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  • State complexity of halting, returning and reversible graph-walking automata
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Olga Martynova; Alexander Okhotin

    Graph-walking automata (GWA) traverse graphs by moving between the nodes following the edges, using a finite-state control to decide where to go next. It is known that every GWA can be transformed to a GWA that halts on every input, to a GWA returning to the initial node in order to accept, and to a reversible GWA. This paper establishes lower bounds on the state blow-up of these transformations, as

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • State Complexity of the Set of Synchronizing Words for Circular Automata and Automata over Binary Alphabets
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-29
    Stefan Hoffmann

    Most slowly synchronizing automata over binary alphabets are circular, i.e., containing a letter permuting the states in a single cycle, and their set of synchronizing words has maximal state complexity, which also implies complete reachability.Here, we take a closer look at generalized circular and completely reachable automata. We derive that over a binary alphabet every completely reachable automaton

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Automatic Optimizations for Stream-based Monitoring Languages
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Jan Baumeister; Bernd Finkbeiner; Matthis Kruse; Maximilian Schwenger

    Runtime monitors that are specified in a stream-based monitoring language tend to be easier to understand, maintain, and reuse than those written in a standard programming language. Because of their formal semantics, such specification languages are also a natural choice for safety-critical applications. Unlike for standard programming languages, there is, however, so far very little support for automatic

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Optimal transformations of Muller conditions
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Antonio Casares; Thomas Colcombet; Nathanaël Fijalkow

    In this paper, we are interested in automata over infinite words and infinite duration games, that we view as general transition systems. We study transformations of systems using a Muller condition into ones using a parity condition, extending Zielonka's construction. We introduce the alternating cycle decomposition transformation, and we prove a strong optimality result: for any given deterministic

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Left Lyndon tree construction
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Golnaz Badkobeh; Maxime Crochemore

    We extend the left-to-right Lyndon factorisation of a word to the left Lyndon tree construction of a Lyndon word. It yields an algorithm to sort the prefixes of a Lyndon word according to the infinite ordering defined by Dolce et al. (2019). A straightforward variant computes the left Lyndon forest of a word. All algorithms run in linear time on a general alphabet, that is, in the letter-comparison

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Conformance Checking of Mixed-paradigm Process Models
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Boudewijn van Dongen; Johannes De Smedt; Claudio Di Ciccio; Jan Mendling

    Mixed-paradigm process models integrate strengths of procedural and declarative representations like Petri nets and Declare. They are specifically interesting for process mining because they allow capturing complex behaviour in a compact way. A key research challenge for the proliferation of mixed-paradigm models for process mining is the lack of corresponding conformance checking techniques. In this

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A hybrid barrier certificate approach to satisfy linear temporal logic specifications
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Andrea Bisoffi; Dimos V. Dimarogonas

    In this work we formulate the satisfaction of a (syntactically co-safe) linear temporal logic specification on a physical plant through a recent hybrid dynamical systems formalism. In order to solve this problem, we introduce an extension to such a hybrid system framework of the so-called eventuality property, which matches suitably the condition for the satisfaction of such a temporal logic specification

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • SymAR: Symmetry Abstractions and Refinement for Accelerating Scenarios with Neural Network Controllers Verification
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Hussein Sibai; Yangge Li; Sayan Mitra

    We present a Symmetry-based abstraction refinement algorithm SymAR that is directed towards safety verification of large-scale scenarios with complex dynamical systems. The abstraction maps modes with symmetric dynamics to a single abstract mode and refinements recursively split the modes when safety checks fail. We show how symmetry abstractions can be applied effectively to closed-loop control systems

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The VLSAT-1 Benchmark Suite
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Pierre BouvierCONVECS; Hubert GaravelCONVECS

    This report presents VLSAT-1 (an acronym for "Very Large Boolean SATisfiability problems"), the first part of a benchmark suite to be used in scientificexperiments and software competitions addressing SAT-solving issues.VLSAT-1 contains 100~benchmarks of increasing complexity, proposed in DIMACSCNF format under a permissive Creative Commons license. These benchmarks havebeen used by the 2020 International

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Ambiguity through the lens of measure theory
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Olivier Carton

    In this paper, we consider automata accepting irreducible sofic shifts, that is, strongly connected automata where each state is initial and final. We provide a characterization of unambiguity for finite words by means of measure of sets of infinite sequences labelling two runs. More precisely, we show that such an automaton is unambiguous, in the sense that no finite word labels two runs with the

