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  • SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine design enabled by prototype pathogen preparedness
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Kizzmekia S. Corbett; Darin K. Edwards; Sarah R. Leist; Olubukola M. Abiona; Seyhan Boyoglu-Barnum; Rebecca A. Gillespie; Sunny Himansu; Alexandra Schäfer; Cynthia T. Ziwawo; Anthony T. DiPiazza; Kenneth H. Dinnon; Sayda M. Elbashir; Christine A. Shaw; Angela Woods; Ethan J. Fritch; David R. Martinez; Kevin W. Bock; Mahnaz Minai; Bianca M. Nagata; Geoffrey B. Hutchinson; Kai Wu; Carole Henry; Kapil

    A vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed to control the global coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) public health crisis. Atomic-level structures directed the application of prefusion-stabilizing mutations that improved the expression and immunogenicity of betacoronavirus spike proteins1. Using this established immunogen design, the release of SARS-CoV-2

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • A photochemical dehydrogenative strategy for aniline synthesis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Shashikant U. Dighe; Fabio Juliá; Alberto Luridiana; James J. Douglas; Daniele Leonori

    Chemical reactions that reliably join two molecular fragments together (cross-couplings) are essential to the discovery and manufacture of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals1,2. The introduction of amines onto functionalized aromatics at specific and pre-determined positions (ortho versus meta versus para) is currently achievable only in transition-metal-catalysed processes and requires halogen- or

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • The tuatara genome reveals ancient features of amniote evolution
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Neil J. Gemmell; Kim Rutherford; Stefan Prost; Marc Tollis; David Winter; J. Robert Macey; David L. Adelson; Alexander Suh; Terry Bertozzi; José H. Grau; Chris Organ; Paul P. Gardner; Matthieu Muffato; Mateus Patricio; Konstantinos Billis; Fergal J. Martin; Paul Flicek; Bent Petersen; Lin Kang; Pawel Michalak; Thomas R. Buckley; Melissa Wilson; Yuanyuan Cheng; Hilary Miller; Ryan K. Schott; Melissa

    The tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus)—the only living member of the reptilian order Rhynchocephalia (Sphenodontia), once widespread across Gondwana1,2—is an iconic species that is endemic to New Zealand2,3. A key link to the now-extinct stem reptiles (from which dinosaurs, modern reptiles, birds and mammals evolved), the tuatara provides key insights into the ancestral amniotes2,4. Here we analyse the

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Small lightning flashes from shallow electrical storms on Jupiter
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Heidi N. Becker; James W. Alexander; Sushil K. Atreya; Scott J. Bolton; Martin J. Brennan; Shannon T. Brown; Alexandre Guillaume; Tristan Guillot; Andrew P. Ingersoll; Steven M. Levin; Jonathan I. Lunine; Yury S. Aglyamov; Paul G. Steffes

    Lightning flashes have been observed by a number of missions that visited or flew by Jupiter over the past several decades. Imagery led to a flash rate estimate of about 4 × 10−3 flashes per square kilometre per year (refs. 1,2). The spatial extent of Voyager flashes was estimated to be about 30 kilometres (half-width at half-maximum intensity, HWHM), but the camera was unlikely to have detected the

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Exponentially faster cooling in a colloidal system
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Avinash Kumar; John Bechhoefer

    As the temperature of a cooling object decreases as it relaxes to thermal equilibrium, it is intuitively assumed that a hot object should take longer to cool than a warm one. Yet, some 2,300 years ago, Aristotle observed that “to cool hot water quickly, begin by putting it in the sun”1,2. In the 1960s, this counterintuitive phenomenon was rediscovered as the statement that “hot water can freeze faster

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Dichotomous engagement of HDAC3 activity governs inflammatory responses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Hoang C. B. Nguyen; Marine Adlanmerini; Amy K. Hauck; Mitchell A. Lazar

    The histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a superfamily of chromatin-modifying enzymes that silence transcription through the modification of histones. Among them, HDAC3 is unique in that interaction with nuclear receptor corepressors 1 and 2 (NCoR1/2) is required to engage its catalytic activity1,2,3. However, global loss of HDAC3 also results in the repression of transcription, the mechanism of which

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Mucosal or systemic microbiota exposures shape the B cell repertoire
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Hai Li; Julien P. Limenitakis; Victor Greiff; Bahtiyar Yilmaz; Olivier Schären; Camilla Urbaniak; Mirjam Zünd; Melissa A. E. Lawson; Ian D. Young; Sandra Rupp; Mathias Heikenwälder; Kathy D. McCoy; Siegfried Hapfelmeier; Stephanie C. Ganal-Vonarburg; Andrew J. Macpherson

    Colonization by the microbiota causes a marked stimulation of B cells and induction of immunoglobulin, but mammals colonized with many taxa have highly complex and individualized immunoglobulin repertoires1,2. Here we use a simplified model of defined transient exposures to different microbial taxa in germ-free mice3 to deconstruct how the microbiota shapes the B cell pool and its functional responsiveness

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Position-specific oxidation of miR-1 encodes cardiac hypertrophy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Heeyoung Seok; Haejeong Lee; Sohyun Lee; Seung Hyun Ahn; Hye-Sook Lee; Geun-Woo D. Kim; Jongjin Peak; Jongyeun Park; You Kyung Cho; Yeojin Jeong; Dowoon Gu; Yeahji Jeong; Sangkyeong Eom; Eun-Sook Jang; Sung Wook Chi

    In pathophysiology, reactive oxygen species oxidize biomolecules that contribute to disease phenotypes1. One such modification, 8-oxoguanine2 (o8G), is abundant in RNA3 but its epitranscriptional role has not been investigated for microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we specifically sequence oxidized miRNAs in a rat model of the redox-associated condition cardiac hypertrophy4. We find that position-specific o8G

