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  • Rethinking Space: A Review of Perception, Attention, and Memory in Scene Processing.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Monica S Castelhano,Karolina Krzyś

    Scene processing is fundamentally influenced and constrained by spatial layout and spatial associations with objects. However, semantic information has played a vital role in propelling our understanding of real-world scene perception forward. In this article, we review recent advances in assessing how spatial layout and spatial relations influence scene processing. We examine the organization of the

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Visual Search: How Do We Find What We Are Looking For?
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Jeremy M Wolfe

    In visual search tasks, observers look for targets among distractors. In the lab, this often takes the form of multiple searches for a simple shape that may or may not be present among other items scattered at random on a computer screen (e.g., Find a red T among other letters that are either black or red.). In the real world, observers may search for multiple classes of target in complex scenes that

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Measuring and Modeling Visual Appearance.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Laurence T Maloney,Kenneth Knoblauch

    In studying visual perception, we seek to develop models of processing that accurately predict perceptual judgments. Much of this work is focused on judgments of discrimination, and there is a large literature concerning models of visual discrimination. There are, however, non-threshold visual judgments, such as judgments of the magnitude of differences between visual stimuli, that provide a means

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Image-Computable Ideal Observers for Tasks with Natural Stimuli.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Johannes Burge

    An ideal observer is a theoretical model observer that performs a specific sensory-perceptual task optimally, making the best possible use of the available information given physical and biological constraints. An image-computable ideal observer (pixels in, estimates out) is a particularly powerful type of ideal observer that explicitly models the flow of visual information from the stimulus-encoding

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Retinal Image Formation and Sampling in a Three-Dimensional World.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Larry N Thibos

    In this review, I develop an empirically based model of optical image formation by the human eye, followed by neural sampling by retinal ganglion cells, to demonstrate the perceptual effects of blur, aliasing, and distortion of visual space in the brain. The optical model takes account of ocular aberrations and their variation across the visual field, in addition to variations of defocus due to variation

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Can We See with Melanopsin?
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Robert J Lucas,Annette E Allen,Nina Milosavljevic,Riccardo Storchi,Tom Woelders

    A small fraction of mammalian retinal ganglion cells are directly photoreceptive thanks to their expression of the photopigment melanopsin. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) have well-established roles in a variety of reflex responses to changes in ambient light intensity, including circadian photoentrainment. In this article, we review the growing evidence, obtained

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Tuning the Senses: How the Pupil Shapes Vision at the Earliest Stage.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sebastiaan Mathôt

    The pupil responds reflexively to changes in brightness and focal distance to maintain the smallest pupil (and thus the highest visual acuity) that still allows sufficient light to reach the retina. The pupil also responds to a wide variety of cognitive processes, but the functions of these cognitive responses are still poorly understood. In this review, I propose that cognitive pupil responses, like

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Anatomy and Function of the Primate Entorhinal Cortex.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Aaron D Garcia,Elizabeth A Buffalo

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) is a critical element of the hippocampal formation located within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in primates. The EC has historically received attention for being the primary mediator of cortical information going into and coming from the hippocampus proper. In this review, we highlight the significance of the EC as a major player in memory processing, along with other associated

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Coding Perceptual Decisions: From Single Units to Emergent Signaling Properties in Cortical Circuits.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Kristine Krug

    Spiking activity in single neurons of the primate visual cortex has been tightly linked to perceptual decisions. Any mechanism that reads out these perceptual signals to support behavior must respect the underlying neuroanatomy that shapes the functional properties of sensory neurons. Spatial distribution and timing of inputs to the next processing levels are critical, as conjoint activity of precursor

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Visual Functions of Primate Area V4.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Anitha Pasupathy,Dina V Popovkina,Taekjun Kim

    Area V4—the focus of this review—is a mid-level processing stage along the ventral visual pathway of the macaque monkey. V4 is extensively interconnected with other visual cortical areas along the ventral and dorsal visual streams, with frontal cortical areas, and with several subcortical structures. Thus, it is well poised to play a broad and integrative role in visual perception and recognition—the

