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  • 6G in the sky: On‐demand intelligence at the edge of 3D networks
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Emilio Calvanese Strinati; Sergio Barbarossa; Taesang Choi; Antonio Pietrabissa; Alessandro Giuseppi; Emanuele De Santis; Josep Vidal; Zdenek Becvar; Thomas Haustein; Nicolas Cassiau; Francesca Costanzo; Junhyeong Kim; Ilgyu Kim

    Sixth generation will exploit satellite, aerial, and terrestrial platforms jointly to improve radio access capability and unlock the support of on‐demand edge cloud services in three‐dimensional (3D) space, by incorporating mobile edge computing (MEC) functionalities on aerial platforms and low‐orbit satellites. This will extend the MEC support to devices and network elements in the sky and forge a

  • Algorithm based on Byzantine agreement among decentralized agents (BADA)
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Jintae Oh; Joonyoung Park; Youngchang Kim; Kiyoung Kim

    Distributed consensus requires the consent of more than half of the congress to produce irreversible results, and the performance of the consensus algorithm deteriorates with the increase in the number of nodes. This problem can be addressed by delegating the agreement to a few selected nodes. Since the selected nodes must comply with the Byzantine node ratio criteria required by the algorithm, the

  • Improving PAPR performance of filtered OFDM for 5G communications using PTS
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    Yasir Amer Al‐Jawhar; Khairun N. Ramli; Montadar Abas Taher; Nor Shahida M. Shah; Salama A. Mostafa; Bashar Ahmed Khalaf

    The filtered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (F‐OFDM) system has been recommended as a waveform candidate for fifth‐generation (5G) communications. The suppression of out‐of‐band emission (OOBE) and asynchronous transmission are the distinctive features of the filtering‐based waveform frameworks. Meanwhile, the high peak‐to‐average power ratio (PAPR) is still a challenge for the new waveform

  • Performance analysis of local exit for distributed deep neural networks over cloud and edge computing
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-18
    Changsik Lee; Seungwoo Hong; Sungback Hong; Taeyeon Kim

    In edge computing, most procedures, including data collection, data processing, and service provision, are handled at edge nodes and not in the central cloud. This decreases the processing burden on the central cloud, enabling fast responses to end‐device service requests in addition to reducing bandwidth consumption. However, edge nodes have restricted computing, storage, and energy resources to support

  • 8.2‐GHz band radar RFICs for an 8 × 8 phased‐array FMCW receiver developed with 65‐nm CMOS technology
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Seon‐Ho Han; Bon‐Tae Koo

    We propose 8.2‐GHz band radar RFICs for an 8 × 8 phased‐array frequency‐modulated continuous‐wave receiver developed using 65‐nm CMOS technology. This receiver panel is constructed using a multichip solution comprising fabricated 2 × 2 low‐noise amplifier phase‐shifter (LNA‐PS) chips and a 4ch RX front‐end chip. The LNA‐PS chip has a novel phase‐shifter circuit for low‐voltage operation, novel active

  • E‐band low‐noise amplifier MMIC with impedance‐controllable filter using SiGe 130‐nm BiCMOS technology
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Woojin Chang; Jong‐Min Lee; Seong‐Il Kim; Sang‐Heung Lee; Dong Min Kang

    In this study, an E‐band low‐noise amplifier (LNA) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) has been designed using silicon‐germanium 130‐nm bipolar complementary metal‐oxide‐semiconductor technology to suppress unwanted signal gain outside operating frequencies and improve the signal gain and noise figures at operating frequencies. The proposed impedance‐controllable filter has series (Rs) and

  • Network intrusion detection method based on matrix factorization of their time and frequency representations
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Spiros Chountasis; Dimitrios Pappas; Dimitris Sklavounos

    In the last few years, detection has become a powerful methodology for network protection and security. This paper presents a new detection scheme for data recorded over a computer network. This approach is applicable to the broad scientific field of information security, including intrusion detection and prevention. The proposed method employs bidimensional (time‐frequency) data representations of

  • Parameter estimation of weak space‐based ADS‐B signals using genetic algorithm
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-11
    Feng Tao; Liang Jun

    Space‐based automatic dependent surveillance‐broadcast (ADS‐B) is an important emerging augmentation of existing ground‐based ADS‐B systems. In this paper, the problem of space‐based ultra‐long‐range reception processing of ADS‐B signals is described. We first introduce a header detection method for accurately determining the pulse position of a weak ADS‐B signal. We designed a signal encoding method

