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  • Leveraging Architectural Support of Three Page Sizes with Trident
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Venkat Sri Sai Ram; Ashish Panwar; Arkaprava Basu

    Large pages are commonly deployed to reduce address translation overheads for big-memory workloads. Modern x86-64 processors from Intel and AMD support two large page sizes -- 1GB and 2MB. However, previous works on large pages have primarily focused on 2MB pages, partly due to lack of substantial evidence on the profitability of 1GB pages to real-world applications. We argue that in fact, inadequate

  • Minimal Virtual Machines on IoT Microcontrollers: The Case of Berkeley Packet Filters with rBPF
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Koen Zandberg; Emmanuel Baccelli

    Virtual machines (VM) are widely used to host and isolate software modules. However, extremely small memory and low-energy budgets have so far prevented wide use of VMs on typical microcontroller-based IoT devices. In this paper, we explore the potential of two minimal VM approaches on such low-power hardware. We design rBPF, a register-based VM based on extended Berkeley Packet Filters (eBPF). We

  • SIMF: Single-Instruction Multiple-Flush Mechanism for Processor Temporal Isolation
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Tuo Li; Bradley Hopkins; Sri Parameswaran

    Microarchitectural timing attacks are a type of information leakage attack, which exploit the time-shared microarchitectural components, such as caches, translation look-aside buffers (TLBs), branch prediction unit (BPU), and speculative execution, in modern processors to leak critical information from a victim process or thread. To mitigate such attacks, the mechanism for flushing the on-core state

  • Phoebe: Reuse-Aware Online Caching with Reinforcement Learning for Emerging Storage Models
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Nan Wu; Pengcheng Li

    With data durability, high access speed, low power efficiency and byte addressability, NVMe and SSD, which are acknowledged representatives of emerging storage technologies, have been applied broadly in many areas. However, one key issue with high-performance adoption of these technologies is how to properly define intelligent cache layers such that the performance gap between emerging technologies

  • Hints and Principles for Computer System Design
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Butler Lampson

    This new long version of my 1983 paper suggests the goals you might have for your system -- Simple, Timely, Efficient, Adaptable, Dependable, Yummy (STEADY) -- and techniques for achieving them -- Approximate, Incremental, Divide & Conquer (AID). It also gives some principles for system design that are more than just hints, and many examples of how to apply the ideas.

  • Flexible File Address Space Management
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Chen Chen; Wenshao Zhong; Xingbo Wu

    Many applications store their data using structured files. In order to insert or remove a record in the middle of a structured file, the application needs to shift the positions of existing data. To this end, the existing data after the insertion or removal point must be rewritten to admit the change in place, which can be unaffordable for applications that make frequent updates. Alternatively, the

  • Experimental Analysis of Communication Relaying Delay in Low-Energy Ad-hoc Networks
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Taichi Miya; Kohta Ohshima; Yoshiaki Kitaguchi; Katsunori Yamaoka

    In recent years, more and more applications use ad-hoc networks for local M2M communications, but in some cases such as when using WSNs, the software processing delay induced by packets relaying may not be negligible. In this paper, we planned and carried out a delay measurement experiment using Raspberry Pi Zero W. The results demonstrated that, in low-energy ad-hoc networks, processing delay of the

  • Disaggregated Accelerator Management System for Cloud Data Centers
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Ryousei Takano; Kuniyasu Suzaki

    A conventional data center that consists of monolithic-servers is confronted with limitations including lack of operational flexibility, low resource utilization, low maintainability, etc. Resource disaggregation is a promising solution to address the above issues. We propose a concept of disaggregated cloud data center architecture called Flow-in-Cloud (FiC) that enables an existing cluster computer

  • Towards Efficiently Establishing Mutual Distrust Between Host Application and Enclave for SGX
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Yuan Chen; Jiaqi Li; Guorui Xu; Yajin Zhou; Zhi Wang; Cong Wang; Kui Ren

    Since its debut, SGX has been used in many applications, e.g., secure data processing. However, previous systems usually assume a trusted enclave and ignore the security issues caused by an untrusted enclave. For instance, a vulnerable (or even malicious) third-party enclave can be exploited to attack the host application and the rest of the system. In this paper, we propose an efficient mechanism

