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  • Arithmetical datatypes with true fractions
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jan A. Bergstra, Alban Ponse

    Abstract We consider several novel congruences on the signature of meadows with the aim to survey different notions of fractions. In particular we suggest a notion of “true fraction”.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Parameterized synthesis of self-stabilizing protocols in symmetric networks
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Nahal Mirzaie, Fathiyeh Faghih, Swen Jacobs, Borzoo Bonakdarpour

    Self-stabilization in distributed systems is a technique to guarantee convergence to a set of legitimate states without external intervention when a transient fault or bad initialization occurs. Recently, there has been a surge of efforts in designing techniques for automated synthesis of self-stabilizing algorithms that are correct by construction. Most of these techniques, however, are not parameterized, meaning that they can only synthesize a solution for a fixed and predetermined number of processes. In this paper, we report a breakthrough in parameterized synthesis of self-stabilizing algorithms in symmetric networks, including ring, line, mesh, and torus. First, we develop cutoffs that guarantee (1) closure in legitimate states, and (2) deadlock-freedom outside the legitimate states. We also develop a sufficient condition for convergence in self-stabilizing systems. Since some of our cutoffs grow with the size of the local state space of processes, scalability of the synthesis procedure is still a problem. We address this problem by introducing a novel SMT-based technique for counterexample-guided synthesis of self-stabilizing algorithms in symmetric networks. We have fully implemented our technique and successfully synthesized solutions to maximal matching, three coloring, and maximal independent set problems for ring and line topologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Linear-bounded composition of tree-walking tree transducers: linear size increase and complexity
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Joost Engelfriet, Kazuhiro Inaba, Sebastian Maneth

    Abstract Compositions of tree-walking tree transducers form a hierarchy with respect to the number of transducers in the composition. As main technical result it is proved that any such composition can be realized as a linear-bounded composition, which means that the sizes of the intermediate results can be chosen to be at most linear in the size of the output tree. This has consequences for the expressiveness and complexity of the translations in the hierarchy. First, if the computed translation is a function of linear size increase, i.e., the size of the output tree is at most linear in the size of the input tree, then it can be realized by just one, deterministic, tree-walking tree transducer. For compositions of deterministic transducers it is decidable whether or not the translation is of linear size increase. Second, every composition of deterministic transducers can be computed in deterministic linear time on a RAM and in deterministic linear space on a Turing machine, measured in the sum of the sizes of the input and output tree. Similarly, every composition of nondeterministic transducers can be computed in simultaneous polynomial time and linear space on a nondeterministic Turing machine. Their output tree languages are deterministic context-sensitive, i.e., can be recognized in deterministic linear space on a Turing machine. The membership problem for compositions of nondeterministic translations is nondeterministic polynomial time and deterministic linear space. All the above results also hold for compositions of macro tree transducers. The membership problem for the composition of a nondeterministic and a deterministic tree-walking tree translation (for a nondeterministic IO macro tree translation) is log-space reducible to a context-free language, whereas the membership problem for the composition of a deterministic and a nondeterministic tree-walking tree translation (for a nondeterministic OI macro tree translation) is possibly NP-complete.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Synthesis from hyperproperties
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Bernd Finkbeiner, Christopher Hahn, Philip Lukert, Marvin Stenger, Leander Tentrup

    Abstract We study the reactive synthesis problem for hyperproperties given as formulas of the temporal logic HyperLTL. Hyperproperties generalize trace properties, i.e., sets of traces, to sets of sets of traces. Typical examples are information-flow policies like noninterference, which stipulate that no sensitive data must leak into the public domain. Such properties cannot be expressed in standard linear or branching-time temporal logics like LTL, CTL, or \(\hbox {CTL}^*\). Furthermore, HyperLTL subsumes many classical extensions of the LTL realizability problem, including realizability under incomplete information, distributed synthesis, and fault-tolerant synthesis. We show that, while the synthesis problem is undecidable for full HyperLTL, it remains decidable for the \(\exists ^*\), \(\exists ^*\forall ^1\), and the \({{ linear }}\;\forall ^*\) fragments. Beyond these fragments, the synthesis problem immediately becomes undecidable. For universal HyperLTL, we present a semi-decision procedure that constructs implementations and counterexamples up to a given bound. We report encouraging experimental results obtained with a prototype implementation on example specifications with hyperproperties like symmetric responses, secrecy, and information flow.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Automated formal synthesis of provably safe digital controllers for continuous plants
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Alessandro Abate, Iury Bessa, Lucas Cordeiro, Cristina David, Pascal Kesseli, Daniel Kroening, Elizabeth Polgreen

