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  • Blind Deconvolution Using Modulated Inputs
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Ali Ahmed

    This paper considers the blind deconvolution of multiple modulated signals/filters, and an arbitrary filter/signal. Multiple inputs $\boldsymbol{s}_1, \boldsymbol{s}_2, \ldots, \boldsymbol{s}_N =: [\boldsymbol{s}_n]$ are modulated (pointwise multiplied) with random sign sequences $\boldsymbol{r}_1, \boldsymbol{r}_2, \ldots, \boldsymbol{r}_N =: [\boldsymbol{r}_n]$ , respectively, and the resultant inputs $(\boldsymbol{s}_n \odot \boldsymbol{r}_n) \in \mathbb {C}^Q, \ n \in [N]$ are convolved against an arbitrary input $\boldsymbol{h} \in \mathbb {C}^M$ to yield the measurements $\boldsymbol{y}_n = (\boldsymbol{s}_n\odot \boldsymbol{r}_n)\circledast \boldsymbol{h}, \ n \in [N] := 1,2,\ldots,N,$ where $\odot$ and $\circledast$ denote pointwise multiplication, and circular convolution. Given $[\boldsymbol{y}_n]$ , we want to recover the unknowns $[\boldsymbol{s}_n]$ and $\boldsymbol{h}$ . We make a structural assumption that unknowns $[\boldsymbol{s}_n]$ are members of a known $K$ -dimensional (not necessarily random) subspace, and prove that the unknowns can be recovered from sufficiently many observations using a regularized gradient descent algorithm whenever the modulated inputs $\boldsymbol{s}_n \odot \boldsymbol{r}_n$ are long enough, i.e, $Q \gtrsim KN+M$ (to within logarithmic factors, and signal dispersion/coherence parameters). Under the bilinear model, this is the first result on multichannel ( $N\geq 1$ ) blind deconvolution with provable recovery guarantees under near optimal (in the $N=1$ case) sample complexity estimates, and comparatively lenient structural assumptions on the convolved inputs. A neat conclusion of this result is that modulation of a bandlimited signal protects it against an unknown convolutive distortion. We discuss the applications of this result in passive imaging, wireless communication in unknown environment, and image deblurring. A thorough numerical investigation of the theoretical results is also presented using phase transitions, image deblurring experiments, and noise stability plots.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Sparse Bayesian Learning With Dynamic Filtering for Inference of Time-Varying Sparse Signals
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Matthew R. O’Shaughnessy; Mark A. Davenport; Christopher J. Rozell

    Many signal processing applications require estimation of time-varying sparse signals, potentially with the knowledge of an imperfect dynamics model. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for dynamic filtering of time-varying sparse signals based on the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) framework. The key idea underlying the algorithm, termed SBL-DF, is the incorporation of a signal prediction generated from a dynamics model and estimates of previous time steps into the hyperpriors of the SBL probability model. The proposed algorithm is online, robust to imperfect dynamics models (due to the propagation of dynamics information through higher-order statistics), robust to certain undesirable dictionary properties such as coherence (due to properties of the SBL framework), allows the use of arbitrary dynamics models, and requires the tuning of fewer parameters than many other dynamic filtering algorithms do. We also extend the fast marginal likelihood SBL inference procedure to the informative hyperprior setting to create a particularly efficient version of the SBL-DF algorithm. Numerical simulations show that SBL-DF converges much faster and to more accurate solutions than standard SBL and other dynamical filtering algorithms. In particular, we show that SBL-DF outperforms state of the art algorithms when the dictionary contains the challenging coherence and column scaling structure found in many practical applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Components Separation Algorithm for Localization and Classification of Mixed Near-Field and Far-Field Sources in Multipath Propagation
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Amir Masoud Molaei; Bijan Zakeri; Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Andargoli

    In recent years, the sources localization has noticed an increase in research conducted on the problem of mixed far-field sources (FFSs) and near-field sources (NFSs). The main assumption of the existing researches is that the signals should be uncorrelated. Therefore, they cannot be used for multipath environments. The present paper provides a method called components separation algorithm (CSA) for the localization of multiple mixed FFSs and NFSs, including uncorrelated, lowly correlated and coherent signals. Firstly, by constructing one special cumulant matrix, and using a MUSIC-based technique, the noncoherent DOA vector (NDOAV) is extracted. By constructing another special cumulant matrix, and with respect to NDOAV, an estimate of the range, as well as a signal classification is obtained for noncoherent sources. Then, by estimating their kurtosis, the noncoherent component and consequently the coherent one of the second cumulant matrix is obtained. Finally, by introducing a novel approach based on squaring, projection, spatial smoothing, array interpolation transform and coherent component restoring, the parameters of coherent signals in each coherent group are estimated separately. The CSA prevents severe loss of the aperture. Furthermore, it does not require any pairing. The simulation results validate its satisfactory performance in terms of estimation accuracy, resolution, computational complexity, reasonable classification, and also its robustness against lowly correlated sources.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Dimension Reduction-Based Joint Activity Detection and Channel Estimation Algorithm for Massive Access
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Xiaodan Shao; Xiaoming Chen; Rundong Jia

    Grant-free random access is a promising protocol to support massive access in beyond fifth-generation (B5G) cellular Internet-of-Things (IoT) with sporadic traffic. Specifically, in each coherence interval, the base station (BS) performs joint activity detection and channel estimation (JADCE) before data transmission. Due to the deployment of a large-scale antennas array and the existence of a huge number of IoT devices, JADCE usually has high computational complexity and needs long pilot sequences. To solve these challenges, this paper proposes a dimension reduction method, which projects the original device state matrix to a low-dimensional space by exploiting its sparse and low-rank structure. Then, we develop an optimized design framework with a coupled full column rank constraint for JADCE to reduce the size of the search space. However, the resulting problem is non-convex and highly intractable, for which the conventional convex relaxation approaches are inapplicable. To this end, we propose a logarithmic smoothing method for the non-smoothed objective function and transform the interested matrix to a positive semidefinite matrix, followed by giving a Riemannian trust-region algorithm to solve the problem in complex field. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient to a large-scale JADCE problem and requires shorter pilot sequences than the state-of-art algorithms which only exploit the sparsity of device state matrix.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Robust Cell-Load Learning With a Small Sample Set
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Daniyal Amir Awan; Renato L. G. Cavalcante; Slawomir Stanczak

    Learning of the cell-load in radio access networks (RANs) has to be performed within a short time period. Therefore, we propose a learning framework that is robust against uncertainties resulting from the need for learning based on a relatively small training set. To this end, we incorporate prior knowledge about the cell-load in the learning framework. For example, an inherent property of the cell-load is that it is monotonic in downlink (data) rates. To obtain additional prior knowledge we first study the feasible rate region, i.e., the set of all vectors of user rates that can be supported by the network. We prove that the feasible rate region is compact. Moreover, we show the existence of a Lipschitz function that maps feasible rate vectors to cell-load vectors. With these results in hand, we present a learning technique that guarantees a minimum approximation error in the worst-case scenario by using prior knowledge and a small training sample set. Simulations in the network simulator NS3 demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits better robustness and accuracy than standard learning techniques, especially for small training sample sets.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Precise 3-D GNSS Attitude Determination Based on Riemannian Manifold Optimization Algorithms
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Ahmed Douik; Xing Liu; Tarig Ballal; Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri; Babak Hassibi

    In the past few years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) based attitude determination has been widely used thanks to its high accuracy, low cost, and real-time performance. This paper presents a novel 3-D GNSS attitude determination method based on Riemannian optimization techniques. The paper first exploits the antenna geometry and baseline lengths to reformulate the 3-D GNSS attitude determination problem as an optimization over a non-convex set. Since the solution set is a manifold, in this manuscript we formulate the problem as an optimization over a Riemannian manifold. The study of the geometry of the manifold allows the design of efficient first and second order Riemannian algorithms to solve the 3-D GNSS attitude determination problem. Despite the non-convexity of the problem, the proposed algorithms are guaranteed to globally converge to a critical point of the optimization problem. To assess the performance of the proposed framework, numerical simulations are provided for the most challenging attitude determination cases: the unaided, single-epoch, and single-frequency scenarios. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithms largely outperform state-of-the-art methods for various system configurations with lower complexity than generic non-convex solvers, e.g., interior point methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • A Spatial–Temporal Subspace-Based Compressive Channel Estimation Technique in Unknown Interference MIMO Channels
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Yasuhiro Takano; Hsuan-Jung Su; Yoshiaki Shiraishi; Masakatu Morii