  • Stage Lookup: Accelerating Path Lookup using Directory Shortcuts
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Yanliang Zou; Tongliang Deng; Jian Zhang; Chen Chen; Shu Yin

    The lookup procedure in Linux costs a significant portion of file accessing time as the virtual file system (VFS) traverses the file path components one after another. The lookup procedure becomes more time consuming when applications frequently access files, especially those with small sizes. We propose Stage Lookup, which dynamically caches popular directories to speed up lookup procedures and further

  • PIMOD: A Tool for Configuring Single-Board Computer Operating System Images
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Jonas Höchst; Alvar Penning; Patrick Lampe; Bernd Freisleben

    Computer systems used in the field of humanitarian technology are often based on general-purpose single-board computers, such as Raspberry Pis. While these systems offer great flexibility for developers and users, configuration and deployment either introduces overhead by executing scripts on multiple devices or requires deeper technical understanding when building operating system images for such

  • DEAP Cache: Deep Eviction Admission and Prefetching for Cache
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Ayush Mangal; Jitesh Jain; Keerat Kaur Guliani; Omkar Bhalerao

    Recent approaches for learning policies to improve caching, target just one out of the prefetching, admission and eviction processes. In contrast, we propose an end to end pipeline to learn all three policies using machine learning. We also take inspiration from the success of pretraining on large corpora to learn specialized embeddings for the task. We model prefetching as a sequence prediction task

  • Akita: A CPU scheduler for virtualized Clouds
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Esmail Asyabi; Azer Bestavros; Renato Mancuso; Richard West; Erfan Sharafzadeh

    Clouds inherit CPU scheduling policies of operating systems. These policies enforce fairness while leveraging best-effort mechanisms to enhance responsiveness of all schedulable entities, irrespective of their service level objectives (SLOs). This leads to unpredictable performance that forces cloud providers to enforce strict reservation and isolation policies to prevent high-criticality services

  • A FaaS File System for Serverless Computing
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Johann Schleier-Smith; Leonhard Holz; Nathan Pemberton; Joseph M. Hellerstein

    Serverless computing with cloud functions is quickly gaining adoption, but constrains programmers with its limited support for state management. We introduce a shared file system for cloud functions. It offers familiar POSIX semantics while taking advantage of distinctive aspects of cloud functions to achieve scalability and performance beyond what traditional shared file systems can offer. We take

  • TardiS: Migrating Containers with RDMA Networks
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Maksym PlanetaTU Dresden; Jan BierbaumTU Dresden; Leo Sahaya Daphne AntonyAMOLF; Torsten HoeflerETH Zurich; Hermann HärtigTU Dresden

    Major data centre providers are introducing RDMA-based networks for their tenants, as well as for operating the underlying infrastructure. In comparison to traditional socket-based network stacks, RDMA-based networks offer higher throughput, lower latency and reduced CPU overhead. However, transparent checkpoint and migration operations become much more difficult. The key reason is that the OS is removed

  • Secure Memory Management on Modern Hardware
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Reto Achermann; Nora Hossle; Lukas Humbel; Daniel Schwyn; David Cock; Timothy Roscoe

    Almost all modern hardware, from phone SoCs to high-end servers with accelerators, contain memory translation and protection hardware like IOMMUs, firewalls, and lookup tables which make it impossible to reason about, and enforce protection and isolation based solely on the processor's MMUs. This has led to numerous bugs and security vulnerabilities in today's system software. In this paper we regain

  • Sirius: Enabling System-Wide Isolation for Trusted Execution Environments
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Zahra Tarkhani; Anil Madhavapeddy

    Hardware-assisted trusted execution environments (TEEs) are critical building blocks of many modern applications. However, the one-way isolation model introduces a semantic gap between TEE and its outside world, including conventional OSs and applications. This causes the most practical and ever-increasing set of attacks on TEE-enabled applications by exploiting various insecure interactions with the

  • Quantifying the Latency and Possible Throughput of External Interrupts on Cyber-Physical Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Oliver Horst; Johannes Wiesböck; Raphael Wild; Uwe Baumgarten