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • A measurement of the equation of state of carbon envelopes of white dwarfs
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Andrea L. Kritcher; Damian C. Swift; Tilo Döppner; Benjamin Bachmann; Lorin X. Benedict; Gilbert W. Collins; Jonathan L. DuBois; Fred Elsner; Gilles Fontaine; Jim A. Gaffney; Sebastien Hamel; Amy Lazicki; Walter R. Johnson; Natalie Kostinski; Dominik Kraus; Michael J. MacDonald; Brian Maddox; Madison E. Martin; Paul Neumayer; Abbas Nikroo; Joseph Nilsen; Bruce A. Remington; Didier Saumon; Phillip A

    White dwarfs represent the final state of evolution for most stars1,2,3. Certain classes of white dwarfs pulsate4,5, leading to observable brightness variations, and analysis of these variations with theoretical stellar models probes their internal structure. Modelling of these pulsating stars provides stringent tests of white dwarf models and a detailed picture of the outcome of the late stages of

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Zoonotic host diversity increases in human-dominated ecosystems
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Rory Gibb; David W. Redding; Kai Qing Chin; Christl A. Donnelly; Tim M. Blackburn; Tim Newbold; Kate E. Jones

    Land use change—for example, the conversion of natural habitats to agricultural or urban ecosystems—is widely recognized to influence the risk and emergence of zoonotic disease in humans1,2. However, whether such changes in risk are underpinned by predictable ecological changes remains unclear. It has been suggested that habitat disturbance might cause predictable changes in the local diversity and

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Quantum distance and anomalous Landau levels of flat bands
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Jun-Won Rhim; Kyoo Kim; Bohm-Jung Yang

    Semiclassical quantization of electronic states under a magnetic field, as proposed by Onsager, describes not only the Landau level spectrum but also the geometric responses of metals under a magnetic field1,2,3,4,5. Even in graphene with relativistic energy dispersion, Onsager’s rule correctly describes the π Berry phase, as well as the unusual Landau level spectrum of Dirac particles6,7. However

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • New Guinea has the world’s richest island flora
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Rodrigo Cámara-Leret; David G. Frodin; Frits Adema; Christiane Anderson; Marc S. Appelhans; George Argent; Susana Arias Guerrero; Peter Ashton; William J. Baker; Anders S. Barfod; David Barrington; Renata Borosova; Gemma L. C. Bramley; Marie Briggs; Sven Buerki; Daniel Cahen; Martin W. Callmander; Martin Cheek; Cheng-Wei Chen; Barry J. Conn; Mark J. E. Coode; Iain Darbyshire; Sally Dawson; John Dransfield;

    New Guinea is the world’s largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients—from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands—that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Rescue of oxytocin response and social behaviour in a mouse model of autism
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Hanna Hörnberg; Enrique Pérez-Garci; Dietmar Schreiner; Laetitia Hatstatt-Burklé; Fulvio Magara; Stephane Baudouin; Alex Matter; Kassoum Nacro; Eline Pecho-Vrieseling; Peter Scheiffele

    A fundamental challenge in developing treatments for autism spectrum disorders is the heterogeneity of the condition. More than one hundred genetic mutations confer high risk for autism, with each individual mutation accounting for only a small fraction of cases1,2,3. Subsets of risk genes can be grouped into functionally related pathways, most prominently those involving synaptic proteins, translational

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • Thermal displacement by marine heatwaves
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Michael G. Jacox; Michael A. Alexander; Steven J. Bograd; James D. Scott

    Marine heatwaves (MHWs)—discrete but prolonged periods of anomalously warm ocean temperatures—can drastically alter ocean ecosystems, with profound ecological and socioeconomic impacts1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Considerable effort has been directed at understanding the patterns, drivers and trends of MHWs globally9,10,11. Typically, MHWs are characterized on the basis of their intensity and persistence at a

    更新日期:2020-08-05
  • ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Neeltje van Doremalen; Teresa Lambe; Alexandra Spencer; Sandra Belij-Rammerstorfer; Jyothi N. Purushotham; Julia R. Port; Victoria A. Avanzato; Trenton Bushmaker; Amy Flaxman; Marta Ulaszewska; Friederike Feldmann; Elizabeth R. Allen; Hannah Sharpe; Jonathan Schulz; Myndi Holbrook; Atsushi Okumura; Kimberly Meade-White; Lizzette Pérez-Pérez; Nick J. Edwards; Daniel Wright; Cameron Bissett; Ciaran Gilbride;

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 20191,2 and is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic3. Vaccines are an essential countermeasure urgently needed to control the pandemic4. Here, we show that the adenovirus-vectored vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, encoding the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, is immunogenic in mice, eliciting a robust humoral and cell-mediated response

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Microbiota-derived metabolite promotes HDAC3 activity in the gut
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Shu-en Wu; Seika Hashimoto-Hill; Vivienne Woo; Emily M. Eshleman; Jordan Whitt; Laura Engleman; Rebekah Karns; Lee A. Denson; David B. Haslam; Theresa Alenghat

    The coevolution of mammalian hosts and their beneficial commensal microbes has led to development of a symbiotic host-microbiota relationship1. Epigenetic machinery permits mammalian cells to integrate environmental signals2, however, how these pathways are finely tuned by diverse cues from commensal bacteria is not well understood. Here, we reveal a highly selective pathway through which microbiota-derived

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • DNA targeting and interference by a bacterial Argonaute nuclease
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Anton Kuzmenko; Anastasiya Oguienko; Daria Esyunina; Denis Yudin; Mayya Petrova; Alina Kudinova; Olga Maslova; Maria Ninova; Sergei Ryazansky; David Leach; Alexei A. Aravin; Andrey Kulbachinskiy

    Members of the conserved Argonaute protein family use small RNA guides to find their mRNA targets to regulate gene expression and suppress mobile genetic elements in eukaryotes1,2. Argonautes are also present in many bacterial and archaeal species3–5. Unlike eukaryotic proteins, several studied prokaryotic Argonautes use small DNA guides to cleave DNA, a process dubbed DNA interference6–10. However