  • A dual‐path high linear amplifier for carrier aggregation
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Dong‐Woo Kang; Jang‐Hong Choi

    A 40 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor carrier‐aggregated drive amplifier with high linearity is presented for sub‐GHz Internet of Things applications. The proposed drive amplifier consists of two high linear amplifiers, which are composed of five differential cascode cells. Carrier aggregation can be achieved by switching on both the driver amplifiers simultaneously and combining the two

  • Region‐based scalable self‐recovery for salient‐object images
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Navid Daneshmandpour; Habibollah Danyali; Mohammad Sadegh Helfroush

    Self‐recovery is a tamper‐detection and image recovery methods based on data hiding. It generates two types of data and embeds them into the original image: authentication data for tamper detection and reference data for image recovery. In this paper, a region‐based scalable self‐recovery (RSS) method is proposed for salient‐object images. As the images consist of two main regions, the region of interest

  • Task failure resilience technique for improving the performance of MapReduce in Hadoop
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Kavitha C; Anita X

    MapReduce is a framework that can process huge datasets in parallel and distributed computing environments. However, a single machine failure during the runtime of MapReduce tasks can increase completion time by 50%. MapReduce handles task failures by restarting the failed task and re‐computing all input data from scratch, regardless of how much data had already been processed. To solve this issue

  • Special issue on SoC and AI processors
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Ji‐Hoon Kim; Minjae Lee; Jongsun Park; Ho‐Young Cha

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has evolved into a general technology for a wide range of purposes and has been applied in all aspects of economy and society. It has already been extensively used in various fields, including medical services, finance, security, education, transportation, and logistics, and had led to the emergence of new commercial activities, business models, and game‐changing product

  • W‐Band MMIC chipset in 0.1‐μm mHEMT technology
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Jong‐Min Lee, Woo‐Jin Chang, Dong Min Kang, Byoung‐Gue Min, Hyung Sup Yoon, Sung‐Jae Chang, Hyun‐Wook Jung, Wansik Kim, Jooyong Jung, Jongpil Kim, Mihui Seo, Sosu Kim

    We developed a 0.1‐μm metamorphic high electron mobility transistor and fabricated a W‐band monolithic microwave integrated circuit chipset with our in‐house technology to verify the performance and usability of the developed technology. The DC characteristics were a drain current density of 747 mA/mm and a maximum transconductance of 1.354 S/mm; the RF characteristics were a cutoff frequency of 210 GHz

  • AB9: A neural processor for inference acceleration
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Yong Cheol Peter Cho, Jaehoon Chung, Jeongmin Yang, Chun‐Gi Lyuh, HyunMi Kim, Chan Kim, Je‐seok Ham, Minseok Choi, Kyoungseon Shin, Jinho Han, Youngsu Kwon

    We present AB9, a neural processor for inference acceleration. AB9 consists of a systolic tensor core (STC) neural network accelerator designed to accelerate artificial intelligence applications by exploiting the data reuse and parallelism characteristics inherent in neural networks while providing fast access to large on‐chip memory. Complementing the hardware is an intuitive and user‐friendly development

  • Field programmable analog arrays for implementation of generalized nth‐order operational transconductance amplifier‐C elliptic filters
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Maha S. Diab, Soliman A. Mahmoud

    This study presents a new architecture for a field programmable analog array (FPAA) for use in low‐frequency applications, and a generalized circuit realization method for the implementation of nth‐order elliptic filters. The proposed designs of both the FPAA and elliptic filters are based on the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) used in implementing OTA‐C filters for biopotential signal

  • An impulse radio (IR) radar SoC for through‐the‐wall human‐detection applications
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    Piljae Park, Sungdo Kim, Bontae Koo

    More than 42 000 fires occur nationwide and cause over 2500 casualties every year. There is a lack of specialized equipment, and rescue operations are conducted with a minimal number of apparatuses. Through‐the‐wall radars (TTWRs) can improve the rescue efficiency, particularly under limited visibility due to smoke, walls, and collapsed debris. To overcome detection challenges and maintain a small‐form

  • Function‐level module sharing techniques in high‐level synthesis
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Hiroki Nishikawa, Kenta Shirane, Ryohei Nozaki, Ittetsu Taniguchi, Hiroyuki Tomiyama

