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  • A 640-Gbps, 15.2344-b/s/Hz full-duplex optical fiber/wireless single-channel coherent communication system using IQM-based DP-256-QAM and DSP techniques
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Dhiman Kakati, Subhash C. Arya

    A full-duplex optical fiber/wireless single-channel coherent communication system is presented for high-speed data center interconnections. In-phase and quadrature modulator (IQM)-based dual polarization 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-256-QAM) is implemented to achieve a maximum data rate of 640 Gbps with 40 Gbaud symbol rate for both the single-mode fiber (SMF) and free-space optics (FSO) links. Advanced digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms have been implemented at the receiver to compensate for signal impairments during propagation. The system with optical IQM and DSP algorithms can be fabricated in the form of cost-efficient integrated circuits and possess a potential spectral efficiency of 15.2344 b/s/Hz. A maximum transmission distance of 160 km and 4 km is achieved in simulation platform for the SMF and FSO links, respectively. The system performance is evaluated regarding laser linewidth requirements, optical signal-to-noise ratio tolerance, receiver sensitivity and launched optical power. This transceiver system shall be useful in high-speed long-haul communications, and the FSO system provides the same data rate to the remote areas, and last mile connections where laying of an optical fiber is not possible or cost is a major concern.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Assessment of novel regenerator assignment strategies in dynamic translucent elastic optical networks
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Emerson F. da Silva, Raul C. Almeida, Helder A. Pereira, Daniel A. R. Chaves

    The problem of regenerator assignment (RA) in translucent optical networks consists in segmenting a lightpath into several transparent segments, each of which linked by 3 R regenerators. In this article, we present two heuristics and compare their effectiveness with an exhaustive method to solve the RA problem in translucent elastic optical networks under dynamic traffic. The exhaustive method is capable of finding solutions that are able to minimize, simultaneously, the number of regenerators and frequency slots used in a given route. It is assumed 3 R regenerators, which are capable to perform both modulation format and spectrum conversion. In our simulations, we consider the amplified spontaneous emission noise generated by optical amplifiers as physical impairment. Two practical mesh topologies have been analyzed in terms of call request blocking probability. The results show that the presented heuristics are able to find solutions that provide very similar performance to those found by utilizing the best solutions of the exhaustive method.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Steerable reflector-assisted communication in obstructed line-of-sight FSO link with optimal mitigation of dust-induced signal fading
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
    Rahul Bosu, Shanthi Prince

    Abstract This paper introduces an effective technique for bridging free-space optical (FSO) communication between end-to-end nodes with obstructed direct line-of sight (LOS) by incorporating a steerable mirror-and-lens-assisted (MLA) reflector assembly. The consistency of the proposed MLA-assisted FSO system is then experimentally evaluated and contrasted against a plane mirror (PM) reflector over a test-bed link set in a laboratory-fostered dusty environment for analyzing the system performance in terms of the received beam irradiance, received signal quality and noise-inflicted signal distortions. Furthermore, an intensity-dependent steerable MLA system is implemented to cater for the beam misalignment errors during the FSO link operation. It is observed that the proposed MLA assembly, in contrast to the PM reflector, can effectively harvest and focus the dust-induced scattered information-laden laser beam to a narrow-beam spot with intense irradiance level at the receiver aperture. Finally, the signal eye diagram is obtained for analyzing the signal quality in the presence and absence of background light. Based on the experimental study, it is apparent that the MLA reflectors not only aids in establishing a reliable direct LOS-obstructed FSO link but also effectively mitigates the dusty channel-induced beam fading effect and enhances the system immunity to noise and jitter effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Design, optimization and comparative analysis of T-shape slot loaded microstrip patch antenna using PSO
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Ramesh Kumar Verma, D. K. Srivastava

    This paper illustrates optimization and comparative analysis for rectangular microstrip patch antenna loaded with ‘T’-shape slot utilizing manual (conventional) optimization and particle swarm optimization (PSO) with curve fitting. Initially, a conventional antenna has been designed by cutting ‘T’-shape slot in rectangular radiating patch and manually optimized by selecting some parameters of patch as variable. The bandwidth and resonant frequency data obtained from IE3D simulation tool by varying distinct parameters of the conventional ‘T’-shape slot loaded antenna have been used for generating the curve in Graphmatica (curve fitting software) and developing the PSO program in MATLAB for optimization purpose. Finally, the PSO-optimized antenna has been attained and its performance has been compared with both initial conventional ‘T’-shape slot loaded antenna and manually optimized antenna. Fragmentary bandwidth of PSO-optimized ‘T’-shape slot loaded antenna has been increased by 16.86% as compared to initial conventional ‘T’-shape slot loaded antenna and kept the resonant frequency at 2.477 GHz near the desired frequency of 2.45 GHz.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Multilayered optical OFDM for high spectral efficiency in visible light communication system
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Ayad Atiyah Abdulkafi, Saad Mshhain Hardan, Oguz Bayat, Osman Nuri Ucan

