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  • Autonomous and cooperative design of the monitor positions for a team of UAVs to maximize the quantity and quality of detected objects
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Dimitrios I. Koutras; Athanasios Ch. Kapoutsis; Elias B. Kosmatopoulos

    This paper tackles the problem of positioning a swarm of UAVs inside a completely unknown terrain, having as objective to maximize the overall situational awareness. The situational awareness is expressed by the number and quality of unique objects of interest, inside the UAVs' fields of view. YOLOv3 and a system to identify duplicate objects of interest were employed to assign a single score to each

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Localization and Mapping of Sparse Geologic Features with Unpiloted Aircraft Systems
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Zhiang Chen; Sarah Bearman; J Ramon Arrowsmith; Jnaneshwar Das

    Robotic mapping is attractive in many science applications that involve environmental surveys. This paper presents a system for localization and mapping of sparsely distributed surface features such as precariously balanced rocks (PBRs), whose geometric fragility (stability) parameters provide valuable information on earthquake processes. With geomorphology as the test domain, we carry out a lawnmower

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Line Walking and Balancing for Legged Robots with Point Feet
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Carlos Gonzalez; Victor Barasuol; Marco Frigerio; Roy Featherstone; Darwin G. Caldwell; Claudio Semini

    The ability of legged systems to traverse highly-constrained environments depends by and large on the performance of their motion and balance controllers. This paper presents a controller that excels in a scenario that most state-of-the-art balance controllers have not yet addressed: line walking, or walking on nearly null support regions. Our approach uses a low-dimensional virtual model (2-DoF) to

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Human-centered collaborative robots with deep reinforcement learning
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Ali Ghadirzadeh; Xi Chen; Wenjie Yin; Zhengrong Yi; Mårten Björkman; Danica Kragic

    We present a reinforcement learning based framework for human-centered collaborative systems. The framework is proactive and balances the benefits of timely actions with the risk of taking improper actions by minimizing the total time spent to complete the task. The framework is learned end-to-end in an unsupervised fashion addressing the perception uncertainties and decision making in an integrated

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Towards Generalization and Data Efficient Learning of Deep Robotic Grasping
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Zhixin Chen; Mengxiang Lin; Zhixin Jia; Shibo Jian

    Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has been proven to be a powerful paradigm for learning complex control policy autonomously. Numerous recent applications of DRL in robotic grasping have successfully trained DRL robotic agents end-to-end, mapping visual inputs into control instructions directly, but the amount of training data required may hinder these applications in practice. In this paper, we propose

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Guidance of Agents in Cyclic Pursuit
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Ilana Segall; Alfred Bruckstein

    This report studies the emergent behavior of systems of agents performing cyclic pursuit controlled by an external broadcast signal detected by a random set of the agents. Two types of cyclic pursuit are analyzed: 1)linear cyclic pursuit, where each agent senses the relative position of its target or leading agent 2)non-linear cyclic pursuit, where the agents can sense only bearing to their leading

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • A Learning-Driven Framework with Spatial Optimization For Surgical Suture Thread Reconstruction and Autonomous Grasping Under Multiple Topologies and Environmental Noises
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Bo Lu; Wei Chen; Yue-Ming Jin; Dandan Zhang; Qi Dou; Henry K. Chu; Pheng-Ann Heng; Yun-Hui Liu

    Surgical knot tying is one of the most fundamental and important procedures in surgery, and a high-quality knot can significantly benefit the postoperative recovery of the patient. However, a longtime operation may easily cause fatigue to surgeons, especially during the tedious wound closure task. In this paper, we present a vision-based method to automate the suture thread grasping, which is a sub-task

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • A New Direction in Firefighting Systems
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Elena Ausonio; Patrizia Bagnerini; Marco Ghio

    Recent huge technological development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide breakthrough means of fighting wildland fires. We propose an innovative forest firefighting system based on the use of a swarm of hundreds of UAVs able to generate a continuous flow of extinguishing liquid on the fire front, simulating the rain effect. Automatic battery replacement and refilling of the extinguishing

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Design of Extra Robotic Legs for Augmenting Human Payload Capabilities by Exploiting Singularity and Torque Redistribution
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Daniel J. Gonzalez; H. Harry Asada