    High‐level synthesis (HLS), which automatically synthesizes a register‐transfer level (RTL) circuit from a behavioral description written in a high‐level programming language such as C/C++, is becoming a more popular technique for improving design productivity. In general, HLS tools often generate a circuit with a larger area than those of hand‐designed ones. One reason for this issue is that HLS tools

  • PSO‐optimized Pareto and Nash equilibrium gaming‐based power allocation technique for multistatic radar network
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Thoka Harikala; Ravinutala Satya Narayana

    At present, multiple input multiple output radars offer accurate target detection and better target parameter estimation with higher resolution in high‐speed wireless communication systems. This study focuses primarily on power allocation to improve the performance of radars owing to the sparsity of targets in the spatial velocity domain. First, the radars are clustered using the kernel fuzzy C‐means

  • Efficient hardware implementation and analysis of true random‐number generator based on beta source
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Seongmo Park, Byoung Gun Choi, Taewook Kang, Kyunghwan Park, Youngsu Kwon, Jongbum Kim

    This paper presents an efficient hardware random‐number generator based on a beta source. The proposed generator counts the values of “0” and “1” and provides a method to distinguish between pseudo‐random and true random numbers by comparing them using simple cumulative operations. The random‐number generator produces labeled data indicating whether the count value is a pseudo‐ or true random number

  • 40‐TFLOPS artificial intelligence processor with function‐safe programmable many‐cores for ISO26262 ASIL‐D
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-08-02
    Jinho Han, Minseok Choi, Youngsu Kwon

    The proposed AI processor architecture has high throughput for accelerating the neural network and reduces the external memory bandwidth required for processing the neural network. For achieving high throughput, the proposed super thread core (STC) includes 128 × 128 nano cores operating at the clock frequency of 1.2 GHz. The function‐safe architecture is proposed for a fault‐tolerance system such

  • Automated optimization for memory‐efficient high‐performance deep neural network accelerators
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    HyunMi Kim, Chun‐Gi Lyuh, Youngsu Kwon

    The increasing size and complexity of deep neural networks (DNNs) necessitate the development of efficient high‐performance accelerators. An efficient memory structure and operating scheme provide an intuitive solution for high‐performance accelerators along with dataflow control. Furthermore, the processing of various neural networks (NNs) requires a flexible memory architecture, programmable control

  • Korean TableQA: Structured data question answering based on span prediction style with S3‐NET
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-07-26
    Cheoneum Park; Myungji Kim; Soyoon Park; Seungyoung Lim; Jooyoul Lee; Changki Lee

    The data in tables are accurate and rich in information, which facilitates the performance of information extraction and question answering (QA) tasks. TableQA, which is based on tables, solves problems by understanding the table structure and searching for answers to questions. In this paper, we introduce both novice and intermediate Korean TableQA tasks that involve deducing the answer to a question

  • Real‐time implementation and performance evaluation of speech classifiers in speech analysis‐synthesis
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-07-12
    Sandeep Kumar

    In this work, six voiced/unvoiced speech classifiers based on the autocorrelation function (ACF), average magnitude difference function (AMDF), cepstrum, weighted ACF (WACF), zero crossing rate and energy of the signal (ZCR‐E), and neural networks (NNs) have been simulated and implemented in real time using the TMS320C6713 DSP starter kit. These speech classifiers have been integrated into a linea

  • Hybrid genetic‐paired‐permutation algorithm for improved VLSI placement
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Vladimir V. Ignatyev; Andrey V. Kovalev; Oleg B. Spiridonov; Viktor M. Kureychik; Alexandra S. Ignatyeva; Irina B. Safronenkova

    This paper addresses Very large‐scale integration (VLSI) placement optimization, which is important because of the rapid development of VLSI design technologies. The goal of this study is to develop a hybrid algorithm for VLSI placement. The proposed algorithm includes a sequential combination of a genetic algorithm and an evolutionary algorithm. It is commonly known that local search algorithms, such

  • New framework for adaptive and agile honeypots
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Seamus Dowling; Michael Schukat; Enda Barrett

    This paper proposes a new framework for the development and deployment of honeypots for evolving malware threats. As new technological concepts appear and evolve, attack surfaces are exploited. Internet of things significantly increases the attack surface available to malware developers. Previously independent devices are becoming accessible through new hardware and software attack vectors, and the