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Weighted automata are compact and actively learnable
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Artem Kaznatcheev; Prakash Panangaden

    We show that weighted automata over the field of two elements can be exponentially more compact than non-deterministic finite state automata. To show this, we combine ideas from automata theory and communication complexity. However, weighted automata are also efficiently learnable in Angluin's minimal adequate teacher model. We include an algorithm for learning WAs over any field based on a linear

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • On the directed tile assembly systems at temperature 1
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Pierre-Étienne Meunier; Damien Regnault

    We show here that a model called directed self-assembly at temperature 1 is unable to do complex computations like the ones of a Turing machine. Since this model can be seen as a generalization of finite automata to 2D languages, a logical approach is to proceed in two steps. The first one is to develop a 2D pumping lemma and the second one is to use this pumping lemma to classify the different types

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Learning Languages with Decidable Hypotheses
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Julian Berger; Maximilian Böther; Vanja Doskoč; Jonathan Gadea Harder; Nicolas Klodt; Timo Kötzing; Winfried Lötzsch; Jannik Peters; Leon Schiller; Lars Seifert; Armin Wells; Simon Wietheger

    In language learning in the limit, the most common type of hypothesis is to give an enumerator for a language. This so-called $W$-index allows for naming arbitrary computably enumerable languages, with the drawback that even the membership problem is undecidable. In this paper we use a different system which allows for naming arbitrary decidable languages, namely programs for characteristic functions

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Recurrence in Dense-time AMS Assertions
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Sayandeep Sanyal; Antonio Anastasio Bruto da Costa; Pallab Dasgupta

    The notion of recurrence over continuous or dense time, as required for expressing Analog and Mixed-Signal (AMS) behaviours, is fundamentally different from what is offered by the recurrence operators of SystemVerilog Assertions (SVA). This article introduces the formal semantics of recurrence over dense time and provides a methodology for the runtime verification of such properties using interval

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Agafonov's Theorem for finite and infinite alphabets and probability distributions different from equidistribution
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Thomas Seiller; Jakob Grue Simonsen

    An infinite sequence over a finite alphabet {\Sigma} of symbols is called normal iff the limiting frequency of every finite string w exists and equals |{\Sigma}|^{|w|}. A celebrated theorem by Agafonov states that a sequence {\alpha} is normal iff every finite-state selector. Normality is generalised to arbitrary probability maps \mu: {\alpha} is is \mu-distributed if, for every finite string w, the

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Mathematical Approach in Automata and Automata Association
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Sergio Henrique Maciel

    The transition structure of an automaton can be used to create a natural topology to the set of states of an automaton, generating, this way, a topological space. Probabilistic automata can also be modeled in terms of measure theory. A system of many automata would be reduced to simple mathematical structures and analyzed by a topological point of view.

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Safety Synthesis Sans Specification
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-15
    Roderick Bloem; Hana Chockler; Masoud Ebrahimi; Dana Fisman; Heinz Riener

    We define the problem of learning a transducer ${S}$ from a target language $U$ containing possibly conflicting transducers, using membership queries and conjecture queries. The requirement is that the language of ${S}$ be a subset of $U$. We argue that this is a natural question in many situations in hardware and software verification. We devise a learning algorithm for this problem and show that

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Learning of Structurally Unambiguous Probabilistic Grammars
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-15
    Dolav Nitay; Dana Fisman; Michal Ziv-Ukelson

    The problem of identifying a probabilistic context free grammar has two aspects: the first is determining the grammar's topology (the rules of the grammar) and the second is estimating probabilistic weights for each rule. Given the hardness results for learning context-free grammars in general, and probabilistic grammars in particular, most of the literature has concentrated on the second problem.

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Synthesis of SQL Queries from South African Local Language Narrations
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-14
    George Obaido; Abejide Ade-Ibijola; Hima Vadapalli

    English remains the language of choice for database courses and widely used for instruction in nearly all South African universities, and also in many countries. Novice programmers of native origins are mostly taught Structured Query Language (SQL) through English as the medium of instruction. Consequently, this creates a myriad of problems in understanding the syntax of SQL as most native learners

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Reachability in two-parametric timed automata with one parameter is EXPSPACE-complete
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Stefan Göller; Mathieu Hilaire

    Parametric timed automata (PTA) are an extension of timed automata in which clocks can be compared against parameters. The reachability problem asks for the existence of an assignment of the parameters to the non-negative integers such that reachability holds in the underlying timed automaton. The reachability problem for PTA is long known to be undecidable, already over three parametric clocks. A