    We present a sound and automated approach to synthesizing safe, digital controllers for physical plants represented as time-invariant models. Models are linear differential equations with inputs, evolving over a continuous state space. The synthesis precisely accounts for the effects of finite-precision arithmetic introduced by the controller. The approach uses counterexample-guided inductive synthesis: an inductive generalization phase produces a controller that is known to stabilize the model but that may not be safe for all initial conditions of the model. Safety is then verified via bounded model checking: if the verification step fails, a counterexample is provided to the inductive generalization, and the process further iterates until a safe controller is obtained. We demonstrate the practical value of this approach by automatically synthesizing safe controllers for physical plant models from the digital control literature.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Transducer degrees: atoms, infima and suprema
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Jörg Endrullis, Jan Willem Klop, Rena Bakhshi

    Abstract Although finite state transducers are very natural and simple devices, surprisingly little is known about the transducibility relation they induce on streams (infinite words). We collect some intriguing problems that have been unsolved since several years. The transducibility relation arising from finite state transduction induces a partial order of stream degrees, which we call Transducer degrees, analogous to the well-known Turing degrees or degrees of unsolvability. We show that there are pairs of degrees without supremum and without infimum. The former result is somewhat surprising since every finite set of degrees has a supremum if we strengthen the machine model to Turing machines, but also if we weaken it to Mealy machines.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Performance heuristics for GR(1) synthesis and related algorithms
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Elizabeth Firman, Shahar Maoz, Jan Oliver Ringert

    Reactive synthesis for the GR(1) fragment of LTL has been implemented and studied in many works. In this work we present and evaluate a list of heuristics to potentially reduce running times for GR(1) synthesis and related algorithms. The list includes several heuristics for controlled predecessor computation and BDDs, early detection of fixed-points and unrealizability, fixed-point recycling, and several heuristics for unrealizable core computations. We have implemented the heuristics and integrated them in our synthesis environment Spectra Tools, a set of tools for writing specifications and running synthesis and related analyses. We evaluate the presented heuristics on SYNTECH15, a total of 78 specifications of 6 autonomous Lego robots, on SYNTECH17, a total of 149 specifications of 5 autonomous Lego robots, all written by 3rd year undergraduate computer science students in two project classes we have taught, as well as on benchmarks from the literature. The evaluation investigates not only the potential of the suggested heuristics to improve computation times, but also the difference between existing benchmarks and the robot’s specifications in terms of the effectiveness of the heuristics. Our evaluation shows positive results for the application of all the heuristics together, which get more significant for specifications with slower original running times. It also shows differences in effectiveness when applied to different sets of specifications. Furthermore, a comparison between Spectra, with all the presented heuristics, and two existing tools, RATSY and Slugs, over two well-known benchmarks, shows that Spectra outperforms both on most of the specifications; the larger the specification, the faster Spectra becomes relative to the two other tools.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A formal methods approach to predicting new features of the eukaryotic vesicle traffic system
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Arnab Bhattacharyya, Ashutosh Gupta, Lakshmanan Kuppusamy, Somya Mani, Ankit Shukla, Mandayam Srivas, Mukund Thattai