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Linking Neuronal Direction Selectivity to Perceptual Decisions About Visual Motion.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Tatiana Pasternak,Duje Tadin

    Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of responses to visual motion have converged on a consistent set of general principles that characterize visual processing of motion information. Both types of approaches have shown that the direction and speed of target motion are among the most important encoded stimulus properties, revealing many parallels between psychophysical and physiological responses

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Role of Feedback Connections in Central Visual Processing.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Farran Briggs

    The physiological response properties of neurons in the visual system are inherited mainly from feedforward inputs. Interestingly, feedback inputs often outnumber feedforward inputs. Although they are numerous, feedback connections are weaker, slower, and considered to be modulatory, in contrast to fast, high-efficacy feedforward connections. Accordingly, the functional role of feedback in visual processing

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Signals Related to Color in the Early Visual Cortex.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Gregory D Horwitz

    Visual images can be described in terms of the illuminants and objects that are causal to the light reaching the eye, the retinal image, its neural representation, or how the image is perceived. Respecting the differences among these distinct levels of description can be challenging but is crucial for a clear understanding of color vision. This article approaches color by reviewing what is known about

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Organization, Function, and Development of the Mouse Retinogeniculate Synapse.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Liang Liang,Chinfei Chen

    Visual information is encoded in distinct retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types in the eye tuned to specific features of the visual space. These streams of information project to the visual thalamus, the first station of the image-forming pathway. In the mouse, this connection between RGCs and thalamocortical neurons, the retinogeniculate synapse, has become a powerful experimental model for understanding

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Topographic Variations in Retinal Encoding of Visual Space.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Alina Sophie Heukamp,Rebekah Anne Warwick,Michal Rivlin-Etzion

    A retina completely devoid of topographic variations would be homogenous, encoding any given feature uniformly across the visual field. In a naive view, such homogeneity would appear advantageous. However, it is now clear that retinal topographic variations exist across mammalian species in a variety of forms and patterns. We briefly review some of the more established topographic variations in retinas

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Wiring Establishing the Binocular Circuit.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Carol Mason,Nefeli Slavi

    Binocular vision depends on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon projection either to the same side or to the opposite side of the brain. In this article, we review the molecular mechanisms for decussation of RGC axons, with a focus on axon guidance signaling at the optic chiasm and ipsi- and contralateral axon organization in the optic tract prior to and during targeting. The spatial and temporal features

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Axon Regeneration in the Mammalian Optic Nerve.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Philip R Williams,Larry I Benowitz,Jeffrey L Goldberg,Zhigang He

    The damage or loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons accounts for the visual functional defects observed after traumatic injury, in degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, or in compressive optic neuropathies such as from optic glioma. By using optic nerve crush injury models, recent studies have revealed the cellular and molecular logic behind the regenerative failure of injured RGC

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Reprogramming Müller Glia to Regenerate Retinal Neurons.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Manuela Lahne,Mikiko Nagashima,David R Hyde,Peter F Hitchcock

    In humans, various genetic defects or age-related diseases, such as diabetic retinopathies, glaucoma, and macular degeneration, cause the death of retinal neurons and profound vision loss. One approach to treating these diseases is to utilize stem and progenitor cells to replace neurons in situ, with the expectation that new neurons will create new synaptic circuits or integrate into existing ones

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Microglia Activation and Inflammation During the Death of Mammalian Photoreceptors.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sarah J Karlen,Eric B Miller,Marie E Burns

    Photoreceptors are highly specialized sensory neurons with unique metabolic and physiological requirements. These requirements are partially met by Müller glia and cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which provide essential metabolites, phagocytose waste, and control the composition of the surrounding microenvironment. A third vital supporting cell type, the retinal microglia, can provide

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Cellular-Scale Imaging of Transparent Retinal Structures and Processes Using Adaptive Optics Optical Coherence Tomography.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Donald T Miller,Kazuhiro Kurokawa