    Spatial–temporal (ST) subspace-based channel estimation techniques formulated with $\ell 2$ minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion alleviate the multi-access interference (MAI) problem when the interested signals exhibit low-rank property. However, the conventional $\ell 2$ ST subspace-based methods suffer from mean squared error (MSE) deterioration in unknown interference channels, due to the difficulty to separate the interested signals from the channel covariance matrices (CCMs) contaminated with unknown interference. As a solution to the problem, we propose a new $\ell 1$ regularized ST channel estimation algorithm by applying the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to iteratively examine the signal subspace and the corresponding sparse-supports. The new algorithm updates the CCM independently of the slot-dependent $\ell 1$ regularization, which enables it to correctly perform the sparse-independent component analysis (ICA) with a reasonable complexity order. Simulation results shown in this paper verify that the proposed technique significantly improves MSE performance in unknown interference MIMO channels, and hence, solves the BER floor problems from which the conventional receivers suffer.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Nonlinear Filtering With Variable Bandwidth Exponential Kernels
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Maja Taseska; Toon van Waterschoot; Emanuël A. P. Habets; Ronen Talmon

    Frameworks for efficient and accurate data processing often rely on a suitable representation of measurements that capture phenomena of interest. Typically, such representations are high-dimensional vectors obtained by a transformation of raw sensor signals such as time-frequency transform, lag-map, etc. In this work, we focus on representation learning approaches that consider the measurements as the nodes of a weighted graph, with edge weights computed by a given kernel . If the kernel is chosen properly, the eigenvectors of the resulting graph affinity matrix provide suitable representation coordinates for the measurements. Consequently, tasks such as regression, classification, and filtering, can be done more efficiently than in the original domain of the data. In this paper, we address the problem of representation learning from measurements, which besides the phenomenon of interest contain undesired sources of variability. We propose data-driven kernels to learn representations that accurately parametrize the phenomenon of interest, while reducing variations due to other sources of variability. This is a non-linear filtering problem, which we approach under the assumption that certain geometric information about the undesired variables can be extracted from the measurements, e.g., using an auxiliary sensor. The applicability of the proposed kernels is demonstrated in toy problems and in a real signal processing task.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Phased-Array Transmission for Secure mmWave Wireless Communication via Polygon Construction
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Xuejing Zhang; Xiang-Gen Xia; Zishu He; Xuepan Zhang

    This paper presents two secure transmission algorithms for millimeter-wave wireless communication, which are computationally attractive and have analytical solutions. In the proposed algorithms, we consider phased-array transmission structure and focus on phase shift keying (PSK) modulation. It is found that the traditional constellation synthesis problem can be solved with the aid of polygon construction in the complex plane. A detailed analysis is then carried out and an analytical procedure is developed to obtain a qualified phase solution. For a given synthesis task, it is derived that there exist infinite weight vector solutions under a mild condition. Based on this result, we propose the first secure transmission algorithm by varying the transmitting weight vector at symbol rate, thus resulting exact phases at the intended receiver and producing randomnesses at the undesired eavesdroppers. To improve the security without significantly degrading the symbol detection reliability for target receiver, the second secure transmission algorithm is devised by allowing a relaxed symbol region for the intended receiver. Compared to the first algorithm, the second one incorporates an additional random phase rotation operation to the transmitting weight vector and brings extra disturbance for the undesired eavesdroppers. Different from the existing works that are only feasible for the case of single-path mmWave channels, our proposed algorithms are applicable to more general multi-path channels. Moreover, all the antennas are active in the proposed algorithms and the on-off switching circuit is not needed. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectivenesses of the proposed algorithms under various situations.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • On the Convergence of a Bayesian Algorithm for Joint Dictionary Learning and Sparse Recovery
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Geethu Joseph; Chandra R. Murthy

    Dictionary learning (DL) is a well-researched problem, where the goal is to learn a dictionary from a finite set of noisy training signals, such that the training data admits a sparse representation over the dictionary. While several solutions are available in the literature, relatively little is known about their convergence and optimality properties. In this paper, we make progress on this problem by analyzing a Bayesian algorithm for DL. Specifically, we cast the DL problem into the sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) framework by imposing a hierarchical Gaussian prior on the sparse vectors. This allows us to simultaneously learn the dictionary as well as the parameters of the prior on the sparse vectors using the expectation-maximization algorithm. The dictionary update step turns out to be a non-convex optimization problem, and we present two solutions, namely, an alternating minimization (AM) procedure and an Armijo line search (ALS) method. We analytically show that the ALS procedure is globally convergent, and establish the stability of the solution by characterizing its limit points. Further, we prove the convergence and stability of the overall DL-SBL algorithm, and show that the minima of the cost function of the overall algorithm are achieved at sparse solutions. As a concrete example, we consider the application of the SBL-based DL algorithm to image denoising, and demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithm relative to existing DL algorithms.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Multi-Class Random Matrix Filtering for Adaptive Learning
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Paolo Braca; Augusto Aubry; Leonardo Maria Millefiori; Antonio De Maio; Stefano Marano

    Covariance matrix estimation is a crucial task in adaptive signal processing applied to several surveillance systems, including radar and sonar. In this paper we propose a dynamic learning strategy to track both the covariance matrix of data and its structure (class). We assume that, given the class, the posterior distribution of the covariance is described through a mixture of inverse Wishart distributions, while the class evolves according to a Markov chain. Hence, we devise a novel and general filtering strategy, called multi-class inverse Wishart mixture filter, able to capitalize on previous observations so as to accurately track and estimate the covariance. Some case studies are provided to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed technique, which is shown to outperform alternative methods in terms of both covariance estimation accuracy and probability of correct model selection. Specifically, the proposed filter is compared with class-clairvoyant covariance estimators, e.g., the maximum likelihood and the knowledge-based recursive least square filter, and with the model order selection method based on the Bayesian information criterion.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Tensor Completion From Regular Sub-Nyquist Samples
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Charilaos I. Kanatsoulis; Xiao Fu; Nicholas D. Sidiropoulos; Mehmet Akçakaya

    Signal sampling and reconstruction is a fundamental engineering task at the heart of signal processing. The celebrated Shannon-Nyquist theorem guarantees perfect signal reconstruction from uniform samples, obtained at a rate twice the maximum frequency present in the signal. Unfortunately a large number of signals of interest are far from being band-limited. This motivated research on reconstruction from sub-Nyquist samples, which mainly hinges on the use of random/incoherent sampling procedures. However, uniform or regular sampling is more appealing in practice and from the system design point of view, as it is far simpler to implement, and often necessary due to system constraints. In this work, we study regular sampling and reconstruction of three- or higher-dimensional signals (tensors). We show that reconstructing a tensor signal from regular samples is feasible. Under the proposed framework, the sample complexity is determined by the tensor rank—rather than the signal bandwidth. This result offers new perspectives for designing practical regular sampling patterns and systems for signals that are naturally tensors, e.g., images and video. For a concrete application, we show that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acceleration is a tensor sampling problem, and design practical sampling schemes and an algorithmic framework to handle it. Numerical results show that our tensor sampling strategy accelerates the fMRI sampling process significantly without sacrificing reconstruction accuracy.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • On the Sample Complexity of Graphical Model Selection From Non-Stationary Samples
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Nguyen Tran; Oleksii Abramenko; Alexander Jung

