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  • Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitors using Lung and Colonic Organoids
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Yuling Han; Xiaohua Duan; Liuliu Yang; Benjamin E. Nilsson-Payant; Pengfei Wang; Fuyu Duan; Xuming Tang; Tomer M. Yaron; Tuo Zhang; Skyler Uhl; Yaron Bram; Chanel Richardson; Jiajun Zhu; Zeping Zhao; David Redmond; Sean Houghton; Duc-Huy T. Nguyen; Dong Xu; Xing Wang; Jose Jessurun; Alain Borczuk; Yaoxing Huang; Jared L. Johnson; Yuru Liu; Jenny Xiang; Hui Wang; Lewis C. Cantley; Benjamin R. tenOever;

    There is an urgent need to create novel models using human disease-relevant cells to study SARS-CoV-2 biology and to facilitate drug screening. As SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects the respiratory tract, we developed a lung organoid model using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-LOs). The hPSC-LOs, particularly alveolar type II-like cells, are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and showed robust induction

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • 150 million years of sustained increase in pterosaur flight efficiency
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Chris Venditti; Joanna Baker; Michael J. Benton; Andrew Meade; Stuart Humphries

    The long-term accumulation of biodiversity has been punctuated by remarkable evolutionary transitions that allowed organisms to exploit new ecological opportunities. Mesozoic flying reptiles (the pterosaurs), which dominated the skies for more than 150 million years, were the product of one such transition. The ancestors of pterosaurs were small and probably bipedal early archosaurs1, which were certainly

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Metal-free photoinduced C( sp 3 )–H borylation of alkanes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Chao Shu; Adam Noble; Varinder K. Aggarwal

    Boronic acids and their derivatives are some of the most useful reagents in the chemical sciences1, with applications spanning pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and functional materials. Catalytic C–H borylation is a powerful method for introducing these and other boron groups into organic molecules because it can be used to directly functionalize C–H bonds of feedstock chemicals without the need for

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Memory failure predicted by attention lapsing and media multitasking
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Kevin P. Madore; Anna M. Khazenzon; Cameron W. Backes; Jiefeng Jiang; Melina R. Uncapher; Anthony M. Norcia; Anthony D. Wagner

    With the explosion of digital media and technologies, scholars, educators and the public have become increasingly vocal about the role that an ‘attention economy’ has in our lives1. The rise of the current digital culture coincides with longstanding scientific questions about why humans sometimes remember and sometimes forget, and why some individuals remember better than others2,3,4,5,6. Here we examine

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • The landscape of RNA Pol II binding reveals a stepwise transition during ZGA
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Bofeng Liu; Qianhua Xu; Qiujun Wang; Su Feng; Fangnong Lai; Peizhe Wang; Fangyuan Zheng; Yunlong Xiang; Jingyi Wu; Junwei Nie; Cui Qiu; Weikun Xia; Lijia Li; Guang Yu; Zili Lin; Kai Xu; Zhuqing Xiong; Feng Kong; Ling Liu; Chunyi Huang; Yang Yu; Jie Na; Wei Xie

    Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is the first transcription event in life1. However, it is unclear how RNA polymerase is engaged in initiating ZGA in mammals. Here, by developing small-scale Tn5-assisted chromatin cleavage with sequencing (Stacc–seq), we investigated the landscapes of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binding in mouse embryos. We found that Pol II undergoes ‘loading’, ‘pre-configuration’,

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Efficient epoxidation over dinuclear sites in titanium silicalite-1
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Christopher P. Gordon; Hauke Engler; Amadeus Samuel Tragl; Milivoj Plodinec; Thomas Lunkenbein; Albrecht Berkessel; Joaquim Henrique Teles; Andrei-Nicolae Parvulescu; Christophe Copéret

    Titanium silicalite-1 (TS-1) is a zeolitic material with MFI framework structure, in which 1 to 2 per cent of the silicon atoms are substituted for titanium atoms. It is widely used in industry owing to its ability to catalytically epoxidize olefins with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), leaving only water as a byproduct1,2; around one million tonnes of propylene oxide are produced each year using this process3

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Site-specific RNA methylation by a methyltransferase ribozyme
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Carolin P. M. Scheitl; Mohammad Ghaem Maghami; Ann-Kathrin Lenz; Claudia Höbartner

    Nearly all classes of coding and non-coding RNA undergo post-transcriptional modification, including RNA methylation. Methylated nucleotides are among the evolutionarily most-conserved features of transfer (t)RNA and ribosomal (r)RNA1,2. Many contemporary methyltransferases use the universal cofactor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl-group donor. SAM and other nucleotide-derived cofactors are

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Contrasting signatures of genomic divergence during sympatric speciation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Andreas F. Kautt; Claudius F. Kratochwil; Alexander Nater; Gonzalo Machado-Schiaffino; Melisa Olave; Frederico Henning; Julián Torres-Dowdall; Andreas Härer; C. Darrin Hulsey; Paolo Franchini; Martin Pippel; Eugene W. Myers; Axel Meyer

    The transition from ‘well-marked varieties’ of a single species into ‘well-defined species’—especially in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow (sympatric speciation)—has puzzled evolutionary biologists ever since Darwin1,2. Gene flow counteracts the buildup of genome-wide differentiation, which is a hallmark of speciation and increases the likelihood of the evolution of irreversible reproductive