    We present the design of a new robotic human augmentation system that will assist the operator in carrying a heavy payload, reaching and maintaining difficult postures, and ultimately better performing their job. The Extra Robotic Legs (XRL) system is worn by the operator and consists of two articulated robotic legs that move with the operator to bear a heavy payload. The design was driven by a need

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Design and Analysis of 6-DOF Triple Scissor Extender Robots with Applications in Aircraft Assembly
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Daniel J. Gonzalez; H. Harry Asada

    A new type of parallel robot mechanism with an extendable structure is presented, and its kinematic properties and design parameters are analyzed. The Triple Scissor Extender (TSE) is a 6 Degree-Of-Freedom robotic mechanism for reaching high ceilings and positioning an end effector. Three scissor mechanisms are arranged in parallel, with the bottom ends coupled to linear slides, and the top vertex

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Triple Scissor Extender: A 6-DOF Lifting and Positioning Robot
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Daniel J. Gonzalez; H. Harry Asada

    We present a novel 6 DOF robotic mechanism for reaching high ceilings and positioning an end-effector. The end-effector is supported with three scissor mechanisms that extend towards the ceiling with 6 independent linear actuators moving the base ends of the individual scissors. The top point of each scissor is connected to one of three ball joints located at the three vertices of the top triangular

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Control of Walking Assist Exoskeleton with Time-delay Based on the Prediction of Plantar Force
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Ming Ding; Mikihisa Nagashima; Sung-Gwi Cho; Jun Takamatsu; Tsukasa Ogasawara

    Many kinds of lower-limb exoskeletons were developed for walking assistance. However, time-delay arised from the computation time and the communication delays is still a general problem when controlling these exoskeletons. In this research, we proposed a novel method to prevent the time-delay when controlling a walking assist exoskeleton by predicting future plantar force and walking status. By using

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Deliberate Exploration Supports Navigation in Unfamiliar Worlds
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Raj Korpan; Susan L. Epstein

    To perform tasks well in a new domain, one must first know something about it. This paper reports on a robot controller for navigation through unfamiliar indoor worlds. Based on spatial affordances, it integrates planning with reactive heuristics. Before it addresses specific targets, however, the system deliberately explores for high-level connectivity and captures that data in a cognitive spatial

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Achieving Multi-Tasking Robots in Multi-Robot Tasks
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yu Zhang; Winston Smith

    One simplifying assumption made in distributed robot systems is that the robots are single-tasking: each robot operates on a single task at any time. While such a sanguine assumption is innocent to make in situations with sufficient resources so that the robots can operate independently, it becomes impractical when they must share their capabilities. In this paper, we consider multi-tasking robots

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Falsification-Based Robust Adversarial Reinforcement Learning
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Xiao Wang; Saasha Nair; Matthias Althoff

    Reinforcement learning (RL) has achieved tremendous progress in solving various sequential decision-making problems, e.g., control tasks in robotics. However, RL methods often fail to generalize to safety-critical scenarios since policies are overfitted to training environments. Previously, robust adversarial reinforcement learning (RARL) was proposed to train an adversarial network that applies disturbances

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Motion Prediction in Visual Object Tracking
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Jianren Wang; Yihui He

    Visual object tracking (VOT) is an essential component for many applications, such as autonomous driving or assistive robotics. However, recent works tend to develop accurate systems based on more computationally expensive feature extractors for better instance matching. In contrast, this work addresses the importance of motion prediction in VOT. We use an off-the-shelf object detector to obtain instance

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • ADD: Analytically Differentiable Dynamics for Multi-Body Systems with Frictional Contact
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Moritz Geilinger; David Hahn; Jonas Zehnder; Moritz Bächer; Bernhard Thomaszewski; Stelian Coros

    We present a differentiable dynamics solver that is able to handle frictional contact for rigid and deformable objects within a unified framework. Through a principled mollification of normal and tangential contact forces, our method circumvents the main difficulties inherent to the non-smooth nature of frictional contact. We combine this new contact model with fully-implicit time integration to obtain

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • ε-BMC: A Bayesian Ensemble Approach to Epsilon-Greedy Exploration in Model-Free Reinforcement Learning
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Michael Gimelfarb; Scott Sanner; Chi-Guhn Lee