    We study conditions that allow accurate graphical model selection from non-stationary data. The observed data is modelled as a vector-valued zero-mean Gaussian random process whose samples are uncorrelated but have different covariance matrices. This model contains as special cases the standard setting of i.i.d. samples as well as the case of samples forming a stationary time series. More generally, our approach applies to any data for which efficient decorrelation transforms, such as the Fourier transform for stationary time series, are available. By analyzing a conceptually simple model selection method, we derive a sufficient condition on the required sample size for accurate graphical model selection based on non-stationary data.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Learning Mixtures of Separable Dictionaries for Tensor Data: Analysis and Algorithms
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Mohsen Ghassemi; Zahra Shakeri; Anand D. Sarwate; Waheed U. Bajwa

    This work addresses the problem of learning sparse representations of tensor data using structured dictionary learning. It proposes learning a mixture of separable dictionaries to better capture the structure of tensor data by generalizing the separable dictionary learning model. Two different approaches for learning mixture of separable dictionaries are explored and sufficient conditions for local identifiability of the underlying dictionary are derived in each case. Moreover, computational algorithms are developed to solve the problem of learning mixture of separable dictionaries in both batch and online settings. Numerical experiments are used to show the usefulness of the proposed model and the efficacy of the developed algorithms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A Block Sparsity Based Estimator for mmWave Massive MIMO Channels With Beam Squint
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Mingjin Wang; Feifei Gao; Nir Shlezinger; Mark F. Flanagan; Yonina C. Eldar

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is a key technology for next generation wireless networks. One of the consequences of utilizing a large number of antennas with an increased bandwidth is that array steering vectors vary among different subcarriers. Due to this effect, known as beam squint , the conventional channel model is no longer applicable for mmWave massive MIMO systems. In this paper, we study channel estimation under the resulting non-standard model. To that aim, we first analyze the beam squint effect from an array signal processing perspective, resulting in a model which sheds light on the angle-delay sparsity of mmWave transmission. We next design a compressive sensing based channel estimation algorithm which utilizes the shift-invariant block-sparsity of this channel model. The proposed algorithm jointly computes the off-grid angles, the off-grid delays, and the complex gains of the multi-path channel. We show that the newly proposed scheme reflects the mmWave channel more accurately and results in improved performance compared to traditional approaches. We then demonstrate how this approach can be applied to recover both the uplink as well as the downlink channel in frequency division duplex (FDD) systems, by exploiting the angle-delay reciprocity of mmWave channels.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Performance Analysis of Deficient Length Quaternion Least Mean Square Adaptive Filters
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Min Xiang; Yili Xia; Danilo P. Mandic

    Quaternion adaptive filters have been widely used for processing 3D and 4D phenomena. Deficient length quaternion adaptive filters are explicitly or implicitly used in many practical applications where the length of system impulse response is large or unknown. However, their statistical behaviors are yet to be fully understood. As theoretical results on the class of “full length” quaternion least mean square (QLMS) algorithms do not necessarily apply to their deficient length versions, this article fills this void and analyses the mean and mean square convergence of the deficient length QLMS algorithms, both for the strictly linear and widely linear cases. Transient and steady-state performance is characterised by exploiting the augmented statistics of noncircular quaternion random vectors. A novel decorrelation technique in the quaternion domain is shown to allow for the development of intuitive closed-form solutions for correlated quaternion Gaussian inputs, thus unveiling the relationship between the algorithm behaviour and the noncircularity of quaternion input data. The analysis also provides a general framework whereby the strictly linear and semi-widely linear QLMS algorithms can be seen as “deficient-length” versions of the widely linear QLMS. Numerical simulations validate the accuracy of the theoretical results and support the behaviour of the considered algorithms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Robust Two-Stage Reduced-Dimension Sparsity-Aware STAP for Airborne Radar With Coprime Arrays
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Xiaoye Wang; Zhaocheng Yang; Jianjun Huang; Rodrigo C. de Lamare

    Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) algorithms with coprime arrays can provide good clutter suppression potential with low cost in airborne radar systems as compared with their uniform linear arrays counterparts. However, the performance of these algorithms is limited by the training samples support in practical applications. To address this issue, a robust two-stage reduced-dimension (RD) sparsity-aware STAP algorithm is proposed in this work. In the first stage, an RD virtual snapshot is constructed using all spatial channels but only $m$ adjacent Doppler channels around the target Doppler frequency to reduce the slow-time dimension of the signal. In the second stage, an RD sparse measurement modeling is formulated based on the constructed RD virtual snapshot, where the sparsity of clutter and the prior knowledge of the clutter ridge are exploited to formulate an RD overcomplete dictionary. Moreover, an orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP)-like method is proposed to recover the clutter subspace. In order to set the stopping parameter of the OMP-like method, a robust clutter rank estimation approach is developed. Compared with recently developed sparsity-aware STAP algorithms, the size of the proposed sparse representation dictionary is much smaller, resulting in low complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is robust to prior knowledge errors and can provide good clutter suppression performance in low sample support.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • CSI-Independent Non-Linear Signal Detection in Molecular Communications
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Bin Li; Weisi Guo; Xiang Wang; Yansha Deng; Yueheng Lan; Chenglin Zhao; Arumugam Nallanathan

    Molecular communications rely on diffusive propagation to transport information, which is attractive for a variety of nano-scale applications. Due to the long-tail channel response, spatial-temporal coding of information may lead to severe inter-symbol interference (ISI). Classical linear signal processing in wireless communications is usually operating with high complexity and high signal-to-noise ratios, whereas signal processing in molecular communication system requires operating in opposite conditions. In this work, we propose a novel signal processing paradigm inspired by the biological principle, which enables low-complexity signal detection in extremely noisy environments. We first propose a non-linear filter inspired by stochastic resonance, which is found in a variety of biological systems, and it can significantly improve the output SNR by converting noise to useful signals. Then, we design a non-coherent detection method, one which exploits the generally transient trend of observed signals (i.e. quick-rising and slow-decaying) rather than hidden channel state information (CSI), thus excluding CSI estimation and involving only summations. Implementation issues are also discussed, including parameters configuration and adaptive threshold. Numerical results show that the proposed bio-inspired scheme can improve the performance remarkably over classical approaches. Even compared with the optimal linear methods, the required SNR of the proposed scheme can be reduced by 7 dB, which reaffirms why it can be used in noisy biological environments. As the first attempt to design bio-inspired molecular signal detectors, the proposed non-linear processing paradigm may provide the great promise to the emerging nano-machine applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Multi-Channel Factor Analysis With Common and Unique Factors
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    David Ramírez; Ignacio Santamaria; Louis L. Scharf; Steven Van Vaerenbergh

    This work presents a generalization of classical factor analysis (FA). Each of $M$ channels carries measurements that share factors with all other channels, but also contains factors that are unique to the channel. Furthermore, each channel carries an additive noise whose covariance is diagonal, as is usual in factor analysis, but is otherwise unknown. This leads to a problem of multi-channel factor analysis with a specially structured covariance model consisting of shared low-rank components, unique low-rank components, and diagonal components. Under a multivariate normal model for the factors and the noises, a maximum likelihood (ML) method is presented for identifying the covariance model, thereby recovering the loading matrices and factors for the shared and unique components in each of the $M$ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. The method consists of a three-step cyclic alternating optimization, which can be framed as a block minorization-maximization (BMM) algorithm. Interestingly, the three steps have closed-form solutions and the convergence of the algorithm to a stationary point is ensured. Numerical results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm and its application to passive radar.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Invariance-Preserving Localized Activation Functions for Graph Neural Networks
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Luana Ruiz; Fernando Gama; Antonio García Marques; Alejandro Ribeiro

