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  • Implementing QVT-R via semantic interpretation in UML-RSDS
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    K. Lano, S. Kolahdouz-Rahimi

    The QVT-Relations (QVT-R) model transformation language is an OMG standard notation for model transformation specification. It is highly declarative and supports (in principle) bidirectional (bx) transformation specification. However, there are many unclear or unsatisfactory aspects to its semantics, which is not precisely defined in the standard. UML-RSDS is an executable subset of UML and OCL. It

  • Implementation of a continuous delivery pipeline for enterprise architecture model evolution
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Alex R. Sabau, Simon Hacks, Andreas Steffens

    The discipline of enterprise architecture (EA) is an established approach to model and manage the interaction of business processes and IT in an organization. Thereby, the EA model as a central artifact of EA is subject to a continuous evolution caused by multiple sources of changes. The continuous evolution requires a lot of effort in controlling and managing the evolution of the EA model. This is

  • An epistemic approach to the formal specification of statistical machine learning
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Yusuke Kawamoto

    We propose an epistemic approach to formalizing statistical properties of machine learning. Specifically, we introduce a formal model for supervised learning based on a Kripke model where each possible world corresponds to a possible dataset and modal operators are interpreted as transformation and testing on datasets. Then, we formalize various notions of the classification performance, robustness

  • Consistent change propagation within models
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Roland Kretschmer, Djamel Eddine Khelladi, Roberto Erick Lopez-Herrejon, Alexander Egyed

    Developers change models with clear intentions—e.g., for refactoring, defects removal, or evolution. However, in doing so, developers are often unaware of the consequences of their changes. Changes to one part of a model may affect other parts of the same model and/or even other models, possibly created and maintained by other developers. The consequences are incomplete changes and with it inconsistencies

  • Automatic generation of UML profile graphical editors for Papyrus
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Ran Wei; Athanasios Zolotas; Horacio Hoyos Rodriguez; Simos Gerasimou; Dimitrios S. Kolovos; Richard F. Paige

    UML profiles offer an intuitive way for developers to build domain-specific modelling languages by reusing and extending UML concepts. Eclipse Papyrus is a powerful open-source UML modelling tool which supports UML profiling. However, with power comes complexity, implementing non-trivial UML profiles and their supporting editors in Papyrus typically requires the developers to handcraft and maintain

  • The RALph miner for automated discovery and verification of resource-aware process models
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    Cristina Cabanillas, Lars Ackermann, Stefan Schönig, Christian Sturm, Jan Mendling

    Automated process discovery is a technique that extracts models of executed processes from event logs. Logs typically include information about the activities performed, their timestamps and the resources that were involved in their execution. Recent approaches to process discovery put a special emphasis on (human) resources, aiming at constructing resource-aware process models that contain the inferred

  • Specification and automated verification of atomic concurrent real-time transactions
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Simin Cai, Barbara Gallina, Dag Nyström, Cristina Seceleanu

    Many database management systems (DBMS) need to ensure atomicity and isolation of transactions for logical data consistency, as well as to guarantee temporal correctness of the executed transactions. Since the mechanisms for atomicity and isolation may lead to breaching temporal correctness, trade-offs between these properties are often required during the DBMS design. To be able to address this concern

  • Modeling and simulation of the IEEE 802.11e wireless protocol with hidden nodes using Colored Petri Nets
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-26
    Estefanía Coronado, Valentín Valero, Luis Orozco-Barbosa, María-Emilia Cambronero, Fernando L. Pelayo

    Wireless technologies are continuously evolving, including features such as the extension to mid- and long-range communications and the support of an increasing number of devices. However, longer ranges increase the probability of suffering from hidden terminal issues. In the particular case of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), the use of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms introduced in IEEE 802

  • Opportunities in intelligent modeling assistance
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Gunter Mussbacher; Benoit Combemale; Jörg Kienzle; Silvia Abrahão; Hyacinth Ali; Nelly Bencomo; Márton Búr; Loli Burgueño; Gregor Engels; Pierre Jeanjean; Jean-Marc Jézéquel; Thomas Kühn; Sébastien Mosser; Houari Sahraoui; Eugene Syriani; Dániel Varró; Martin Weyssow