    Resolving the exploration-exploitation trade-off remains a fundamental problem in the design and implementation of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. In this paper, we focus on model-free RL using the epsilon-greedy exploration policy, which despite its simplicity, remains one of the most frequently used forms of exploration. However, a key limitation of this policy is the specification of $\varepsilon$

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Noticing Motion Patterns: Temporal CNN with a Novel Convolution Operator for Human Trajectory Prediction
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Dapeng Zhao; Jean Oh

    We propose a novel way to learn, detect and extract patterns in sequential data, and successfully applied it to the problem of human trajectory prediction. Our model, Social Pattern Extraction Convolution (Social-PEC), when compared to existing methods, achieves the best performance in terms of Average/Final Displacement Error. In addition, the proposed approach avoids the obscurity in the previous

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • TiledSoilingNet: Tile-level Soiling Detection on Automotive Surround-view Cameras Using Coverage Metric
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Arindam Das; Pavel Krizek; Ganesh Sistu; Fabian Burger; Sankaralingam Madasamy; Michal Uricar; Varun Ravi Kumar; Senthil Yogamani

    Automotive cameras, particularly surround-view cameras, tend to get soiled by mud, water, snow, etc. For higher levels of autonomous driving, it is necessary to have a soiling detection algorithm which will trigger an automatic cleaning system. Localized detection of soiling in an image is necessary to control the cleaning system. It is also necessary to enable partial functionality in unsoiled areas

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Learning Search Space Partition for Black-box Optimization using Monte Carlo Tree Search
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Linnan Wang; Rodrigo Fonseca; Yuandong Tian

    High dimensional black-box optimization has broad applications but remains a challenging problem to solve. Given a set of samples $\{\vx_i, y_i\}$, building a global model (like Bayesian Optimization (BO)) suffers from the curse of dimensionality in the high-dimensional search space, while a greedy search may lead to sub-optimality. By recursively splitting the search space into regions with high/low

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Dynamic Movement Primitives: Volumetric Obstacle Avoidance Using Dynamic Potential Functions
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Michele Ginesi; Daniele Meli; Andrea Roberti; Nicola Sansonetto; Paolo Fiorini

    Obstacle avoidance for DMPs is still a challenging problem. In our previous work, we proposed a framework for obstacle avoidance based on superquadric potential functions to represent volumes. In this work, we extend our previous work to include the velocity of the trajectory in the definition of the potential. Our formulations guarantee smoother behavior with respect to state-of-the-art point-like

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • SLAM using ICP and graph optimization considering physical properties of environment
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Ryuki Suzuki; Ryosuke Kataoka; Yonghoon Ji; Hiromitsu Fujii; Hitoshi Kono; Kazunori Umeda

    This paper describes a novel SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) scheme based on scan matching in an environment including various physical properties.

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Supervised Learning and Reinforcement Learning of Feedback Models for Reactive Behaviors: Tactile Feedback Testbed
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Giovanni Sutanto; Katharina Rombach; Yevgen Chebotar; Zhe Su; Stefan Schaal; Gaurav S. Sukhatme; Franziska Meier

    Robots need to be able to adapt to unexpected changes in the environment such that they can autonomously succeed in their tasks. However, hand-designing feedback models for adaptation is tedious, if at all possible, making data-driven methods a promising alternative. In this paper we introduce a full framework for learning feedback models for reactive motion planning. Our pipeline starts by segmenting

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Asynchronous Real-Time Optimization of Footstep Placement andTiming in Bipedal Walking Robots
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Digby Chappell; Ke Wang; Petar Kormushev

    Online footstep planning is essential for bipedal walking robots to be able to walk in the presence of disturbances. Until recently this has been achieved by only optimizing the placement of the footstep, keeping the duration of the step constant. In this paper we introduce a footstep planner capable of optimizing footstep placement and timing in real-time by asynchronously combining two optimizers

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Formalizing Traffic Rules for Machine Interpretability
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Klemens Esterle; Luis Gressenbuch; Alois Knoll