    Graph signals are signals with an irregular structure that can be described by a graph. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are information processing architectures tailored to these graph signals and made of stacked layers that compose graph convolutional filters with nonlinear activation functions. Graph convolutions endow GNNs with invariance to permutations of the graph nodes’ labels. In this paper, we consider the design of trainable nonlinear activation functions that take into consideration the structure of the graph. This is accomplished by using graph median filters and graph max filters, which mimic linear graph convolutions and are shown to retain the permutation invariance of GNNs. We also discuss modifications to the backpropagation algorithm necessary to train local activation functions. The advantages of localized activation function architectures are demonstrated in four numerical experiments: source localization on synthetic graphs, authorship attribution of 19th century novels, movie recommender systems and scientific article classification. In all cases, localized activation functions are shown to improve model capacity.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A Novel Algorithm for Optimal Placement of Multiple Inertial Sensors to Improve the Sensing Accuracy
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Nitesh Sahu; Prabhu Babu; Arun Kumar; Rajendar Bahl

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm to determine the optimal orientation of sensing axes of redundant inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes (gyros) for increasing the sensing accuracy. In this paper, we have proposed a novel iterative algorithm to find the optimal sensor configuration. The proposed algorithm utilizes the majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm and the duality principle to find the optimal configuration. Unlike the state-of-the-art approaches which are mainly geometrical in nature and restricted to sensors’ noise being uncorrelated, the proposed algorithm gives the exact orientations of the sensors and can easily deal with the cases of correlated noise. The proposed algorithm has been implemented and tested via numerical simulation in the MATLAB. The simulation results show that the algorithm converges to the optimal configurations and shows the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Gaussian Conditionally Markov Sequences: Dynamic Models and Representations of Reciprocal and Other Classes
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Reza Rezaie; X. Rong Li

    Conditionally Markov (CM) sequences are powerful mathematical tools for modeling problems. One class of CM sequences is the reciprocal sequence. In application, we need not only CM dynamic models, but also know how to design model parameters. Models of two important classes of nonsingular Gaussian (NG) CM sequences, called $CM_L$ and $CM_F$ models, and a model of the NG reciprocal sequence, called reciprocal $CM_L$ model, were presented in our previous works and their applications were discussed. In this paper, these models are studied in more detail, in particular their parameter design. It is shown that every reciprocal $CM_L$ model can be induced by a Markov model. Then, parameters of each reciprocal $CM_L$ model can be obtained from those of the Markov model. Also, it is shown that an NG $CM_L$ ( $CM_F$ ) sequence can be represented by a sum of an NG Markov sequence and an uncorrelated NG vector. This (necessary and sufficient) representation provides a basis for designing parameters of a $CM_L$ ( $CM_F$ ) model. From the CM viewpoint, a representation is also obtained for NG reciprocal sequences. This representation is simple and reveals an important property of reciprocal sequences. As a result, the significance of studying reciprocal sequences from the CM viewpoint is demonstrated. A full spectrum of dynamic models from a $CM_L$ model to a reciprocal $CM_L$ model is also presented. Some examples are presented for illustration.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Two-Step Codeword Design for Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO Systems With Quantized Phase Shifters
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Kangjian Chen; Chenhao Qi; Geoffrey Ye Li

    In this paper, a two-step codeword design approach for millimeter wave (mmWave) massive MIMO systems is presented. Ideal codewords are first designed, which ignores the hardware constraints in terms of phase shifter resolution and the number of RF chains. Based on the ideal codewords, practical codewords are then obtained taking the hardware constraints into consideration. For the ideal codeword design in the first step, additional phase is introduced to the beam gain to provide extra degree of freedom. We develop a phase-shifted ideal codeword design (PS-ICD) method, which is based on alternative minimization with each iteration having a closed-form solution and can be extended to design more general beamforming vectors with different beam patterns. Once the ideal codewords are obtained in the first step, the practical codeword design problem in the second step is to approach the ideal codewords by considering the hardware constraints of the hybrid precoding structure in terms of phase shifter resolution and the number of RF chains. We propose a fast search based alternative minimization (FS-AltMin) algorithm that alternatively designs the analog precoder and digital precoder. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods and show that the codewords designed based on the two-step approach outperform those designed by the existing approaches.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Robust Matrix Completion via Maximum Correntropy Criterion and Half-Quadratic Optimization
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Yicong He; Fei Wang; Yingsong Li; Jing Qin; Badong Chen

    Robust matrix completion aims to recover a low-rank matrix from a subset of noisy entries perturbed by complex noises. Traditional matrix completion algorithms are always based on $l_2$ -norm minimization and are sensitive to non-Gaussian noise with outliers. In this paper, we propose a novel robust and fast matrix completion method based on the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC). The correntropy-based error measure is utilized instead of the $l_2$ -based error norm to improve robustness against noise. By using the half-quadratic optimization technique, the correntropy-based optimization can be transformed into a weighted matrix factorization problem. Two efficient algorithms are then derived: an alternating minimization-based algorithm and an alternating gradient descent-based algorithm. These algorithms do not require the singular value decomposition (SVD) to be calculated for each iteration. Furthermore, an adaptive kernel width selection strategy is proposed to accelerate the convergence speed as well as improve the performance. A comparison with existing robust matrix completion algorithms is provided by simulations and shows that the new methods can achieve better performance than the existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Un-Rectifying Non-Linear Networks for Signal Representation
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Wen-Liang Hwang; Andreas Heinecke

    We consider deep neural networks with rectifier activations and max-pooling from a signal representation perspective. In this view, such representations mark the transition from using a single linear representation for all signals to utilizing a large collection of affine linear representations that are tailored to particular regions of the signal space. We propose a novel technique to “un-rectify” the nonlinear activations into data-dependent linear equations and constraints, from which we derive explicit expressions for the affine linear operators, their domains and ranges in terms of the network parameters. We show how increasing the depth of the network refines the domain partitioning and derive atomic decompositions for the corresponding affine mappings that process data belonging to the same partitioning region. In each atomic decomposition the connections over all hidden network layers are summarized and interpreted in a single matrix. We apply the decompositions to study the Lipschitz regularity of the networks and give sufficient conditions for network-depth-independent stability of the representation, drawing a connection to compressible weight distributions. Such analyses may facilitate and promote further theoretical insight and exchange from both the signal processing and machine learning communities.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Robust Beamforming for NOMA-Based Cellular Massive IoT With SWIPT
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Qiao Qi; Xiaoming Chen; Derrick Wing Kwan Ng

    In this paper, we study the resource allocation design for non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based cellular massive Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT). The design is formulated as a non-convex optimization problem, which takes into account practical and adverse factors, e.g., the channel uncertainty during channel state information (CSI) acquisition, the non-linear receiver during energy harvesting (EH) and the imperfect successive information cancellation (SIC) during the information decoding (ID). The originally harmful co-channel interference in massive access is coordinated to strike a balance between efficient information transmission and efficient energy harvesting via spatial beamforming. Subsequently, two robust beamforming algorithms are designed from the aspects of the weighted sum rate maximization and the total power consumption minimization, respectively. It is found that overall performance can be improved by adding BS antennas due to more array gains. Moreover, it is proved that the proposed algorithms can effectively alleviate the influence of adverse practical conditions and achieve the best performance compared to the baseline ones, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of proposed algorithms for cellular massive IoT.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • LDA via L1-PCA of Whitened Data
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Rubén Martín-Clemente; Vicente Zarzoso

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are widespread techniques in data analysis and pattern recognition. Recently, the L1-norm has been proposed as an alternative criterion to classical L2-norm in PCA, drawing considerable research interest on account of its increased robustness to outliers. The present work proves that, combined with a whitening preprocessing step, L1-PCA can perform LDA in an unsupervised manner, i.e., sparing the need for labelled data. Rigorous proof is given in the case of data drawn from a mixture of Gaussians. A number of numerical experiments on synthetic as well as real data confirm the theoretical findings.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Computationally Efficient Distributed Multi-Sensor Fusion With Multi-Bernoulli Filter
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Wei Yi; Suqi Li; Bailu Wang; Reza Hoseinnezhad; Lingjiang Kong