    Modeling is requiring increasingly larger efforts while becoming indispensable given the complexity of the problems we are solving. Modelers face high cognitive load to understand a multitude of complex abstractions and their relationships. There is an urgent need to better support tool builders to ultimately provide modelers with intelligent modeling assistance that learns from previous modeling experiences

  • Claimed advantages and disadvantages of (dedicated) model transformation languages: a systematic literature review
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Stefan Götz, Matthias Tichy, Raffaela Groner

    There exists a plethora of claims about the advantages and disadvantages of model transformation languages compared to general-purpose programming languages. With this work, we aim to create an overview over these claims in the literature and systematize evidence thereof. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic literature review by following a systematic process for searching and selecting relevant

  • Exploring how users engage with hybrid process artifacts based on declarative process models: a behavioral analysis based on eye-tracking and think-aloud
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-05
    Amine Abbad Andaloussi, Francesca Zerbato, Andrea Burattin, Tijs Slaats, Thomas T. Hildebrandt, Barbara Weber

    Process design artifacts have been increasingly used to guide the modeling of business processes. To support users in designing and understanding process models, different process artifacts have been combined in several ways leading to the emergence of the so-called “hybrid process artifacts”. While many hybrid artifacts have been proposed in the literature, little is known about how they can actually

  • Automatic derivation of conceptual database models from differently serialized business process models
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Drazen Brdjanin, Stefan Ilic, Goran Banjac, Danijela Banjac, Slavko Maric

    The existing tools that aim to derive data models from business process models are typically able to process the source models represented by one single notation and also serialized in one specific way. However, the standards (e.g., BPMN) enable different serialization formats and also provide serialization flexibility, which leads to various implementations of the standard in different modeling tools

  • Mixed-semantics composition of statecharts for the component-based design of reactive systems
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Bence Graics, Vince Molnár, András Vörös, István Majzik, Dániel Varró

    The increasing complexity of reactive systems can be mitigated with the use of components and composition languages in model-driven engineering. Designing composition languages is a challenge itself as both practical applicability (support for different composition approaches in various application domains), and precise formal semantics (support for verification and code generation) have to be taken

  • Interface protocol inference to aid understanding legacy software components
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Kousar Aslam, Loek Cleophas, Ramon Schiffelers, Mark van den Brand

    High-tech companies are struggling today with the maintenance of legacy software. Legacy software is vital to many organizations as it contains the important business logic. To facilitate maintenance of legacy software, a comprehensive understanding of the software’s behavior is essential. In terms of component-based software engineering, it is necessary to completely understand the behavior of components

  • Modeling cultures of the embedded software industry: feedback from the field
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Deniz Akdur, Bilge Say, Onur Demirörs

    Engineering of modern embedded systems requires complex technical, managerial and operational processes. To cope with the complexity, modeling is a commonly used approach in the embedded software industry. The modeling approaches in embedded software vary since the characteristics of modeling such as purpose, medium type and life cycle phase differ among systems and industrial sectors. The objective

  • An improved approach on the model checking for an agent-based simulation system
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-14
    Yinling Liu, Tao Wang, Haiqing Zhang, Vincent Cheutet

    Model checking is an effective way to verify behaviours of an agent-based simulation system. Three behaviours are analysed: operational, control, and global behaviours. Global behaviours of a system emerge from operational behaviours of local components regulated by control behaviours of the system. The previous works principally focus on verifying the system from the operational point of view (operational

  • A framework for automated multi-stage and multi-step product configuration of cyber-physical systems
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Safdar Aqeel Safdar, Hong Lu, Tao Yue, Shaukat Ali, Kunming Nie

    Product line engineering (PLE) has been employed to large-scale cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to provide customization based on users’ needs. A PLE methodology can be characterized by its support for capturing and managing the abstractions as commonalities and variabilities and the automation of the configuration process for effective selection and customization of reusable artifacts. The automation