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Satisfaction of linear temporal logic specifications through recurrence tools for hybrid systems
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Andrea Bisoffi; Dimos V. Dimarogonas

    In this work we formulate the problem of satisfying a linear temporal logic formula on a linear plant with output feedback, through a recent hybrid systems formalism. We relate this problem to the notion of recurrence introduced for the considered formalism, and we then extend Lyapunov-like conditions for recurrence of an open, unbounded set. One of the proposed relaxed conditions allows certifying

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Congruences for Stochastic Automata
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Ernst-Erich Doberkat

    Congruences for stochastic automata are defined, the correspondin factor automata are constructed and investigated for automata ove analytic spaces. We study the behavior under finite and infinite streams. Congruences consist of multiple parts, it is shown that factoring can be done in multiple steps, guided by these parts.

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • On Language Varieties Without Boolean Operations
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Fabian Birkmann; Stefan Milius; Henning Urbat

    Eilenberg's variety theorem marked a milestone in the algebraic theory of regular languages by establishing a formal correspondence between properties of regular languages and properties of finite monoids recognizing them. Motivated by classes of languages accepted by quantum finite automata, we introduce basic varieties of regular languages, a weakening of Eilenberg's original concept that does not

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Reducing the time complexity of testing for local threshold testability
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    A. N. Trahtman

    A locally threshold testable language L is a language with the property that for some non negative integers k and l and for some word u from L, a word v belongs to L if and only if (1) the prefixes [suffixes] of length k-1 of words u and v coincide, (2) the numbers of occurrences of every factor of length k in both words u and v are either the same or greater than l-1. A deterministic finite automaton

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Precise estimation on the order of local testability of deterministic finite automaton
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    A. N. Trahtman

    A locally testable language L is a language with the property that for some non negative integer k, called the order or the level of local testable, whether or not a word u in the language L depends on (1) the prefix and the suffix of the word u of length k-1 and (2) the set of intermediate partial strings of length k of the word u. For given k the language is called k-testable. We give necessary and

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • The complexity of bounded context switching with dynamic thread creation
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Pascal Baumann; Rupak Majumdar; Ramanathan S. Thinniyam; Georg Zetzsche

    Dynamic networks of concurrent pushdown systems (DCPS) are a theoretical model for multi-threaded recursive programs with shared global state and dynamical creation of threads. The (global) state reachability problem for DCPS is undecidable in general, but Atig et al. (2009) showed that it becomes decidable, and is in 2EXPSPACE, when each thread is restricted to a fixed number of context switches.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Nondeterministic functional transducer inference algorithm
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Aleksander Mendoza-Drosik

    The purpose of this paper is to present an algorithm for inferring nondeterministic functional transducers. It has a lot in common with other well known algorithms such has RPNI and OSTIA. Indeed we will argue that this algorithm is a generalisation of both of them. Functional transducers are all those nondeterministic transducers whose regular relation is a function. Epsilon transitions as well as

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Some new Features and Algorithms for the Study of DFA
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Avraham N. Trahtman

    The work presents some new algorithms realized recently in the package TESTAS. They decide whether or not deterministic finite automaton (DFA) is synchronizing, several procedures find relatively short synchronizing words and a synchronizing word of the minimal length. We check the existence of a coloring of directed graph that turns the graph into a synchronizing DFA. The algorithm finds the coloring

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Inferring Symbolic Automata
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Dana Fisman; Hadar Frenkel; Sandra Zilles

    We study the learnability of {symbolic finite state automata}, a model shown useful in many applications in software verification. The state-of-the-art literature on this topic follows the {query learning} paradigm, and so far all obtained results are positive. We provide a necessary condition for efficient learnability of SFAs in this paradigm, from which we obtain the first negative result. Most

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • A translation of weighted LTL formulas to weighted Büchi automata over ω-valuation monoids
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Eleni Mandrali

    In this paper we introduce a weighted LTL over product {\omega}-valuation monoids that satisfy specific properties. We also introduce weighted generalized B\"uchi automata with {\epsilon}-transitions, as well as weighted B\"uchi automata with {\epsilon}-transitions over product {\omega}-valuation monoids and prove that these two models are expressively equivalent and also equivalent to weighted B\"uchi

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Context-Bounded Verification of Liveness Properties for Multithreaded Shared-Memory Programs
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Pascal Baumann; Rupak Majumdar; Ramanathan S. Thinniyam; Georg Zetzsche