    This paper proposes a computationally efficient algorithm for distributed fusion in a sensor network in which multi-Bernoulli (MB) filters are locally running in every sensor node for multi-object tracking. The generalized Covariance Intersection (GCI) fusion rule is employed to fuse multiple MB random finite set densities. The fused density comprises a set of fusion hypotheses that grow exponentially with the number of Bernoulli components. Thus, GCI fusion with MB filters can become computationally intractable in practical applications that involve tracking of even a moderate number of objects. In order to accelerate the multi-sensor fusion procedure, we derive a theoretically sound approximation to the fused density. The number of fusion hypotheses in the resulting density is significantly smaller than the original fused density. It also has a parallelizable structure that allows multiple clusters of Bernoulli components to be fused independently. By carefully clustering Bernoulli components into isolated clusters using the GCI divergence as the distance metric, we propose an alternative to build exactly the approximated density without exhaustively computing all the fusion hypotheses. The combination of the proposed approximation technique and the fast clustering algorithm can enable a novel and fast GCI-MB fusion implementation. Our analysis shows that the proposed fusion method can dramatically reduce the computational and memory requirements with small bounded $L_1$ -error. The Gaussian mixture implementation of the proposed method is also presented. In various numerical experiments, including a challenging scenario with up to forty objects, the efficacy of the proposed fusion method is demonstrated.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • On Low-Complexity Lattice Reduction Algorithms for Large-Scale MIMO Detection: The Blessing of Sequential Reduction
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Shanxiang Lyu; Jinming Wen; Jian Weng; Cong Ling

    Lattice reduction is a popular preprocessing strategy in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection. In a quest for developing a low-complexity reduction algorithm for large-scale problems, this paper investigates a new framework called sequential reduction (SR), which aims to reduce the lengths of all basis vectors. The performance upper bounds of the strongest reduction in SR are given when the lattice dimension is no larger than 4. The proposed new framework enables the implementation of a hash-based low-complexity lattice reduction algorithm, which becomes especially tempting when applied to large-scale MIMO detection. Simulation results show that, compared to other reduction algorithms, the hash-based SR algorithm exhibits the lowest complexity while maintaining comparable error performance.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Forward-Projection Architecture for Fast Iterative Image Reconstruction in X-ray CT.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2012-10-23
    Jung Kuk Kim,Jeffrey A Fessler,Zhengya Zhang

    Iterative image reconstruction can dramatically improve the image quality in X-ray computed tomography (CT), but the computation involves iterative steps of 3D forward- and back-projection, which impedes routine clinical use. To accelerate forward-projection, we analyze the CT geometry to identify the intrinsic parallelism and data access sequence for a highly parallel hardware architecture. To improve the efficiency of this architecture, we propose a water-filling buffer to remove pipeline stalls, and an out-of-order sectored processing to reduce the off-chip memory access by up to three orders of magnitude. We make a floating-point to fixed-point conversion based on numerical simulations and demonstrate comparable image quality at a much lower implementation cost. As a proof of concept, a 5-stage fully pipelined, 55-way parallel separable-footprint forward-projector is prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA for a throughput of 925.8 million voxel projections/s at 200 MHz clock frequency, 4.6 times higher than an optimized 16-threaded program running on an 8-core 2.8-GHz CPU. A similar architecture can be applied to back-projection for a complete iterative image reconstruction system. The proposed algorithm and architecture can also be applied to hardware platforms such as graphics processing unit and digital signal processor to achieve significant accelerations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nonlinear Structural Vector Autoregressive Models with Application to Directed Brain Networks.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Yanning Shen,Georgios B Giannakis,Brian Baingana

    Structural equation models (SEMs) and vector autoregressive models (VARMs) are two broad families of approaches that have been shown useful in effective brain connectivity studies. While VARMs postulate that a given region of interest in the brain is directionally connected to another one by virtue of time-lagged influences, SEMs assert that directed dependencies arise due to instantaneous effects, and may even be adopted when nodal measurements are not necessarily multivariate time series. To unify these complementary perspectives, linear structural vector autoregressive models (SVARMs) that leverage both instantaneous and time-lagged nodal data have recently been put forth. Albeit simple and tractable, linear SVARMs are quite limited since they are incapable of modeling nonlinear dependencies between neuronal time series. To this end, the overarching goal of the present paper is to considerably broaden the span of linear SVARMs by capturing nonlinearities through kernels, which have recently emerged as a powerful nonlinear modeling framework in canonical machine learning tasks, e.g., regression, classification, and dimensionality reduction. The merits of kernel-based methods are extended here to the task of learning the effective brain connectivity, and an efficient regularized estimator is put forth to leverage the edge sparsity inherent to real-world complex networks. Judicious kernel choice from a preselected dictionary of kernels is also addressed using a data-driven approach. Numerical tests on ECoG data captured through a study on epileptic seizures demonstrate that it is possible to unveil previously unknown directed links between brain regions of interest.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Factor-Image Framework to Quantification of Brain Receptor Dynamic PET Studies.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2008-09-05
    Z Jane Wang,Zsolt Szabo,Peng Lei,József Varga,K J Ray Liu

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique enables the measurement of receptor distribution or neurotransmitter release in the living brain and the changes of the distribution with time and thus allows quantification of binding sites as well as the affinity of a radioligand. However, quantification of receptor binding studies obtained with PET is complicated by tissue heterogeneity in the sampling image elements (i.e., voxels, pixels). This effect is caused by a limited spatial resolution of the PET scanner. Spatial heterogeneity is often essential in understanding the underlying receptor binding process. Tracer kinetic modeling also often requires an intrusive collection of arterial blood samples. In this paper, we propose a likelihood-based framework in the voxel domain for quantitative imaging with or without the blood sampling of the input function. Radioligand kinetic parameters are estimated together with the input function. The parameters are initialized by a subspace-based algorithm and further refined by an iterative likelihood-based estimation procedure. The performance of the proposed scheme is examined by simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme provides reliable estimation of factor time-activity curves (TACs) and the underlying parametric images. A good match is noted between the result of the proposed approach and that of the Logan plot. Real brain PET data are also examined, and good performance is observed in determining the TACs and the underlying factor images.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bispectrum Inversion with Application to Multireference Alignment.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2018-05-29
    Tamir Bendory,Nicolas Boumal,Chao Ma,Zhizhen Zhao,Amit Singer

    We consider the problem of estimating a signal from noisy circularly-translated versions of itself, called multireference alignment (MRA). One natural approach to MRA could be to estimate the shifts of the observations first, and infer the signal by aligning and averaging the data. In contrast, we consider a method based on estimating the signal directly, using features of the signal that are invariant under translations. Specifically, we estimate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the signal from the observations. Under mild assumptions, these invariant features contain enough information to infer the signal. In particular, the bispectrum can be used to estimate the Fourier phases. To this end, we propose and analyze a few algorithms. Our main methods consist of non-convex optimization over the smooth manifold of phases. Empirically, in the absence of noise, these non-convex algorithms appear to converge to the target signal with random initialization. The algorithms are also robust to noise. We then suggest three additional methods. These methods are based on frequency marching, semidefinite relaxation and integer programming. The first two methods provably recover the phases exactly in the absence of noise. In the high noise level regime, the invariant features approach for MRA results in stable estimation if the number of measurements scales like the cube of the noise variance, which is the information-theoretic rate. Additionally, it requires only one pass over the data which is important at low signal-to-noise ratio when the number of observations must be large.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Convex recovery of continuous domain piecewise constant images from nonuniform Fourier samples.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2018-08-25
    Greg Ongie,Sampurna Biswas,Mathews Jacob

    We consider the recovery of a continuous domain piecewise constant image from its non-uniform Fourier samples using a convex matrix completion algorithm. We assume the discontinuities/edges of the image are localized to the zero level-set of a bandlimited function. This assumption induces linear dependencies between the Fourier coefficients of the image, which results in a two-fold block Toeplitz matrix constructed from the Fourier coefficients being low-rank. The proposed algorithm reformulates the recovery of the unknown Fourier coefficients as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem, where the nuclear norm of the matrix is minimized subject to structure and data constraints. We show that exact recovery is possible with high probability when the edge set of the image satisfies an incoherency property. We also show that the incoherency property is dependent on the geometry of the edge set curve, implying higher sampling burden for smaller curves. This paper generalizes recent work on the super-resolution recovery of isolated Diracs or signals with finite rate of innovation to the recovery of piecewise constant images.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-05-06
    Jianqiu Zhang,Xiaobo Zhou,Honghui Wang,Anthony Suffredini,Lin Zhang,Yufei Huang,Stephen Wong

