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  • Modular verification of programs with effects and effects handlers
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-12-15
    Thomas Letan, Yann Régis-Gianas, Pierre Chifflier, Guillaume Hiet

    Modern computing systems have grown in complexity, and even though system components are generally carefully designed and even verified by different groups of people, the composition of these components is often regarded with less attention. Inconsistencies between components’ assumptions on the rest of the system can have significant repercussions on this system, and may ultimately lead to safety

  • On the Interactive Power of Higher-order Processes Extended with Parameterization
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Wenbo Zhang, Xian Xu, Qiang Yin, Huan Long

    This paper investigates the interactive power of the higher-order pi-calculus extended with parameterization. We study two kinds of parameterization: name parameterization and process parameterization. We show that each of these kinds of parameterization results in an interactively complete model, in the sense that they can express the elementary interactive model (named \(\mathbb{C}\)) with built-in

  • Formalization of Camera Pose Estimation Algorithm based on Rodrigues Formula
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Shanyan Chen, Guohui Wang, Ximeng Li, Qianying Zhang, Zhiping Shi, Yong Guan

    Camera pose estimation is key to the proper functioning of robotic systems, supporting critical tasks such as robot navigation, target tracking, camera calibration, etc.Whilemultiple algorithms solving this problem have been proposed, their correctness has rarely been validated using formal techniques. This is true despite the fact that the adoption of formal verification is essential for the reliability

  • A Weakness Measure for GR(1) Formulae
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Davide G. Cavezza, Dalal Alrajeh, András György

    When dealing with unrealizable specifications in reactive synthesis, finding the weakest environment assumptions that ensure realizability is often considered a desirable property. However, little effort has been dedicated to defining or evaluating the notion of weakness of assumptions formally. The question of whether one assumption is weaker than another is commonly interpreted by considering the

  • Optimal and robust controller synthesis using energy timed automata with uncertainty
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    Giovanni Bacci, Patricia Bouyer, Uli Fahrenberg, Kim G. Larsen, Nicolas Markey, Pierre-Alain Reynier

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for the synthesis of robust and optimal energy-aware controllers. The framework is based on energy timed automata, allowing for easy expression of timing constraints and variable energy rates. We prove decidability of the energy-constrained infinite-run problem in settings with both certainty and uncertainty of the energy rates. We also consider the optimization

  • TFA: an efficient and precise virtual method call resolution for Java
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Xilong Zhuo, Chenyi Zhang

    The problem of statically resolving virtual method calls in object-oriented (OO) programming languages has been a long standing challenge, often due to the overly complicated class hierarchy structures in modern OO programming languages such as Java, C# and C++. Traditional ways of dealing with this problem include class hierarchy analysis (CHA), variable type analysis (VTA), and retrieval of type

  • An Event-B based approach for cloud composite services verification
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Aida Lahouij, Lazhar Hamel, Mohamed Graiet, Béchir el Ayeb

    The verification of the Cloud composite services’ correctness is challenging. In fact, multiple component services, derived from different Cloud providers with different service description languages and communication protocols, are involved in the composition which may raise incompatibility issues that in turn lead to a non-consistent composition. In this work, we propose a formal approach to model

  • Runtime enforcement of timed properties using games
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Matthieu Renard; Antoine Rollet; Yliès Falcone

    This paper deals with runtime enforcement of timed properties with uncontrollable events. Runtime enforcement consists in defining and using an enforcement mechanism that modifies the executions of a running system to ensure their correctness with respect to the desired property. Uncontrollable events cannot be modified by the enforcement mechanisms and thus have to be released immediately. We present

  • Formal Verification of Robotic Cell Injection systems up to 4-DOF using HOL Light
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Adnan Rashid; Osman Hasan

    Cell injection is an approach used for the delivery of small sample substances into a biological cell and is widely used in drug development, gene injection, intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in-vitro fertilization. Robotic cell injection systems provide the automation of the process as opposed to the manual and semi-automated cell injection systems, which require expert operators and involve time

  • Theoretical and Practical Approaches to the Denotational Semantics for MDESL based on UTP
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Feng Sheng; Huibiao Zhu; Jifeng He; Zongyuan Yang; Jonathan P. Bowen

    The hardware description language Verilog has been standardized and widely used in industry. Multithreaded Discrete Event Simulation Language (MDESL) is a Verilog-like language and it contains a rich variety of interesting features such as the event-driven computation and shared-variable concurrency as well as the realtime feature. In this paper, we present the denotational semantics for MDESL based