    We study context-bounded verification of liveness properties of multi-threaded, shared-memory programs, where each thread can spawn additional threads. Our main result shows that context-bounded fair termination is decidable for the model; context-bounded implies that each spawned thread can be context switched a fixed constant number of times. Our proof is technical, since fair termination requires

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • A Semantic Framework for PEGs
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Sérgio Medeiros; Carlos Olarte

    Parsing Expression Grammars (PEGs) are a recognition-based formalism which allows to describe the syntactical and the lexical elements of a language. The main difference between Context-Free Grammars (CFGs) and PEGs relies on the interpretation of the choice operator: while the CFGs' unordered choice e | e' is interpreted as the union of the languages recognized by e and e, the PEGs' prioritized choice

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Polynomial time algorithm for left [right] local testability
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    A. N. Trahtman

    A right [left] locally testable language S is a language with the property that for some non negative integer k two words u and v in alphabet S are equal in the semi group if (1) the prefix and suffix of the words of length k coincide, (2) the set of segments of length k of the words as well as 3) the order of the first appearance of these segments in prefixes [suffixes] coincide. We present necessary

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • The algebra of binary trees is affine complete
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-08
    Andre Arnold; Patrick Cegielski; Serge Grigorieff; Irene Guessarian

    A function on an algebra is congruence preserving if, for any congruence, it maps pairs of congruent elements onto pairs of congruent elements. We show that on the algebra of binary trees whose leaves are labeled by letters of an alphabet containing at least three letters, a function is congruence preserving if and only if it is polynomial.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Goldilock rules, Quantum cellular automata and coarse-graining
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    O. Duranthon; Giuseppe Di Molfetta

    One can think of some physical evolutions as being the emergent-effective result of a microscopic discrete model. Inspired by classical coarse graining procedures, we provide a simple procedures to coarse-grain color-blind quantum cellular automata, following Goldilock rules. The procedure consists in (i) space-time grouping the quantum cellular automaton (QCA) in cells of size $N$, (ii) projecting

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Conversion of LSAT behavioral specifications to automata
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Sander Thuijsman; Michel Reniers

    The Logistics Specification and Analysis Tool (LSAT) is a model-based engineering tool used for manufacturing system design and analysis. Using a domain specific language, a system can be specified in LSAT. In this paper, a conversion method is presented to obtain the system behavior of an LSAT specification in automata structure.

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Abelian Complexity and Synchronization
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-01
    Jeffrey Shallit

    We present a general method for computing the abelian complexity $\rho^{\rm ab}_{\bf s} (n)$ of an automatic sequence $s$ in the case where (a) $\rho^{\rm ab}_{\bf s} (n)$ is bounded by a constant and (b) the length-$n$ prefixes of $s$ have synchronized Parikh vectors. We illustrate the idea in detail, using the free software Walnut to compute the abelian complexity of the Tribonacci word ${\bf TR}

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • A Formally Verified Highly Resilient Safety Concept with Degraded Modes for Automated Driving
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Yuting Fu; Andrei Terechko; Jan Friso Groote; Arash Khabbaz Saberi

    Modern Automated Driving Systems (ADS) rely on fragmented safety measures to handle faults and make driving decisions. To eradicate lethal road accidents, safety engineering has to expand beyond contemporary automotive design practices and patterns. We present a holistic safety concept unifying advanced safety measures for handling multiple-point faults and fault-free hazardous situations associated

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Synthesis of Discounted-Reward Optimal Policies for Markov Decision Processes Under Linear Temporal Logic Specifications
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-01
    Krishna C. Kalagarla; Rahul Jain; Pierluigi Nuzzo

    We present a method to find an optimal policy with respect to a reward function for a discounted Markov Decision Process under general linear temporal logic (LTL) specifications. Previous work has either focused on maximizing a cumulative reward objective under finite-duration tasks, specified by syntactically co-safe LTL, or maximizing an average reward for persistent (e.g., surveillance) tasks. This

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • A Unifying Theory of Transition-based and Sequence Labeling Parsing
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-11-01
    Carlos Gómez-Rodríguez; Michalina Strzyz; David Vilares

    We define a mapping from transition-based parsing algorithms that read sentences from left to right to sequence labeling encodings of syntactic trees. This not only establishes a theoretical relation between transition-based parsing and sequence-labeling parsing, but also provides a method to obtain new encodings for fast and simple sequence labeling parsing from the many existing transition-based