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Exuberant fibroblast activity compromises lung function via ADAMTS4
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    David F. Boyd; E. Kaitlynn Allen; Adrienne G. Randolph; Xi-zhi J. Guo; Yunceng Weng; Catherine J. Sanders; Resha Bajracharya; Natalie K. Lee; Clifford S. Guy; Peter Vogel; Wenda Guan; Yimin Li; Xiaoqing Liu; Tanya Novak; Margaret M. Newhams; Thomas P. Fabrizio; Nicholas Wohlgemuth; Peter M. Mourani; Thomas N. Wight; Stacey Schultz-Cherry; Stephania A. Cormier; Kathryn Shaw-Saliba; Andrew Pekosz; Richard

    Severe respiratory infections can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)1. There are no effective pharmacological therapies that have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with ARDS. Although th influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 e host inflammatory response limits spread of and eventually clears the pathogen, immunopathology is a major contributor to tissue damage and ARDS1,2. Here we

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Strategic vision for improving human health at The Forefront of Genomics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Eric D. Green; Chris Gunter; Leslie G. Biesecker; Valentina Di Francesco; Carla L. Easter; Elise A. Feingold; Adam L. Felsenfeld; David J. Kaufman; Elaine A. Ostrander; William J. Pavan; Adam M. Phillippy; Anastasia L. Wise; Jyoti Gupta Dayal; Britny J. Kish; Allison Mandich; Christopher R. Wellington; Kris A. Wetterstrand; Sarah A. Bates; Darryl Leja; Susan Vasquez; William A. Gahl; Bettie J. Graham;

    Starting with the launch of the Human Genome Project three decades ago, and continuing after its completion in 2003, genomics has progressively come to have a central and catalytic role in basic and translational research. In addition, studies increasingly demonstrate how genomic information can be effectively used in clinical care. In the future, the anticipated advances in technology development

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Tunable dynamics of B cell selection in gut germinal centres
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Carla R. Nowosad; Luka Mesin; Tiago B. R. Castro; Christopher Wichmann; Gregory P. Donaldson; Tatsuya Araki; Ariën Schiepers; Ainsley A. K. Lockhart; Angelina M. Bilate; Daniel Mucida; Gabriel D. Victora

    Germinal centres, the structures in which B cells evolve to produce antibodies with high affinity for various antigens, usually form transiently in lymphoid organs in response to infection or immunization. In lymphoid organs associated with the gut, however, germinal centres are chronically present. These gut-associated germinal centres can support targeted antibody responses to gut infections and

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Single-cell mutation analysis of clonal evolution in myeloid malignancies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Linde A. Miles; Robert L. Bowman; Tiffany R. Merlinsky; Isabelle S. Csete; Aik T. Ooi; Robert Durruthy-Durruthy; Michael Bowman; Christopher Famulare; Minal A. Patel; Pedro Mendez; Chrysanthi Ainali; Benjamin Demaree; Cyrille L. Delley; Adam R. Abate; Manimozhi Manivannan; Sombeet Sahu; Aaron D. Goldberg; Kelly L. Bolton; Ahmet Zehir; Raajit Rampal; Martin P. Carroll; Sara E. Meyer; Aaron D. Viny;

    Myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), arise from the expansion of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that acquire somatic mutations. Bulk molecular profiling has suggested that mutations are acquired in a stepwise fashion: mutant genes with high variant allele frequencies appear early in leukaemogenesis, and mutations with lower variant allele frequencies are thought

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Large Chinese land carbon sink estimated from atmospheric carbon dioxide data
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Jing Wang; Liang Feng; Paul I. Palmer; Yi Liu; Shuangxi Fang; Hartmut Bösch; Christopher W. O’Dell; Xiaoping Tang; Dongxu Yang; Lixin Liu; ChaoZong Xia

    Limiting the rise in global mean temperatures relies on reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and on the removal of CO2 by land carbon sinks. China is currently the single largest emitter of CO2, responsible for approximately 27 per cent (2.67 petagrams of carbon per year) of global fossil fuel emissions in 20171. Understanding of Chinese land biosphere fluxes has been hampered by sparse data coverage2

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Diverse polarization angle swings from a repeating fast radio burst source
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    R. Luo; B. J. Wang; Y. P. Men; C. F. Zhang; J. C. Jiang; H. Xu; W. Y. Wang; K. J. Lee; J. L. Han; B. Zhang; R. N. Caballero; M. Z. Chen; X. L. Chen; H. Q. Gan; Y. J. Guo; L. F. Hao; Y. X. Huang; P. Jiang; H. Li; J. Li; Z. X. Li; J. T. Luo; J. Pan; X. Pei; L. Qian; J. H. Sun; M. Wang; N. Wang; Z. G. Wen; R. X. Xu; Y. H. Xu; J. Yan; W. M. Yan; D. J. Yu; J. P. Yuan; S. B. Zhang; Y. Zhu

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio transients1,2 of unknown origin. Two possible mechanisms that could generate extremely coherent emission from FRBs invoke neutron star magnetospheres3,4,5 or relativistic shocks far from the central energy source6,7,8. Detailed polarization observations may help us to understand the emission mechanism. However, the available FRB polarization data

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • The Philae lander reveals low-strength primitive ice inside cometary boulders
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Laurence O’Rourke; Philip Heinisch; Jürgen Blum; Sonia Fornasier; Gianrico Filacchione; Hong Van Hoang; Mauro Ciarniello; Andrea Raponi; Bastian Gundlach; Rafael Andrés Blasco; Björn Grieger; Karl-Heinz Glassmeier; Michael Küppers; Alessandra Rotundi; Olivier Groussin; Dominique Bockelée-Morvan; Hans-Ulrich Auster; Nilda Oklay; Gerhard Paar; Maria del Pilar Caballo Perucha; Gabor Kovacs; Laurent Jorda;