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Single-shot Ad26 vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Noe B. Mercado; Roland Zahn; Frank Wegmann; Carolin Loos; Abishek Chandrashekar; Jingyou Yu; Jinyan Liu; Lauren Peter; Katherine McMahan; Lisa H. Tostanoski; Xuan He; David R. Martinez; Lucy Rutten; Rinke Bos; Danielle van Manen; Jort Vellinga; Jerome Custers; Johannes P. Langedijk; Ted Kwaks; Mark J. G. Bakkers; David Zuijdgeest; Sietske K. Rosendahl Huber; Caroline Atyeo; Stephanie Fischinger; John

    A safe and effective vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be required to end the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1–8. For global deployment and pandemic control, a vaccine that requires only a single immunization would be optimal. Here we show the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a single dose of adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) vector-based

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Julian Braun; Lucie Loyal; Marco Frentsch; Daniel Wendisch; Philipp Georg; Florian Kurth; Stefan Hippenstiel; Manuela Dingeldey; Beate Kruse; Florent Fauchere; Emre Baysal; Maike Mangold; Larissa Henze; Roland Lauster; Marcus A. Mall; Kirsten Beyer; Jobst Röhmel; Sebastian Voigt; Jürgen Schmitz; Stefan Miltenyi; Ilja Demuth; Marcel A. Müller; Andreas Hocke; Martin Witzenrath; Norbert Suttorp; Florian

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the rapidly unfolding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1,2. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary, ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory failure. The mechanisms determining such variable outcomes remain unresolved. Here, we investigated SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S)-reactive CD4+ T cells in peripheral

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Night-time measurements of astronomical seeing at Dome A in Antarctica
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Bin Ma; Zhaohui Shang; Yi Hu; Keliang Hu; Yongjiang Wang; Xu Yang; Michael C. B. Ashley; Paul Hickson; Peng Jiang

    Seeing—the angular size of stellar images blurred by atmospheric turbulence—is a critical parameter used to assess the quality of astronomical sites at optical/infrared wavelengths. Median values at the best mid-latitude sites are generally in the range of 0.6–0.8 arcseconds1,2,3. Sites on the Antarctic plateau are characterized by comparatively weak turbulence in the free atmosphere above a strong

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Association of COVID-19 inflammation with activation of the C5a–C5aR1 axis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Julien Carvelli; Olivier Demaria; Frédéric Vély; Luciana Batista; Nassima Chouaki Benmansour; Joanna Fares; Sabrina Carpentier; Marie-Laure Thibult; Ariane Morel; Romain Remark; Pascale André; Agnès Represa; Christelle Piperoglou; Pierre Yves Cordier; Erwan Le Dault; Christophe Guervilly; Pierre Simeone; Marc Gainnier; Yannis Morel; Mikael Ebbo; Nicolas Schleinitz; Eric Vivier

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new pandemic disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1. The C5a anaphylatoxin and its receptor C5aR1 (CD88) play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of several inflammatory responses, by recruiting and activating neutrophils and monocytes in the lungs1. We provide a longitudinal analysis of immune

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • A vaccine targeting the RBD of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces protective immunity
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Jingyun Yang; Wei Wang; Zimin Chen; Shuaiyao Lu; Fanli Yang; Zhenfei Bi; Linlin Bao; Fei Mo; Xue Li; Yong Huang; Weiqi Hong; Yun Yang; Yuan Zhao; Fei Ye; Sheng Lin; Wei Deng; Hua Chen; Hong Lei; Ziqi Zhang; Min Luo; Hong Gao; Yue Zheng; Yanqiu Gong; Xiaohua Jiang; Yanfeng Xu; Qi Lv; Dan Li; Manni Wang; Fengdi Li; Shunyi Wang; Guanpeng Wang; Pin Yu; Yajin Qu; Li Yang; Hongxin Deng; Aiping Tong; Jiong

    The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory illness called COVID-19 leading to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As the most critical step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses its Spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) to engage with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)1,2. Here we showed that a recombinant vaccine

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Papain-like protease regulates SARS-CoV-2 viral spread and innate immunity
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Donghyuk Shin; Rukmini Mukherjee; Diana Grewe; Denisa Bojkova; Kheewoong Baek; Anshu Bhattacharya; Laura Schulz; Marek Widera; Ahmad Reza Mehdipour; Georg Tascher; Paul P. Geurink; Alexander Wilhelm; Gerbrand J. van der Heden van Noort; Huib Ovaa; Stefan Müller; Klaus-Peter Knobeloch; Krishnaraj Rajalingam; Brenda A. Schulman; Jindrich Cinatl; Gerhard Hummer; Sandra Ciesek; Ivan Dikic

    The papain-like protease PLpro is an essential coronavirus enzyme required for processing viral polyproteins to generate a functional replicase complex and enable viral spread1,2. PLpro is also implicated in cleaving proteinaceous post-translational modifications on host proteins as an evasion mechanism against host anti-viral immune responses3–5. Here, we provide biochemical, structural and functional

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Lysosome-targeting chimaeras for degradation of extracellular proteins
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Steven M. Banik; Kayvon Pedram; Simon Wisnovsky; Green Ahn; Nicholas M. Riley; Carolyn R. Bertozzi

    The majority of therapies that target individual proteins rely on specific activity-modulating interactions with the target protein—for example, enzyme inhibition or ligand blocking. However, several major classes of therapeutically relevant proteins have unknown or inaccessible activity profiles and so cannot be targeted by such strategies. Protein-degradation platforms such as proteolysis-targeting

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Spatiotemporal DNA methylome dynamics of the developing mouse fetus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Yupeng He; Manoj Hariharan; David U. Gorkin; Diane E. Dickel; Chongyuan Luo; Rosa G. Castanon; Joseph R. Nery; Ah Young Lee; Yuan Zhao; Hui Huang; Brian A. Williams; Diane Trout; Henry Amrhein; Rongxin Fang; Huaming Chen; Bin Li; Axel Visel; Len A. Pennacchio; Bing Ren; Joseph R. Ecker

