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  • On Small-depth Frege Proofs for Tseitin for Grids
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Johan Håstad

    We prove that a small-depth Frege refutation of the Tseitin contradiction on the grid requires subexponential size. We conclude that polynomial size Frege refutations of the Tseitin contradiction must use formulas of almost logarithmic depth.

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Enhanced Phase Clocks, Population Protocols, and Fast Space Optimal Leader Election
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Leszek Gąsieniec; Grzegorz Stachowiak

    The model of population protocols refers to the growing in popularity theoretical framework suitable for studying pairwise interactions within a large collection of simple indistinguishable entities, frequently called agents. In this article, the emphasis is on the space complexity of fast leader election in population protocols governed by the random scheduler, which uniformly at random selects pairwise

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Polynomiality for Bin Packing with a Constant Number of Item Types
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-11-07
    Michel X. Goemans; Thomas Rothvoss

    We consider the bin packing problem with d different item sizes si and item multiplicities ai, where all numbers are given in binary encoding. This problem formulation is also known as the one-dimensional cutting stock problem. In this work, we provide an algorithm that, for constant d, solves bin packing in polynomial time. This was an open problem for all d\ge 3. In fact, for constant d our algorithm

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Invited Articles Foreword
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Eva Tardos

    No abstract available.

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • A Constant-factor Approximation Algorithm for the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Ola Svensson; Jakub Tarnawski; László A. Végh

    We give a constant-factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem (ATSP). Our approximation guarantee is analyzed with respect to the standard LP relaxation, and thus our result confirms the conjectured constant integrality gap of that relaxation. The main idea of our approach is a reduction to Subtour Partition Cover, an easier problem obtained by significantly relaxing

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Semantic Optimization of Conjunctive Queries
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Pablo Barceló; Diego Figueira; Georg Gottlob; Andreas Pieris

    This work deals with the problem of semantic optimization of the central class of conjunctive queries (CQs). Since CQ evaluation is NP-complete, a long line of research has focussed on identifying fragments of CQs that can be efficiently evaluated. One of the most general restrictions corresponds to generalized hypetreewidth bounded by a fixed constant k ≥ 1; the associated fragment is denoted GHWk

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Approximating Edit Distance Within Constant Factor in Truly Sub-quadratic Time
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Diptarka Chakraborty; Debarati Das; Elazar Goldenberg; Michal Koucký; Michael Saks

    Edit distance is a measure of similarity of two strings based on the minimum number of character insertions, deletions, and substitutions required to transform one string into the other. The edit distance can be computed exactly using a dynamic programming algorithm that runs in quadratic time. Andoni, Krauthgamer, and Onak (2010) gave a nearly linear time algorithm that approximates edit distance

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A Unified Translation of Linear Temporal Logic to ω-Automata
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Javier Esparza; Jan Křetínský; Salomon Sickert

    We present a unified translation of linear temporal logic (LTL) formulas into deterministic Rabin automata (DRA), limit-deterministic Büchi automata (LDBA), and nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA). The translations yield automata of asymptotically optimal size (double or single exponential, respectively). All three translations are derived from one single Master Theorem of purely logical nature.

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Near-optimal Sample Complexity Bounds for Robust Learning of Gaussian Mixtures via Compression Schemes
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Hassan Ashtiani; Shai Ben-David; Nicholas J. A. Harvey; Christopher Liaw; Abbas Mehrabian; Yaniv Plan

    We introduce a novel technique for distribution learning based on a notion of sample compression. Any class of distributions that allows such a compression scheme can be learned with few samples. Moreover, if a class of distributions has such a compression scheme, then so do the classes of products and mixtures of those distributions. As an application of this technique, we prove that ˜Θ(kd2/ε2) samples

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Oracle-efficient Online Learning and Auction Design
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Miroslav Dudíte;k; Nika Haghtalab; Haipeng Luo; Robert E. Schapire; Vasilis Syrgkanis; Jennifer Wortman Vaughan

    We consider the design of computationally efficient online learning algorithms in an adversarial setting in which the learner has access to an offline optimization oracle. We present an algorithm called Generalized Follow-the-Perturbed-Leader and provide conditions under which it is oracle-efficient while achieving vanishing regret. Our results make significant progress on an open problem raised by

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Parallelism in Randomized Incremental Algorithms
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Guy E. Blelloch; Yan Gu; Julian Shun; Yihan Sun

    In this article, we show that many sequential randomized incremental algorithms are in fact parallel. We consider algorithms for several problems, including Delaunay triangulation, linear programming, closest pair, smallest enclosing disk, least-element lists, and strongly connected components. We analyze the dependencies between iterations in an algorithm and show that the dependence structure is

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Invited Articles Foreword
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Eva Tardos

    No abstract available.

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Universally Composable Security
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ran Canetti

    This work presents a general framework for describing cryptographic protocols and analyzing their security. The framework allows specifying the security requirements of practically any cryptographic task in a unified and systematic way. Furthermore, in this framework the security of protocols is preserved under a general composition operation, called universal composition. The proposed framework with

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Automating Resolution is NP-Hard
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Albert Atserias; Moritz Müller

    We show that the problem of finding a Resolution refutation that is at most polynomially longer than a shortest one is NP-hard. In the parlance of proof complexity, Resolution is not automatable unless P = NP. Indeed, we show that it is NP-hard to distinguish between formulas that have Resolution refutations of polynomial length and those that do not have subexponential length refutations. This also

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • A Proof of the CSP Dichotomy Conjecture
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Dmitriy Zhuk

    Many natural combinatorial problems can be expressed as constraint satisfaction problems. This class of problems is known to be NP-complete in general, but certain restrictions on the form of the constraints can ensure tractability. The standard way to parameterize interesting subclasses of the constraint satisfaction problem is via finite constraint languages. The main problem is to classify those