    On 12 November 2014, the Philae lander descended towards comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, bounced twice off the surface, then arrived under an overhanging cliff in the Abydos region. The landing process provided insights into the properties of a cometary nucleus1,2,3. Here we report an investigation of the previously undiscovered site of the second touchdown, where Philae spent almost two minutes of

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • High-depth African genomes inform human migration and health
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Ananyo Choudhury; Shaun Aron; Laura R. Botigué; Dhriti Sengupta; Gerrit Botha; Taoufik Bensellak; Gordon Wells; Judit Kumuthini; Daniel Shriner; Yasmina J. Fakim; Anisah W. Ghoorah; Eileen Dareng; Trust Odia; Oluwadamilare Falola; Ezekiel Adebiyi; Scott Hazelhurst; Gaston Mazandu; Oscar A. Nyangiri; Mamana Mbiyavanga; Alia Benkahla; Samar K. Kassim; Nicola Mulder; Sally N. Adebamowo; Emile R. Chimusa;

    The African continent is regarded as the cradle of modern humans and African genomes contain more genetic variation than those from any other continent, yet only a fraction of the genetic diversity among African individuals has been surveyed1. Here we performed whole-genome sequencing analyses of 426 individuals—comprising 50 ethnolinguistic groups, including previously unsampled populations—to explore

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Parallel ascending spinal pathways for affective touch and pain
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Seungwon Choi; Junichi Hachisuka; Matthew A. Brett; Alexandra R. Magee; Yu Omori; Noor-ul-Aine Iqbal; Dawei Zhang; Michelle M. DeLisle; Rachel L. Wolfson; Ling Bai; Celine Santiago; Shiaoching Gong; Martyn Goulding; Nathaniel Heintz; H. Richard Koerber; Sarah E. Ross; David D. Ginty

    The anterolateral pathway consists of ascending spinal tracts that convey pain, temperature and touch information from the spinal cord to the brain1,2,3,4. Projection neurons of the anterolateral pathway are attractive therapeutic targets for pain treatment because nociceptive signals emanating from the periphery are channelled through these spinal projection neurons en route to the brain. However

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Enteric neurons increase maternal food intake during reproduction
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Dafni Hadjieconomou; George King; Pedro Gaspar; Alessandro Mineo; Laura Blackie; Tomotsune Ameku; Chris Studd; Alex de Mendoza; Fengqiu Diao; Benjamin H. White; André E. X. Brown; Pierre-Yves Plaçais; Thomas Préat; Irene Miguel-Aliaga

    Reproduction induces increased food intake across females of many animal species1,2,3,4, providing a physiologically relevant paradigm for the exploration of appetite regulation. Here, by examining the diversity of enteric neurons in Drosophila melanogaster, we identify a key role for gut-innervating neurons with sex- and reproductive state-specific activity in sustaining the increased food intake

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • High-throughput calculations of magnetic topological materials
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Yuanfeng Xu; Luis Elcoro; Zhi-Da Song; Benjamin J. Wieder; M. G. Vergniory; Nicolas Regnault; Yulin Chen; Claudia Felser; B. Andrei Bernevig

    The discoveries of intrinsically magnetic topological materials, including semimetals with a large anomalous Hall effect and axion insulators1,2,3, have directed fundamental research in solid-state materials. Topological quantum chemistry4 has enabled the understanding of and the search for paramagnetic topological materials5,6. Using magnetic topological indices obtained from magnetic topological

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Macrophage-derived glutamine boosts satellite cells and muscle regeneration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Min Shang; Federica Cappellesso; Ricardo Amorim; Jens Serneels; Federico Virga; Guy Eelen; Stefania Carobbio; Melvin Y. Rincon; Pierre Maechler; Katrien De Bock; Ping-Chih Ho; Marco Sandri; Bart Ghesquière; Peter Carmeliet; Mario Di Matteo; Emanuele Berardi; Massimiliano Mazzone

    Muscle regeneration is sustained by infiltrating macrophages and the consequent activation of satellite cells1,2,3,4. Macrophages and satellite cells communicate in different ways1,2,3,4,5, but their metabolic interplay has not been investigated. Here we show, in a mouse model, that muscle injuries and ageing are characterized by intra-tissue restrictions of glutamine. Low levels of glutamine endow

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • snRNA-seq reveals a subpopulation of adipocytes that regulates thermogenesis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Wenfei Sun; Hua Dong; Miroslav Balaz; Michal Slyper; Eugene Drokhlyansky; Georgia Colleluori; Antonio Giordano; Zuzana Kovanicova; Patrik Stefanicka; Lucia Balazova; Lianggong Ding; Anna Sofie Husted; Gottfried Rudofsky; Jozef Ukropec; Saverio Cinti; Thue W. Schwartz; Aviv Regev; Christian Wolfrum

    Adipose tissue is usually classified on the basis of its function as white, brown or beige (brite)1. It is an important regulator of systemic metabolism, as shown by the fact that dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity leads to a variety of secondary metabolic complications2,3. In addition, adipose tissue functions as a signalling hub that regulates systemic metabolism through paracrine and endocrine