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000-15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert's visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • On entropy rate for the complex domain.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2010-07-17
    Wei Xiong,Tülay Adalı,Yi-Ou Li,Hualiang Li,Vince D Calhoun

    We derive the entropy rate formula for a complex Gaussian random process by using a widely linear model. The resulting expression is general and applicable to both circular and noncircular Gaussian processes, since any second-order stationary process can be modeled as the output of a widely linear system driven by a circular white noise. Furthermore, we demonstrate application of the derived formula to an order selection problem. We extend a scheme for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) sampling to the complex domain to improve the estimation performance of information-theoretic criteria when samples are correlated. We show the effectiveness of the approach for order selection for simulated and actual functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that are inherently complex valued.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Systematic Construction of Real Lapped Tight Frame Transforms.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2010-07-08
    Aliaksei Sandryhaila,Amina Chebira,Christina Milo,Jelena Kovčcević,Markus Püschel

    We present a constructive algorithm for the design of real lapped equal-norm tight frame transforms. These transforms can be efficiently implemented through filter banks and have recently been proposed as a redundant counterpart to lapped orthogonal transforms, as well as an infinite-dimensional counterpart to harmonic tight frames. The proposed construction consists of two parts: First, we design a large class of new real lapped orthogonal transforms derived from submatrices of the discrete Fourier transform. Then, we seed these to obtain real lapped tight frame transforms corresponding to tight, equal-norm frames. We identify those frames that are maximally robust to erasures, and show that our construction leads to a large class of new lapped orthogonal transforms as well as new lapped tight frame transforms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Joint Blind Source Separation by Multi-set Canonical Correlation Analysis.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2010-03-12
    Yi-Ou Li,Tülay Adalı,Wei Wang,Vince D Calhoun

    In this work, we introduce a simple and effective scheme to achieve joint blind source separation (BSS) of multiple datasets using multi-set canonical correlation analysis (M-CCA) [1]. We first propose a generative model of joint BSS based on the correlation of latent sources within and between datasets. We specify source separability conditions, and show that, when the conditions are satisfied, the group of corresponding sources from each dataset can be jointly extracted by M-CCA through maximization of correlation among the extracted sources. We compare source separation performance of the M-CCA scheme with other joint BSS methods and demonstrate the superior performance of the M-CCA scheme in achieving joint BSS for a large number of datasets, group of corresponding sources with heterogeneous correlation values, and complex-valued sources with circular and non-circular distributions. We apply M-CCA to analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from multiple subjects and show its utility in estimating meaningful brain activations from a visuomotor task.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Limit of the Accuracy of Parameter Estimation for Moving Single Molecules Imaged by Fluorescence Microscopy.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-01-01
    Yau Wong,Zhiping Lin,Raimund J Ober

    In this paper, we consider the problem of the accuracy of estimating the location and other attributes of a moving single molecule whose trajectory is imaged by fluorescence microscopy. As accuracy in parameter estimation is closely related to the Fisher information matrix, we first give a general expression of the Fisher information matrix for the estimated parameters for a single object moving in three-dimensional (3D) space. Explicit Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) expressions are then obtained from the Fisher information matrix for a single object moving in the two-dimensional (2D) focus plane with the object trajectory being either linear or circular. We also investigate how extraneous noise sources, pixelation, parameters of the detection system and parameters of the trajectory affect the limit of the accuracy. The results obtained in this paper provide insights that enable the experimentalists to optimize their experimental setups for tracking single molecules in order to achieve the best possible accuracy. They are also applicable to the general problem of tracking an object using quantum limited detectors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of Point Based Image Registration Errors With Applications in Single Molecule Microscopy.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2014-03-19
    E A K Cohen,R J Ober

    We present an asymptotic treatment of errors involved in point-based image registration where control point (CP) localization is subject to heteroscedastic noise; a suitable model for image registration in fluorescence microscopy. Assuming an affine transform, CPs are used to solve a multivariate regression problem. With measurement errors existing for both sets of CPs this is an errors-in-variable problem and linear least squares is inappropriate; the correct method being generalized least squares. To allow for point dependent errors the equivalence of a generalized maximum likelihood and heteroscedastic generalized least squares model is achieved allowing previously published asymptotic results to be extended to image registration. For a particularly useful model of heteroscedastic noise where covariance matrices are scalar multiples of a known matrix (including the case where covariance matrices are multiples of the identity) we provide closed form solutions to estimators and derive their distribution. We consider the target registration error (TRE) and define a new measure called the localization registration error (LRE) believed to be useful, especially in microscopy registration experiments. Assuming Gaussianity of the CP localization errors, it is shown that the asymptotic distribution for the TRE and LRE are themselves Gaussian and the parameterized distributions are derived. Results are successfully applied to registration in single molecule microscopy to derive the key dependence of the TRE and LRE variance on the number of CPs and their associated photon counts. Simulations show asymptotic results are robust for low CP numbers and non-Gaussianity. The method presented here is shown to outperform GLS on real imaging data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recovery of sparse translation-invariant signals with continuous basis pursuit.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-10-01
    Chaitanya Ekanadham,Daniel Tranchina,Eero Simoncelli

    We consider the problem of decomposing a signal into a linear combination of features, each a continuously translated version of one of a small set of elementary features. Although these constituents are drawn from a continuous family, most current signal decomposition methods rely on a finite dictionary of discrete examples selected from this family (e.g., shifted copies of a set of basic waveforms), and apply sparse optimization methods to select and solve for the relevant coefficients. Here, we generate a dictionary that includes auxiliary interpolation functions that approximate translates of features via adjustment of their coefficients. We formulate a constrained convex optimization problem, in which the full set of dictionary coefficients represents a linear approximation of the signal, the auxiliary coefficients are constrained so as to only represent translated features, and sparsity is imposed on the primary coefficients using an L1 penalty. The basis pursuit denoising (BP) method may be seen as a special case, in which the auxiliary interpolation functions are omitted, and we thus refer to our methodology as continuous basis pursuit (CBP). We develop two implementations of CBP for a one-dimensional translation-invariant source, one using a first-order Taylor approximation, and another using a form of trigonometric spline. We examine the tradeoff between sparsity and signal reconstruction accuracy in these methods, demonstrating empirically that trigonometric CBP substantially outperforms Taylor CBP, which in turn offers substantial gains over ordinary BP. In addition, the CBP bases can generally achieve equally good or better approximations with much coarser sampling than BP, leading to a reduction in dictionary dimensionality.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Statistical analysis of the pulse-coupled synchronization strategy for wireless sensor networks.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2013-12-11
    Yongqiang Wang,Felipe Núñez,Francis J Doyle

    Pulse-coupled synchronization is attracting increased attention in the sensor network community. Yet its properties have not been fully investigated. Using statistical analysis, we prove analytically that by controlling the number of connections at each node, synchronization can be guaranteed for generally pulse-coupled oscillators even in the presence of a refractory period. The approach does not require the initial phases to reside in half an oscillation cycle, which improves existing results. We also find that a refractory period can be strategically included to reduce idle listening at nearly no sacrifice to the synchronization probability. Given that reduced idle listening leads to higher energy efficiency in the synchronization process, the strategically added refractory period makes the synchronization scheme appealing to cheap sensor nodes, where energy is a precious system resource. We also analyzed the pulse-coupled synchronization in the presence of unreliable communication links and obtained similar results. QualNet experimental results are given to confirm the effectiveness of the theoretical predictions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Optimal phase response functions for fast pulse-coupled synchronization in wireless sensor networks.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2012-07-10
    Yongqiang Wang,Francis J Doyle