    High-resolution retinal imaging is revolutionizing how scientists and clinicians study the retina on the cellular scale. Its exquisite sensitivity enables time-lapse optical biopsies that capture minute changes in the structure and physiological processes of cells in the living eye. This information is increasingly used to detect disease onset and monitor disease progression during early stages, raising

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Human Organoids for the Study of Retinal Development and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Claire M Bell,Donald J Zack,Cynthia A Berlinicke

    Recent advances in stem cell engineering have led to an explosion in the use of organoids as model systems for studies in multiple biological disciplines. Together with breakthroughs in genome engineering and the various omics, organoid technology is making possible studies of human biology that were not previously feasible. For vision science, retinal organoids derived from human stem cells allow

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery: A Critical Appraisal of the Literature.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    David J Mathew,Yvonne M Buys

    Micro- or minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries (MIGS) have been the latest addition to the glaucoma surgical treatment paradigm. This term refers not to a single surgery, but rather to a group of distinct procedures and devices that aim to decrease intraocular pressure. Broadly, MIGS can be categorized into surgeries that increase the trabecular outflow [Trabectome, iStent (first and second generations)

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Keratoconus.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sionne E M Lucas,Kathryn P Burdon

    Keratoconus, a progressive corneal ectasia, is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. The exact etiology is not known and is likely variable between individuals. Conditions such as hay fever and allergy are associated with increased risk, while diabetes may be protective. Behaviors such as eye rubbing are also implicated, but direct causality has not been proven. Genetics

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Fifty Years Exploring the Visual System.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Joel Pokorny,Vivianne C Smith

    We as a couple spent 50 years working in visual psychophysics of color vision, temporal vision, and luminance adaptation. We sought collaborations with ophthalmologists, anatomists, physiologists, physicists, and psychologists, aiming to relate visual psychophysics to the underlying physiology of the primate retina. This review describes our journey and reflections in exploring the visual system.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Geometry of Pictorial Relief.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Jan J Koenderink,Andrea J van Doorn,Johan Wagemans

    Pictorial relief is a quality of visual awareness that happens when one looks into (as opposed to at) a picture. It has no physical counterpart of a geometrical nature. It takes account of cues, mentally identified in the tonal gradients of the physical picture-pigments distributed over a planar substrate. Among generally recognized qualities of relief are color, pattern, texture, shape, and depth

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vision During Saccadic Eye Movements.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Paola Binda,Maria Concetta Morrone

    The perceptual consequences of eye movements are manifold: Each large saccade is accompanied by a drop of sensitivity to luminance-contrast, low-frequency stimuli, impacting both conscious vision and involuntary responses, including pupillary constrictions. They also produce transient distortions of space, time, and number, which cannot be attributed to the mere motion on the retinae. All these are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Corollary Discharge Contributions to Perceptual Continuity Across Saccades.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    Robert H Wurtz

    Our vision depends upon shifting our high-resolution fovea to objects of interest in the visual field. Each saccade displaces the image on the retina, which should produce a chaotic scene with jerks occurring several times per second. It does not. This review examines how an internal signal in the primate brain (a corollary discharge) contributes to visual continuity across saccades. The article begins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Life in Vision.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    John E Dowling

    I was drawn into research in George Wald's laboratory at Harvard, where as an undergraduate and graduate student, I studied vitamin A deficiency and dark adaptation. A chance observation while an assistant professor at Harvard led to the major research of my career-to understand the functional organization of vertebrate retinas. I started with a retinal circuit analysis of the primate retina with Brian

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Shape from Contour: Computation and Representation.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-09-18
    James H Elder

    The human visual system reliably extracts shape information from complex natural scenes in spite of noise and fragmentation caused by clutter and occlusions. A fast, feedforward sweep through ventral stream involving mechanisms tuned for orientation, curvature, and local Gestalt principles produces partial shape representations sufficient for simpler discriminative tasks. More complete shape representations