    更新日期:2020-10-29
  • Spike mutation D614G alters SARS-CoV-2 fitness
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Jessica A. Plante; Yang Liu; Jianying Liu; Hongjie Xia; Bryan A. Johnson; Kumari G. Lokugamage; Xianwen Zhang; Antonio E. Muruato; Jing Zou; Camila R. Fontes-Garfias; Divya Mirchandani; Dionna Scharton; John P. Bilello; Zhiqiang Ku; Zhiqiang An; Birte Kalveram; Alexander N. Freiberg; Vineet D. Menachery; Xuping Xie; Kenneth S. Plante; Scott C. Weaver; Pei-Yong Shi

    A spike protein mutation D614G became dominant in SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. However, the impact on viral spread and vaccine efficacy remains to be defined. Here, we engineer the D614G mutation in the USA-WA1/2020 strain and characterize its effect. D614G enhances replication on human lung epithelial cells and primary human airway tissues through an improved infectivity of virions

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • High sensitivity of tropical precipitation to local sea-surface temperature
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Peter Good; Robin Chadwick; Christopher E. Holloway; John Kennedy; Jason A. Lowe; Romain Roehrig; Stephanie S. Rushley

    Precipitation and atmospheric circulation are the coupled processes through which tropical ocean surface temperatures drive global weather and climate1–5. Local ocean surface warming tends to increase precipitation, but this local control is hard to disentangle from remote effects of conditions elsewhere. Such remote effects occur, for example, from El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Bennu’s near-Earth lifetime of 1.75 million years inferred from craters on its boulders
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    R.-L. Ballouz; K. J. Walsh; O. S. Barnouin; D. N. DellaGiustina; M. Al Asad; E. R. Jawin; M. G. Daly; W. F. Bottke; P. Michel; C. Avdellidou; M. Delbo; R. T. Daly; E. Asphaug; C. A. Bennett; E. B. Bierhaus; H. C. Connolly; D. R. Golish; J. L. Molaro; M. C. Nolan; M. Pajola; B. Rizk; S. R. Schwartz; D. Trang; C. W. V. Wolner; D. S. Lauretta

    An asteroid’s history is determined in large part by its strength against collisions with other objects1,2 (impact strength). Laboratory experiments on centimetre-scale meteorites3 have been extrapolated and buttressed with numerical simulations to derive the impact strength at the asteroid scale4,5. In situ evidence of impacts on boulders on airless planetary bodies has come from Apollo lunar samples6

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • The NAD + -mediated self-inhibition mechanism of pro-neurodegenerative Sarm1
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Yuefeng Jiang; Tingting Liu; Chia-Hsueh Lee; Qing Chang; Jing Yang; Zhe Zhang

    Pathological degeneration of axons disrupts neural circuits and represents one of the hallmarks of neurodegeneration1–4. Sterile alpha and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor motif-containing protein 1 (Sarm1) is a central regulator of this neurodegenerative process5–8, and its Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain exerts the pro-neurodegenerative action through the NADase activity9,10. However, the mechanism

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Dense and pleiotropic regulatory information in a developmental enhancer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Timothy Fuqua; Jeff Jordan; Maria Elize van Breugel; Aliaksandr Halavatyi; Christian Tischer; Peter Polidoro; Namiko Abe; Albert Tsai; Richard S. Mann; David L. Stern; Justin Crocker

    Changes in gene regulation underlie much of phenotypic evolution1. However, our understanding of the potential for regulatory evolution is biased, because most evidence comes from either natural variation or limited experimental perturbations2. Using an automated robotics pipeline, we surveyed an unbiased mutation library for a developmental enhancer in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that almost

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Global priority areas for ecosystem restoration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Bernardo B. N. Strassburg; Alvaro Iribarrem; Hawthorne L. Beyer; Carlos Leandro Cordeiro; Renato Crouzeilles; Catarina C. Jakovac; André Braga Junqueira; Eduardo Lacerda; Agnieszka E. Latawiec; Andrew Balmford; Thomas M. Brooks; Stuart H. M. Butchart; Robin L. Chazdon; Karl-Heinz Erb; Pedro Brancalion; Graeme Buchanan; David Cooper; Sandra Díaz; Paul F. Donald; Valerie Kapos; David Leclère; Lera Miles;

    Extensive ecosystem restoration is increasingly seen as being central to conserving biodiversity1 and stabilizing the climate of the Earth2. Although ambitious national and global targets have been set, global priority areas that account for spatial variation in benefits and costs have yet to be identified. Here we develop and apply a multicriteria optimization approach that identifies priority areas

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Surface coordination layer passivates oxidation of copper
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Jian Peng; Bili Chen; Zhichang Wang; Jing Guo; Binghui Wu; Shuqiang Hao; Qinghua Zhang; Lin Gu; Qin Zhou; Zhi Liu; Shuqin Hong; Sifan You; Ang Fu; Zaifa Shi; Hao Xie; Duanyun Cao; Chang-Jian Lin; Gang Fu; Lan-Sun Zheng; Ying Jiang; Nanfeng Zheng

    Owing to its high thermal and electrical conductivities, its ductility and its overall non-toxicity1,2,3, copper is widely used in daily applications and in industry, particularly in anti-oxidation technologies. However, many widespread anti-oxidation techniques, such as alloying and electroplating1,2, often degrade some physical properties (for example, thermal and electrical conductivities and colour)