  • Ontologies for finding journalistic angles
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Andreas L. Opdahl, Bjørnar Tessem

    Journalism relies more and more on information and communication technology (ICT). ICT-based journalistic knowledge platforms continuously harvest potentially news-relevant information from the Internet and make it useful for journalists. Because information about the same event is available from different sources and formats vary widely, knowledge graphs are emerging as a preferred technology for

  • On the benefits of file-level modularity for EMF models
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Karim Jahed, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh, Juergen Dingel

    Model-driven development (MDD) tools based on the Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) typically store all elements in a model in a single file which arguably is one of the main reasons why these tools do not scale well and cannot take advantage of existing code versioning systems and other related facilities such as Git and Make. In this work, we describe an approach for storing models in multiple files

  • Empirical evaluation of CMMN models: a collaborative process case study
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Ioannis Routis, Mara Nikolaidou, Dimosthenis Anagnostopoulos

    Case Management Model and Notation (CMMN) was introduced by the Object Management Group as an alternative modeling language, targeting human-centric processes characterized by lack of structure and agility. However, although it is adequately supported by well-known process management tools, CMMN applicability as a modeling language is being questioned in practice. In this work, an empirical evaluation

  • A query-retyping approach to model transformation co-evolution
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Adrian Rutle; Ludovico Iovino; Harald König; Zinovy Diskin

    In rule-based approaches, a model transformation definition tells how an instance of a source metamodel should be transformed to an instance of a target metamodel. As these metamodels undergo changes, model transformations defined over these metamodels may get out of sync. Restoring conformance between model transformations and the metamodels is a complex and error-prone task. In this paper, we propose

  • Generation of hazard relation diagrams: formalization and tool support
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Bastian Tenbergen, Thorsten Weyer

    Developing safety-critical, software-intensive embedded systems are characterized by the need to identify hazards and to define hazard-mitigating requirements at the earliest possible stage of development, i.e., during requirements engineering. These hazard-mitigating requirements must be adequate in the sense that they must specify the functionality required by the stakeholders in addition to rendering

  • Imperative versus declarative constraint specification languages: a controlled experiment
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-05-18
    Azzam Maraee, Arnon Sturm

    Model-based software engineering gains further attention these days. To better support it, the use of constraint languages is important in order to bridge expressiveness gaps and eliminate ambiguity. Nevertheless, the use of model-based constraint languages, like the Object Constraint Language (OCL), is quite limited and the specification of constraints is left to the implementation stage. One option

  • Requirement-driven model-based development methodology applied to the design of a real-time MEG data processing unit
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Tao Chen, Michael Schiek, Jürgen Dammers, N. Jon Shah, Stefan van Waasen

    The paper describes a multidisciplinary work that uses a model-based systems engineering method for developing real-time magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal processing. We introduce a requirement-driven, model-based development methodology (RDD and MBD) to provide a high-level environment and efficiently handle the complexity of computation and control systems. The proposed development methodology

  • Modelling multi-criticality vehicular software systems: evolution of an industrial component model
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Alessio Bucaioni; Saad Mubeen; Federico Ciccozzi; Antonio Cicchetti; Mikael Sjödin

    Software in modern vehicles consists of multi-criticality functions, where a function can be safety-critical with stringent real-time requirements, less critical from the vehicle operation perspective, but still with real-time requirements, or not critical at all. Next-generation autonomous vehicles will require higher computational power to run multi-criticality functions and such a power can only

  • Behavioral interfaces for executable DSLs.
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Dorian Leroy,Erwan Bousse,Manuel Wimmer,Tanja Mayerhofer,Benoit Combemale,Wieland Schwinger

    Executable domain-specific languages (DSLs) enable the execution of behavioral models. While an execution is mostly driven by the model content (e.g., control structures), many use cases require interacting with the running model, such as simulating scenarios in an automated or interactive way, or coupling the model with other models of the system or environment. The management of these interactions