    Synchronization is crucial to wireless sensor networks. Recently a pulse-coupled synchronization strategy that emulates biological pulse-coupled agents has been used to achieve this goal. We propose to optimize the phase response function such that synchronization rate is maximized. Since the synchronization rate is increased independently of transmission power, energy consumption is reduced, hence extending the life of battery-powered sensor networks. Comparison with existing phase response functions confirms the effectiveness of the method.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy design for wireless sensor networks through reduced idle listening.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2012-06-20
    Yongqiang Wang,Felipe Núñez,Francis J Doyle

    Synchronization is crucial to wireless sensor networks due to their decentralized structure. We propose an energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy to achieve this goal. The basic idea is to reduce idle listening by intentionally introducing a large refractory period in the sensors' cooperation. The large refractory period greatly reduces idle listening in each oscillation period, and is analytically proven to have no influence on the time to synchronization. Hence, it significantly reduces the total energy consumption in a synchronization process. A topology control approach tailored for pulse-coupled synchronization is given to guarantee a k-edge strongly connected interaction topology, which is tolerant to communication-link failures. The topology control approach is totally decentralized and needs no information exchange among sensors, and it is applicable to dynamic network topologies as well. This facilitates a completely decentralized implementation of the synchronization strategy. The strategy is applicable to mobile sensor networks, too. QualNet case studies confirm the effectiveness of the synchronization strategy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Optimal Perturbation Control of General Topology Molecular Networks.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2013-09-13
    Nidhal Bouaynaya,Roman Shterenberg,Dan Schonfeld

    In this paper, we develop a comprehensive framework for optimal perturbation control of dynamic networks. The aim of the perturbation is to drive the network away from an undesirable steady-state distribution and to force it to converge towards a desired steady-state distribution. The proposed framework does not make any assumptions about the topology of the initial network, and is thus applicable to general-topology networks. We define the optimal perturbation control as the minimum-energy perturbation measured in terms of the Frobenius-norm between the initial and perturbed probability transition matrices of the dynamic network. We subsequently demonstrate that there exists at most one optimal perturbation that forces the network into the desirable steady-state distribution. In the event where the optimal perturbation does not exist, we construct a family of suboptimal perturbations, and show that the suboptimal perturbation can be used to approximate the optimal limiting distribution arbitrarily closely. Moreover, we investigate the robustness of the optimal perturbation control to errors in the probability transition matrix, and demonstrate that the proposed optimal perturbation control is robust to data and inference errors in the probability transition matrix of the initial network. Finally, we apply the proposed optimal perturbation control method to the Human melanoma gene regulatory network in order to force the network from an initial steady-state distribution associated with melanoma and into a desirable steady-state distribution corresponding to a benign cell.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Compressive Sensing on Manifolds Using a Nonparametric Mixture of Factor Analyzers: Algorithm and Performance Bounds.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2010-12-01
    Minhua Chen,Jorge Silva,John Paisley,Chunping Wang,David Dunson,Lawrence Carin

    Nonparametric Bayesian methods are employed to constitute a mixture of low-rank Gaussians, for data x ∈ ℝ N that are of high dimension N but are constrained to reside in a low-dimensional subregion of ℝ N . The number of mixture components and their rank are inferred automatically from the data. The resulting algorithm can be used for learning manifolds and for reconstructing signals from manifolds, based on compressive sensing (CS) projection measurements. The statistical CS inversion is performed analytically. We derive the required number of CS random measurements needed for successful reconstruction, based on easily-computed quantities, drawing on block-sparsity properties. The proposed methodology is validated on several synthetic and real datasets.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Turning Tangent Empirical Mode Decomposition: A Framework for Mono- and Multivariate Signals.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-10-18
    Julien Fleureau,Jean-Claude Nunes,Amar Kachenoura,Laurent Albera,Lotfi Senhadji

    A novel Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) algorithm, called 2T-EMD, for both mono- and multivariate signals is proposed in this paper. It differs from the other approaches by its computational lightness and its algorithmic simplicity. The method is essentially based on a redefinition of the signal mean envelope, computed thanks to new characteristic points, which offers the possibility to decompose multivariate signals without any projection. The scope of application of the novel algorithm is specified, and a comparison of the 2T-EMD technique with classical methods is performed on various simulated mono- and multivariate signals. The monovariate behaviour of the proposed method on noisy signals is then validated by decomposing a fractional Gaussian noise and an application to real life EEG data is finally presented.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Causal Network Inference Via Group Sparse Regularization.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-09-16
    Andrew Bolstad,Barry D Van Veen,Robert Nowak

    This paper addresses the problem of inferring sparse causal networks modeled by multivariate autoregressive (MAR) processes. Conditions are derived under which the Group Lasso (gLasso) procedure consistently estimates sparse network structure. The key condition involves a "false connection score" ψ. In particular, we show that consistent recovery is possible even when the number of observations of the network is far less than the number of parameters describing the network, provided that ψ < 1. The false connection score is also demonstrated to be a useful metric of recovery in nonasymptotic regimes. The conditions suggest a modified gLasso procedure which tends to improve the false connection score and reduce the chances of reversing the direction of causal influence. Computational experiments and a real network based electrocorticogram (ECoG) simulation study demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fast Algorithms for the Computation of Sliding Sequency-Ordered Complex Hadamard Transform.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-09-13
    Jiasong Wu,Huazhong Shu,Lu Wang,Lotfi Senhadji

    Fast algorithms for computing the forward and inverse sequency-ordered complex Hadamard transforms (SCHT) in a sliding window are presented. The first algorithm consists of decomposing a length-N inverse SCHT (ISCHT) into two length-N/2 ISCHTs. The second algorithm, calculating the values of window i+N/4 from those of window i and one length-N/4 ISCHT and one length-N/4 modified ISCHT (MISCHT), is implemented by two schemes to achieve a good compromise between the computation complexity and the implementation complexity. The forward SCHT algorithm can be obtained by transposing the signal flow graph of the ISCHT. The proposed algorithms require O(N) arithmetic operations and thus are more efficient than the block-based algorithms as well as those based on the sliding FFT or the sliding DFT. The application of the sliding ISCHT in transform domain adaptive filtering (TDAF) is also discussed with supporting simulation results.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Optimal Time-Resource Allocation for Energy-Efficient Physical Activity Detection.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2011-07-29
    Gautam Thatte,Ming Li,Sangwon Lee,B Adar Emken,Murali Annavaram,Shrikanth Narayanan,Donna Spruijt-Metz,Urbashi Mitra

    The optimal allocation of samples for physical activity detection in a wireless body area network for health-monitoring is considered. The number of biometric samples collected at the mobile device fusion center, from both device-internal and external Bluetooth heterogeneous sensors, is optimized to minimize the transmission power for a fixed number of samples, and to meet a performance requirement defined using the probability of misclassification between multiple hypotheses. A filter-based feature selection method determines an optimal feature set for classification, and a correlated Gaussian model is considered. Using experimental data from overweight adolescent subjects, it is found that allocating a greater proportion of samples to sensors which better discriminate between certain activity levels can result in either a lower probability of error or energy-savings ranging from 18% to 22%, in comparison to equal allocation of samples. The current activity of the subjects and the performance requirements do not significantly affect the optimal allocation, but employing personalized models results in improved energy-efficiency. As the number of samples is an integer, an exhaustive search to determine the optimal allocation is typical, but computationally expensive. To this end, an alternate, continuous-valued vector optimization is derived which yields approximately optimal allocations and can be implemented on the mobile fusion center due to its significantly lower complexity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bayesian Regression with Network Prior: Optimal Bayesian Filtering Perspective.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2017-08-22
    Xiaoning Qian,Edward R Dougherty