    An important characteristic of cyber-physical systems is their capability to respond, in-time, to events from their physical environment. However, to the best of our knowledge there exists no benchmark for assessing and comparing the interrupt handling performance of different software stacks. Hence, we present a flexible evaluation method for measuring the interrupt latency and throughput on ARMv8-A

  • toki: A Build- and Test-Platform for Prototyping and Evaluating Operating System Concepts in Real-Time Environments
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Oliver Horst; Uwe Baumgarten

    Typically, even low-level operating system concepts, such as resource sharing strategies and predictability measures, are evaluated with Linux on PC hardware. This leaves a large gap to real industrial applications. Hence, the direct transfer of the results might be difficult. As a solution, we present toki, a prototyping and evaluation platform based on FreeRTOS and several open-source libraries.

  • Analysis of Interference between RDMA and Local Access on Hybrid Memory System
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Kazuichi Oe

    We can use a hybrid memory system consisting of DRAM and Intel Optane DC Persistent Memory (We call it DCPM in this paper) as DCPM is now commercially available since April 2019. Even if the latency for DCPM is several times higher than that for DRAM, the capacity for DCPM is several times higher than that for DRAM and the cost of DCPM is also several times lower than that for DRAM. In addition, DCPM

  • BumbleBee: Application-aware adaptation for container orchestration
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    HyunJong Lee; Shadi Noghabi; Brian Noble; Matthew Furlong; Landon P. Cox

    Application-aware adaptation is the key to maintaining acceptable quality when resources become scarce. Application-oblivious responses to resource scarcity, such as TCP congestion control, may fairly reallocate a diminishing resource pool, but only the application knows how to adjust its fidelity under resource scarcity. Unfortunately, modern container-orchestration platforms like Kubernetes do not

  • Making Distributed Mobile Applications SAFE: Enforcing User Privacy Policies on Untrusted Applications with Secure Application Flow Enforcement
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Adriana Szekeres; Irene Zhang; Katelin Bailey; Isaac Ackerman; Haichen Shen; Franziska Roesner; Dan R. K. Ports; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Henry M. Levy

    Today's mobile devices sense, collect, and store huge amounts of personal information, which users share with family and friends through a wide range of applications. Once users give applications access to their data, they must implicitly trust that the apps correctly maintain data privacy. As we know from both experience and all-too-frequent press articles, that trust is often misplaced. While users

  • Consideration for effectively handling parallel workloads on public cloud system
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Kazuichi Oe

    We retrieved and analyzed parallel storage workloads of the FUJITSU K5 cloud service to clarify how to build cost-effective hybrid storage systems. A hybrid storage system consists of fast but low-capacity tier (first tier) and slow but high-capacity tier (second tier). And, it typically consists of either SSDs and HDDs or NVMs and SSDs. As a result, we found that 1) regions for first tier should be

  • eXpOS: A Simple Pedagogical Operating System for Undergraduate Instruction
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    K. Murali Krishnan

    An operating system project suitable for undergraduate computing/electrical sciences students is presented. The project can be used as a course project in a one semester course, or as a self-study project for motivated students. The course is organized such that a student with a basic background in programming and computer organization can follow the implementation road map available online, and build

  • Interprocess Communication in FreeBSD 11: Performance Analysis
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    A. H. Bell-Thomas

    Interprocess communication, IPC, is one of the most fundamental functions of a modern operating system, playing an essential role in the fabric of contemporary applications. This report conducts an investigation in FreeBSD of the real world performance considerations behind two of the most common IPC mechanisms; pipes and sockets. A simple benchmark provides a fair sense of effective bandwidth for

  • HeRTA: Heaviside Real-Time Analysis
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Frank Slomka; Mohammadreza Sadeghi

    We investigate the mathematical properties of event bound functions as they are used in the worst-case response time analysis and utilization tests. We figure out the differences and similarities between the two approaches. Based on this analysis, we derive a more general form do describe events and event bounds. This new unified approach gives clear new insights in the investigation of real-time systems

  • DBOS: A Proposal for a Data-Centric Operating System
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Michael Cafarella; David DeWitt; Vijay Gadepally; Jeremy Kepner; Christos Kozyrakis; Tim Kraska; Michael Stonebraker; Matei Zaharia