    Autonomous vehicles need to be designed to abide by the same rules that humans follow. This is challenging, as traffic rules are fuzzy and not specified at a level of detail to be comprehensible for machines. Without proper formalization, satisfaction cannot be implemented in a planning component, nor can it be monitored and verified during simulation or testing. However, no work has provided a complete

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • FlowControl: Optical Flow Based Visual Servoing
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Max Argus; Lukas Hermann; Jon Long; Thomas Brox

    One-shot imitation is the vision of robot programming from a single demonstration, rather than by tedious construction of computer code. We present a practical method for realizing one-shot imitation for manipulation tasks, exploiting modern learning-based optical flow to perform real-time visual servoing. Our approach, which we call FlowControl, continuously tracks a demonstration video, using a specified

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • LIO-SAM: Tightly-coupled Lidar Inertial Odometry via Smoothing and Mapping
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Tixiao Shan; Brendan Englot; Drew Meyers; Wei Wang; Carlo Ratti; Daniela Rus

    We propose a framework for tightly-coupled lidar inertial odometry via smoothing and mapping, LIO-SAM, that achieves highly accurate, real-time mobile robot trajectory estimation and map-building. LIO-SAM formulates lidar-inertial odometry atop a factor graph, allowing a multitude of relative and absolute measurements, including loop closures, to be incorporated from different sources as factors into

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Fighting Failures with FIRE: Failure Identification to Reduce Expert Burden in Intervention-Based Learning
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Trevor Ablett; Filip Marić; Jonathan Kelly

    Supervised imitation learning, also known as behavior cloning, suffers from distribution drift leading to failures during policy execution. One approach to mitigating this issue is to allow an expert to correct the agent's actions during task execution, based on the expert's determination that the agent has reached a `point of no return'. The agent's policy is then retraining using these new corrective

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Directional Primitives for Uncertainty-Aware Motion Estimation in Urban Environments
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Ransalu Senanayake; Maneekwan Toyungyernsub; Mingyu Wang; Mykel J. Kochenderfer; Mac Schwager

    We can use driving data collected over a long period of time to extract rich information about how vehicles behave in different areas of the roads. In this paper, we introduce the concept of directional primitives, which is a representation of prior information of road networks. Specifically, we represent the uncertainty of directions using a mixture of von Mises distributions and associated speeds

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Intention-aware Residual Bidirectional LSTM for Long-term Pedestrian Trajectory Prediction
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Zhe Huang; Aamir Hasan; Katherine Driggs-Campbell

    Trajectory prediction is one of the key capabilities for robots to safely navigate and interact with pedestrians. Critical insights from human intention and behavioral patterns need to be effectively integrated into long-term pedestrian behavior forecasting. We present a novel intention-aware motion prediction framework, which consists of a Residual Bidirectional LSTM (ReBiL) and a mutable intention

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Robust Multi-Agent Task Assignment in Failure-Prone and Adversarial Environments
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Russell SchwartzUniversity of Maryland, College Park; Pratap TokekarUniversity of Maryland, College Park

    The problem of assigning agents to tasks is a central computational challenge in many multi-agent autonomous systems. However, in the real world, agents are not always perfect and may fail due to a number of reasons. A motivating application is where the agents are robots that operate in the physical world and are susceptible to failures. This paper studies the problem of Robust Multi-Agent Task Assignment

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Object Goal Navigation using Goal-Oriented Semantic Exploration
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Devendra Singh Chaplot; Dhiraj Gandhi; Abhinav Gupta; Ruslan Salakhutdinov

    This work studies the problem of object goal navigation which involves navigating to an instance of the given object category in unseen environments. End-to-end learning-based navigation methods struggle at this task as they are ineffective at exploration and long-term planning. We propose a modular system called, `Goal-Oriented Semantic Exploration' which builds an episodic semantic map and uses it

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A Dataset for Evaluating Multi-spectral Motion Estimation Methods
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Weichen Dai; Yu Zhang; Shenzhou Chen; Donglei Sun; Da Kong

    Visible images have been widely used for indoor motion estimation. Thermal images, in contrast, are more challenging to be used in motion estimation since they typically have lower resolution, less texture, and more noise. In this paper, a novel dataset for evaluating the performance of multi-spectral motion estimation systems is presented. The dataset includes both multi-spectral and dense depth images