    Abstract Vesicle traffic systems (VTSs) transport cargo among the intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. The compartments are viewed as nodes that are labeled by their chemical identity and the transport vesicles are similarly viewed as labeled edges between the nodes. Several interesting questions about VTSs translate to combinatorial search and synthesis problems. We present novel encodings for the problems based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT), satisfiability modulo theories and quantified Boolean formula of the properties over vesicle traffic systems. We have implemented the presented encodings in a tool that searches for the networks that satisfy properties related to transport consistency conditions using these solvers. In our numerical experiments, we show that our tool can search for networks of sizes that are relevant to real cellular systems. Our work illustrates the potential of novel biological applications of SAT solving technology.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Congruence from the operator’s point of view
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Maciej Gazda, Wan Fokkink, Vittorio Massaro

    Abstract A basic sanity property of a process semantics is that it constitutes a congruence with respect to standard process operators. This issue has been traditionally addressed by developing, for a specific process semantics, a syntactic format for operational semantics specifications. We suggest a novel, orthogonal approach, which focuses on a specific process operator and determines a class of congruence relations for this operator. To this end, we impose syntactic restrictions on Hennessy–Milner logic, so that a process semantics whose modal characterization satisfies those criteria is guaranteed to be a congruence with respect to the operator in question. We investigate alternative composition, action prefix, projection, encapsulation, renaming, and parallel composition with communication, in the context of both concrete and weak process semantics.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Coupled similarity: the first 32 years
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Benjamin Bisping, Uwe Nestmann, Kirstin Peters

    Abstract Coupled similarity is an equivalence on (labeled) transition systems; its distinguishing power lies between (weak) bisimilarity and (may) testing equivalence. Its main feature, compared to weak bisimilarity, is an additional \(\tau \)-law that abstracts from the atomicity of internal choices among several possible branches, thus allowing for gradual commitments. The need for this \(\tau \)-law in applications was motivated by van Glabbeek and Vaandrager in 1988. Parrow and Sjödin coined the term coupled simulation in 1992 as a coinductive proof technique for the comparison of distributed (not “just” concurrent) systems, heavily exploiting gradual commitments. Over the years, coupled similarity also gained significance for the definition and analysis of the correctness of encodings, of action refinement and contraction, and of branching-time semantics for various process calculi. In this paper, we compare variants and formalizations of coupled similarity and highlight its relevance.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Practical synthesis of reactive systems from LTL specifications via parity games
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Michael Luttenberger, Philipp J. Meyer, Salomon Sickert

    Abstract The synthesis of reactive systems from linear temporal logic (LTL) specifications is an important aspect in the design of reliable software and hardware. We present our adaption of the classic automata-theoretic approach to LTL synthesis, implemented in the tool Strix which has won the two last synthesis competitions (Syntcomp2018/2019). The presented approach is (1) structured, meaning that the states used in the construction have a semantic structure that is exploited in several ways, it performs a (2) forward exploration such that it often constructs only a small subset of the reachable states, and it is (3) incremental in the sense that it reuses results from previous inconclusive solution attempts. Further, we present and study different guiding heuristics that determine where to expand the on-demand constructed arena. Moreover, we show several techniques for extracting an implementation (Mealy machine or circuit) from the witness of the tree-automaton emptiness check. Lastly, the chosen constructions use a symbolic representation of the transition functions to reduce runtime and memory consumption. We evaluate the proposed techniques on the Syntcomp2019 benchmark set and show in more detail how the proposed techniques compare to the techniques implemented in other leading LTL synthesis tools.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Reactive synthesis with maximum realizability of linear temporal logic specifications
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Rayna Dimitrova, Mahsa Ghasemi, Ufuk Topcu

    A challenging problem for autonomous systems is to synthesize a reactive controller that conforms to a set of given correctness properties. Linear temporal logic (LTL) provides a formal language to specify the desired behavioral properties of systems. In applications in which the specifications originate from various aspects of the system design, or consist of a large set of formulas, the overall system specification may be unrealizable. Driven by this fact, we develop an optimization variant of synthesis from LTL formulas, where the goal is to design a controller that satisfies a set of hard specifications and minimally violates a set of soft specifications. To that end, we introduce a value function that, by exploiting the LTL semantics, quantifies the level of violation of properties. Inspired by the idea of bounded synthesis, we fix a bound on the implementation size and search for an implementation that is optimal with respect to the said value function. We propose a novel maximum satisfiability encoding of the search for an optimal implementation (within the given bound on the implementation size). We iteratively increase the bound on the implementation size until a termination criterion, such as a threshold over the value function, is met.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Static versus dynamic reversibility in CCS
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Ivan Lanese, Doriana Medić, Claudio Antares Mezzina