  • Predicting numeric ratings for Google apps using text features and ensemble learning
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Muhammad Umer; Imran Ashraf; Arif Mehmood; Saleem Ullah; Gyu Sang Choi

    Application (app) ratings are feedback provided voluntarily by users and serve as important evaluation criteria for apps. However, these ratings can often be biased owing to insufficient or missing votes. Additionally, significant differences have been observed between numeric ratings and user reviews. This study aims to predict the numeric ratings of Google apps using machine learning classifiers

  • Transversal wideband bandpass filter with a wide stopband and multiple transmission zeros
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Li‐Tian Wang; Yang Xiong; Zhi‐Peng Wang; Zhao Li; Xia‐Qing Li; Zhe‐Long Liang; Li Gong; Ming He

    Herein, we present a compact transversal bandpass filter (BPF) with an extremely wide upper stopband and multiple transmission zeros (TZ). Three signal transmission paths with shorted stubs and open‐coupled lines allow signal transmission from input port to output port. Two resonant modes can be excited simultaneously and managed easily for bandpass response. Eleven TZs are achieved via transmission

  • Online nonparametric Bayesian analysis of parsimonious Gaussian mixture models and scenes clustering
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Ri‐Gui Zhou; Wei Wang

    The mixture model is a very powerful and flexible tool in clustering analysis. Based on the Dirichlet process and parsimonious Gaussian distribution, we propose a new nonparametric mixture framework for solving challenging clustering problems. Meanwhile, the inference of the model depends on the efficient online variational Bayesian approach, which enhances the information exchange between the whole

  • Millimeter‐wave diffraction‐loss model based on over‐rooftop propagation measurements
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-21
    Kyung‐Won Kim; Myung‐Don Kim; Juyul Lee; Jae‐Joon Park; Young Keun Yoon; Young Jun Chong

    Measuring the diffraction loss for high frequencies, long distances, and large diffraction angles is difficult because of the high path loss. Securing a well‐controlled environment to avoid reflected waves also makes long‐range diffraction measurements challenging. Thus, the prediction of diffraction loss at millimeter‐wave frequency bands relies on theoretical models, such as the knife‐edge diffraction

  • Ultradense 2‐to‐4 decoder in quantum‐dot cellular automata technology based on MV32 gate
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-21
    Akram Abbasizadeh; Mohammad Mosleh

    Quantum‐dot cellular automata (QCA) is an alternative complementary metal‐oxide‐semiconductor (CMOS) technology that is used to implement high‐speed logical circuits at the atomic or molecular scale. In this study, an optimal 2‐to‐4 decoder in QCA is presented. The proposed QCA decoder is designed using a new formulation based on the MV32 gate. Notably, the MV32 gate has three inputs and two outputs

  • An optimization technique for simultaneous reduction of PAPR and out‐of‐band power in NC‐OFDM‐based cognitive radio systems
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Sravan Kumar Kaliki; Shiva Prasad Golla; Rama Naidu Kurukundu

    Noncontiguous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (NC‐OFDM)‐based cognitive radio (CR) systems achieve highly efficient spectrum utilization by transmitting unlicensed users' data on subcarriers of licensed users’ data when they are free. However, there are two disadvantages to the NC‐OFDM system: out‐of‐band power (OBP) and a high peak‐to‐average power ratio (PAPR). OBP arises due to side lobes

  • Adaptive algorithm for optimal real‐time pricing in cognitive radio enabled smart grid network
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Deepa Das, Deepak Kumar Rout

    Integration of multiple communication technologies in a smart grid (SG) enables employing cognitive radio (CR) technology for improving reliability and security with low latency by adaptively and effectively allocating spectral resources. The versatile features of the CR enable the smart meter to select either the unlicensed or the licensed band for transmitting data to the utility company, thus reducing

  • Fast‐convergence trilinear decomposition algorithm for angle and range estimation in FDA‐MIMO radar
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Cheng Wang; Wang Zheng; Jianfeng Li; Pan Gong; Zheng Li

    A frequency diverse array (FDA) multiple‐input multiple‐output (MIMO) radar employs a small frequency increment across transmit elements to produce an angle‐range‐dependent beampattern for target angle and range detection. The joint angle and range estimation problem is a trilinear model. The traditional trilinear alternating least square (TALS) algorithm involves high computational load due to excessive