    Cytosine DNA methylation is essential for mammalian development but understanding of its spatiotemporal distribution in the developing embryo remains limited1,2. Here, as part of the mouse Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, we profiled 168 methylomes from 12 mouse tissues or organs at 9 developmental stages from embryogenesis to adulthood. We identified 1,808,810 genomic regions that showed

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Na + controls hypoxic signalling by the mitochondrial respiratory chain
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín; Carmen Choya-Foces; Susana Carregal-Romero; Elena Ramos; Tamara Oliva; Tamara Villa-Piña; Laura Moreno; Alicia Izquierdo-Álvarez; J. Daniel Cabrera-García; Ana Cortés; Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco; Pooja Jadiya; Elisa Navarro; Esther Parada; Alejandra Palomino-Antolín; Daniel Tello; Rebeca Acín-Pérez; Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Aguilera; Plácido Navas; Ángel Cogolludo; Iván López-Montero;

    All metazoans depend on the consumption of O2 by the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) to produce energy. In addition, the OXPHOS uses O2 to produce reactive oxygen species that can drive cell adaptations1,2,3,4, a phenomenon that occurs in hypoxia4,5,6,7,8 and whose precise mechanism remains unknown. Ca2+ is the best known ion that acts as a second messenger9, yet the role ascribed

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Waveguide quantum electrodynamics with superconducting artificial giant atoms
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Bharath Kannan; Max J. Ruckriegel; Daniel L. Campbell; Anton Frisk Kockum; Jochen Braumüller; David K. Kim; Morten Kjaergaard; Philip Krantz; Alexander Melville; Bethany M. Niedzielski; Antti Vepsäläinen; Roni Winik; Jonilyn L. Yoder; Franco Nori; Terry P. Orlando; Simon Gustavsson; William D. Oliver

    Models of light–matter interactions in quantum electrodynamics typically invoke the dipole approximation1,2, in which atoms are treated as point-like objects when compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic modes with which they interact. However, when the ratio between the size of the atom and the mode wavelength is increased, the dipole approximation no longer holds and the atom is referred

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Global reference mapping of human transcription factor footprints
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Jeff Vierstra; John Lazar; Richard Sandstrom; Jessica Halow; Kristen Lee; Daniel Bates; Morgan Diegel; Douglas Dunn; Fidencio Neri; Eric Haugen; Eric Rynes; Alex Reynolds; Jemma Nelson; Audra Johnson; Mark Frerker; Michael Buckley; Rajinder Kaul; Wouter Meuleman; John A. Stamatoyannopoulos

    Combinatorial binding of transcription factors to regulatory DNA underpins gene regulation in all organisms. Genetic variation in regulatory regions has been connected with diseases and diverse phenotypic traits1, but it remains challenging to distinguish variants that affect regulatory function2. Genomic DNase I footprinting enables the quantitative, nucleotide-resolution delineation of sites of transcription

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Perspectives on ENCODE
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Michael P. Snyder; Thomas R. Gingeras; Jill E. Moore; Zhiping Weng; Mark B. Gerstein; Bing Ren; Ross C. Hardison; John A. Stamatoyannopoulos; Brenton R. Graveley; Elise A. Feingold; Michael J. Pazin; Michael Pagan; Daniel A. Gilchrist; Benjamin C. Hitz; J. Michael Cherry; Bradley E. Bernstein; Eric M. Mendenhall; Daniel R. Zerbino; Adam Frankish; Paul Flicek; Richard M. Myers

    The Encylopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project launched in 2003 with the long-term goal of developing a comprehensive map of functional elements in the human genome. These included genes, biochemical regions associated with gene regulation (for example, transcription factor binding sites, open chromatin, and histone marks) and transcript isoforms. The marks serve as sites for candidate cis-regulatory

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Mechanisms of stretch-mediated skin expansion at single-cell resolution
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Mariaceleste Aragona; Alejandro Sifrim; Milan Malfait; Yura Song; Jens Van Herck; Sophie Dekoninck; Souhir Gargouri; Gaëlle Lapouge; Benjamin Swedlund; Christine Dubois; Pieter Baatsen; Katlijn Vints; Seungmin Han; Fadel Tissir; Thierry Voet; Benjamin D. Simons; Cédric Blanpain

    The ability of the skin to grow in response to stretching has been exploited in reconstructive surgery1. Although the response of epidermal cells to stretching has been studied in vitro2,3, it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect their behaviour in vivo. Here we develop a mouse model in which the consequences of stretching on skin epidermis can be studied at single-cell resolution. Using a

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • A fabrication process for flexible single-crystal perovskite devices
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Yusheng Lei; Yimu Chen; Ruiqi Zhang; Yuheng Li; Qizhang Yan; Seunghyun Lee; Yugang Yu; Hsinhan Tsai; Woojin Choi; Kaiping Wang; Yanqi Luo; Yue Gu; Xinran Zheng; Chunfeng Wang; Chonghe Wang; Hongjie Hu; Yang Li; Baiyan Qi; Muyang Lin; Zhuorui Zhang; Shadi A. Dayeh; Matt Pharr; David P. Fenning; Yu-Hwa Lo; Jian Luo; Kesong Yang; Jinkyoung Yoo; Wanyi Nie; Sheng Xu

    Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have electronic and optoelectronic properties that make them appealing in many device applications1,2,3,4. Although many approaches focus on polycrystalline materials5,6,7, single-crystal hybrid perovskites show improved carrier transport and enhanced stability over their polycrystalline counterparts, due to their orientation-dependent transport behaviour8,9,10

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Occupancy maps of 208 chromatin-associated proteins in one human cell type
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    E. Christopher Partridge; Surya B. Chhetri; Jeremy W. Prokop; Ryne C. Ramaker; Camden S. Jansen; Say-Tar Goh; Mark Mackiewicz; Kimberly M. Newberry; Laurel A. Brandsmeier; Sarah K. Meadows; C. Luke Messer; Andrew A. Hardigan; Candice J. Coppola; Emma C. Dean; Shan Jiang; Daniel Savic; Ali Mortazavi; Barbara J. Wold; Richard M. Myers; Eric M. Mendenhall

    Transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins that have key roles in gene regulation1,2. Genome-wide occupancy maps of transcriptional regulators are important for understanding gene regulation and its effects on diverse biological processes3,4,5,6. However, only a minority of the more than 1,600 transcription factors encoded in the human genome has been assayed. Here we present, as part of the ENCODE

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Epigenetic regulator function through mouse gastrulation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Stefanie Grosswendt; Helene Kretzmer; Zachary D. Smith; Abhishek Sampath Kumar; Sara Hetzel; Lars Wittler; Sven Klages; Bernd Timmermann; Shankar Mukherji; Alexander Meissner

    During ontogeny, proliferating cells become restricted in their fate through the combined action of cell-type-specific transcription factors and ubiquitous epigenetic machinery, which recognizes universally available histone residues or nucleotides in a context-dependent manner1,2. The molecular functions of these regulators are generally well understood, but assigning direct developmental roles to

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Ecosystem decay exacerbates biodiversity loss with habitat loss
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Jonathan M. Chase; Shane A. Blowes; Tiffany M. Knight; Katharina Gerstner; Felix May

    Although habitat loss is the predominant factor leading to biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene1,2, exactly how this loss manifests—and at which scales—remains a central debate3,4,5,6. The ‘passive sampling’ hypothesis suggests that species are lost in proportion to their abundance and distribution in the natural habitat7,8, whereas the ‘ecosystem decay’ hypothesis suggests that ecological processes

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • An RNA vaccine drives immunity in checkpoint-inhibitor-treated melanoma
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Ugur Sahin; Petra Oehm; Evelyna Derhovanessian; Robert A. Jabulowsky; Mathias Vormehr; Maike Gold; Daniel Maurus; Doreen Schwarck-Kokarakis; Andreas N. Kuhn; Tana Omokoko; Lena M. Kranz; Mustafa Diken; Sebastian Kreiter; Heinrich Haas; Sebastian Attig; Richard Rae; Katarina Cuk; Alexandra Kemmer-Brück; Andrea Breitkreuz; Claudia Tolliver; Janina Caspar; Juliane Quinkhardt; Lisa Hebich; Malte Stein;

    Treating patients who have cancer with vaccines that stimulate a targeted immune response is conceptually appealing, but cancer vaccine trials have not been successful in late-stage patients with treatment-refractory tumours1,2. We are testing melanoma FixVac (BNT111)—an intravenously administered liposomal RNA (RNA-LPX) vaccine, which targets four non-mutated, tumour-associated antigens that are prevalent

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Deep strong light–matter coupling in plasmonic nanoparticle crystals
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Niclas S. Mueller; Yu Okamura; Bruno G. M. Vieira; Sabrina Juergensen; Holger Lange; Eduardo B. Barros; Florian Schulz; Stephanie Reich

    In the regime of deep strong light–matter coupling, the coupling strength exceeds the transition energies of the material1,2,3, fundamentally changing its properties4,5; for example, the ground state of the system contains virtual photons and the internal electromagnetic field gets redistributed by photon self-interaction1,6. So far, no electronic excitation of a material has shown such strong coupling

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • The changing mouse embryo transcriptome at whole tissue and single-cell resolution
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Peng He; Brian A. Williams; Diane Trout; Georgi K. Marinov; Henry Amrhein; Libera Berghella; Say-Tar Goh; Ingrid Plajzer-Frick; Veena Afzal; Len A. Pennacchio; Diane E. Dickel; Axel Visel; Bing Ren; Ross C. Hardison; Yu Zhang; Barbara J. Wold

    During mammalian embryogenesis, differential gene expression gradually builds the identity and complexity of each tissue and organ system1. Here we systematically quantified mouse polyA-RNA from day 10.5 of embryonic development to birth, sampling 17 tissues and organs. The resulting developmental transcriptome is globally structured by dynamic cytodifferentiation, body-axis and cell-proliferation

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • An atlas of dynamic chromatin landscapes in mouse fetal development
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    David U. Gorkin; Iros Barozzi; Yuan Zhao; Yanxiao Zhang; Hui Huang; Ah Young Lee; Bin Li; Joshua Chiou; Andre Wildberg; Bo Ding; Bo Zhang; Mengchi Wang; J. Seth Strattan; Jean M. Davidson; Yunjiang Qiu; Veena Afzal; Jennifer A. Akiyama; Ingrid Plajzer-Frick; Catherine S. Novak; Momoe Kato; Tyler H. Garvin; Quan T. Pham; Anne N. Harrington; Brandon J. Mannion; Elizabeth A. Lee; Yoko Fukuda-Yuzawa; Yupeng

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has established a genomic resource for mammalian development, profiling a diverse panel of mouse tissues at 8 developmental stages from 10.5 days after conception until birth, including transcriptomes, methylomes and chromatin states. Here we systematically examined the state and accessibility of chromatin in the developing mouse fetus. In total we

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • The tidal remnant of an unusually metal-poor globular cluster
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Zhen Wan; Geraint F. Lewis; Ting S. Li; Jeffrey D. Simpson; Sarah L. Martell; Daniel B. Zucker; Jeremy R. Mould; Denis Erkal; Andrew B. Pace; Dougal Mackey; Alexander P. Ji; Sergey E. Koposov; Kyler Kuehn; Nora Shipp; Eduardo Balbinot; Joss Bland-Hawthorn; Andrew R. Casey; Gary S. Da Costa; Prajwal Kafle; Sanjib Sharma; Gayandhi M. De Silva

    Globular clusters are some of the oldest bound stellar structures observed in the Universe1. They are ubiquitous in large galaxies and are believed to trace intense star-formation events and the hierarchical build-up of structure2,3. Observations of globular clusters in the Milky Way, and a wide variety of other galaxies, have found evidence for a ‘metallicity floor’, whereby no globular clusters are