    Abstract This paper presents two new schemes for improving the spectral efficiency of an optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based visible light communication (OFDM-VLC) system. The proposed schemes employed the generalized spatial modulation (GenSM) along with multi-input multi-output (MIMO) techniques as well as modified the coded modulation optical OFDM (CMO-OFDM) approach to attain more bandwidth utilization and higher spectral efficiency. The proposed multilayered/enhanced CMO-OFDM (LeCMO-OFDM) systems ensure the real-valued optical OFDM signals without using Hermitian symmetry and utilize the redundant codes existed in CMO-OFDM for further improvements in system’s spectral efficiency while ensuring acceptable bit error rate (BER) performance. LeCMO-OFDM scheme transmits multilayer optical signals after converting them to unipolar form either by using DC bias (DC-LeCMO-OFDM) or by separating them through employing the GenSM with no DC bias (NDC-LeCMO-OFDM). We present analytical and simulation results to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed systems and demonstrate the additional capacity gain in terms of spectral efficiency. In addition, the impact of the spacing distance between the light emitting diodes has been addressed. Detailed performance comparison in terms of spectral efficiency and BER between the proposed techniques and other recent works is provided for validation purpose. Finally, results show that our schemes can achieve better spectral and power efficiencies performance with acceptable BER performance when compared with the related methods.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Performance comparison of M-QAM and DQPSK modulation schemes in a 2 × 20 Gbit/s–40 GHz hybrid MDM–OFDM-based radio over FSO transmission system
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Mehtab Singh, Jyoteesh Malhotra

    Abstract This work is focused on the modeling and performance investigation of a 2 × 20 Gbit/s–40 GHz hybrid mode division multiplexing–orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based radio over free space optics (RoFSO) transmission system under the influence of different weather conditions. The performance of the proposed system has been compared for 4-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), differential quadrature phase-shift keying, 16-QAM, and 32-QAM modulation schemes using error vector magnitude, optical signal-to-noise ratio requirement, and maximum link reach as the performance metrics. The results show that 4-QAM scheme demonstrates the best performance. The proposed RoFSO transmission system incorporating 4-QAM modulation demonstrates a successful transmission of 2 × 20 Gbit/s–40 GHz information over 104 km link range under clear weather conditions. Also, the maximum link range using the proposed system is reported as 4.52 km under light fog, 2.78 km under moderate fog, and 2.11 km under heavy fog conditions. Further, the performance of the proposed system has been compared with the previously reported literature which shows that the proposed system has a better figure of merit (information rate × transmission distance). The presented work can be used to implement a spectrum efficient, high-speed, long-haul information transmission system for future wireless networks.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Performance enhancement of high-capacity coherent DWDM free-space optical communication link using digital signal processing
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
    Rajan Miglani, Jagjit Singh Malhotra

    In this paper, 1.28 Tbps (32 × 40 Gbps) high-capacity DWDM-FSO link has been investigated for performance enhancement using coherent detection and digital signal processing (DSP). The DP-16QAM-modulated proposed DWDM-FSO link has been analyzed for both adverse weather and turbulent atmospheric conditions. It is observed that when link is subjected to strong turbulence along with adverse weather conditions, the DSP-aided coherent DWDM-FSO receiver achieves target bit error rate (BER) of 10−4 at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 36.4 dB, while for similar conditions, the SNR requirements for IM/DD-based DWDM-FSO link shoots by 12.8 dB to 49.2 dB. Also, in terms of operational link range, the proposed link even under strong turbulent conditions serves 1.88 km, whereas IM/DD link was restricted to mere 1.12 km for target of BER of 10−4, thus producing a decent range increment of 760 m. The proposed link has been designed and investigated using OptiSystem™ 14.2.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Design and implementation of circuit-switched network based on nanoscale quantum-dot cellular automata
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Saeed Rasouli Heikalabad, Hamed Kamrani