    Current operating systems are complex systems that were designed before today's computing environments. This makes it difficult for them to meet the scalability, heterogeneity, availability, and security challenges in current cloud and parallel computing environments. To address these problems, we propose a radically new OS design based on data-centric architecture: all operating system state should

  • Scheduling of Real-Time Tasks with Multiple Critical Sections in Multiprocessor Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Jian-Jia Chen; Junjie Shi; Georg von der Brüggen; Niklas Ueter

    The performance of multiprocessor synchronization and locking protocols is a key factor to utilize the computation power of multiprocessor systems under real-time constraints. While multiple protocols have been developed in the past decades, their performance highly depends on the task partition and prioritization. The recently proposed Dependency Graph Approach showed its advantages and attracted

  • Analyzing and Mitigating Data Stalls in DNN Training
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Jayashree Mohan; Amar Phanishayee; Ashish Raniwala; Vijay Chidambaram

    We present the first comprehensive analysis of how the data pipeline affects the training of the widely used Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). We analyze nine models and four datasets while varying factors such as the amount of memory, number of CPU threads, etc. We find that in many cases, DNN training time is dominated by data stall time: time spent waiting for data to be fetched from storage and pre-processed

  • LINTS^RT: A Learning-driven Testbed for Intelligent Scheduling in Embedded Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    Zelun Kong; Yaswanth Yadlapalli; Soroush Bateni; Junfeng Guo; Cong Liu

    Due to the increasing complexity seen in both workloads and hardware resources in state-of-the-art embedded systems, developing efficient real-time schedulers and the corresponding schedulability tests becomes rather challenging. Although close to optimal schedulability performance can be achieved for supporting simple system models in practice, adding any small complexity element into the problem

  • IOCA: High-Speed I/O-Aware LLC Management for Network-Centric Multi-Tenant Platform
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Yifan Yuan; Mohammad Alian; Yipeng Wang; Ilia Kurakin; Ren Wang; Charlie Tai; Nam Sung Kim

    In modern server CPUs, last-level cache (LLC) is a critical hardware resource that exerts significant influence on the performance of the workloads, and how to manage LLC is a key to the performance isolation and QoS in the cloud with multi-tenancy. In this paper, we argue that besides CPU cores, high-speed network I/O is also important for LLC management. This is because of an Intel architectural

  • DPCP-p: A Distributed Locking Protocol for Parallel Real-Time Tasks
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Maolin Yang; Zewei Chen; Xu Jiang; Nan Guan; Hang Lei

    Real-time scheduling and locking protocols are fundamental facilities to construct time-critical systems. For parallel real-time tasks, predictable locking protocols are required when concurrent sub-jobs mutually exclusive access to shared resources. This paper for the first time studies the distributed synchronization framework of parallel real-time tasks, where both tasks and global resources are

  • Scalable Range Locks for Scalable Address Spaces and Beyond
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Alex Kogan; Dave Dice; Shady Issa

    Range locks are a synchronization construct designed to provide concurrent access to multiple threads (or processes) to disjoint parts of a shared resource. Originally conceived in the file system context, range locks are gaining increasing interest in the Linux kernel community seeking to alleviate bottlenecks in the virtual memory management subsystem. The existing implementation of range locks in

  • Optimizing Placement of Heap Memory Objects in Energy-Constrained Hybrid Memory Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Taeuk Kim; Safdar Jamil; Joongeon Park; Youngjae Kim

    Main memory (DRAM) significantly impacts the power and energy utilization of the overall server system. Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) devices, such as Phase Change Memory and Spin-Transfer Torque RAM, are suitable candidates for main memory to reduce energy consumption. But unlike DRAM, NVMs access latencies are higher than DRAM and NVM writes are more energy sensitive than DRAM write operations. Thus

  • FastDrain: Removing Page Victimization Overheads in NVMe Storage Stack
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Jie Zhang; Miryeong Kwon; Sanghyun Han; Nam Sung Kim; Mahmut Kandemir; Myoungsoo Jung

