cutting tools and the pattern of fracture for the Ti-TiN-(Ti,Cr,Al)N coatings.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Effects of cold SF6 plasma treatment on a-C:H, polypropylene and polystyrene
    Surf. Coat. Technol. (IF 3.192) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Milena Kowalczuk Manosso Amorim; Elidiane Cipriano Rangel; Richard Landers; Steven F. Durrant

    The effects of cold SF6 plasma treatment on amorphous hydrogenated carbon (FA), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were investigated as functions of gas pressure and applied power. An anticipated increase in hydrophobicity was confirmed by the greater water contact angles, θ, observed after all the treatments. Under the best conditions θ was increased by 50.8°, 57.2° and 21°, respectively. A rise and fall in θ was observed as the pressure of SF6 was increased, this trend being most consistent for FA. Although the plasma treatments caused some changes in surface roughness, measured using profilometry, there were no clear correlations between this parameter and θ. As revealed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), the treated surfaces were fluorinated. As the degree of fluorination under optimal conditions was 2.2 at.%, 10.4 at.% and 36.3 at.% for the FA, PP and PS, respectively, this factor was not alone responsible for the observed increases in θ. Sulfur was attached to the surface of all the treated samples. The relative surface carbon content was reduced by the treatments. The main causes of the changes in θ upon treatment were the induced compositional and structural changes. Ageing for ten days caused a typical decrease in θ of ~10°, probably caused by rotation of hydrophobic surface groups into the surface.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Unveiling the origin of the anti-fogging performance of plasma-coated glass: Role of the structure and the chemistry of siloxane precursors
    Prog. Org. Coat. (IF 3.42) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Iván Rodríguez Durán; Jacopo Profili; Luc Stafford; Gaétan Laroche

    The application of (super)hydrophilic coatings in sectors of activity concerned by fogging, such as the food industry, the architectural sector, and medicine has attracted enormous attention over the past few years. However, despite this interest, most of the coating deposition techniques used thus far are not suitable for large-scale production because of their multistep nature. In this regard, the use of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (AP-DBD) operated under a controlled N2/N2O atmosphere offers a promising alternative to conventional deposition techniques for the fabrication of anti-fogging coatings. Using this one-step coating approach, four siloxane precursors with different structures and different number of Si―H and Si−CH3 groups; namely, 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO), and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) were deposited on glass samples. Because of their extreme wetting behavior (WCA < 5°), TMCTS-coated glasses featured an excellent anti-fogging performance, in contrast to OMCTS-, TMDSO-, and HMDSO-coated glasses which were not fogging-resistant (WCA ≈ 80°)). Coupled with hydrophilic functionalities, such as CO, O CO, and SiOH groups, the relatively high surface roughness of TMCTS-coated glass, compared with that of OMCTS-, TMDSO-, or HMDSO-coated glass, accounted for its superior visual characteristics when exposed to water vapor at 80 °C. These results allow us to confidently conclude that the cyclic structure of TMCTS in conjunction with the high reactivity of the Si-H bonds is responsible for the observed anti-fogging effect.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • A novel semi-supervised pre-training strategy for deep networks and its application for quality variable prediction in industrial processes
    Chem. Eng. Sci. (IF 3.372) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    Xiaofeng Yuan; Chen Ou; Yalin Wang; Chunhua Yang; Weihua Gui

    Deep learning-based soft sensor has been a hot topic for quality variable prediction in modern industrial processes. Feature representation with deep learning is the key step to build an accurate and reliable soft sensor model from massive process data. To deal with the limited labeled data and abundant unlabeled data, a semi-supervised pre-training strategy is proposed for deep learning network in this paper, which is based on semi-supervised stacked autoencoder (SS-SAE). For traditional deep networks like SAE, the pre-training procedure is unsupervised and may discard important information in the labeled data. Different from them, SS-SAE automatically adjusts the training strategy according to the given data type. For unlabeled data, it learns the shape of the input distribution layer by layer. While for labeled data, it additionally learns quality-related features with the guidance of quality information. The proposed method is validated on two refining industries of a debutanizer column and a hydrocracking process. The results show that SS-SAE can utilize both labeled and unlabeled data to extract quality-relevant features for soft sensor modeling, which is superior to multi-layer neural network, traditional SAE and DBN.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Grafting Lignin with Bioderived Polyacrylates for Low-Cost, Ductile, and Fully Biobased Poly(lactic acid) Composites
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.970) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Yiqi Sun; Zhewen Ma; Xiaodong Xu; Xiaohuan Liu; Lina Liu; Guobo Huang; Lei Liu; Hao Wang; Pingan Song
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Enzymatic Deconstruction of Sugarcane Bagasse and Straw to Obtain Cellulose Nanomaterials
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.970) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Jéssica de Aguiar; Thalita Jessika Bondancia; Pedro Ivo C. Claro; Luiz Henrique C. Mattoso; Cristiane S. Farinas; José Manoel Marconcini
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Eco-CaMnOx: A Greener Generation of Ecocatalysts for Eco-friendly Oxidation Processes
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.970) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Camille Bihanic; sebastien diliberto; Franck Pelissier; Eddy Petit; Clotilde Boulanger; Claude Grison