  • Modeling and Verification of A Timing Protection Mechanism in the OSEK/VDX OS using CSP
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Yanhong Huang; Haiping Pang; Jianqi Shi

    The functions of automobiles are becoming increasingly intelligent, which leads to the increasing number of electrical control units for one automobile. Hence, it makes software migration and extension more complicated. In order to avoid these problems, the standard OSEK/VDX has been proposed jointly by a German automotive company consortium and the University of Karlsruhe. This standard provides specifications

  • Legislation-driven development of a Gift Aid system using Event-B
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    David M. Williams; Salaheddin Darwish; Steve Schneider; David R. Michael

    This work presents our approach to formally model the Swiftaid system design, a digital platform that enables donors to automatically add Gift Aid to donations made via card payments. Following principles of Behaviour-Driven Development, we use Gherkin to capture requirements specified in legislation, specifically the UK Charity (Gift Aid Declarations) Regulations 2016. The Gherkin scenarios provide

  • Collaborative models for autonomous systems controller synthesis
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Douglas Fraser; Ruben Giaquinta; Ruth Hoffmann; Murray Ireland; Alice Miller; Gethin Norman

    We show how detailed simulation models and abstract Markov models can be developed collaboratively to generate and implement effective controllers for autonomous agent search and retrieve missions. We introduce a concrete simulation model of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). We then show how the probabilistic model checker PRISM is used for optimal strategy synthesis for a sequence of scenarios relevant

  • PuRSUE -from specification of robotic environments to synthesis of controllers
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Marcello M. Bersani; Matteo Soldo; Claudio Menghi; Patrizio Pelliccione; Matteo Rossi

    Developing robotic applications is a complex task, which requires skills that are usually only possessed by highly-qualified robotic developers. While formal methods that help developers in the creation and design of robotic applications exist, they must be explicitly customized to be impactful in the robotics domain and to support effectively the growth of the robotic market. Specifically, the robotic

  • Stepwise development and model checking of a distributed interlocking system using RAISE
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    S. Geisler, A. E. Haxthausen

    This paper considers the challenge of designing and verifying control protocols for geographically distributed railway interlocking systems. It describes how this challenge can be tackled by stepwise development and model checking of state transition system models in a new extension of the RAISE Specification Language. Railway interlocking systems are reconfigurable systems which can be configured

  • Formal analysis of the compact position reporting algorithm
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Aaron Dutle, Mariano Moscato, Laura Titolo, César Muñoz, Gregory Anderson, François Bobot

    The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system allows aircraft to communicate current state information, including position and velocity messages, to other aircraft in their vicinity and to ground stations. The Compact Position Reporting (CPR) algorithm is the ADS-B protocol responsible for the encoding and decoding of aircraft positions. CPR is sensitive to computer arithmetic since

  • Using formal verification to evaluate the execution time of Spark applications
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    L. Baresi; M. M. Bersani; F. Marconi; G. Quattrocchi; M. Rossi

    Apache Spark is probably the most widely adopted framework for developing big-data batch applications and for executing them on a cluster of (virtual) machines. In general, the more resources (machines) one uses, the faster applications execute, but there is currently no adequate means to determine the proper size of a Spark cluster given time constraints, or to foresee execution times given the number

  • Formal reliability and failure analysis of ethernet based communication networks in a smart grid substation
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Waqar Ahmad; Osman Hasan; Sofiène Tahar

    Secure and continuous operation of a smart grid substation mainly depends upon the reliable functioning of its communication network. The communication system of a smart substation is typically based on a high performance Ethernet communication network that connects various intelligent embedded devices, such as Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) andMerging Units (MU), to ensure continuous monitoring

  • Correction to: Multiple model synchronization with multiary delta lenses with amendment and K-Putput
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Zinovy Diskin, Harald König, Mark Lawford

    Owing to a production error, the reference in footnote

  • Fifty years of Hoare’s logic
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Krzysztof R. Apt; Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog

    We present a history of Hoare’s logic.