  • Efficient programmable power‐of‐two scaler for the three‐moduli set {2n+p, 2n − 1, 2n+1 − 1}
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    MohammadReza Taheri, Keivan Navi, Amir Sabbagh Molahosseini

    Scaling is an important operation because of the iterative nature of arithmetic processes in digital signal processors (DSPs). In residue number system (RNS)–based DSPs, scaling represents a performance bottleneck based on the complexity of inter‐modulo operations. To design an efficient RNS scaler for special moduli sets, a body of literature has been dedicated to the study of the well‐known moduli

  • Compressive sensing‐based two‐dimensional scattering‐center extraction for incomplete RCS data
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Ji‐Hoon Bae; Kyung‐Tae Kim

    We propose a two‐dimensional (2D) scattering‐center‐extraction (SCE) method using sparse recovery based on the compressive‐sensing theory, even with data missing from the received radar cross‐section (RCS) dataset. First, using the proposed method, we generate a 2D grid via adaptive discretization that has a considerably smaller size than a fully sampled fine grid. Subsequently, the coarse estimation

  • Refined identification of hybrid traffic in DNS tunnels based on regression analysis
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Huiwen Bai; Guangjie Liu; Jiangtao Zhai; Weiwei Liu; Xiaopeng Ji; Luhui Yang; Yuewei Dai

    DNS (Domain Name System) tunnels almost obscure the true network activities of users, which makes it challenging for the gateway or censorship equipment to identify malicious or unpermitted network behaviors. An efficient way to address this problem is to conduct a temporal‐spatial analysis on the tunnel traffic. Nevertheless, current studies on this topic limit the DNS tunnel to those with a single

  • On the performance of improved quadrature spatial modulation
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Tasnim Holoubi, Sheriff Murtala, Nishal Muchena, Manar Mohaisen

    Quadrature spatial modulation (QSM) utilizes the in‐phase and quadrature spatial dimensions to transmit the real and imaginary parts of a single signal symbol, respectively. The improved QSM (IQSM) transmits two signal symbols per channel use through a combination of two antennas for each of the real and imaginary parts. The main contributions of this study can be summarized as follows. First, we derive

  • Resource‐efficient load‐balancing framework for cloud data center networks
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Jitendra Kumar; Ashutosh Kumar Singh; Anand Mohan

    Cloud computing has drastically reduced the price of computing resources through the use of virtualized resources that are shared among users. However, the established large cloud data centers have a large carbon footprint owing to their excessive power consumption. Inefficiency in resource utilization and power consumption results in the low fiscal gain of service providers. Therefore, data centers

  • Technological importance and breadth of standard essential patents: A comparison between practicing and non‐practicing entities for mobile telecommunication technologies
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Sangoon Yang; Taehyun Jung

    Using 23 867 standard essential patents claimed for three different wireless telecommunication standards (GSM, WCDMA, and LTE), this research examined the difference in technological importance and breadth of patents between practicing and non‐practicing entities. We discovered that compared to manufacturers and service providers, organizations who do not appropriate innovation‐derived profits directly

  • Exploiting W. Ellison model for seawater communication at gigahertz frequencies based on world ocean atlas data
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Muhammad Tahir, Iftikhar Ali, Piao Yan, Mohsin Raza Jafri, Jiang Zexin, Di Xiaoqiang

    Electromagnetic (EM) waves used to send signals under seawater are normally restricted to low frequencies () because of sudden exponential increases of attenuation () at higher . The mathematics of EM wave propagation in seawater demonstrate dependence on relative permeability (), relative permittivity (), conductivity (), and of transmission. Estimation of and based on the W. Ellison interpolation

  • Performance analysis of torus optical interconnect with data center traffic
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Abhilasha Sharma; Sangeetha Rengachary Gopalan

    Two‐dimensional torus network nodes are typically interconnected using XY routing algorithm for transmitting a packet from a source node to a destination node. In XY routing, if all the paths are used efficiently, the throughput and latency can be improved. In this paper, to utilize all the paths efficiently, we propose a novel binary optical routing algorithm (BORA) to improve the throughput and latency

  • Automatic proficiency assessment of Korean speech read aloud by non‐natives using bidirectional LSTM‐based speech recognition
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Yoo Rhee Oh; Kiyoung Park; Hyung‐Bae Jeon; Jeon Gue Park