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Kalman Filter Meets Subjective Logic: A Self-Assessing Kalman Filter Using Subjective Logic
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Thomas Griebel; Johannes Müller; Michael Buchholz; Klaus Dietmayer

    Self-assessment is a key to safety and robustness in automated driving. In order to design safer and more robust automated driving functions, the goal is to self-assess the performance of each module in a whole automated driving system. One crucial component in automated driving systems is the tracking of surrounding objects, where the Kalman filter is the most fundamental tracking algorithm. For Kalman

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • UAV Path Planning for Wireless Data Harvesting: A Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Harald Bayerlein; Mirco Theile; Marco Caccamo; David Gesbert

    Autonomous deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) supporting next-generation communication networks requires efficient trajectory planning methods. We propose a new end-to-end reinforcement learning (RL) approach to UAV-enabled data collection from Internet of Things (IoT) devices in an urban environment. An autonomous drone is tasked with gathering data from distributed sensor nodes subject

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Adaptive Procedural Task Generation for Hard-Exploration Problems
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Kuan Fang; Yuke Zhu; Silvio Savarese; Li Fei-Fei

    We introduce Adaptive Procedural Task Generation (APT-Gen), an approach for progressively generating a sequence of tasks as curricula to facilitate reinforcement learning in hard-exploration problems. At the heart of our approach, a task generator learns to create tasks via a black-box procedural generation module by adaptively sampling from the parameterized task space. To enable curriculum learning

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Robust navigation with tinyML for autonomous mini-vehicles
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Miguel de Prado; Romain Donze; Alessandro Capotondi; Manuele Rusci; Serge Monnerat; Luca Benini and; Nuria Pazos

    Autonomous navigation vehicles have rapidly improved thanks to the breakthroughs of Deep Learning. However, scaling autonomous driving to low-power and real-time systems deployed on dynamic environments poses several challenges that prevent their adoption. In this work, we show an end-to-end integration of data, algorithms, and deployment tools that enables the deployment of a family of tiny-CNNs on

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Reinforcement Learning based Control of Imitative Policies for Near-Accident Driving
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Zhangjie Cao; Erdem Bıyık; Woodrow Z. Wang; Allan Raventos; Adrien Gaidon; Guy Rosman; Dorsa Sadigh

    Autonomous driving has achieved significant progress in recent years, but autonomous cars are still unable to tackle high-risk situations where a potential accident is likely. In such near-accident scenarios, even a minor change in the vehicle's actions may result in drastically different consequences. To avoid unsafe actions in near-accident scenarios, we need to fully explore the environment. However

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Online Domain Adaptation for Occupancy Mapping
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Anthony Tompkins; Ransalu Senanayake; Fabio Ramos

    Creating accurate spatial representations that take into account uncertainty is critical for autonomous robots to safely navigate in unstructured environments. Although recent LIDAR based mapping techniques can produce robust occupancy maps, learning the parameters of such models demand considerable computational time, discouraging them from being used in real-time and large-scale applications such

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Deep Learning for Vision-based Prediction: A Survey
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Amir Rasouli

    Vision-based prediction algorithms have a wide range of applications including autonomous driving, surveillance, human-robot interaction, weather prediction. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the field in the past five years with a particular focus on deep learning approaches. For this purpose, we categorize these algorithms into video prediction, action prediction, trajectory

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Enforcing Almost-Sure Reachability in POMDPs
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Sebastian Junges; Nils Jansen; Sanjit A. Seshia

    Partially-Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs) are a well-known formal model for planning scenarios where agents operate under limited information about their environment. In safety-critical domains, the agent must adhere to a policy satisfying certain behavioral constraints. We study the problem of synthesizing policies that almost-surely reach some goal state while a set of bad states is

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Conscious Intelligence Requires Lifelong Autonomous Programming For General Purposes
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Juyang Weng

    Universal Turing Machines [29, 10, 18] are well known in computer science but they are about manual programming for general purposes. Although human children perform conscious learning (i.e., learning while being conscious) from infancy [24, 23, 14, 4], it is unknown that Universal Turing Machiness can facilitate not only our understanding of Autonomous Programming For General Purposes (APFGP) by machines