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Inherited causes of clonal haematopoiesis in 97,691 whole genomes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Alexander G. Bick; Joshua S. Weinstock; Satish K. Nandakumar; Charles P. Fulco; Erik L. Bao; Seyedeh M. Zekavat; Mindy D. Szeto; Xiaotian Liao; Matthew J. Leventhal; Joseph Nasser; Kyle Chang; Cecelia Laurie; Bala Bharathi Burugula; Christopher J. Gibson; Amy E. Lin; Margaret A. Taub; Francois Aguet; Kristin Ardlie; Braxton D. Mitchell; Kathleen C. Barnes; Arden Moscati; Myriam Fornage; Susan Redline;

    Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2,3,4 and coronary heart disease5—this phenomenon is termed clonal

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • PIEZO2 in sensory neurons and urothelial cells coordinates urination
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Kara L. Marshall; Dimah Saade; Nima Ghitani; Adam M. Coombs; Marcin Szczot; Jason Keller; Tracy Ogata; Ihab Daou; Lisa T. Stowers; Carsten G. Bönnemann; Alexander T. Chesler; Ardem Patapoutian

    Henry Miller stated that “to relieve a full bladder is one of the great human joys”. Urination is critically important in health and ailments of the lower urinary tract cause high pathological burden. Although there have been advances in understanding the central circuitry in the brain that facilitates urination1,2,3, there is a lack of in-depth mechanistic insight into the process. In addition to

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • H  i 21-centimetre emission from an ensemble of galaxies at an average redshift of one
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Aditya Chowdhury; Nissim Kanekar; Jayaram N. Chengalur; Shiv Sethi; K. S. Dwarakanath

    Baryonic processes in galaxy evolution include the infall of gas onto galaxies to form neutral atomic hydrogen, which is then converted to the molecular state (H2), and, finally, the conversion of H2 to stars. Understanding galaxy evolution thus requires an understanding of the evolution of stars and of neutral atomic and molecular hydrogen. For the stars, the cosmic star-formation rate density is

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Room-temperature superconductivity in a carbonaceous sulfur hydride
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Elliot Snider; Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon; Raymond McBride; Mathew Debessai; Hiranya Vindana; Kevin Vencatasamy; Keith V. Lawler; Ashkan Salamat; Ranga P. Dias

    One of the long-standing challenges in experimental physics is the observation of room-temperature superconductivity1,2. Recently, high-temperature conventional superconductivity in hydrogen-rich materials has been reported in several systems under high pressure3,4,5. An important discovery leading to room-temperature superconductivity is the pressure-driven disproportionation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • The cellular basis of distinct thirst modalities
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Allan-Hermann Pool; Tongtong Wang; David A. Stafford; Rebecca K. Chance; Sangjun Lee; John Ngai; Yuki Oka

    Fluid intake is an essential innate behaviour that is mainly caused by two distinct types of thirst1,2,3. Increased blood osmolality induces osmotic thirst that drives animals to consume pure water. Conversely, the loss of body fluid induces hypovolaemic thirst, in which animals seek both water and minerals (salts) to recover blood volume. Circumventricular organs in the lamina terminalis are critical

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • An unexpectedly large count of trees in the West African Sahara and Sahel
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Martin Brandt; Compton J. Tucker; Ankit Kariryaa; Kjeld Rasmussen; Christin Abel; Jennifer Small; Jerome Chave; Laura Vang Rasmussen; Pierre Hiernaux; Abdoul Aziz Diouf; Laurent Kergoat; Ole Mertz; Christian Igel; Fabian Gieseke; Johannes Schöning; Sizhuo Li; Katherine Melocik; Jesse Meyer; Scott Sinno; Eric Romero; Erin Glennie; Amandine Montagu; Morgane Dendoncker; Rasmus Fensholt

    A large proportion of dryland trees and shrubs (hereafter referred to collectively as trees) grow in isolation, without canopy closure. These non-forest trees have a crucial role in biodiversity, and provide ecosystem services such as carbon storage, food resources and shelter for humans and animals1,2. However, most public interest relating to trees is devoted to forests, and trees outside of forests

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Efficient and stable blue quantum dot light-emitting diode
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Taehyung Kim; Kwang-Hee Kim; Sungwoo Kim; Seon-Myeong Choi; Hyosook Jang; Hong-Kyu Seo; Heejae Lee; Dae-Young Chung; Eunjoo Jang

    The visualization of accurate colour information using quantum dots has been explored for decades, and commercial products employing environmentally friendly materials are currently available as backlights1. However, next-generation electroluminescent displays based on quantum dots require the development of an efficient and stable cadmium-free blue-light-emitting device, which has remained a challenge

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • RAD51-dependent recruitment of TERRA lncRNA to telomeres through R-loops
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Marianna Feretzaki; Michaela Pospisilova; Rita Valador Fernandes; Thomas Lunardi; Lumir Krejci; Joachim Lingner

    Telomeres—repeated, noncoding nucleotide motifs and associated proteins that are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes—mediate genome stability and determine cellular lifespan1. Telomeric-repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) is a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are transcribed from chromosome ends2,3; these RNAs in turn regulate telomeric chromatin structure and telomere maintenance through

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • A system hierarchy for brain-inspired computing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Youhui Zhang; Peng Qu; Yu Ji; Weihao Zhang; Guangrong Gao; Guanrui Wang; Sen Song; Guoqi Li; Wenguang Chen; Weimin Zheng; Feng Chen; Jing Pei; Rong Zhao; Mingguo Zhao; Luping Shi