    This paper presents an automatic proficiency assessment method for a non‐native Korean read utterance using bidirectional long short–term memory (BLSTM)–based acoustic models (AMs) and speech data augmentation techniques. Specifically, the proposed method considers two scenarios, with and without prompted text. The proposed method with the prompted text performs (a) a speech feature extraction step

  • Combining replication and checkpointing redundancies for reducing resiliency overhead
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Hassan Motallebi

    We herein propose a heuristic redundancy selection algorithm that combines resubmission, replication, and checkpointing redundancies to reduce the resiliency overhead in fault‐tolerant workflow scheduling. The appropriate combination of these redundancies for workflow tasks is obtained in two consecutive phases. First, to compute the replication vector (number of task replicas), we apportion the set

  • Reconstruction algorithm for archaeological fragments using slope features
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Nada A. Rasheed, Md Jan Nordin

    The reconstruction of archaeological fragments in 3D geometry is an important problem in pattern recognition and computer vision. Therefore, we implement an algorithm with the help of a 3D model to perform reconstruction from the real datasets using the slope features. This approach avoids the problem of gaps created through the loss of parts of the artifacts. Therefore, the aim of this study is to

  • Energy‐efficient data transmission technique for wireless sensor networks based on DSC and virtual MIMO
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Manish Kumar Singh, Syed Intekhab Amin

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), the data transmission technique based on the cooperative multiple‐input multiple‐output (CMIMO) scheme reduces the energy consumption of sensor nodes quite effectively by utilizing the space‐time block coding scheme. However, in networks with high node density, the scheme is ineffective due to the high degree of correlated data. Therefore, to enhance the energy efficiency

  • Adaptive boosting in ensembles for outlier detection: Base learner selection and fusion via local domain competence
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Joash Kiprotich Bii; Richard Rimiru; Ronald Waweru Mwangi

    Unusual data patterns or outliers can be generated because of human errors, incorrect measurements, or malicious activities. Detecting outliers is a difficult task that requires complex ensembles. An ideal outlier detection ensemble should consider the strengths of individual base detectors while carefully combining their outputs to create a strong overall ensemble and achieve unbiased accuracy with

  • Spectral encapsulation of OFDM systems based on orthogonalization for short packet transmission
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Myungsup Kim; Do Young Kwak; Ki‐Man Kim; Wan‐Jin Kim

    A spectrally encapsulated (SE) orthogonal frequency‐division multiplexing (OFDM) precoding scheme for wireless short packet transmission, which can suppress the out‐of‐band emission (OoBE) while maintaining the advantage of the cyclic prefix (CP)‐OFDM, is proposed. The SE‐OFDM symbol consists of a prefix, an inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) symbol, and a suffix generated by the head, center, and

  • Prediction of network security based on DS evidence theory
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Dan Liu

    Network security situation prediction is difficult due to its strong uncertainty, but DS evidence theory performs well in solving the problem of uncertainty. Based on DS evidence theory, this study analyzed the prediction of the network security situation, designed a prediction model based on the improved DS evidence theory, and carried out a simulation experiment. The experimental results showed that

  • Data hiding in partially encrypted HEVC video
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Dawen Xu

    In this study, an efficient scheme for hiding data directly in partially encrypted versions of high efficiency video coding (HEVC) videos is proposed. The content owner uses stream cipher to selectively encrypt some HEVC‐CABAC bin strings in a format‐compliant manner. Then, the data hider embeds the secret message into the encrypted HEVC videos using the specific coefficient modification technique

  • Highly dispersive substitution box (S‐box) design using chaos
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Zaid Bin Faheem, Asim Ali, Muhamad Asif Khan, Muhammad Ehatisham Ul‐Haq, Waqar Ahmad

    Highly dispersive S‐boxes are desirable in cryptosystems as nonlinear confusion sub‐layers for resisting modern attacks. For a near optimal cryptosystem resistant to modern cryptanalysis, a highly nonlinear and low differential probability (DP) value is required. We propose a method based on a piecewise linear chaotic map (PWLCM) with optimization conditions. Thus, the linear propagation of information

  • Accurate and efficient GPU ray‐casting algorithm for volume rendering of unstructured grid data
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Gibeom Gu, Duksu Kim

    We present a novel GPU‐based ray‐casting algorithm for volume rendering of unstructured grid data. Our volume rendering system uses a ray‐casting method that guarantees accurate rendering results. We also employ the per‐pixel intersection list concept in the Bunyk algorithm to guarantee an accurate result for non‐convex meshes. For efficient memory access for the lists on the GPU, we represent the