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retinal Vasculature in Development and Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-09-15
    Ye Sun,Lois E H Smith

    The retina is one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, consuming high levels of oxygen and nutrients. A well-organized ocular vascular system adapts to meet the metabolic requirements of the retina to ensure visual function. Pathological conditions affect growth of the blood vessels in the eye. Understanding the neuronal biological processes that govern retinal vascular development

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neural Mechanisms of Motion Processing in the Mammalian Retina.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-08-11
    Wei Wei

    Visual motion on the retina activates a cohort of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). This population activity encodes multiple streams of information extracted by parallel retinal circuits. Motion processing in the retina is best studied in the direction-selective circuit. The main focus of this review is the neural basis of direction selectivity, which has been investigated in unprecedented detail using

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Organization and Operation of Inferior Temporal Cortex.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-07-31
    Bevil R Conway

    Inferior temporal cortex (IT) is a key part of the ventral visual pathway implicated in object, face, and scene perception. But how does IT work? Here, I describe an organizational scheme that marries form and function and provides a framework for future research. The scheme consists of a series of stages arranged along the posterior-anterior axis of IT, defined by anatomical connections and functional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Motion Perception: From Detection to Interpretation.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-07-28
    Shin'ya Nishida,Takahiro Kawabe,Masataka Sawayama,Taiki Fukiage

    Visual motion processing can be conceptually divided into two levels. In the lower level, local motion signals are detected by spatiotemporal-frequency-selective sensors and then integrated into a motion vector flow. Although the model based on V1-MT physiology provides a good computational framework for this level of processing, it needs to be updated to fully explain psychophysical findings about

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Invariant Recognition Shapes Neural Representations of Visual Input.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-07-28
    Andrea Tacchetti,Leyla Isik,Tomaso A Poggio

    Recognizing the people, objects, and actions in the world around us is a crucial aspect of human perception that allows us to plan and act in our environment. Remarkably, our proficiency in recognizing semantic categories from visual input is unhindered by transformations that substantially alter their appearance (e.g., changes in lighting or position). The ability to generalize across these complex

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Color Perception: Objects, Constancy, and Categories.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-07-14
    Christoph Witzel,Karl R Gegenfurtner

    Color has been scientifically investigated by linking color appearance to colorimetric measurements of the light that enters the eye. However, the main purpose of color perception is not to determine the properties of incident light, but to aid the visual perception of objects and materials in our environment. We review the state of the art on object colors, color constancy, and color categories to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Linking V1 Activity to Behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-07-06
    Eyal Seidemann,Wilson S Geisler

    A long-term goal of visual neuroscience is to develop and test quantitative models that account for the moment-by-moment relationship between neural responses in early visual cortex and human performance in natural visual tasks. This review focuses on efforts to address this goal by measuring and perturbing the activity of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons while nonhuman primates perform demanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Blindness and Human Brain Plasticity.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-07-06
    Ione Fine,Ji-Min Park

    Early blindness causes fundamental alterations of neural function across more than 25% of cortex-changes that span the gamut from metabolism to behavior and collectively represent one of the most dramatic examples of plasticity in the human brain. The goal of this review is to describe how the remarkable behavioral and neuroanatomical compensations demonstrated by blind individuals provide insights

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Elementary Motion Detection in Drosophila: Algorithms and Mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Helen H Yang,Thomas R Clandinin

    Motion in the visual world provides critical information to guide the behavior of sighted animals. Furthermore, as visual motion estimation requires comparisons of signals across inputs and over time, it represents a paradigmatic and generalizable neural computation. Focusing on the Drosophila visual system, where an explosion of technological advances has recently accelerated experimental progress

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Tale of Two Visual Systems: Invariant and Adaptive Visual Information Representations in the Primate Brain.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-28
    Yaoda Xu