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • A large-scale binding and functional map of human RNA-binding proteins
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Eric L. Van Nostrand; Peter Freese; Gabriel A. Pratt; Xiaofeng Wang; Xintao Wei; Rui Xiao; Steven M. Blue; Jia-Yu Chen; Neal A. L. Cody; Daniel Dominguez; Sara Olson; Balaji Sundararaman; Lijun Zhan; Cassandra Bazile; Louis Philip Benoit Bouvrette; Julie Bergalet; Michael O. Duff; Keri E. Garcia; Chelsea Gelboin-Burkhart; Myles Hochman; Nicole J. Lambert; Hairi Li; Michael P. McGurk; Thai B. Nguyen;

    Many proteins regulate the expression of genes by binding to specific regions encoded in the genome1. Here we introduce a new data set of RNA elements in the human genome that are recognized by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), generated as part of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project phase III. This class of regulatory elements functions only when transcribed into RNA, as they serve as the

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Index and biological spectrum of human DNase I hypersensitive sites
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Wouter Meuleman; Alexander Muratov; Eric Rynes; Jessica Halow; Kristen Lee; Daniel Bates; Morgan Diegel; Douglas Dunn; Fidencio Neri; Athanasios Teodosiadis; Alex Reynolds; Eric Haugen; Jemma Nelson; Audra Johnson; Mark Frerker; Michael Buckley; Richard Sandstrom; Jeff Vierstra; Rajinder Kaul; John Stamatoyannopoulos

    DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are generic markers of regulatory DNA1,2,3,4,5 and contain genetic variations associated with diseases and phenotypic traits6,7,8. We created high-resolution maps of DHSs from 733 human biosamples encompassing 438 cell and tissue types and states, and integrated these to delineate and numerically index approximately 3.6 million DHSs within the human genome sequence

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • The gut microbiome switches mutant p53 from tumour-suppressive to oncogenic
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Eliran Kadosh; Irit Snir-Alkalay; Avanthika Venkatachalam; Shahaf May; Audrey Lasry; Ela Elyada; Adar Zinger; Maya Shaham; Gitit Vaalani; Marco Mernberger; Thorsten Stiewe; Eli Pikarsky; Moshe Oren; Yinon Ben-Neriah

    Somatic mutations in p53, which inactivate the tumour-suppressor function of p53 and often confer oncogenic gain-of-function properties, are very common in cancer1,2. Here we studied the effects of hotspot gain-of-function mutations in Trp53 (the gene that encodes p53 in mice) in mouse models of WNT-driven intestinal cancer caused by Csnk1a1 deletion3,4 or ApcMin mutation5. Cancer in these models is

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • CTCF orchestrates long-range cohesin-driven V(D)J recombinational scanning
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Zhaoqing Ba; Jiangman Lou; Adam Yongxin Ye; Hai-Qiang Dai; Edward W. Dring; Sherry G. Lin; Suvi Jain; Nia Kyritsis; Kyong-Rim Kieffer-Kwon; Rafael Casellas; Frederick W. Alt

    RAG endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination in progenitor (pro)-B cells1. Upon binding a recombination center (RC)-based JH, RAG scans upstream chromatin via loop extrusion, potentially mediated by cohesin, to locate Ds and assemble a DJH-based RC2. CTCF looping factor-bound elements (CBEs) within IGCR1 upstream of Ds impede RAG-scanning3–5; but their inactivation allows scanning to proximal VHs

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Longitudinal analyses reveal immunological misfiring in severe COVID-19
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Carolina Lucas; Patrick Wong; Jon Klein; Tiago B. R. Castro; Julio Silva; Maria Sundaram; Mallory K. Ellingson; Tianyang Mao; Ji Eun Oh; Benjamin Israelow; Takehiro Takahashi; Maria Tokuyama; Peiwen Lu; Arvind Venkataraman; Annsea Park; Subhasis Mohanty; Haowei Wang; Anne L. Wyllie; Chantal B. F. Vogels; Rebecca Earnest; Sarah Lapidus; Isabel M. Ott; Adam J. Moore; M. Catherine Muenker; John B. Fournier;

    Recent studies have provided insights into the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1–4. Yet, longitudinal immunological correlates of disease outcome remain unclear. Here, we serially analysed immune responses in 113 COVID-19 patients with moderate (non-ICU) and severe (ICU) disease. Immune profiling revealed an overall increase in innate cell lineages with a concomitant reduction in

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Genome-wide detection of tandem DNA repeats that are expanded in autism
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Brett Trost; Worrawat Engchuan; Charlotte M. Nguyen; Bhooma Thiruvahindrapuram; Egor Dolzhenko; Ian Backstrom; Mila Mirceta; Bahareh A. Mojarad; Yue Yin; Alona Dov; Induja Chandrakumar; Tanya Prasolava; Natalie Shum; Omar Hamdan; Giovanna Pellecchia; Jennifer L. Howe; Joseph Whitney; Eric W. Klee; Saurabh Baheti; David G. Amaral; Evdokia Anagnostou; Mayada Elsabbagh; Bridget A. Fernandez; Ny Hoang;

    Tandem DNA repeats vary by the size and sequence of each unit (motif). When expanded, they have been associated with more than 40 monogenic disorders1. Their involvement in complex disorders is largely unknown, as is the extent of their heterogeneity. Here, we interrogated genome-wide characteristics of tandem repeats with 2–20-bp motifs in 17,231 genomes of families with autism2,3 and population controls4

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Discovery of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs through large-scale compound repurposing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Laura Riva; Shuofeng Yuan; Xin Yin; Laura Martin-Sancho; Naoko Matsunaga; Lars Pache; Sebastian Burgstaller-Muehlbacher; Paul D. De Jesus; Peter Teriete; Mitchell V. Hull; Max W. Chang; Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan; Jianli Cao; Vincent Kwok-Man Poon; Kristina M. Herbert; Kuoyuan Cheng; Tu-Trinh H. Nguyen; Andrey Rubanov; Yuan Pu; Courtney Nguyen; Angela Choi; Raveen Rathnasinghe; Michael Schotsaert; Lisa Miorin;