  • Neural source localization using particle filter with optimal proportional set resampling
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Santhosh Kumar Veeramalla; V.K. Hanumantha Rao Talari

    To recover the neural activity from Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) measurements, we need to solve the inverse problem by utilizing the relation between dipole sources and the data generated by dipolar sources. In this study, we propose a new approach based on the implementation of a particle filter (PF) that uses minimum sampling variance resampling methodology to track

  • Sequential fusion to defend against sensing data falsification attack for cognitive Internet of Things
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    Jun Wu; Cong Wang; Yue Yu; Tiecheng Song; Jing Hu

    Internet of Things (IoT) is considered the future network to support wireless communications. To realize an IoT network, sufficient spectrum should be allocated for the rapidly increasing IoT devices. Through cognitive radio, unlicensed IoT devices exploit cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) to opportunistically access a licensed spectrum without causing harmful interference to licensed primary users

  • Throughput maximization for underlay CR multicarrier NOMA network with cooperative communication
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Thirunavukkarasu Manimekalai; Sparjan Romera Joan; Thangavelu Laxmikandan

    The non‐orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique offers throughput improvement to meet the demands of the future generation of wireless communication networks. The objective of this work is to further improve the throughput by including an underlay cognitive radio network with an existing multi‐carrier NOMA network, using cooperative communication. The throughput is maximized by optimal resource

  • Three‐stream network with context convolution module for human–object interaction detection
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Thomhert S. Siadari, Mikyong Han, Hyunjin Yoon

    Human–object interaction (HOI) detection is a popular computer vision task that detects interactions between humans and objects. This task can be useful in many applications that require a deeper understanding of semantic scenes. Current HOI detection networks typically consist of a feature extractor followed by detection layers comprising small filters (eg, 1 × 1 or 3 × 3). Although small filters

  • Signal parameter estimation through hierarchical conjugate gradient least squares applied to tensor decomposition
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Long Liu; Ling Wang; Jian Xie; Yuexian Wang; Zhaolin Zhang

    A hierarchical iterative algorithm for the canonical polyadic decomposition (CPD) of tensors is proposed by improving the traditional conjugate gradient least squares (CGLS) method. Methods based on algebraic operations are investigated with the objective of estimating the direction of arrival (DoA) and polarization parameters of signals impinging on an array with electromagnetic (EM) vector‐sensors

  • A network traffic prediction model of smart substation based on IGSA‐WNN
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-09
    Xin Xia, Xiaofeng Liu, Jichao Lou

    The network traffic prediction of a smart substation is key in strengthening its system security protection. To improve the performance of its traffic prediction, in this paper, we propose an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA), then introduce the IGSA into a wavelet neural network (WNN), iteratively optimize the initial connection weighting, scalability factor, and shift factor, and establish

  • Low‐ripple coarse‐fine digital low‐dropout regulator without ringing in the transient state
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Ki‐Chan Woo; Byung‐Do Yang

    Herein, a low‐ripple coarse‐fine digital low‐dropout regulator (D‐LDO) without ringing in the transient state is proposed. Conventional D‐LDO suffers from a ringing problem when settling the output voltage at a large load transition, which increases the settling time. The proposed D‐LDO removes the ringing and reduces the settling time using an auxiliary power stage which adjusts its output current

  • Recent advances in deep learning‐based side‐channel analysis
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Sunghyun Jin, Suhri Kim, HeeSeok Kim, Seokhie Hong

    As side‐channel analysis and machine learning algorithms share the same objective of classifying data, numerous studies have been proposed for adapting machine learning to side‐channel analysis. However, a drawback of machine learning algorithms is that their performance depends on human engineering. Therefore, recent studies in the field focus on exploiting deep learning algorithms, which can extract

  • Temporal matching prior network for vehicle license plate detection and recognition in videos
    ETRI J. (IF 1.094) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Seok Bong Yoo, Mikyong Han

    In real‐world intelligent transportation systems, accuracy in vehicle license plate detection and recognition is considered quite critical. Many algorithms have been proposed for still images, but their accuracy on actual videos is not satisfactory. This stems from several problematic conditions in videos, such as vehicle motion blur, variety in viewpoints, outliers, and the lack of publicly available

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