    Visual information processing contains two opposite needs. There is both a need to comprehend the richness of the visual world and a need to extract only pertinent visual information to guide thoughts and behavior at a given moment. I argue that these two aspects of visual processing are mediated by two complementary visual systems in the primate brain-specifically, the occipitotemporal cortex (OTC)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How Visual Cortical Organization Is Altered by Ophthalmologic and Neurologic Disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Serge O Dumoulin,Tomas Knapen

    Receptive fields are a core property of cortical organization. Modern neuroimaging allows routine access to visual population receptive fields (pRFs), enabling investigations of clinical disorders. Yet how the underlying neural circuitry operates is controversial. The controversy surrounds observations that measurements of pRFs can change in healthy adults as well as in patients with a range of ophthalmological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MicroRNAs in Retinal Development.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Thomas A Reh,Robert Hindges

    The small RNA regulatory molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the development of most organisms. The expression of many different miRNAs has been described in the developing and mature vertebrate retina. The ability of miRNAs to regulate a diversity of messenger RNA targets allows them to have effects on many different developmental processes, but the functions of only a few miRNAs

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plasticity of Retinal Gap Junctions: Roles in Synaptic Physiology and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    John O'Brien,Stewart A Bloomfield

    Electrical synaptic transmission via gap junctions underlies direct and rapid neuronal communication in the central nervous system. The diversity of functional roles played by electrical synapses is perhaps best exemplified in the vertebrate retina, in which gap junctions are expressed by each of the five major neuronal types. These junctions are highly plastic; they are dynamically regulated by ambient

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parallel Processing of Rod and Cone Signals: Retinal Function and Human Perception.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-09
    William N Grimes,Adree Songco-Aguas,Fred Rieke

    We know a good deal about the operation of the retina when either rod or cone photoreceptors provide the dominant input (i.e., under very dim or very bright conditions). However, we know much less about how the retina operates when rods and cones are coactive (i.e., under intermediate lighting conditions, such as dusk). Such mesopic conditions span 20-30% of the light levels over which vision operates

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Thalamocortical Circuits and Functional Architecture.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-02
    Jens Kremkow,Jose-Manuel Alonso

    The thalamocortical pathway is the main route of communication between the eye and the cerebral cortex. During embryonic development, thalamocortical afferents travel to L4 and are sorted by receptive field position, eye of origin, and contrast polarity (i.e., preference for light or dark stimuli). In primates and carnivores, this sorting involves numerous afferents, most of which sample a limited

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual Function, Organization, and Development of the Mouse Superior Colliculus.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Jianhua Cang,Elise Savier,Jad Barchini,Xiaorong Liu

    The superior colliculus (SC) is the most prominent visual center in mice. Studies over the past decade have greatly advanced our understanding of the function, organization, and development of the mouse SC, which has rapidly become a popular model in vision research. These studies have described the diverse and cell-type-specific visual response properties in the mouse SC, revealed their laminar and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microglia in the Retina: Roles in Development, Maturity, and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Sean M Silverman,Wai T Wong

    Microglia, the primary resident immune cell type, constitute a key population of glia in the retina. Recent evidence indicates that microglia play significant functional roles in the retina at different life stages. During development, retinal microglia regulate neuronal survival by exerting trophic influences and influencing programmed cell death. During adulthood, ramified microglia in the plexiform

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vectors and Gene Delivery to the Retina.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Arthur Planul,Deniz Dalkara

    One of the great advantages of the retina as a target tissue for gene delivery is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed in the past decade. This includes a variety of vectors for therapeutic gene delivery to most types of retinal neurons and glia, as well as cell type-specific promoters for restricted gene expression in distinct neuronal subtypes. Within the scope of neuroscience

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Textures as Probes of Visual Processing.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Jonathan D Victor,Mary M Conte,Charles F Chubb

    Visual textures are a class of stimuli with properties that make them well suited for addressing general questions about visual function at the levels of behavior and neural mechanism. They have structure across multiple spatial scales, they put the focus on the inferential nature of visual processing, and they help bridge the gap between stimuli that are analytically convenient and the complex, naturalistic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Vision Care: Issues and Approaches.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Rohit C Khanna,Srinivas Marmamula,Gullapalli N Rao