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Predicting Sample Collision with Neural Networks
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Tuan Tran; Jory Denny; Chinwe Ekenna

    Many state-of-art robotics applications require fast and efficient motion planning algorithms. Existing motion planning methods become less effective as the dimensionality of the robot and its workspace increases, especially the computational cost of collision detection routines. In this work, we present a framework to address the cost of expensive primitive operations in sampling-based motion planning

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Formalizing and Guaranteeing* Human-Robot Interaction
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Hadas Kress-Gazit; Kerstin Eder; Guy Hoffman; Henny Admoni; Brenna Argall; Ruediger Ehlers; Christoffer Heckman; Nils Jansen; Ross Knepper; Jan Křetínský; Shelly Levy-Tzedek; Jamy Li; Todd Murphey; Laurel Riek; Dorsa Sadigh

    Robot capabilities are maturing across domains, from self-driving cars, to bipeds and drones. As a result, robots will soon no longer be confined to safety-controlled industrial settings; instead, they will directly interact with the general public. The growing field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) studies various aspects of this scenario - from social norms to joint action to human-robot teams and

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Online Exploration and Coverage Planning in Unknown Obstacle-Cluttered Environments
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Xinyue Kan; Hanzhe Teng; Konstantinos Karydis

    Online coverage planning can be useful in applications like field monitoring and search and rescue. Without prior information of the environment, achieving resolution-complete coverage considering the non-holonomic mobility constraints in commonly-used vehicles (e.g., wheeled robots) remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical, hex-decomposition-based coverage planning algorithm for

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Multi-sensory Integration in a Quantum-Like Robot Perception Model
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Davide Lanza; Paolo Solinas; Fulvio Mastrogiovanni

    Formalisms inspired by Quantum theory have been used in Cognitive Science for decades. Indeed, Quantum-Like (QL) approaches provide descriptive features that are inherently suitable for perception, cognition, and decision processing. A preliminary study on the feasibility of a QL robot perception model has been carried out for a robot with limited sensing capabilities. In this paper, we generalize

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Vehicle Re-ID for Surround-view Camera System
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Zizhang Wu; Man Wang; Lingxiao Yin; Weiwei Sun; Jason Wang; Huangbin Wu

    The vehicle re-identification (ReID) plays a critical role in the perception system of autonomous driving, which attracts more and more attention in recent years. However, to our best knowledge, there is no existing complete solution for the surround-view system mounted on the vehicle. In this paper, we argue two main challenges in above scenario: i) In single camera view, it is difficult to recognize

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Human Trust-based Feedback Control: Dynamically varying automation transparency to optimize human-machine interactions
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Kumar Akash; Griffon McMahon; Tahira Reid; Neera Jain

    Human trust in automation plays an essential role in interactions between humans and automation. While a lack of trust can lead to a human's disuse of automation, over-trust can result in a human trusting a faulty autonomous system which could have negative consequences for the human. Therefore, human trust should be calibrated to optimize human-machine interactions with respect to context-specific

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Estimation and Decomposition of Rack Force for Driving on Uneven Roads
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Akshay Bhardwaj; Daniel Slavin; John Walsh; James Freudenberg; R. Brent Gillespie

    The force transmitted from the front tires to the steering rack of a vehicle, called the rack force, plays an important role in the function of electric power steering (EPS) systems. Estimates of rack force can be used by EPS to attenuate road feedback and reduce driver effort. Further, estimates of the components of rack force (arising, for example, due to steering angle and road profile) can be used

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Vision-Based Goal-Conditioned Policies for Underwater Navigation in the Presence of Obstacles
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Travis Manderson; Juan Camilo Gamboa Higuera; Stefan Wapnick; Jean-François Tremblay; Florian Shkurti; David Meger; Gregory Dudek

    We present Nav2Goal, a data-efficient and end-to-end learning method for goal-conditioned visual navigation. Our technique is used to train a navigation policy that enables a robot to navigate close to sparse geographic waypoints provided by a user without any prior map, all while avoiding obstacles and choosing paths that cover user-informed regions of interest. Our approach is based on recent advances