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • On Krohn-Rhodes theory for semiautomata
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Karl-Heinz Zimmermann

    Krohn-Rhodes theory encompasses the techniques for the study of finite automata and their decomposition into elementary automata. The famous result of Krohn and Rhodes roughly states that each finite automaton can be decomposed into elementary components which correspond to permutation and reset automata connected by a cascade product. However, this outcome is not easy to access for the working computer

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Deciding $ω$-Regular Properties on Linear Recurrence Sequences
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Shaull Almagor; Toghrul Karimov; Edon Kelmendi; Jöel Ouaknine; James Worrell

    We consider the problem of deciding $\omega$-regular properties on infinite traces produced by linear loops. Here we think of a given loop as producing a single infinite trace that encodes information about the signs of program variables at each time step. Formally, our main result is a procedure that inputs a prefix-independent $\omega$-regular property and a sequence of numbers satisfying a linear

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Learning automata and transducers: a categorical approach
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Thomas Colcombet; Daniela Petrişan; Riccardo Stabile

    In this paper, we present a categorical approach to learning automata over words, in the sense of the $L^*$-algorithm of Angluin. This yields a new generic $L^*$-like algorithm which can be instantiated for learning deterministic automata, automata weighted over fields, as well as subsequential transducers. The generic nature of our algorithm is obtained by adopting an approach in which automata are

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A Purely Regular Approach to Non-Regular Core Spanners
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Markus L. Schmid; Nicole Schweikardt

    The regular spanners (characterised by vset-automata) are closed under the algebraic operations of union, join and projection, and have desirable algorithmic properties. The core spanners (introduced by Fagin, Kimelfeld, Reiss, and Vansummeren (PODS 2013, JACM 2015) as a formalisation of the core functionality of the query language AQL used in IBM's SystemT) additionally need string equality selections

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A Language and Methodology based on Scenarios, Grammars and Views, for Administrative Business Processes Modelling
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Milliam Maxime Zekeng Ndadji; Maurice Tchoupé Tchendji; Clémentin Tayou Djamegni; Didier Parigot

    In Business Process Management (BPM), process modelling has been solved in various ways. However, there are no commonly accepted modelling tools (languages). Some of them are criticized for their inability to capture both the lifecycle, informational and organizational models of processes. For some others, process modelling is generally done using a single graph; this does not facilitate modularity

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • On the Expressiveness of Büchi Arithmetic
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    Christoph Haase; Jakub Różycki

    We show that the existential fragment of B\"uchi arithmetic is strictly less expressive than full B\"uchi arithmetic of any base, and moreover establish that its $\Sigma_2$-fragment is already expressively complete. Furthermore, we show that regular languages of polynomial growth are definable in the existential fragment of B\"uchi arithmetic.

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Approximating the Minimal Lookahead Needed to Win Infinite Games
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Martin Zimmermann

    We present an exponential-time algorithm approximating the minimal lookahead necessary to win an $\omega$-regular delay game.

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Automata and Fixpoints for Asynchronous Hyperproperties
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Jens Oliver Gutsfeld; Markus Müller-Olm; Christoph Ohrem

    Hyperproperties have received increasing attention in the last decade due to their importance e.g. for security analyses. Past approaches have focussed on synchronous analyses, i.e. techniques in which different paths are compared lockstepwise. In this paper, we systematically study asynchronous analyses for hyperproperties by introducing both a novel automata model (Alternating Asynchronous Parity

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • State-space construction of Hybrid Petri nets with multiple stochastic firings
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Jannik Hüls; Carina Pilch; Patricia Schinke; Henner Niehaus; Joanna Delicaris; Anne Remke

    Hybrid Petri nets have been extended to include general transitions that fire after a randomly distributed amount of time. With a single general one-shot transition the state space and evolution over time can be represented either as a Parametric Location Tree or as a Stochastic Time Diagram. Recent work has shown that both representations can be combined and then allow multiple stochastic firings

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Harnessing LTL With Freeze Quantification
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Daniel Hausmann; Stefan Milius; Lutz Schröder

    Logics and automata models for languages over infinite alphabets, such as Freeze LTL and register automata, respectively, serve the verification of processes or documents with data. They relate tightly to formalisms over nominal sets, where names play the role of data. For example, regular nondeterministic nominal automata (RNNA) are equivalent to a subclass of the standard register automata model

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Subword complexity of the Fibonacci-Thue-Morse sequence: the proof of Dekking's conjecture
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Jeffrey Shallit

    Recently Dekking conjectured the form of the subword complexity function for the Fibonacci-Thue-Morse sequence. In this note we prove his conjecture by purely computational means, using the free software Walnut.