    Facing the alarming problems of depletion of mineral resources and ever-growing pollution by metallic elements, bio-sourced catalysts were prepared from Mn-accumulating plant species from a large-scale program of ecological rehabilitation of mining sites. This new generation of catalysts, “Eco-CaMnOx” catalysts, were obtained directly from a controlled thermal treatment of four species of Grevillea genus, a Mn-rich biomass, and without any further chemical treatment. Eco-CaMnOx catalysts were characterized by MP-AES, XRPD, HRTEM and STEM-EDX. These analyses revealed a natural richness in two unusual and valuable mixed calcium-manganese oxides: Ca2Mn3O8 or CaMnO3. The high efficiency of Eco-CaMnOx catalysts was demonstrated via the epoxidation of various bio-sourced terpenes and lipids, using a mixture H2O2/NaHCO3 as a green co-oxidant. This study demonstrated the high potential of Eco-CaMnOx catalysts as alternatives to oxidative reagents prohibited by REACH regulation but also the efficient synthesis of bio-sourced epoxides, which can be used as monomers for the preparation of biodegradable polymers. Finally, the original composition of Eco-CaMnOx catalysts led to distinctive catalytic behaviors compared to previously studied Eco-Mn and Pyr-Mn, allowing the preparation of sensitive epoxides such as linalool epoxide.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Separation of refrigerant gas mixtures containing R32, R134a and R1234yf through poly(ether-block-amide) membranes
    ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. (IF 6.970) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Fernando Pardo; Gabriel Zarca; Ane Urtiaga

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are powerful greenhouse gases whose production and consumption must be phased-down in order to reach the reduction goals established by the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. However, the share of recycled refrigerant gases remains very low owing to the extremely inefficient separation of refrigerant mixtures by cryogenic distillation. In this sense, the HFCs difluoromethane (R32, GWP = 675) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a, GWP = 1430), together with the hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (R1234yf, GWP = 4), are among the most common constituents of HFC/HFO refrigerant mixtures currently employed in the refrigeration and air conditioning sector. Therefore, the feasibility of using membrane technology for the selective separation of these compounds is assessed in this work for the first time. A comprehensive study of their gas permeation through several poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA) membranes that differ on the content and type of backbone segments is performed. Results show that PEBA membranes exhibit superior permeability of R32 (up to 305 barrer) and R134a (up to 230 barrer) coupled with reasonably high selectivity for the gas pairs R32/R1234yf (up to 10) and R134a/R1234yf (up to 8). Moreover, for the blends R32/R1234yf and R32/R134a, the membrane separation performance is not significantly affected under the mixed-gas conditions tested. Thus, results evidence that consideration should be given to membrane technology for the cost-efficient separation of HFCs/HFOs mixtures in order to boost the recycling of these compounds.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Atomically Dispersed Pd Supported on Zinc Oxide for Selective Nonoxidative Ethanol Dehydrogenation
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.375) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Mengyao Ouyang; Sufeng Cao; Shize Yang; Mengwei Li; Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • MOF-Derived Fe2O3/Nitrogen/Carbon Composite as a Stable Heterogeneous Electro-Fenton Catalyst
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. (IF 3.375) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Jia-Yuan Lu; Yan-Ru Yuan; Xiao Hu; Wu-Jun Liu; Chen-Xuan Li; Hou-Qi Liu; Wen-Wei Li
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • 更新日期:2020-01-26
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