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a nanoscale technology to design digital circuits in nano-measure which acts based on electron’s interaction. The technology of collecting, processing and distributing information is growing rapidly, but the growth in demand for advanced methods in data processing has always been greater than the speed of growth of these technologies. Hence, computer networks play an important role in providing a resource sharing and facilitating user communications. The circuit-switched network is one of the main components for sending input signals between different users within the network. In this paper, a minimal and optimal design of the circuit-switched network is presented at a single level in QCA. The proposed design is studied and compared with existing designs in terms of fault tolerant under stuck-at 0 and 1. There is also a physical analysis for the proposed circuit-switched network.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Implementing bitonic sorting on optical network-on-chip with bus topology
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Jing Zhang, Weiwei Zhang, Junling Yuan, Hua Wang

    Abstract Optical network-on-chip (ONoC) is a new designing of multi-processor system-on-chip. On the one hand, global bus is a simple and common logical topology for ONoC. On the other hand, the parallel formulation of bitonic sorting has lower time complexity than the sequential implementation of bitonic sorting. Thus, it is meaningful to study the parallel implementation for bitonic sorting on bus ONoC. Different wavelengths are used to achieve the parallel processing for bitonic sorting on bus ONoC. The wavelength assignment scheme for n elements bitonic sorting is proposed such that the number of wavelengths required is just n/2.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Implementation of quantum repeater scheme based on non-identical quantum memories
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Adnan N. Kadhim, Jawad A. Hasan, Wijdan M. Alkhalidy

    Abstract Quantum key distribution aims to distribute a secret key among distant parties linked by an optical fiber or free space. Unfortunately, the main problem which limits the long distance direct transmission of qubits is the exponential decay of the signal. This limit can be overcome by introducing quantum repeaters (QRs) between the two distant points. Quantum repeaters suggest a technique for establishing long distance quantum communication by the construction of entangled qubits among the end point of the channel, by dividing the channel into elementary links edged with quantum memory (QM) called nodes. Many schemes use identical QMs (Mastromattei in Assessing the practicality of a simple multi-node quantum repeater. M.Sc. thesis, University of Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2017). These schemes need QMs of long life times and high efficiencies which is not the practical case for QMs. To optimize these requirements, a multi-node sequential quantum repeater of a non-identical QMs is proposed here to interplay between the total channel efficiency and decoherence time T2 and the quantum memories life times and their efficiencies to enhance the execution of the quantum repeater (QR). The outcomes show that the interplay between the decoherence time and efficiency in non-identical QR improves the key rate as compared to that of the identical QR, the distance of the channel can be extended by using non-identical QMs repeater scheme since quantum bit error rate is decreased, and the cost of fabricating non-identical QMs repeater is reduced since we use most QMs with low life time.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • 0.55 Tb/s heterogeneous Nyquist-WDM superchannel using different polarization multiplexed subcarriers
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Divya Sharma, Y. K. Prajapati, Rajeev Tripathi

    This paper depicts the design of 0.55 Tb/s heterogeneous Flexi-rate Nyquist-wavelength division multiplexed (Nyquist-WDM) Superchannel. Here, for the first time, four subcarriers of different modulation formats are accommodated, namely polarization multiplexed-binary phase-shift keying, polarization multiplexed-quadrature phase-shift keying (PM-QPSK), polarization multiplexed-8-quadrature amplitude modulation and PM-16QAM, each with 27.75 Gbaud symbol rate. The system transmission performance with acceptable bit error rate (BER) 4 × 10−3 is analyzed over pure silica core fiber (PSCF) in the presence of hybrid optical amplification, i.e., Raman amplifier along with a counter-propagating pump and Erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The presence of this hybrid optical amplification unit results in a limited optical signal-to-noise ratio requirement and makes the whole system cost-effective. The proposed work delivers excellent spectral efficiency of 4.5 b/s/Hz and highest transmission reach of 5500 km for PM-QPSK subcarrier and 2300 km for PM-16QAM subcarrier in the presence of PSCF. The system performance against intersymbol interference and noise is also analyzed with the aid of eye pattern plot at a minimum and maximum transmission length.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Ferromagnetic resonance isolator based on a photonic crystal structure with terahertz vortices
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Gianni Portela, Victor Dmitriev, Daimam Zimmer