    The emergence of the novel SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 has triggered an ongoing global pandemic of severe pneumonia-like disease designated as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1. The development of a vaccine is likely to require at least 12-18 months, and the typical timeline for approval of a novel antiviral therapeutic can exceed 10 years. Thus, repurposing of known drugs could significantly

    更新日期:2020-07-24
  • MeCP2 links heterochromatin condensates and neurodevelopmental disease
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Charles H. Li; Eliot L. Coffey; Alessandra Dall’Agnese; Nancy M. Hannett; Xin Tang; Jonathan E. Henninger; Jesse M. Platt; Ozgur Oksuz; Alicia V. Zamudio; Lena K. Afeyan; Jurian Schuijers; X. Shawn Liu; Styliani Markoulaki; Tenzin Lungjangwa; Gary LeRoy; Devon S. Svoboda; Emile Wogram; Tong Ihn Lee; Rudolf Jaenisch; Richard A. Young

    MeCP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) is a key component of constitutive heterochromatin, which plays important roles in chromosome maintenance and transcriptional silencing1–3. Mutations in MeCP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT)3–5, a postnatal progressive neurodevelopmental disorder associated with severe mental disability and autism-like symptoms that manifests in girls during early childhood. Heterochromatin

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Chloroquine does not inhibit infection of human lung cells with SARS-CoV-2
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Markus Hoffmann; Kirstin Mösbauer; Heike Hofmann-Winkler; Artur Kaul; Hannah Kleine-Weber; Nadine Krüger; Nils C. Gassen; Marcel A. Müller; Christian Drosten; Stefan Pöhlmann

    The COVID-19 pandemic, which is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has been associated with more than 470,000 fatal cases worldwide. In order to develop antiviral interventions quickly, drugs used for treatment of unrelated diseases are currently being repurposed to combat COVID-19. Chloroquine is a anti-malaria drug that is frequently employed for COVID-19 treatment since it inhibits SARS-CoV-2

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Structure of the human sodium leak channel NALCN
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Marc Kschonsak; Han Chow Chua; Cameron L. Noland; Claudia Weidling; Thomas Clairfeuille; Oskar Ørts Bahlke; Aishat Oluwanifemi Ameen; Zhong Rong Li; Christopher P. Arthur; Claudio Ciferri; Stephan Alexander Pless; Jian Payandeh

    Persistently depolarizing sodium (Na+) leak currents that enhance electrical excitability have been described for decades1,2. The entity responsible for the major background Na+ conductance in neurons had remained a mystery until characterization of NALCN (Na+ leak channel, non-selective)3,4. NALCN-mediated currents regulate neuronal excitability linked to respiration, locomotion and circadian rhythm4–10

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Structural basis of GPBAR activation and bile acid recognition
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Fan Yang; Chunyou Mao; Lulu Guo; Jingyu Lin; Qianqian Ming; Peng Xiao; Xiang Wu; Qingya Shen; Shimeng Guo; Dan-Dan Shen; Ruirui Lu; Linqi Zhang; Shenming Huang; Yuqi Ping; Chenlu Zhang; Cheng Ma; Kai Zhang; Xiaoying Liang; Yuemao Shen; Fajun Nan; Fan Yi; Vincent C. Luca; Jiuyao Zhou; Changtao Jiang; Jin-Peng Sun; Xin Xie; Xiao Yu; Yan Zhang

    The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR) conveys the cross-membrane signaling of a vast variety of bile acids and is a signaling hub in the liver–bile-acid–microbiota–metabolism axis1–3. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of GPBAR–Gs complexes stabilized by either the high-affinity P3954 or the semisynthesized bile acid derivative INT-7771,3 at 3-Å resolution. These structures revealed

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Potent neutralizing antibodies directed to multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Lihong Liu; Pengfei Wang; Manoj S. Nair; Jian Yu; Micah Rapp; Qian Wang; Yang Luo; Jasper F-W. Chan; Vincent Sahi; Amir Figueroa; Xinzheng V. Guo; Gabriele Cerutti; Jude Bimela; Jason Gorman; Tongqing Zhou; Zhiwei Chen; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Peter D. Kwong; Joseph G. Sodroski; Michael T. Yin; Zizhang Sheng; Yaoxing Huang; Lawrence Shapiro; David D. Ho

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic rages on with devasting consequences on human lives and the global economy1,2. The discovery and development of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies could be one approach to treat or prevent infection by this novel coronavirus. Here we report the isolation of 61 SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from 5 infected patients hospitalized with severe disease. Among

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Hydroxychloroquine use against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Pauline Maisonnasse; Jérémie Guedj; Vanessa Contreras; Sylvie Behillil; Caroline Solas; Romain Marlin; Thibaut Naninck; Andres Pizzorno; Julien Lemaitre; Antonio Gonçalves; Nidhal Kahlaoui; Olivier Terrier; Raphael Ho Tsong Fang; Vincent Enouf; Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet; Angela Brisebarre; Franck Touret; Catherine Chapon; Bruno Hoen; Bruno Lina; Manuel Rosa Calatrava; Sylvie van der Werf; Xavier de

    COVID-19 has rapidly become a pandemic for which no antiviral drug or vaccine is yet available2–4. Several clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate the efficacy of repurposed drugs that have demonstrated antiviral efficacy in vitro. Among these candidates, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been given to thousands of individuals worldwide but definitive evidence for HCQ efficacy in treatment of COVID-19

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Signalling input from divergent pathways subverts B cell transformation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Lai N. Chan; Mark A. Murakami; Mark E. Robinson; Rebecca Caeser; Teresa Sadras; Jaewoong Lee; Kadriye Nehir Cosgun; Kohei Kume; Vishal Khairnar; Gang Xiao; Mohamed A. Ahmed; Eamon Aghania; Gauri Deb; Christian Hurtz; Seyedmehdi Shojaee; Chao Hong; Petri Pölönen; Matthew A. Nix; Zhengshan Chen; Chun Wei Chen; Jianjun Chen; Andreas Vogt; Merja Heinäniemi; Olli Lohi; Arun P. Wiita; Shai Izraeli; Huimin