  • Linearizability on hardware weak memory models
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Graeme Smith; Kirsten Winter; Robert J. Colvin

    Linearizability is a widely accepted notion of correctness for concurrent objects. Recent research has investigated redefining linearizability for particular hardware weak memory models, in particular for TSO. In this paper, we provide an overview of this research and show that such redefinitions of linearizability are not required: under an interpretation of specification behaviour which abstracts

  • Bisimulation and Coinduction Enhancements: A Historical Perspective
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Damien Pous; Davide Sangiorgi

    Bisimulation is an instance of coinduction. Both bisimulation and coinduction are today widely used, in many areas of Computer Science, as well as outside Computer Science. Over, roughly, the last 25 years, enhancements of the principles and methods related to bisimulation and coinduction (i.e., techniques to make proofs shorter and simpler) have become a research topic on its own. In the paper the

  • Multiple model synchronization with multiary delta lenses with amendment and K-Putput
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Zinovy Diskin; Harald König; Mark Lawford

    Multiple (more than 2) model synchronization is ubiquitous and important for MDE, but its theoretical underpinning gained much less attention than the binary case. Specifically, the latter was extensively studied by the bx community in the framework of algebraic models for update propagation called lenses. We make a step to restore the balance and propose a notion of multiary delta lens. Besides multiarity

  • Assembling a prehistory for formal methods: a personal view
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    Thomas Haigh

    The history of formal methods has barely been written. Haigh recapitulates his own exposure to relevant material during three phases of his development as a scholar: as a student of computer science, as a graduate student in history, and as a professor researching the history of computing. Triangulating these perspectives suggests that formal methods is one of several strands emerging from a community

  • From LCF to Isabelle/HOL
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Lawrence C. Paulson; Tobias Nipkow; Makarius Wenzel

    Interactive theorem provers have developed dramatically over the past four decades, from primitive beginnings to today’s powerful systems. Here, we focus on Isabelle/HOL and its distinctive strengths. They include automatic proof search, borrowing techniques from the world of first order theorem proving, but also the automatic search for counterexamples. They include a highly readable structured language

  • Estimating costs of multi-component enterprise applications
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Antonio Brogi; Andrea Corradini; Jacopo Soldani

    Estimating the cost of a multi-component application (e.g., its resource or energy consumption) is fundamental in nowadays enterprise IT, especially if we consider that current pricing models are mainly pay per-use. While this is still manageable on small applications, it is really hard to manually estimate the cost of large-scale enterprise applications involving hundreds of interdependent application

  • Read atomic transactions with prevention of lost updates: ROLA and its formal analysis
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Si Liu; Peter Csaba Ölveczky; Qi Wang; Indranil Gupta; José Meseguer

    Designers of distributed database systems face the choice between stronger consistency guarantees and better performance. A number of applications only require read atomicity (RA) (either all or none of a transaction’s updates are visible to other transactions) and prevention of lost updates (PLU). Existing distributed transaction systems that meet these requirements also provide additional stronger

  • Interactive verification of architectural design patterns in FACTum
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Diego Marmsoler; Habtom Kashay Gidey

    Architectural design patterns (ADPs) are architectural solutions to common architectural design problems. They are an important concept in software architectures used for the design and analysis of architectures. An ADP usually constrains the design of an architecture and, in turn, guarantees some desired properties for architectures implementing it. Sometimes, however, the constraints imposed by an

  • Milestones from the Pure Lisp theorem prover to ACL2
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    J. Strother Moore

    We discuss the evolutionary path from the Edinburgh Pure Lisp Theorem Prover of the early 1970s to its modern counterpart, AComputational Logic for Applicative Common Lisp, aka ACL2, which is in regular industrial use. Among the milestones in this evolution are the adoption of a first-order subset of a programming language as a logic; the analysis of recursive definitions to guess appropriate mathematical

  • Discovering and correcting a deadlock in a channel implementation
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Gavin Lowe

    We investigate the cause of a deadlock in the implementation of a channel in a message-passing concurrency API. We model the channel implementation using the process algebra CSP, and then use the model checker FDR to find the cause of the deadlock. The bug is rather subtle, and arguably infeasible to spot by hand. We then propose a straightforward fix to the bug, and use CSP and FDR to verify this

  • A verification-driven framework for iterative design of controllers
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Claudio Menghi; Paola Spoletini; Marsha Chechik; Carlo Ghezzi

    Controllers often are large and complex reactive software systems and thus they typically cannot be developed as monolithic products. Instead, they are usually comprised of multiple components that interact to provide the desired functionality. Components themselves can be complex and in turn be decomposed into multiple sub-components. Designing such systems is complicated and must follow systematic