    The notion of reversible computing is attracting interest because of its applications in diverse fields, in particular the study of programming abstractions for fault tolerant systems. Most computational models are not naturally reversible since computation causes loss of information, and history information must be stored to enable reversibility. In the literature, two approaches to reverse the CCS process calculus exist, differing on how history information is kept. Reversible CCS (RCCS), proposed by Danos and Krivine, exploits dedicated stacks of memories attached to each thread. CCS with Keys (CCSK), proposed by Phillips and Ulidowski, makes CCS operators static so that computation does not cause information loss. In this paper we show that RCCS and CCSK are equivalent in terms of LTS isomorphism.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Subsequence versus substring constraints in sequence pattern languages
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Steven Engels, Tony Tan, Jan Van den Bussche

    Abstract A family of logics for expressing patterns in sequences is investigated. The logics are all fragments of first-order logic, but they are variable-free. Instead, they can use substring and subsequence constraints as basic propositions. Propositions expressing constraints on the beginning or the end of the sequence are also available. Also wildcards can be used, which is important when the alphabet is not fixed, as is typical in database applications. The maximal logic with all four features of substring, subsequence, begin–end constraints, and wildcards, turns out to be equivalent to the family of star-free regular languages of dot-depth at most one. We investigate the lattice formed by taking all possible combinations of the above four features, and show it to be strict. For instance, we formally confirm what might intuitively be expected, namely, that boolean combinations of substring constraints are not sufficient to express subsequence constraints, and vice versa. We show an expressiveness hierarchy results from allowing multiple wildcards. We also investigate what happens with regular expressions when concatenation is replaced by subsequencing. Finally, we study the expressiveness of our logic relative to first-order logic.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Reversible sessions with flexible choices
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-03-01
    Ilaria Castellani, Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini, Paola Giannini

    Abstract We propose a calculus for concurrent reversible multiparty sessions, equipped with a flexible choice operator allowing for different sets of participants in each branch. This operator is inspired by the notion of connecting action recently introduced by Hu and Yoshida to describe protocols with optional participants. We argue that this choice operator allows for a natural description of typical communication protocols. Our calculus also supports a compact representation of the history of processes and types, which facilitates the definition of rollback. Moreover, it implements a fine-tuned strategy for backward computation. We present a session type system for the calculus and show that it enforces the expected properties of session fidelity, forward progress and backward progress.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Distributive laws for monotone specifications
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-02-22
    Jurriaan Rot

    Turi and Plotkin introduced an elegant approach to structural operational semantics based on universal coalgebra, parametric in the type of syntax and the type of behaviour. Their framework includes abstract GSOS, a categorical generalisation of the classical GSOS rule format, as well as its categorical dual, coGSOS. Both formats are well behaved, in the sense that each specification has a unique model on which behavioural equivalence is a congruence. Unfortunately, the combination of the two formats does not feature these desirable properties. We show that monotone specifications—that disallow negative premises—do induce a canonical distributive law of a monad over a comonad, and therefore a unique, compositional interpretation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Using contracted solution graphs for solving reconfiguration problems
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Paul Bonsma, Daniël Paulusma