    Malignant transformation of cells typically involves several genetic lesions, whose combined activity gives rise to cancer1. Here we analyse 1,148 patient-derived B-cell leukaemia (B-ALL) samples, and find that individual mutations do not promote leukaemogenesis unless they converge on one single oncogenic pathway that is characteristic of the differentiation stage of transformed B cells. Mutations

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Glypicans shield the Wnt lipid moiety to enable signalling at a distance
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Ian J. McGough; Luca Vecchia; Benjamin Bishop; Tomas Malinauskas; Karen Beckett; Dhira Joshi; Nicola O’Reilly; Christian Siebold; E. Yvonne Jones; Jean-Paul Vincent

    A relatively small number of proteins have been suggested to act as morphogens—signalling molecules that spread within tissues to organize tissue repair and the specification of cell fate during development. Among them are Wnt proteins, which carry a palmitoleate moiety that is essential for signalling activity1,2,3. How a hydrophobic lipoprotein can spread in the aqueous extracellular space is unknown

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Evidence of human occupation in Mexico around the Last Glacial Maximum
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Ciprian F. Ardelean; Lorena Becerra-Valdivia; Mikkel Winther Pedersen; Jean-Luc Schwenninger; Charles G. Oviatt; Juan I. Macías-Quintero; Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales; Martin Sikora; Yam Zul E. Ocampo-Díaz; Igor I. Rubio-Cisneros; Jennifer G. Watling; Vanda B. de Medeiros; Paulo E. De Oliveira; Luis Barba-Pingarón; Agustín Ortiz-Butrón; Jorge Blancas-Vázquez; Irán Rivera-González; Corina Solís-Rosales;

    The initial colonization of the Americas remains a highly debated topic1, and the exact timing of the first arrivals is unknown. The earliest archaeological record of Mexico—which holds a key geographical position in the Americas—is poorly known and understudied. Historically, the region has remained on the periphery of research focused on the first American populations2. However, recent investigations

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Ice retreat in Wilkes Basin of East Antarctica during a warm interglacial
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    T. Blackburn; G. H. Edwards; S. Tulaczyk; M. Scudder; G. Piccione; B. Hallet; N. McLean; J. C. Zachos; B. Cheney; J. T. Babbe

    Efforts to improve sea level forecasting on a warming planet have focused on determining the temperature, sea level and extent of polar ice sheets during Earth’s past interglacial warm periods1,2,3. About 400,000 years ago, during the interglacial period known as Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS11), the global temperature was 1 to 2 degrees Celsius greater2 and sea level was 6 to 13 metres higher1,3.

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Distinct subnetworks of the thalamic reticular nucleus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Yinqing Li; Violeta G. Lopez-Huerta; Xian Adiconis; Kirsten Levandowski; Soonwook Choi; Sean K. Simmons; Mario A. Arias-Garcia; Baolin Guo; Annie Y. Yao; Timothy R. Blosser; Ralf D. Wimmer; Tomomi Aida; Alexander Atamian; Tina Naik; Xuyun Sun; Dasheng Bi; Diya Malhotra; Cynthia C. Hession; Reut Shema; Marcos Gomes; Taibo Li; Eunjin Hwang; Alexandra Krol; Monika Kowalczyk; João Peça; Gang Pan; Michael

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), the major source of thalamic inhibition, regulates thalamocortical interactions that are critical for sensory processing, attention and cognition1,2,3,4,5. TRN dysfunction has been linked to sensory abnormality, attention deficit and sleep disturbance across multiple neurodevelopmental disorders6,7,8,9. However, little is known about the organizational principles

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • The timing and effect of the earliest human arrivals in North America
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Lorena Becerra-Valdivia; Thomas Higham

    The peopling of the Americas marks a major expansion of humans across the planet. However, questions regarding the timing and mechanisms of this dispersal remain, and the previously accepted model (termed ‘Clovis-first’)—suggesting that the first inhabitants of the Americas were linked with the Clovis tradition, a complex marked by distinctive fluted lithic points1—has been effectively refuted. Here

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Imaging viscous flow of the Dirac fluid in graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Mark J. H. Ku; Tony X. Zhou; Qing Li; Young J. Shin; Jing K. Shi; Claire Burch; Laurel E. Anderson; Andrew T. Pierce; Yonglong Xie; Assaf Hamo; Uri Vool; Huiliang Zhang; Francesco Casola; Takashi Taniguchi; Kenji Watanabe; Michael M. Fogler; Philip Kim; Amir Yacoby; Ronald L. Walsworth

    The electron–hole plasma in charge-neutral graphene is predicted to realize a quantum critical system in which electrical transport features a universal hydrodynamic description, even at room temperature1,2. This quantum critical ‘Dirac fluid’ is expected to have a shear viscosity close to a minimum bound3,4, with an interparticle scattering rate saturating1 at the Planckian time, the shortest possible

    更新日期:2020-07-22
  • Histone H3.3 phosphorylation amplifies stimulation-induced transcription
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Anja Armache; Shuang Yang; Alexia Martínez de Paz; Lexi E. Robbins; Ceyda Durmaz; Jin Q. Cheong; Arjun Ravishankar; Andrew W. Daman; Dughan J. Ahimovic; Thaís Klevorn; Yuan Yue; Tanja Arslan; Shu Lin; Tanya Panchenko; Joel Hrit; Miao Wang; Samuel Thudium; Benjamin A. Garcia; Erica Korb; Karim-Jean Armache; Scott B. Rothbart; Sandra B. Hake; C. David Allis; Haitao Li; Steven Z. Josefowicz

    Complex organisms can rapidly induce select genes in response to diverse environmental cues. This regulation occurs in the context of large genomes condensed by histone proteins into chromatin. The sensing of pathogens by macrophages engages conserved signalling pathways and transcription factors to coordinate the induction of inflammatory genes1,2,3. Enriched integration of histone H3.3, the ancestral

    更新日期:2020-07-22
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