  • Efficient verification of concurrent systems using local-analysis-based approximations and SAT solving
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-05-13
    Pedro Antonino; Thomas Gibson-Robinson; A. W. Roscoe

    This work develops a type of local analysis that can prove concurrent systems deadlock free. As opposed to examining the overall behaviour of a system, local analysis consists of examining the behaviour of small parts of the system to yield a given property. We analyse pairs of interacting components to approximate system reachability and propose a new sound but incomplete/approximate framework that

  • Investigating the limits of rely/guarantee relations based on a concurrent garbage collector example
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-04-15
    Cliff B. Jones; Nisansala Yatapanage

    Decomposing the design (or documentation) of large systems is a practical necessity but finding compositional development methods for concurrent software is technically challenging. This paper includes the development of a difficult example in order to draw out lessons about such methods. The concurrent garbage collector development is interesting in several ways; in particular, the final step of its

  • A modeling and verification framework for optical quantum circuits
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Sidi Mohamed Beillahi; Mohamed Yousri Mahmoud; Sofiène Tahar

    Quantum computing systems promise to increase the capabilities for solving problems which classical computers cannot handle adequately, such as integers factorization. In this paper, we present a formal modeling and verification approach for optical quantum circuits, where we build a rich library of optical quantum gates and develop a proof strategy in higher-order logic to reason about optical quantum

  • Finding suitable variability abstractions for lifted analysis
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Aleksandar S. Dimovski; Claus Brabrand; Andrzej Wąsowski

    Many software systems are today variational: they are built as program families or Software Product Lines. They can produce a potentially huge number of related programs, known as products or variants, by selecting suitable configuration options (features) at compile time. Many such program families are safety critical, yet the appropriate tools only rarely are able to analyze them effeciently. Researchers

  • Consistency-preserving refactoring of refinement structures in Event-B models
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-02-11
    Tsutomu Kobayashi; Fuyuki Ishikawa; Shinichi Honiden

    Event-B has been attracting much interest because it supports a flexible refinement mechanism that reduces the complexity of constructing and verifying models of complicated target systems by taking into account multiple abstraction layers of the models. Although most previous studies on Event-B focused on model construction, the constructed models need to be maintained. Moreover, parts of existing

  • Formal reliability analysis of redundancy architectures
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-01-02
    Marco Bozzano; Alessandro Cimatti; Cristian Mattarei

    Reliability is a fundamental property for critical systems. A thorough evaluation of the reliability is required by the certification procedures in various application domains, and it is important to support the exploration of the space of the design solutions. In this paper we propose a new, fully automated approach to the reliability analysis of complex redundant architectures. Given an abstract

  • Automating Event-B invariant proofs by rippling and proof patching
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2019-01-02
    Yuhui Lin; Alan Bundy; Gudmund Grov; Ewen Maclean

    The use of formal method techniques can contribute to the production of more reliable and dependable systems. However, a common bottleneck for industrial adoption of such techniques is the needs for interactive proofs. We use a popular formal method, called Event-B, as our working domain, and set invariant preservation (INV) proofs as targets, because INV proofs can account for a significant proportion

  • Extensional Petri net
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-11-16
    Xiaoju Dong; Yuxi Fu; Daniele Varacca

    Petri nets form a concurrent model for distributed and asynchronous systems. They are capable of modeling information flow in a closed system, but are generally not suitable for the study of compositionality. We address the issue of Petri net compositionality by introducing extensional Petri nets. In an extensional Petri net some places are external while others are internal. Every external place is

  • Automated mutual induction proof in separation logic
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-10-11
    Quang-Trung Ta; Ton Chanh Le; Siau-Cheng Khoo; Wei-Ngan Chin

    We present a deductive proof system to automatically prove separation logic entailments by mathematical induction. Our technique is called the mutual induction proof. It is an instance of the well-founded induction, a.k.a., Noetherian induction. More specifically, we propose a novel induction principle based on a well-founded relation of separation logic models. We implement this principle explicitly

  • Hybrid statistical estimation of mutual information and its application to information flow
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-10-08
    Fabrizio Biondi; Yusuke Kawamoto; Axel Legay; Louis-Marie Traonouez