    Abstract A new terahertz isolator based on the ferromagnetic resonance effect is suggested and analyzed. A two-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of a square lattice of gallium arsenide rods has been employed in the design of the device. Incident electromagnetic waves interact with one magnetized ferrite rod and two stubs inserted in the photonic crystal structure, generating a vortex-like field profile in the ferrite rod. Electromagnetic signals propagating in the forward direction are transmitted with low insertion losses, while their propagation in the backward direction is not allowed due to the high losses of the ferrite rod operating at the ferromagnetic resonance regime. Computational simulations show that the operating bandwidth is equal to 0.87 GHz around the central frequency 106.6 GHz. In this frequency band, the insertion losses are lower than − 1.68 dB, the reflection levels are better than − 16 dB, and the isolation levels are greater than − 15 dB.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • RSS: a relay-based schedule scheme for optical data center network
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Shangqi Ma, Huaxi Gu, Hao Lan, Xiaoshan Yu, Kun Wang

    Abstract The ever-increasing communication requirements have led to the introduction of optical circuit switch (OCS) to data center, which is capable of providing more flexible bandwidth allocation compared to the electrical packet switching. However, the challenge still arises due to non-negligible reconfiguration delay of commercially available MEMS-based optical circuit switching technology, even though it provides high bandwidth with low per-bit cost and power. Additionally, existing scheduling schemes amortize long switch delay by means of reconfiguring OCS every a few 100 s of milliseconds, not only causing the degradation of the latency performance, but also incurring the low utilization of optical links. In this paper, we propose an OCS-based scheduling scheme called relay-based schedule scheme (RSS), which can leverage idle optical paths to forward traffic from remote nodes only with straightforward software modifications on controller. We evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme via OMNET++ simulator, and the results demonstrate that our proposal delivers significant benefits, including reducing the average mice flow FCTs (flow complete time) by up to 80% and reducing the end-to-end packet delay by 50% compared to non-RSS schemes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • All-optical OR/XOR logic gate using PhC-based T-shaped waveguide with high-contrast output to implement 3-bit binary to gray code converter
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Enaul Haq Shaik, Nakkeeran Rangaswamy

    In this article, a theoretical analysis on T-shaped waveguide is performed using coupled mode theory which admits its operation as power combiner, splitter and diverter. These applications of the waveguide can very well be utilized to project it as OR and XOR logic gates. In order to achieve this, the T-shaped waveguide is mapped onto the photonic crystal of square-type lattice and the validity is observed with the theoretical analysis. Later, the designed T-shaped waveguide is used to define OR and XOR gates, which results in the contrast ratio and response time of 54.43 dB and < 1 ps, respectively, at 1550 nm. Further, the higher contrast ratio of the T-shaped waveguide-based XOR logic gate allows it to cascade with itself in a single stage to realize a 3-bit binary to gray code converter. The simulation results show that the code converter operates with contrast ratio of above 9.82 dB at the output ports. Finally, the fair results obtained from theoretical analysis and numerical simulation conclude that the T-shaped waveguide can be a potential component as logic gate in the future photonic integrated circuits.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Design of high-speed 10-Gb/s wired/FSO systems for local area communication networks for maximum reach
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-07-27
    A. R. Palanisamy, G. M. Tamilselvan, A. Pushparaghavan

    Abstract This paper presents the numerical simulation studies of upgraded system for single-mode fiber (SMF wired)/free space optics (FSO wireless) under high-speed operation of 10 Gb/s. Further, the maximum reach of the system is analyzed based on various advanced modulation techniques, namely phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK), quadrature amplitude modulation, differential phase-shift keying, frequency shift keying, pulse amplitude modulation and different optical amplifiers, namely erbium-doped fiber amplifier, traveling wave semiconductor optical amplifier and parametric optical amplifier, respectively. The overall system studies are done by optiwave system software through which bit error rate and Q-factor are studied. The trade-off between different all-optical amplifiers and modulation techniques is studied to show the enhancement of upgrading system. The simulation results show that the maximum reach of distance belongs to CPFSK modulation scheme.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A novel proposal for all-optical 1-bit comparator using nonlinear PhCRRs
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-05-25
    Aravindhan Surendar, Mehrnoush Asghari, Farhad Mehdizadeh

    Abstract All-optical comparators play crucial roles in all-optical data processing systems. In this paper, we proposed a novel structure for realizing an all-optical comparator, which can compare two 1-bit binary codes. For this purpose, we used three nonlinear resonant rings. The final structure has two input and three output ports. The maximum rise and fall times for the proposed structure are about 1.5 and 2 ps, respectively.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A survey on role of photonic technologies in 5G communication systems
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-05-25
    Rohan Katti, Shanthi Prince