    Host-side page victimizations can easily overflow the SSD internal buffer, which interferes I/O services of diverse user applications thereby degrading user-level experiences. To address this, we propose FastDrain, a co-design of OS kernel and flash firmware to avoid the buffer overflow, caused by page victimizations. Specifically, FastDrain can detect a triggering point where a near-future page victimization

  • An Adaptive Approach to Recoverable Mutual Exlcusion
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Sahil Dhoked; Neeraj Mittal

    Mutual exclusion (ME) is one of the most commonly used techniques to handle conflicts in concurrent systems. Traditionally, mutual exclusion algorithms have been designed under the assumption that a process does not fail while acquiring/releasing a lock or while executing its critical section. However, failures do occur in real life, potentially leaving the lock in an inconsistent state. This gives

  • Nefele: Process Orchestration for the Cloud
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Mina Sedaghat; Pontus Sköldström; Daniell Turull; Vinay Yadhav; Joacim Halén; Madhubala Ganesan; Amardeep Mehta; Wolfgang John

    Virtualization, either at OS- or hardware level, plays an important role in cloud computing. It enables easier automation and faster deployment in distributed environments. While virtualized infrastructures provide a level of management flexibility, they lack practical abstraction of the distributed resources. A developer in such an environment still needs to deal with all the complications of building

  • The Art of CPU-Pinning: Evaluating and Improving the Performance of Virtualization and Containerization Platforms
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Davood Ghatreh Samani; Chavit Denninnart; Josef Bacik; Mohsen Amini Salehi

    Cloud providers offer a variety of execution platforms in form of bare-metal, VM, and containers. However, due to the pros and cons of each execution platform, choosing the appropriate platform for a specific cloud-based application has become a challenge for solution architects. The possibility to combine these platforms (e.g. deploying containers within VMs) offers new capacities that makes the challenge

  • Flex: Closing the Gaps between Usage and Allocation
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Tan N. Le; Zhenhua Liu

    Data centers are giant factories of Internet data and services. Worldwide data centers consume energy and emit emissions more than airline industry. Unfortunately, most of data centers are significantly underutilized. One of the major reasons is the big gaps between the real usage and the provisioned resources because users tend to over-estimate their demand and data center operators often rely on

  • Memory virtualization in virtualized systems: segmentation is better than paging
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Boris Teabe; Peterson Yuhala; Alain Tchana; Fabien Hermenier; Daniel Hagimont; Gilles Muller

    The utilization of paging for virtual machine (VM) memory management is the root cause of memory virtualization overhead. This paper shows that paging is not necessary in the hypervisor. In fact, memory fragmentation, which explains paging utilization, is not an issue in virtualized datacenters thanks to VM memory demand patterns. Our solution Compromis, a novel Memory Management Unit, uses direct

  • Study of Firecracker MicroVM
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Madhur Jain

    Firecracker is a virtualization technology that makes use of Kernel Virtual Machine (KVM). Firecracker belongs to a new virtualization class named the micro-virtual machines (MicroVMs). Using Firecracker, we can launch lightweight MicroVMs in non-virtualized environments in a fraction of a second, at the same time offering the security and workload isolation provided by traditional VMs and also the

  • Autonomous Task Dropping Mechanism to Achieve Robustness in Heterogeneous Computing Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Ali Mokhtari; Chavit Denninnart; Mohsen Amini Salehi

    Robustness of a distributed computing system is defined as the ability to maintain its performance in the presence of uncertain parameters. Uncertainty is a key problem in heterogeneous (and even homogeneous) distributed computing systems that perturbs system robustness. Notably, the performance of these systems is perturbed by uncertainty in both task execution time and arrival. Accordingly, our goal

  • A Way Around UMIP and Descriptor-Table Exiting via TSX-based Side-Channel Attack
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Mohammad Sina Karvandi; Saleh Khalaj Monfared; Mohammad Sina Kiarostami; Dara Rahmati; Saeid Gorgin

    Nowadays, in operating systems, numerous protection mechanisms prevent or limit the user-mode applications to access the kernel's internal information. This is regularly carried out by software-based defenses such as Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) and Kernel ASLR (KASLR). They play pronounced roles when the security of sandboxed applications such as Web-browser are considered. Armed with