    Neuromorphic computing draws inspiration from the brain to provide computing technology and architecture with the potential to drive the next wave of computer engineering1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. Such brain-inspired computing also provides a promising platform for the development of artificial general intelligence14,15. However, unlike conventional computing systems, which have a well established

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Capillary cell-type specialization in the alveolus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Astrid Gillich; Fan Zhang; Colleen G. Farmer; Kyle J. Travaglini; Serena Y. Tan; Mingxia Gu; Bin Zhou; Jeffrey A. Feinstein; Mark A. Krasnow; Ross J. Metzger

    In the mammalian lung, an apparently homogenous mesh of capillary vessels surrounds each alveolus, forming the vast respiratory surface across which oxygen transfers to the blood1. Here we use single-cell analysis to elucidate the cell types, development, renewal and evolution of the alveolar capillary endothelium. We show that alveolar capillaries are mosaics; similar to the epithelium that lines

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Inherited myeloproliferative neoplasm risk affects haematopoietic stem cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Erik L. Bao; Satish K. Nandakumar; Xiaotian Liao; Alexander G. Bick; Juha Karjalainen; Marcin Tabaka; Olga I. Gan; Aki S. Havulinna; Tuomo T. J. Kiiskinen; Caleb A. Lareau; Aitzkoa L. de Lapuente Portilla; Bo Li; Connor Emdin; Veryan Codd; Christopher P. Nelson; Christopher J. Walker; Claire Churchhouse; Albert de la Chapelle; Daryl E. Klein; Björn Nilsson; Peter W. F. Wilson; Kelly Cho; Saiju Pyarajan;

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that are characterized by the excessive production of mature myeloid cells and arise from the acquisition of somatic driver mutations in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Epidemiological studies indicate a substantial heritable component of MPNs that is among the highest known for cancers1. However, only a limited number of genetic risk loci have

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Building cratonic keels in Precambrian plate tectonics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    A. L. Perchuk; T. V. Gerya; V. S. Zakharov; W. L. Griffin

    The ancient cores of continents (cratons) are underlain by mantle keels—volumes of melt-depleted, mechanically resistant, buoyant and diamondiferous mantle up to 350 kilometres thick, which have remained isolated from the hotter and denser convecting mantle for more than two billion years. Mantle keels formed only in the Early Earth (approximately 1.5 to 3.5 billion years ago in the Precambrian eon);

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Cell-type-specific 3D epigenomes in the developing human cortex
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Michael Song; Mark-Phillip Pebworth; Xiaoyu Yang; Armen Abnousi; Changxu Fan; Jia Wen; Jonathan D. Rosen; Mayank N. K. Choudhary; Xiekui Cui; Ian R. Jones; Seth Bergenholtz; Ugomma C. Eze; Ivan Juric; Bingkun Li; Lenka Maliskova; Jerry Lee; Weifang Liu; Alex A. Pollen; Yun Li; Ting Wang; Ming Hu; Arnold R. Kriegstein; Yin Shen

    Lineage-specific epigenomic changes during human corticogenesis have been difficult to study owing to challenges with sample availability and tissue heterogeneity. For example, previous studies using single-cell RNA sequencing identified at least 9 major cell types and up to 26 distinct subtypes in the dorsal cortex alone1,2. Here we characterize cell-type-specific cis-regulatory chromatin interactions

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Evidence for 28 genetic disorders discovered by combining healthcare and research data
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Joanna Kaplanis; Kaitlin E. Samocha; Laurens Wiel; Zhancheng Zhang; Kevin J. Arvai; Ruth Y. Eberhardt; Giuseppe Gallone; Stefan H. Lelieveld; Hilary C. Martin; Jeremy F. McRae; Patrick J. Short; Rebecca I. Torene; Elke de Boer; Petr Danecek; Eugene J. Gardner; Ni Huang; Jenny Lord; Iñigo Martincorena; Rolph Pfundt; Margot R. F. Reijnders; Alison Yeung; Helger G. Yntema; Lisenka E. L. M. Vissers; Jane

    De novo mutations in protein-coding genes are a well-established cause of developmental disorders1. However, genes known to be associated with developmental disorders account for only a minority of the observed excess of such de novo mutations1,2. Here, to identify previously undescribed genes associated with developmental disorders, we integrate healthcare and research exome-sequence data from 31

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Mechanism of strand exchange from RecA–DNA synaptic and D-loop structures
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Haijuan Yang; Chun Zhou; Ankita Dhar; Nikola P. Pavletich

    The strand-exchange reaction is central to homologous recombination. It is catalysed by the RecA family of ATPases, which form a helical filament with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and ATP. This filament binds to a donor double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to form synaptic filaments, which search for homology and then catalyse the exchange of the complementary strand, forming either a new heteroduplex or—if

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Computational planning of the synthesis of complex natural products
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Barbara Mikulak-Klucznik; Patrycja Gołębiowska; Alison A. Bayly; Oskar Popik; Tomasz Klucznik; Sara Szymkuć; Ewa P. Gajewska; Piotr Dittwald; Olga Staszewska-Krajewska; Wiktor Beker; Tomasz Badowski; Karl A. Scheidt; Karol Molga; Jacek Młynarski; Milan Mrksich; Bartosz A. Grzybowski

    Teaching computers to plan multistep organic syntheses has been a challenge for over 50 years1–7. Since early pioneering contributions, including programs such as LHASA1,7 (with reaction choices at each step made by human operator), the field has progressed greatly and there are now multiple software platforms6,8–13 capable of completely autonomous planning. Still, these programs ‘think’ only one step