    Analysis of a probabilistic system often requires to learn the joint probability distribution of its random variables. The computation of the exact distribution is usually an exhaustive precise analysis on all executions of the system. To avoid the high computational cost of such an exhaustive search, statistical analysis has been studied to efficiently obtain approximate estimates by analyzing only

  • GPU-accelerated steady-state computation of large probabilistic Boolean networks
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-10-04
    Andrzej Mizera; Jun Pang; Qixia Yuan

    Computation of steady-state probabilities is an important aspect of analysing biological systems modelled as probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs). For small PBNs, efficient numerical methods to compute steady-state probabilities of PBNs exist, based on the Markov chain state-transition matrix. However, for large PBNs, numerical methods suffer from the state-space explosion problem since the state-space

  • Formal analysis of the kinematic Jacobian in screw theory
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Zhiping Shi; Aixuan Wu; Xiumei Yang; Yong Guan; Yongdong Li; Xiaoyu Song

    As robotic systems flourish, reliability has become a topic of paramount importance in the human–robot relationship. The Jacobian matrix in screw theory underpins the design and optimization of robotic manipulators. Kernel properties of robotic manipulators, including dexterity and singularity, are characterized with the Jacobian matrix. The accurate specification and the rigorous analysis of the Jacobian

  • A UTP approach for rTiMo
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-08-10
    Wanling Xie; Shuangqing Xiang; Huibiao Zhu

    rTiMo is a real-time version of TiMo (Timed Mobility), which is a process algebra for mobile distributed systems. In this paper, we investigate the denotational semantics for rTiMo. A trace variable tr is introduced to record the communications among processes as well as the location where the communication action takes place. Based on the formalized model, we study a set of algebraic laws, especially

  • Toward automatic verification of quantum programs
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-08-07
    Mingsheng Ying

    This paper summarises the results obtained by the author and his collaborators in a program logic approach to the verification of quantum programs, including quantum Hoare logic, invariant generation and termination analysis for quantum programs. It also introduces the notion of proof outline and several auxiliary rules for more conveniently reasoning about quantum programs. Some problems for future

  • A synchronous program algebra: a basis for reasoning about shared-memory and event-based concurrency
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-08-06
    Ian J. Hayes; Larissa A. Meinicke; Kirsten Winter; Robert J. Colvin

    In this paper we introduce an abstract algebra for reasoning about concurrent programs, that includes an abstract algebra of atomic steps, with sub-algebras of program and environment steps, and an abstract synchronisation operator. We show how the abstract synchronisation operator can be instantiated as a synchronous parallel operator with interpretations in rely-guarantee concurrency for shared-memory

  • Model-based problem solving for university timetable validation and improvement
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-07-24
    David Schneider; Michael Leuschel; Tobias Witt

    Constraint satisfaction problems can be expressed very elegantly in state-based formal methods such as B. But can such specifications be directly used for solving real-life problems? In other words, can a formal model be more than a design artefact but also be used at runtime for inference and problem solving? We will try and answer this important question in the present paper with regard to the university

  • Code obfuscation against abstraction refinement attacks
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-07-24
    Roberto Bruni; Roberto Giacobazzi; Roberta Gori

    Code protection technologies require anti reverse engineering transformations to obfuscate programs in such a way that tools and methods for program analysis become ineffective. We introduce the concept of model deformation inducing an effective code obfuscation against attacks performed by abstract model checking. This means complicating the model in such a way a high number of spurious traces are

  • Parameterized verification of monotone information systems
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-07-18
    Raphaël Chane-Yack-Fa; Marc Frappier; Amel Mammar; Alain Finkel

    In this paper, we study the information system verification problem as a parameterized verification one. Informations systems are modeled as multi-parameterized systems in a formal language based on the Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD) notation. Then, we use the Well Structured Transition Systems (WSTS) theory to solve the coverability problem for an unbounded ASTD state space. Moreover,

  • Tests and proofs for custom data generators
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-07-12
    Catherine Dubois; Alain Giorgetti

    We address automated testing and interactive proving of properties involving complex data structures with constraints, like the ones studied in enumerative combinatorics, e.g., permutations and maps. In this paper we show testing techniques to check properties of custom data generators for these structures. We focus on random property-based testing and bounded exhaustive testing, to find counterexamples

  • Battery-aware scheduling in low orbit: the GomX–3 case
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-07-04
    Morten Bisgaard; David Gerhardt; Holger Hermanns; Jan Krčál; Gilles Nies; Marvin Stenger