    Abstract We introduce in a general setting a dynamic programming method for solving reconfiguration problems. Our method is based on contracted solution graphs, which are obtained from solution graphs by performing an appropriate series of edge contractions that decrease the graph size without losing any critical information needed to solve the reconfiguration problem under consideration. Our general framework captures the approach behind known reconfiguration results of Bonsma (Discrete Appl Math 231:95–112, 2017) and Hatanaka et al. (IEICE Trans Fundam Electron Commun Comput Sci 98(6):1168–1178, 2015). As a third example, we apply the method to the following well-studied problem: given two k-colorings \(\alpha \) and \(\beta \) of a graph G, can \(\alpha \) be modified into \(\beta \) by recoloring one vertex of G at a time, while maintaining a k-coloring throughout? This problem is known to be PSPACE-hard even for bipartite planar graphs and \(k=4\) . By applying our method in combination with a thorough exploitation of the graph structure we obtain a polynomial-time algorithm for \((k-2)\) -connected chordal graphs.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Synthesizing optimally resilient controllers
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Daniel Neider, Alexander Weinert, Martin Zimmermann

    Recently, Dallal, Neider, and Tabuada studied a generalization of the classical game-theoretic model used in program synthesis, which additionally accounts for unmodeled intermittent disturbances. In this extended framework, one is interested in computing optimally resilient strategies, i.e., strategies that are resilient against as many disturbances as possible. Dallal, Neider, and Tabuada showed how to compute such strategies for safety specifications. In this work, we compute optimally resilient strategies for a much wider range of winning conditions and show that they do not require more memory than winning strategies in the classical model. Our algorithms only have a polynomial overhead in comparison to the ones computing winning strategies. In particular, for parity conditions, optimally resilient strategies are positional and can be computed in quasipolynomial time.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A symbolic algorithm for lazy synthesis of eager strategies
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Swen Jacobs, Mouhammad Sakr

    Abstract We present an algorithm for solving two-player safety games that combines a mixed forward/backward search strategy with a symbolic representation of the state space. By combining forward and backward exploration, our algorithm can synthesize strategies that are eager in the sense that they try to prevent progress towards the error states as soon as possible, whereas standard backwards algorithms often produce permissive solutions that only react when absolutely necessary. We provide experimental results for two classes of crafted benchmarks, the benchmark set of the Reactive Synthesis Competition (SYNTCOMP) 2017, as well as a set of randomly generated benchmarks. The results show that our algorithm in many cases produces more eager strategies than a standard backwards algorithm, and solves a number of benchmarks that are intractable for existing tools. Finally, we observe a connection between our algorithm and a recently proposed algorithm for the synthesis of controllers that are robust against disturbances, pointing to possible future applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Distributive laws for monotone specifications.
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : null
    Jurriaan Rot

    Turi and Plotkin introduced an elegant approach to structural operational semantics based on universal coalgebra, parametric in the type of syntax and the type of behaviour. Their framework includes abstract GSOS, a categorical generalisation of the classical GSOS rule format, as well as its categorical dual, coGSOS. Both formats are well behaved, in the sense that each specification has a unique model on which behavioural equivalence is a congruence. Unfortunately, the combination of the two formats does not feature these desirable properties. We show that monotone specifications-that disallow negative premises-do induce a canonical distributive law of a monad over a comonad, and therefore a unique, compositional interpretation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Compositional schedulability analysis of real-time actor-based systems.
    Acta Inform. (IF 1.042) Pub Date : 2017-05-23
    Mohammad Mahdi Jaghoori,Frank de Boer,Delphine Longuet,Tom Chothia,Marjan Sirjani

    We present an extension of the actor model with real-time, including deadlines associated with messages, and explicit application-level scheduling policies, e.g.,"earliest deadline first" which can be associated with individual actors. Schedulability analysis in this setting amounts to checking whether, given a scheduling policy for each actor, every task is processed within its designated deadline. To check schedulability, we introduce a compositional automata-theoretic approach, based on maximal use of model checking combined with testing. Behavioral interfaces define what an actor expects from the environment, and the deadlines for messages given these assumptions. We use model checking to verify that actors match their behavioral interfaces. We extend timed automata refinement with the notion of deadlines and use it to define compatibility of actor environments with the behavioral interfaces. Model checking of compatibility is computationally hard, so we propose a special testing process. We show that the analyses are decidable and automate the process using the Uppaal model checker.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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