    Abstract A new generation of mobile communications has been evolving for every 10 years, keeping in mind the enormous data traffic, huge capacity requirements, excellent quality of service with minimal latency; there is a shift in paradigm toward the upcoming 5G technology which is expected to be rolled out by 2020 that promises to meet the requirements stated above. 5G is envisaged to be a merged framework of wide range of applications ranging from device-to-device communications, smart grid to Internet of Things and many more. In this survey paper, a brief discussion on the major pillars of 5G which are millimeter wave technology, massive MIMO, ultra-dense network, beamforming and full-duplex transmission are presented. This survey paper also focuses on the role of optics in 5G technology, sometimes commonly referred to as microwave photonics, an interdisciplinary research platform. Due to huge bandwidth and enormous capacity upgrade, optical fibers are considered to be ideal backhaul and fronthaul media rather than copper cables in order to support small cells and next-generation networks. These advantages of optical fiber technology enable integrated optical and wireless access technologies for 5G wireless communications an interdisciplinary area of research.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • MEMS tunable SOI waveguide Bragg grating filter with 1.3 THz tuning range for C-band 100 GHz DWDM optical network
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    U. Poorna Lakshmi, M. Balasubramanian, K. Narayan, Prasant Kumar Pattnaik

    Abstract A MEMS tunable integrated waveguide Bragg grating-based filter for C-band optical dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) network is presented and analyzed in this work. Waveguide Bragg grating being a notch filter in the transmission spectrum is used to realize a tunable filter by varying the applied voltages to the fixed–fixed beam loaded with this grating. The strain across the grating is enhanced by choosing MEMS beam configuration such that the metal electrode is the bottom-most layer of the composite fixed–fixed beam. Device dimensions are chosen to achieve a narrow full width half maximum of 0.77 nm, allowing filtering of adjacent channels of 100 GHz DWDM network. A large Bragg wavelength shift of 10.4 nm (1552.52–1562.92 nm) was achieved at 45.8 V actuation providing tuning for 14 DWDM channels with inter-channel cross talk below − 21 dB, with tuning range of 1.3 THz.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Compact electro-optical programmable logic device based on graphene–silicon switches
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Hossein Zivarian, Abbas Zarifkar

    A compact electro-optical programmable logic device (PLD) which can provide any of 16 possible minterms of four Boolean variables on an optical signal is demonstrated in this paper. The presented structure is based on electro-optical graphene–silicon switches that consist of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer in which a few-layer graphene is embedded in silicon slot waveguide to construct phase shifters. A large effective index variation can be achieved by embedding few-layer graphene inside the slot waveguide which enables us to have a compact footprint. Our analysis shows that the presented PLD has a small footprint of 1.86 × 1.28 mm2. Any combinational logic circuit can be implemented by programming the proposed PLD. Here, the presented structure is programmed to work under three different modes including logical operations, two-bit adder, and two-bit comparator with the advantage of very fast switching among operation modes. Comparison with previous works shows that our design has a compact footprint, high extinction ratio, and low insertion loss with broadband spectrum for wideband telecommunication.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Design of low cross-talk and high-quality-factor 2-channel and 4-channel optical demultiplexers based on photonic crystal nano-ring resonator
    Photonic Netw. Commun. (IF 1.328) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Gholamali Delphi, Saeed Olyaee, Mahmood Seifouri, Ahmad Mohebzadeh-Bahabady

    In this paper, 2-channel and 4-channel optical demultiplexers have been designed based on photonic crystal nano-ring resonator. The structure of both demultiplexers is based on the use of a photonic crystal filter. The mean quality factor of 2828, mean transfer factor of 95%, mean cross-talk of − 25.07 dB, and an inter-channel distance of 7.4 nm are among the structural advantages of the 2-channel demultiplexer. The advantages of the 4-channel demultiplexer include the mean quality factor of 4525, mean channel power transfer factor of 95%, and maximum and minimum channel cross-talk of − 19.6 and − 40.4, respectively. Also, the inter-channel difference is 7.8 nm and mean channel width is 0.375 nm. Moreover, the simplicity of the structure and the small size are among the characteristics of these designs. The proposed 2-channel and 4-channel demultiplexers can be used in WDM systems, especially DWDM systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
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