  • High Velocity Kernel File Systems with Bento
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Samantha MillerUniversity of Washington; Kaiyuan ZhangUniversity of Washington; Danyang ZhuoDuke University; Tom AndersonUniversity of Washington

    High development velocity is critical for modern cloud systems. However, rapid development and release cycles have mostly skipped operating systems. Modifications to behavior in Linux, the most widely used server operating system in the cloud, must be done slowly to minimize risk of introducing bugs, be limited in scope, or be implemented in userspace with a potential performance penalty. We propose

  • Exploiting Inter- and Intra-Memory Asymmetries for Data Mapping in Hybrid Tiered-Memories
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Shihao Song; Anup Das; Nagarajan Kandasamy

    Modern computing systems are embracing hybrid memory comprising of DRAM and non-volatile memory (NVM) to combine the best properties of both memory technologies, achieving low latency, high reliability, and high density. A prominent characteristic of DRAM-NVM hybrid memory is that it has NVM access latency much higher than DRAM access latency. We call this inter-memory asymmetry. We observe that parasitic

  • Improving Phase Change Memory Performance with Data Content Aware Access
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Shihao Song; Anup Das; Onur Mutlu; Nagarajan Kandasamy

    A prominent characteristic of write operation in Phase-Change Memory (PCM) is that its latency and energy are sensitive to the data to be written as well as the content that is overwritten. We observe that overwriting unknown memory content can incur significantly higher latency and energy compared to overwriting known all-zeros or all-ones content. This is because all-zeros or all-ones content is

  • On Failure Diagnosis of the Storage Stack
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Duo Zhang; Om Rameshwar Gatla; Runzhou Han; Mai Zheng

    Diagnosing storage system failures is challenging even for professionals. One example is the "When Solid State Drives Are Not That Solid" incident occurred at Algolia data center, where Samsung SSDs were mistakenly blamed for failures caused by a Linux kernel bug. With the system complexity keeps increasing, such obscure failures will likely occur more often. As one step to address the challenge, we

  • Dim Silicon and the Case for Improved DVFS Policies
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-04
    Mathias Gottschlag; Yussuf Khalil; Frank Bellosa

    Due to thermal and power supply limits, modern Intel CPUs reduce their frequency when AVX2 and AVX-512 instructions are executed. As the CPUs wait for 670{\mu}s before increasing the frequency again, the performance of some heterogeneous workloads is reduced. In this paper, we describe parallels between this situation and dynamic power management as well as between the policy implemented by these CPUs

  • Designing Robust API Monitoring Solutions
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Simone Nicchi; Matteo Mariani; Matteo Marini; Federico Palmaro; Daniele Cono D'Elia

    Tracing the sequence of library and system calls made by a program is very helpful in the characterization of its interactions with the environment and ultimately of its semantics. Due to entanglements of real-world software stacks, this task can become challenging as we take accuracy, reliability, and transparency aspects into the equation. In this paper we report on our experience in designing and

  • Vilamb: Low Overhead Asynchronous Redundancy for Direct Access NVM
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Rajat Kateja; Andy Pavlo; Gregory R. Ganger

    Vilamb provides efficient asynchronous systemredundancy for direct access (DAX) non-volatile memory (NVM) storage. Production storage deployments often use system-redundancy in form of page checksums and cross-page parity. State-of-the-art solutions for maintaining system-redundancy for DAX NVM either incur a high performance overhead or require specialized hardware. The Vilamb user-space library maintains

  • A Linux Kernel Scheduler Extension for Multi-core Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Aleix Roca; Samuel Rodríguez; Albert Segura; Kevin Marquet; Vicenç Beltran

    The Linux kernel is mostly designed for multi-programed environments, but high-performance applications have other requirements. Such applications are run standalone, and usually rely on runtime systems to distribute the application's workload on worker threads, one per core. However, due to current OSes limitations, it is not feasible to track whether workers are actually running or blocked due to

  • Hardware Memory Management for Future Mobile Hybrid Memory Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-12
    Fei Wen; Mian Qin; Paul Gratz; Narasimha Reddy