    When working with space systems the keyword is resources. For a satellite in orbit all resources are scarce and the most critical resource of all is power. It is therefore crucial to have detailed knowledge on how much power is available for an energy harvesting satellite in orbit at every time—especially when in eclipse, where it draws its power from onboard batteries. The challenge is to maximise

  • Computation tree measurement language (CTML)
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    Yaping Jing; Andrew S. Miner

    In this work, we present a formal language, CTML, to reason over probabilistic systems. CTML extends stochastic temporal logics in a way that it takes a real value as input and output a real value in the range of \({[0, \infty)}\), as opposed to 0/1 values as input and output, and it can nest real values. This allows CTML to express a rich set of queries towards the unification of model checking and

  • How testing helps to diagnose proof failures
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Guillaume Petiot; Nikolai Kosmatov; Bernard Botella; Alain Giorgetti; Jacques Julliand

    Applying deductive verification to formally prove that a program respects its formal specification is a very complex and time-consuming task due in particular to the lack of feedback in case of proof failures. Along with a non-compliance between the code and its specification (due to an error in at least one of them), possible reasons of a proof failure include a missing or too weak specification for

  • Unifying separation logic and region logic to allow interoperability
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Yuyan Bao; Gary T. Leavens; Gidon Ernst

    Framing is important for specification and verification, especially in programs that mutate data structures with shared data, such as DAGs. Both separation logic and region logic are successful approaches to framing, with separation logic providing a concise way to reason about data structures that are disjoint, and region logic providing the ability to reason about framing for shared mutable data

  • A UTP semantics for communicating processes with shared variables and its formal encoding in PVS
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-04-25
    Ling Shi; Yongxin Zhao; Yang Liu; Jun Sun; Jin Song Dong; Shengchao Qin

    CSP# (communicating sequential programs) is a modelling language designed for specifying concurrent systems by integrating CSP-like compositional operators with sequential programs updating shared variables. In this work, we define an observation-oriented denotational semantics in an open environment for the CSP# language based on the UTP framework. To deal with shared variables, we lift traditional

  • Alternative shaper: a model for automatic design generation
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-04-09
    Filipe Santos; Krystian Kwiecinski; Ana de Almeida; Sara Eloy; Bruno Taborda

    This paper discusses the formalization of Alternative Shaper, a Spatial Grammar supplemented with procedural knowledge for supporting design generation. The nondeterministic process style perspective supports an exploratory and flexible specification of designs and the use of predicates relating shapes allow the confirmation of shape spatial restrictions on design processes. Although simple at this

  • Adaptive distinguishing test cases of nondeterministic finite state machines: test case derivation and length estimation
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Khaled El-Fakih; Nina Yevtushenko; Natalia Kushik

    A top-down approach is presented for checking the existence and derivation of an adaptive distinguishing test case (called also an adaptive distinguishing sequence) for a nondeterministic finite state machine (NDFSM). When such a test case exists, the method returns a canonical test case that includes all other distinguishing tests of the given complete observable NDFSM. In the second part of the paper

  • Model-based testing of probabilistic systems
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2018-01-02
    Marcus Gerhold; Mariëlle Stoelinga

    This work presents an executable model-based testing framework for probabilistic systems with non-determinism. We provide algorithms to automatically generate, execute and evaluate test cases from a probabilistic requirements specification. The framework connects input/output conformance-theory with hypothesis testing: our algorithms handle functional correctness, while statistical methods assess,

  • The symbiosis of concurrency and verification: teaching and case studies
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Jan B. Pedersen; Peter H. Welch

    Concurrency is beginning to be accepted as a core knowledge area in the undergraduate CS curriculum—no longer isolated, for example, as a support mechanism in a module on operating systems or reserved as an advanced discipline for later study. Formal verification of system properties is often considered a difficult subject area, requiring significant mathematical knowledge and generally restricted

  • Formally sound implementations of security protocols with JavaSPI
    Form. Asp. Comput. (IF 0.516) Pub Date : 2017-12-12
    Riccardo Sisto; Piergiuseppe Bettassa Copet; Matteo Avalle; Alfredo Pironti

    Designing and coding security protocols is an error prone task. Several flaws are found in protocol implementations and specifications every year. Formal methods can alleviate this problem by backing implementations with rigorous proofs about their behavior. However, formally-based development typically requires domain specific knowledge available only to few experts and the development of abstract

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