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • To Share or Not to Share? Performance Guarantees and the Asymmetric Nature of Cross-Robot Experience Transfer
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Michael J. Sorocky; Siqi Zhou; Angela P. Schoellig

    In the robotics literature, experience transfer has been proposed in different learning-based control frameworks to minimize the costs and risks associated with training robots. While various works have shown the feasibility of transferring prior experience from a source robot to improve or accelerate the learning of a target robot, there are usually no guarantees that experience transfer improves

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Spatiotemporal Calibration of Camera and 3D Laser Scanner
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Michal R. Nowicki

    The multi-sensory setups consisting of the laser scanners and cameras are popular as the measurements complement each other and provide necessary robustness for applications. Under dynamic conditions or when in motion, a direct transformation (spatial calibration) and time offset between sensors (temporal calibration) is needed to determine the correspondence between measurements. We propose an open-source

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Using an Automated Heterogeneous Robotic System for Radiation Surveys
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Petr Gabrlik; Tomas Lazna; Tomas Jilek; Petr Sladek; Ludek Zalud

    During missions involving radiation exposure, unmanned robotic platforms may embody a valuable tool, especially thanks to their capability of replacing human operators in certain tasks to eliminate the health risks associated with such an environment. Moreover, rapid development of the technology allows us to increase the automation rate, making the human operator generally less important within the

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Robots and COVID-19: Challenges in integrating robots for collaborative automation
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Ali Ahmad Malik

    Objective: The status of human-robot collaboration for assembly applications is reviewed and key current challenges for the research community and practitioners are presented. Background: As the pandemic of COVID-19 started to surface the manufacturers went under pressure to address demand challenges. Social distancing measures made fewer people available to work. In such situations, robots were pointed

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Towards hybrid primary intersubjectivity: a neural robotics library for human science
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Hendry F. Chame; Ahmadreza Ahmadi; Jun Tani

    Human-robot interaction is becoming an interesting area of research in cognitive science, notably, for the study of social cognition. Interaction theorists consider primary intersubjectivity a non-mentalist, pre-theoretical, non-conceptual sort of processes that ground a certain level of communication and understanding, and provide support to higher-level cognitive skills. We argue this sort of low

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Using Reinforcement Learning to Herd a Robotic Swarm to a Target Distribution
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Zahi M. Kakish; Karthik Elamvazhuthi; Spring Berman

    In this paper, we present a reinforcement learning approach to designing a control policy for a "leader'' agent that herds a swarm of "follower'' agents, via repulsive interactions, as quickly as possible to a target probability distribution over a strongly connected graph. The leader control policy is a function of the swarm distribution, which evolves over time according to a mean-field model in

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Confidence-rich grid mapping
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Ali-akbar Agha-mohammadi; Eric Heiden; Karol Hausman; Gaurav S. Sukhatme

    Representing the environment is a fundamental task in enabling robots to act autonomously in unknown environments. In this work, we present confidence-rich mapping (CRM), a new algorithm for spatial grid-based mapping of the 3D environment. CRM augments the occupancy level at each voxel by its confidence value. By explicitly storing and evolving confidence values using the CRM filter, CRM extends traditional

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Steer with Me: A Predictive, Potential Field-Based Control Approach for Semi-Autonomous, Teleoperated Road Vehicles
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Andreas Schimpe; Frank Diermeyer

    Autonomous driving is among the most promising of upcoming traffic safety technologies. Prototypes of autonomous vehicles are already being tested on public streets today. However, while current prototypes prove the feasibility of truly driverless cars, edge cases remain which necessitate falling back on human operators. Teleoperated driving is one solution that would allow a human to remotely control

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • MIMC-VINS: A Versatile and Resilient Multi-IMU Multi-Camera Visual-Inertial Navigation System
    arXiv.cs.RO Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Kevin Eckenhoff; Patrick Geneva; Guoquan Huang

    As cameras and inertial sensors are becoming ubiquitous in mobile devices and robots, it holds great potential to design visual-inertial navigation systems (VINS) for efficient versatile 3D motion tracking which utilize any (multiple) available cameras and inertial measurement units (IMUs) and are resilient to sensor failures or measurement depletion. To this end, rather than the standard VINS paradigm

    更新日期:2020-06-30
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