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Bases for algebras over a monad
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Stefan Zetzsche; Alexandra Silva; Matteo Sammartino

    One of the fundamental notions of linear algebra is the concept of a basis for a vector space. In the category theoretic formulation of universal algebra, vector spaces are the Eilenberg-Moore algebras over the free vector space monad on the category of sets. In this paper we show that the notion of a basis can be extended to algebras of arbitrary monads on arbitrary categories. On the one hand, we

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Language Inference with Multi-head Automata through Reinforcement Learning
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Alper Şekerci; Özlem Salehi

    The purpose of this paper is to use reinforcement learning to model learning agents which can recognize formal languages. Agents are modeled as simple multi-head automaton, a new model of finite automaton that uses multiple heads, and six different languages are formulated as reinforcement learning problems. Two different algorithms are used for optimization. First algorithm is Q-learning which trains

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Connecting Weighted Automata, Tensor Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks through Spectral Learning
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Tianyu Li; Doina Precup; Guillaume Rabusseau

    In this paper, we present connections between three models used in different research fields: weighted finite automata~(WFA) from formal languages and linguistics, recurrent neural networks used in machine learning, and tensor networks which encompasses a set of optimization techniques for high-order tensors used in quantum physics and numerical analysis. We first present an intrinsic relation between

    更新日期:2020-10-26
  • Parametric non-interference in timed automata
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Étienne André; Aleksander Kryukov

    We consider a notion of non-interference for timed automata (TAs) that allows to quantify the frequency of an attack; that is, we infer values of the minimal time between two consecutive actions of the attacker, so that (s)he disturbs the set of reachable locations. We also synthesize valuations for the timing constants of the TA (seen as parameters) guaranteeing non-interference. We show that this

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • Quines are the fittest programs: Nesting algorithmic probability converges to constructors
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Aritra Sarkar

    In this article we explore the limiting behavior of the universal prior distribution applied over multiple meta-level hierarchy of program and output data of a Turing machine. We were motivated to reduce the effect of Solomonoff's assumption that all computable functions/hypothesis of the same length are equally likely, by weighing each program in turn by the algorithmic probability of their description

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • Mapping Monotonic Restrictions in Inductive Inference
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Vanja Doskoč; Timo Kötzing

    In language learning in the limit we investigate computable devices (learners) learning formal languages. Through the years, many natural restrictions have been imposed on the studied learners. As such, monotonic restrictions always enjoyed particular attention as, although being a natural requirement, monotonic learners show significantly diverse behaviour when studied in different settings. A recent

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • Normal Forms for (Semantically) Witness-Based Learners in Inductive Inference
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Vanja Doskoč; Timo Kötzing

    We study learners (computable devices) inferring formal languages, a setting referred to as language learning in the limit or inductive inference. In particular, we require the learners we investigate to be witness-based, that is, to justify each of their mind changes. Besides being a natural requirement for a learning task, this restriction deserves special attention as it is a specialization of various

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • Maps for Learning Indexable Classes
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Julian Berger; Maximilian Böther; Vanja Doskoč; Jonathan Gadea Harder; Nicolas Klodt; Timo Kötzing; Winfried Lötzsch; Jannik Peters; Leon Schiller; Lars Seifert; Armin Wells; Simon Wietheger

    We study learning of indexed families from positive data where a learner can freely choose a hypothesis space (with uniformly decidable membership) comprising at least the languages to be learned. This abstracts a very universal learning task which can be found in many areas, for example learning of (subsets of) regular languages or learning of natural languages. We are interested in various restrictions

    更新日期:2020-10-20
  • Online Monitoring $ω$-Regular Properties in Unknown Markov Chains
    arXiv.cs.FL Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Javier Esparza; Stefan Kiefer; Jan Kretinsky; Maximilian Weininger

    We study runtime monitoring of $\omega$-regular properties. We consider a simple setting in which a run of an unknown finite-state Markov chain $\mathcal M$ is monitored against a fixed but arbitrary $\omega$-regular specification $\varphi$. The purpose of monitoring is to keep aborting runs that are "unlikely" to satisfy the specification until $\mathcal M$ executes a correct run. We design controllers

    更新日期:2020-10-19
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