    Globally, 32.4 million individuals are blind and 191 million have moderate or severe visual impairment (MSVI); 80% of cases of blindness and MSVI are avoidable. However, great efforts are needed to tackle blindness and MSVI, as eye care in most places is delivered in isolation from and without significant integration with general health sectors. Success stories, including control of vitamin A deficiency

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex: Relevance for the Development of Visual Cortical Prosthetics.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-28
    William H Bosking,Michael S Beauchamp,Daniel Yoshor

    Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex is a powerful tool for exploring cortical function. Stimulation of early visual cortical areas is easily detected by subjects and produces simple visual percepts known as phosphenes. A device implanted in visual cortex that generates patterns of phosphenes could be used as a substitute for natural vision in blind patients. We review the possibilities and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Higher-Order Areas of the Mouse Visual Cortex.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Lindsey L Glickfeld,Shawn R Olsen

    The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Binocular Mechanisms of 3D Motion Processing.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Lawrence K Cormack,Thaddeus B Czuba,Jonas Knöll,Alexander C Huk

    The visual system must recover important properties of the external environment if its host is to survive. Because the retinae are effectively two-dimensional but the world is three-dimensional (3D), the patterns of stimulation both within and across the eyes must be used to infer the distal stimulus-the environment-in all three dimensions. Moreover, animals and elements in the environment move, which

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Probabilistic Computations for Attention, Eye Movements, and Search.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-27
    Miguel P Eckstein

    The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuroprotection in Glaucoma: Animal Models and Clinical Trials.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-22
    Mohammadali Almasieh,Leonard A Levin

    Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that frequently results in irreversible blindness. Glaucoma causes death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in the optic nerve, resulting in visual field deficits and eventual loss of visual acuity. Glaucoma is a complex optic neuropathy, and a successful strategy for its treatment requires not only better management of known risk factors

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual Perceptual Learning and Models.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-21
    Barbara Dosher,Zhong-Lin Lu

    Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Face Perception.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Kalanit Grill-Spector,Kevin S Weiner,Kendrick Kay,Jesse Gomez

    Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Transduction Cascade in Retinal ON-Bipolar Cells: Signal Processing and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Kirill A Martemyanov,Alapakkam P Sampath

    Our robust visual experience is based on the reliable transfer of information from our photoreceptor cells, the rods and cones, to higher brain centers. At the very first synapse of the visual system, information is split into two separate pathways, ON and OFF, which encode increments and decrements in light intensity, respectively. The importance of this segregation is borne out in the fact that receptive

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vision and Action.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Mary M Hayhoe

    Investigation of natural behavior has contributed a number of insights to our understanding of visual guidance of actions by highlighting the importance of behavioral goals and focusing attention on how vision and action play out in time. In this context, humans make continuous sequences of sensory-motor decisions to satisfy current behavioral goals, and the role of vision is to provide the relevant

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual Decision-Making in an Uncertain and Dynamic World.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-19
    Joshua I Gold,Alan A Stocker

    The right decision today may be the wrong decision tomorrow. We live in a world in which expectations, contingencies, and goals continually evolve and change. Thus, decisions do not occur in isolation but rather are tightly embedded in these streams of temporal dependencies. Accordingly, even relatively straightforward visual decisions must take into account not just the immediate sensory input but

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • EK (DLEK, DSEK, DMEK): New Frontier in Cornea Surgery.
    Annu. Rev. Vis. Sci. (IF 5.897) Pub Date : 2017-07-13
    Marianne O Price,Pankaj Gupta,Jonathan Lass,Francis W Price

    Endothelial keratoplasty (EK) has revolutionized treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. Compared with penetrating keratoplasty (PK), EK provides faster and more reliable visual rehabilitation while maintaining the eye's structural integrity. The number of EK procedures is growing annually and surpassed PK in the United States in 2012. The most widely used iteration, Descemet stripping endothelial

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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