    The current mobile applications have rapidly growing memory footprints, posing a great challenge for memory system design. Insufficient DRAM main memory will incur frequent data swaps between memory and storage, a process that hurts performance, consumes energy and deteriorates the write endurance of typical flash storage devices. Alternately, a larger DRAM has higher leakage power and drains the battery

  • Accelerating Filesystem Checking and Repair with pFSCK
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-12
    David Domingo; Kyle Stratton; Sudarsun Kannan

    File system checking and recovery (C/R) tools play a pivotal role in increasing the reliability of storage software, identifying and correcting file system inconsistencies. However, with increasing disk capacity and data content, file system C/R tools notoriously suffer from long runtimes. We posit that current file system checkers fail to exploit CPU parallelism and high throughput offered by modern

  • Efficient Kernel Object Management for Tiered Memory Systems with KLOC
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-09
    Sudarsun Kannan; Yujie Ren; Abhishek Bhatacharjee

    Software-controlled heterogeneous memory systems have the potential to improve performance, efficiency, and cost tradeoffs in emerging systems. Delivering on this promise requires an efficient operating system (OS) mechanisms and policies for data management. Unfortunately, modern OSes do not support efficient tiering of data between heterogeneous memories. While this problem is known (and is being

  • $μ$Tiles: Efficient Intra-Process Privilege Enforcement of Memory Regions
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-09
    Zahra Tarkhani; Anil Madhavapeddy

    With the alarming rate of security advisories and privacy concerns on connected devices, there is an urgent need for strong isolation guarantees in resource-constrained devices that demand very lightweight solutions. However, the status quo is that Unix-like operating systems do not offer privilege separation inside a process. Lack of practical fine-grained compartmentalization inside a shared address

  • Duplication of Windows Services
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2016-08-13
    Zhiyong Shan; Xin Wang; Tzi-cker Chiueh; Rajiv Bagai

    OS-level virtualization techniques virtualize system resources at the system call interface, has the distinct advantage of smaller run-time resource requirements as compared to HAL-level virtualization techniques, and thus forms an important building block for virtualizing parallel and distributed applications such as a HPC clusters. Because the Windows operating system puts certain critical functionalities

  • SoftWear: Software-Only In-Memory Wear-Leveling for Non-Volatile Main Memory
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    Christian Hakert; Kuan-Hsun Chen; Pual R. Genssler; Georg von der Brüggen; Lars Bauer; Hussam Amrouch; Jian-Jia Chen; Jörg Henkel

    Several emerging technologies for byte-addressable non-volatile memory (NVM) have been considered to replace DRAM as the main memory in computer systems during the last years. The disadvantage of a lower write endurance, compared to DRAM, of NVM technologies like Phase-Change Memory (PCM) or Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM) has been addressed in the literature. As a solution, in-memory wear-leveling techniques

  • FLIC: A Distributed Fog Cache for City-Scale Applications
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Jack West; Neil Kingensmith; George K. Thiruvathukal

    We present FLIC, a distributed software data caching framework for fogs that reduces network traffic and latency. FLICis targeted toward city-scale deployments of cooperative IoT devices in which each node gathers and shares data with surrounding devices. As machine learning and other data processing techniques that require large volumes of training data are ported to low-cost and low-power IoT systems

  • Co-Optimizing Performance and Memory FootprintVia Integrated CPU/GPU Memory Management, anImplementation on Autonomous Driving Platform
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Soroush Bateni; Zhendong Wang; Yuankun Zhu; Yang Hu; Cong Liu

    Cutting-edge embedded system applications, such as self-driving cars and unmanned drone software, are reliant on integrated CPU/GPU platforms for their DNNs-driven workload, such as perception and other highly parallel components. In this work, we set out to explore the hidden performance implication of GPU memory management methods of integrated CPU/GPU architecture. Through a series of experiments

  • Dynamic Budget Management with Service Guarantees for Mixed-Criticality Systems
    arXiv.cs.OS Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    Xiaozhe Gu; Arvind Easwaran

    Many existing studies on mixed-criticality (MC) scheduling assume that low-criticality budgets for high-criticality applications are known apriori. These budgets are primarily used as guidance to determine when the scheduler should switch the system mode from low to high. Based on this key observation, in this paper we propose a dynamic MC scheduling model under which low-criticality budgets for individual

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