    更新日期:2020-10-13
  • SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody structures inform therapeutic strategies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Christopher O. Barnes; Claudia A. Jette; Morgan E. Abernathy; Kim-Marie A. Dam; Shannon R. Esswein; Harry B. Gristick; Andrey G. Malyutin; Naima G. Sharaf; Kathryn E. Huey-Tubman; Yu E. Lee; Davide F. Robbiani; Michel C. Nussenzweig; Anthony P. West; Pamela J. Bjorkman

    The COVID-19 pandemic presents an urgent health crisis. Human neutralizing antibodies (hNAbs) that target the host ACE2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike1–5 show therapeutic promise and are being evaluated clincally6–8. To determine structural correlates of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, we solved 8 new structures of distinct COVID-19 hNAbs5 in complex with SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer or

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Fc-optimized antibodies elicit CD8 immunity to viral respiratory infection
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Stylianos Bournazos; Davide Corti; Herbert W. Virgin; Jeffrey V. Ravetch

    Antibodies against viral pathogens represent promising therapeutic modalities for the control of infection, and several studies have previously established that their antiviral efficacy requires the coordinated function of both Fab and Fc domains1. The Fc domain engages a wide spectrum of receptors (FcγRs) on discrete cells of the immune system to trigger the clearance of virus and killing of infected

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • A STAT3 palmitoylation cycle promotes T H 17 differentiation and colitis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Mingming Zhang; Lixing Zhou; Yuejie Xu; Min Yang; Yilai Xu; Garrison Paul Komaniecki; Tatsiana Kosciuk; Xiao Chen; Xuan Lu; Xiaoping Zou; Maurine E. Linder; Hening Lin

    Cysteine palmitoylation (S-palmitoylation) is a reversible post-translational modification that is installed by the DHHC family of palmitoyltransferases and is reversed by several acyl protein thioesterases1,2. Although thousands of human proteins are known to undergo S-palmitoylation, how this modification is regulated to modulate specific biological functions is poorly understood. Here we report

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Environmental drivers of megafauna and hominin extinction in Southeast Asia
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Julien Louys; Patrick Roberts

    Southeast Asia has emerged as an important region for understanding hominin and mammalian migrations and extinctions. High-profile discoveries have shown that Southeast Asia has been home to at least five members of the genus Homo1,2,3. Considerable turnover in Pleistocene megafauna has previously been linked with these hominins or with climate change4, although the region is often left out of discussions

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Innate and plastic mechanisms for maternal behaviour in auditory cortex
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Jennifer K. Schiavo; Silvana Valtcheva; Chloe J. Bair-Marshall; Soomin C. Song; Kathleen A. Martin; Robert C. Froemke

    Infant cries evoke powerful responses in parents1,2,3,4. Whether parental animals are intrinsically sensitive to neonatal vocalizations, or instead learn about vocal cues for parenting responses is unclear. In mice, pup-naive virgin females do not recognize the meaning of pup distress calls, but retrieve isolated pups to the nest after having been co-housed with a mother and litter5,6,7,8,9. Distress

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • The genomic landscapes of individual melanocytes from human skin
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Jessica Tang; Eleanor Fewings; Darwin Chang; Hanlin Zeng; Shanshan Liu; Aparna Jorapur; Rachel L. Belote; Andrew S. McNeal; Tuyet M. Tan; Iwei Yeh; Sarah T. Arron; Robert L. Judson-Torres; Boris C. Bastian; A. Hunter Shain

    Every cell in the human body has a unique set of somatic mutations, but it remains difficult to comprehensively genotype an individual cell1. Here we describe ways to overcome this obstacle in the context of normal human skin, thus offering a glimpse into the genomic landscapes of individual melanocytes from human skin. As expected, sun-shielded melanocytes had fewer mutations than sun-exposed melanocytes

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • eIF2α controls memory consolidation via excitatory and somatostatin neurons
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Vijendra Sharma; Rapita Sood; Abdessattar Khlaifia; Mohammad Javad Eslamizade; Tzu-Yu Hung; Danning Lou; Azam Asgarihafshejani; Maya Lalzar; Stephen J. Kiniry; Matthew P. Stokes; Noah Cohen; Alissa J. Nelson; Kathryn Abell; Anthony P. Possemato; Shunit Gal-Ben-Ari; Vinh T. Truong; Peng Wang; Adonis Yiannakas; Fatemeh Saffarzadeh; A. Claudio Cuello; Karim Nader; Randal J. Kaufman; Mauro Costa-Mattioli;

    An important tenet of learning and memory is the notion of a molecular switch that promotes the formation of long-term memory1,2,3,4. The regulation of proteostasis is a critical and rate-limiting step in the consolidation of new memories5,6,7,8,9,10. One of the most effective and prevalent ways to enhance memory is by regulating the synthesis of proteins controlled by the translation initiation factor

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Relatives of rubella virus in diverse mammals
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Andrew J. Bennett; Adrian C. Paskey; Arnt Ebinger; Florian Pfaff; Grit Priemer; Dirk Höper; Angele Breithaupt; Elisa Heuser; Rainer G. Ulrich; Jens H. Kuhn; Kimberly A. Bishop-Lilly; Martin Beer; Tony L. Goldberg

    Since 1814, when rubella was first described, the origins of the disease and its causative agent, rubella virus (Matonaviridae: Rubivirus), have remained unclear1. Here we describe ruhugu virus and rustrela virus in Africa and Europe, respectively, which are, to our knowledge, the first known relatives of rubella virus. Ruhugu virus, which is the closest relative of rubella virus, was found in apparently