    The recently introduced intrinsically Bayesian robust filter (IBRF) provides fully optimal filtering relative to a prior distribution over an uncertainty class ofjoint random process models, whereas formerly the theory was limited to model-constrained Bayesian robust filters, for which optimization was limited to the filters that are optimal for models in the uncertainty class. This paper extends the IBRF theory to the situation where there are both a prior on the uncertainty class and sample data. The result is optimal Bayesian filtering (OBF), where optimality is relative to the posterior distribution derived from the prior and the data. The IBRF theories for effective characteristics and canonical expansions extend to the OBF setting. A salient focus of the present work is to demonstrate the advantages of Bayesian regression within the OBF setting over the classical Bayesian approach in the context otlinear Gaussian models.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Markov Chain Monte Carlo Inference of Parametric Dictionaries for Sparse Bayesian Approximations.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2017-06-27
    Theodora Chaspari,Andreas Tsiartas,Panagiotis Tsilifis,Shrikanth Narayanan

    Parametric dictionaries can increase the ability of sparse representations to meaningfully capture and interpret the underlying signal information, such as encountered in biomedical problems. Given a mapping function from the atom parameter space to the actual atoms, we propose a sparse Bayesian framework for learning the atom parameters, because of its ability to provide full posterior estimates, take uncertainty into account and generalize on unseen data. Inference is performed with Markov Chain Monte Carlo, that uses block sampling to generate the variables of the Bayesian problem. Since the parameterization of dictionary atoms results in posteriors that cannot be analytically computed, we use a Metropolis-Hastings-within-Gibbs framework, according to which variables with closed-form posteriors are generated with the Gibbs sampler, while the remaining ones with the Metropolis Hastings from appropriate candidate-generating densities. We further show that the corresponding Markov Chain is uniformly ergodic ensuring its convergence to a stationary distribution independently of the initial state. Results on synthetic data and real biomedical signals indicate that our approach offers advantages in terms of signal reconstruction compared to previously proposed Steepest Descent and Equiangular Tight Frame methods. This paper demonstrates the ability of Bayesian learning to generate parametric dictionaries that can reliably represent the exemplar data and provides the foundation towards inferring the entire variable set of the sparse approximation problem for signal denoising, adaptation and other applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quickest Sequential Multiband Spectrum Sensing with Mixed Observations.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2017-02-10
    Jun Geng,Weiyu Xu,Lifeng Lai

    Spectrum sensing is a key technology enabling the cognitive radio system. In this paper, the problem of how to quickly and accurately find an unoccupied channel from a large amount of potential channels is considered. The cognitive radio system under consideration is equipped with a narrow band sensor, hence it can only sense those potential channels in a sequential manner. In this scenario, we propose a novel two-stage mixed-observation sensing strategy. In the first stage, which is named as scanning stage, the sensor observes a linear combination of the signals from a pair of channels. The purpose of the scanning stage is to quickly identify a pair of channels such that at least one of them is highly likely to be unoccupied. In the second stage, which is called refinement stage, the sensor only observers the signal from one of those two channels identified from the first stage, and selects one of them as the unoccupied channel. The problem under this setup is an ordered two concatenated Markov stopping time problem. The optimal solution is solved using the tools from the multiple stopping time theory. It turns out that the optimal solution has a rather complex structure, hence a low complexity algorithm is proposed to facilitate the implementation. In the proposed low complexity algorithm, the cumulative sum test is adopted in the scanning stage and the sequential probability ratio test is adopted in the refinement stage. The performance of this low complexity algorithm is analyzed when the presence of unoccupied channels is rare. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed sensing strategy can significantly reduce the sensing time when the majority of potential channels are occupied.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Online Censoring for Large-Scale Regressions with Application to Streaming Big Data.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2017-01-04
    Dimitris Berberidis,Vassilis Kekatos,Georgios B Giannakis

    On par with data-intensive applications, the sheer size of modern linear regression problems creates an ever-growing demand for efficient solvers. Fortunately, a significant percentage of the data accrued can be omitted while maintaining a certain quality of statistical inference with an affordable computational budget. This work introduces means of identifying and omitting less informative observations in an online and data-adaptive fashion. Given streaming data, the related maximum-likelihood estimator is sequentially found using first- and second-order stochastic approximation algorithms. These schemes are well suited when data are inherently censored or when the aim is to save communication overhead in decentralized learning setups. In a different operational scenario, the task of joint censoring and estimation is put forth to solve large-scale linear regressions in a centralized setup. Novel online algorithms are developed enjoying simple closed-form updates and provable (non)asymptotic convergence guarantees. To attain desired censoring patterns and levels of dimensionality reduction, thresholding rules are investigated too. Numerical tests on real and synthetic datasets corroborate the efficacy of the proposed data-adaptive methods compared to data-agnostic random projection-based alternatives.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Constrained Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Relative Abundances of Protein Conformation in a Heterogeneous Mixture from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Intensity Measurements.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2016-03-01
    A Emre Onuk,Murat Akcakaya,Jaydeep P Bardhan,Deniz Erdogmus,Dana H Brooks,Lee Makowski

    In this paper, we describe a model for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the relative abundances of different conformations of a protein in a heterogeneous mixture from small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) intensities. To consider cases where the solution includes intermediate or unknown conformations, we develop a subset selection method based on k-means clustering and the Cramér-Rao bound on the mixture coefficient estimation error to find a sparse basis set that represents the space spanned by the measured SAXS intensities of the known conformations of a protein. Then, using the selected basis set and the assumptions on the model for the intensity measurements, we show that the MLE model can be expressed as a constrained convex optimization problem. Employing the adenylate kinase (ADK) protein and its known conformations as an example, and using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation scheme. Here, although we use 45 crystallographically determined experimental structures and we could generate many more using, for instance, molecular dynamics calculations, the clustering technique indicates that the data cannot support the determination of relative abundances for more than 5 conformations. The estimation of this maximum number of conformations is intrinsic to the methodology we have used here.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Empirically Estimable Classification Bounds Based on a Nonparametric Divergence Measure.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2016-01-26
    Visar Berisha,Alan Wisler,Alfred O Hero,Andreas Spanias

    Information divergence functions play a critical role in statistics and information theory. In this paper we show that a non-parametric f-divergence measure can be used to provide improved bounds on the minimum binary classification probability of error for the case when the training and test data are drawn from the same distribution and for the case where there exists some mismatch between training and test distributions. We confirm the theoretical results by designing feature selection algorithms using the criteria from these bounds and by evaluating the algorithms on a series of pathological speech classification tasks.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Convergence and Stability of a Class of Iteratively Re-weighted Least Squares Algorithms for Sparse Signal Recovery in the Presence of Noise.
    IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (IF 5.230) Pub Date : 2013-10-30
    Behtash Babadi,Demba Ba,Patrick L Purdon,Emery N Brown

    In this paper, we study the theoretical properties of a class of iteratively re-weighted least squares (IRLS) algorithms for sparse signal recovery in the presence of noise. We demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between this class of algorithms and a class of Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms for constrained maximum likelihood estimation under a Gaussian scale mixture (GSM) distribution. The IRLS algorithms we consider are parametrized by 0 < ν ≤ 1 and ε > 0. The EM formalism, as well as the connection to GSMs, allow us to establish that the IRLS(ν, ε) algorithms minimize ε-smooth versions of the ℓ ν 'norms'. We leverage EM theory to show that, for each 0 < ν ≤ 1, the limit points of the sequence of IRLS(ν, ε) iterates are stationary point of the ε-smooth ℓ ν 'norm' minimization problem on the constraint set. Finally, we employ techniques from Compressive sampling (CS) theory to show that the class of IRLS(ν, ε) algorithms is stable for each 0 < ν ≤ 1, if the limit point of the iterates coincides the global minimizer. For the case ν = 1, we show that the algorithm converges exponentially fast to a neighborhood of the stationary point, and outline its generalization to super-exponential convergence for ν < 1. We demonstrate our claims via simulation experiments. The simplicity of IRLS, along with the theoretical guarantees provided in this contribution, make a compelling case for its adoption as a standard tool for sparse signal recovery.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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