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Planar Graphs Have Bounded Queue-Number
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Vida Dujmović; Gwenaël Joret; Piotr Micek; Pat Morin; Torsten Ueckerdt; David R. Wood

    We show that planar graphs have bounded queue-number, thus proving a conjecture of Heath et al. [66] from 1992. The key to the proof is a new structural tool called layered partitions, and the result that every planar graph has a vertex-partition and a layering, such that each part has a bounded number of vertices in each layer, and the quotient graph has bounded treewidth. This result generalises

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • The Log-Approximate-Rank Conjecture Is False
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-21
    Arkadev Chattopadhyay; Nikhil S. Mande; Suhail Sherif

    We construct a simple and total Boolean function F = f ○ XOR on 2n variables that has only O(√n) spectral norm, O(n2) approximate rank, and O(n2.5) approximate nonnegative rank. We show it has polynomially large randomized bounded-error communication complexity of Ω(√n). This yields the first exponential gap between the logarithm of the approximate rank and randomized communication complexity for total

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • A Simple and Approximately Optimal Mechanism for an Additive Buyer
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Moshe Babaioff; Nicole Immorlica; Brendan Lucier; S. Matthew Weinberg

    We consider a monopolist seller with n heterogeneous items, facing a single buyer. The buyer has a value for each item drawn independently according to (non-identical) distributions, and her value for a set of items is additive. The seller aims to maximize his revenue. We suggest using the a priori better of two simple pricing methods: selling the items separately, each at its optimal price, and bundling

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Forcing and Calculi for Hybrid Logics
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Daniel Găină

    The definition of institution formalizes the intuitive notion of logic in a category-based setting. Similarly, the concept of stratified institution provides an abstract approach to Kripke semantics. This includes hybrid logics, a type of modal logics expressive enough to allow references to the nodes/states/worlds of the models regarded as relational structures, or multi-graphs. Applications of hybrid

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • The Power of Shunning: Efficient Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement Revisited*
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Laasya Bangalore; Ashish Choudhury; Arpita Patra

    The problem of Byzantine Agreement (BA) is of interest to both the distributed computing and cryptography communities. Following well-known results from distributed computing literature, the BA problem in the asynchronous network setting encounters inevitable non-termination issues. The impasse is overcome via randomization that allows construction of BA protocols in two flavors of termination guarantee—with

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Distributed Exact Shortest Paths in Sublinear Time
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Michael Elkin

    The distributed single-source shortest paths problem is one of the most fundamental and central problems in the message-passing distributed computing. Classical Bellman-Ford algorithm solves it in O(n) time, where n is the number of vertices in the input graph G. Peleg and Rubinovich [49] showed a lower bound of ˜Ω(D + √ n) for this problem, where D is the hop-diameter of G. Whether or not this problem

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Representative Sets and Irrelevant Vertices: New Tools for Kernelization
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Stefan Kratsch; Magnus WahlströM

    We continue the development of matroid-based techniques for kernelization, initiated by the present authors [47]. We significantly extend the usefulness of matroid theory in kernelization by showing applications of a result on representative sets due to Lovász [51] and Marx [53]. As a first result, we show how representative sets can be used to derive a polynomial kernel for the elusive ALMOST 2-SAT

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Fully Online Matching
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Zhiyi Huang; Ning Kang; Zhihao Gavin Tang; Xiaowei Wu; Yuhao Zhang; Xue Zhu

    We introduce a fully online model of maximum cardinality matching in which all vertices arrive online. On the arrival of a vertex, its incident edges to previously arrived vertices are revealed. Each vertex has a deadline that is after all its neighbors’ arrivals. If a vertex remains unmatched until its deadline, then the algorithm must irrevocably either match it to an unmatched neighbor or leave

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • A Near-linear Time ε-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Sharath Raghvendra; Pankaj K. Agarwal

    For point sets A, B ⊂ Rd, ∣A∣ = ∣B∣ = n, and for a parameter ε > 0, we present a Monte Carlo algorithm that computes, in O(npoly(log n, 1/ε)) time, an ε-approximate perfect matching of A and B under any Lp-norm with high probability; the previously best-known algorithm takes Ω(n3/2) time. We approximate the Lp-norm using a distance function, d(⋅, ⋅) based on a randomly shifted quad-tree. The algorithm

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Embeddability in R3is NP-hard
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Arnaud de Mesmay; Yo’av Rieck; Eric Sedgwick; Martin Tancer

    We prove that the problem of deciding whether a two- or three-dimensional simplicial complex embeds into R3 is NP-hard. Our construction also shows that deciding whether a 3-manifold with boundary tori admits an S3 filling is NP-hard. The former stands in contrast with the lower-dimensional cases, which can be solved in linear time, and the latter with a variety of computational problems in 3-manifold

    更新日期:2020-06-04
  • Scene Grammars, Factor Graphs, and Belief Propagation
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Jeroen Chua; Pedro F. Felzenszwalb

    We describe a general framework for probabilistic modeling of complex scenes and for inference from ambiguous observations. The approach is motivated by applications in image analysis and is based on the use of priors defined by stochastic grammars. We define a class of grammars that capture relationships between the objects in a scene and provide important contextual cues for statistical inference

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Planar Graph Perfect Matching Is in NC
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Nima Anari; Vijay V. Vazirani

    Is perfect matching in NC? That is, is there a deterministic fast parallel algorithm for it? This has been an outstanding open question in theoretical computer science for over three decades, ever since the discovery of RNC perfect matching algorithms. Within this question, the case of planar graphs has remained an enigma: On the one hand, counting the number of perfect matchings is far harder than

    更新日期:2020-05-30
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