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Phenotypic landscape of intestinal organoid regeneration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Ilya Lukonin; Denise Serra; Ludivine Challet Meylan; Katrin Volkmann; Janine Baaten; Rui Zhao; Shelly Meeusen; Karyn Colman; Francisca Maurer; Michael B. Stadler; Jeremy Jenkins; Prisca Liberali

    The development of intestinal organoids from single adult intestinal stem cells in vitro recapitulates the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium1,2. Here we unravel the mechanisms that orchestrate both organoid formation and the regeneration of intestinal tissue, using an image-based screen to assay an annotated library of compounds. We generate multivariate feature profiles for hundreds

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Emergent electromagnetic induction in a helical-spin magnet
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Tomoyuki Yokouchi; Fumitaka Kagawa; Max Hirschberger; Yoshichika Otani; Naoto Nagaosa; Yoshinori Tokura

    An inductor, one of the most fundamental circuit elements in modern electronic devices, generates a voltage proportional to the time derivative of the input current1. Conventional inductors typically consist of a helical coil and induce a voltage as a counteraction to time-varying magnetic flux penetrating the coil, following Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. The magnitude of this conventional

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Microglia-organized scar-free spinal cord repair in neonatal mice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Yi Li; Xuelian He; Riki Kawaguchi; Yu Zhang; Qing Wang; Aboozar Monavarfeshani; Zhiyun Yang; Bo Chen; Zhongju Shi; Huyan Meng; Songlin Zhou; Junjie Zhu; Anne Jacobi; Vivek Swarup; Phillip G. Popovich; Daniel H. Geschwind; Zhigang He

    Spinal cord injury in mammals is thought to trigger scar formation with little regeneration of axons1,2,3,4. Here we show that a crush injury to the spinal cord in neonatal mice leads to scar-free healing that permits the growth of long projecting axons through the lesion. Depletion of microglia in neonatal mice disrupts this healing process and stalls the regrowth of axons, suggesting that microglia

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Spontaneous travelling cortical waves gate perception in behaving primates
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Zachary W. Davis; Lyle Muller; Julio Martinez-Trujillo; Terrence Sejnowski; John H. Reynolds

    Perceptual sensitivity varies from moment to moment. One potential source of this variability is spontaneous fluctuations in cortical activity that can travel as waves1. Spontaneous travelling waves have been reported during anaesthesia2,3,4,5,6,7, but it is not known whether they have a role during waking perception. Here, using newly developed analytic techniques to characterize the moment-to-moment

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Four annular structures in a protostellar disk less than 500,000 years old
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Dominique M. Segura-Cox; Anika Schmiedeke; Jaime E. Pineda; Ian W. Stephens; Manuel Fernández-López; Leslie W. Looney; Paola Caselli; Zhi-Yun Li; Lee G. Mundy; Woojin Kwon; Robert J. Harris

    Annular structures (rings and gaps) in disks around pre-main-sequence stars have been detected in abundance towards class II protostellar objects that are approximately 1,000,000 years old1. These structures are often interpreted as evidence of planet formation1,2,3, with planetary-mass bodies carving rings and gaps in the disk4. This implies that planet formation may already be underway in even younger

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • A comprehensive quantification of global nitrous oxide sources and sinks
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Hanqin Tian; Rongting Xu; Josep G. Canadell; Rona L. Thompson; Wilfried Winiwarter; Parvadha Suntharalingam; Eric A. Davidson; Philippe Ciais; Robert B. Jackson; Greet Janssens-Maenhout; Michael J. Prather; Pierre Regnier; Naiqing Pan; Shufen Pan; Glen P. Peters; Hao Shi; Francesco N. Tubiello; Sönke Zaehle; Feng Zhou; Almut Arneth; Gianna Battaglia; Sarah Berthet; Laurent Bopp; Alexander F. Bouwman;

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), like carbon dioxide, is a long-lived greenhouse gas that accumulates in the atmosphere. Over the past 150 years, increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations have contributed to stratospheric ozone depletion1 and climate change2, with the current rate of increase estimated at 2 per cent per decade. Existing national inventories do not provide a full picture of N2O emissions, owing

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Sean L. Maxwell; Victor Cazalis; Nigel Dudley; Michael Hoffmann; Ana S. L. Rodrigues; Sue Stolton; Piero Visconti; Stephen Woodley; Naomi Kingston; Edward Lewis; Martine Maron; Bernardo B. N. Strassburg; Amelia Wenger; Harry D. Jonas; Oscar Venter; James E. M. Watson

    Humanity will soon define a new era for nature—one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. However, persistent shortfalls in ecological representation and management effectiveness diminish

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Amygdala inhibitory neurons as loci for translation in emotional memories
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Prerana Shrestha; Zhe Shan; Maggie Mamcarz; Karen San Agustin Ruiz; Adam T. Zerihoun; Chien-Yu Juan; Pedro M. Herrero-Vidal; Jerry Pelletier; Nathaniel Heintz; Eric Klann

    To survive in a dynamic environment, animals need to identify and appropriately respond to stimuli that signal danger1. Survival also depends on suppressing the threat-response during a stimulus that predicts the absence of threat (safety)2,3,4,5. An understanding of the biological substrates of emotional memories during a task in which animals learn to flexibly execute defensive responses to a threat-predictive

    更新日期:2020-10-07
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