  • An interdisciplinary comparison of sequence modeling methods for next-element prediction
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    Niek Tax, Irene Teinemaa, Sebastiaan J. van Zelst

    Data of sequential nature arise in many application domains in the form of, e.g., textual data, DNA sequences, and software execution traces. Different research disciplines have developed methods to learn sequence models from such datasets: (i) In the machine learning field methods such as (hidden) Markov models and recurrent neural networks have been developed and successfully applied to a wide range

  • Hazard-driven realization views for Component Fault Trees
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    David Santiago Velasco Moncada

    Traditionally, the preferred means of documentation used by safety engineers have been sheets- and text-based solutions. However, in the last decades, the introduction of model-driven engineering in conjunction with Component-Based Design has been influencing the way safety engineers perform their tasks; especially in the area of fault analysis, model-driven approaches have been developed aimed at

  • IoT meets BPM: a bidirectional communication architecture for IoT-aware process execution
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Stefan Schönig, Lars Ackermann, Stefan Jablonski, Andreas Ermer

    Business processes are frequently executed within application systems that involve humans, computer systems as well as objects of the Internet of Things (IoT). Nevertheless, the usage of IoT technology for system supported process execution is still constrained by the absence of a common system architecture that manages the communication between both worlds. In this paper, we introduce an integrated

  • Profiling users via their reviews: an extended systematic mapping study
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Xin Dong, Tong Li, Rui Song, Zhiming Ding

    With the extensive development of big data and social networks, the user profile field has received much attention. User profiling is essential for understanding the characteristics of various users, contributing to better understanding of their requirements in specific scenarios. User-generated contents which directly reflect people’s thoughts and intention are a valuable source for profiling users

  • Scalable model views over heterogeneous modeling technologies and resources
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Hugo Bruneliere; Florent Marchand de Kerchove; Gwendal Daniel; Sina Madani; Dimitris Kolovos; Jordi Cabot

    When engineering complex systems, models are typically used to represent various systems aspects. These models are often heterogeneous in terms of modeling languages, provenance, number or scale. As a result, the information actually relevant to engineers is usually split into different kinds of interrelated models. To be useful in practice, these models need to be properly integrated to provide global

  • Extending single- to multi-variant model transformations by trace-based propagation of variability annotations
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Bernhard Westfechtel; Sandra Greiner

    Model-driven engineering involves the construction of models on different levels of abstraction. Software engineers are supported by model transformations, which automate the transition from high- to low-level models. Product line engineering denotes a systematic process that aims at developing different product variants from a set of reusable assets. When model-driven engineering is combined with

  • Connecting software build with maintaining consistency between models: towards sound, optimal, and flexible building from megamodels
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Perdita Stevens

    Software build systems tackle the problem of building software from sources in a way which is sound (when a build completes successfully, the relations between the generated and source files are as specified) and optimal (only genuinely required rebuilding steps are done). In this paper, we explain and exploit the connection between software build and the megamodel consistency problem. The model-driven

  • Automated synthesis of local time requirement for service composition
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Étienne André; Tian Huat Tan; Manman Chen; Shuang Liu; Jun Sun; Yang Liu; Jin Song Dong

    Service composition aims at achieving a business goal by composing existing service-based applications or components. The response time of a service is crucial, especially in time-critical business environments, which is often stated as a clause in service-level agreements between service providers and service users. To meet the guaranteed response time requirement of a composite service, it is important

  • Hardware architecture exploration: automatic exploration of distributed automotive hardware architectures
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-03-12
    Johannes Eder; Sebastian Voss; Andreas Bayha; Alexandru Ipatiov; Maged Khalil

    As the engineering of distributed embedded systems is getting more and more complex, due to increasingly sophisticated functionalities demanding more and more powerful hardware, model-based development of software-intensive embedded systems has become a de facto standard in recent years. Among other advantages, it enables design space exploration methods allowing for frontloading techniques which support

  • MDWA: a model-driven Web augmentation approach—coping with client- and server-side support
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Matias Urbieta, Sergio Firmenich, Gabriela Bosetti, Pedro Maglione, Gustavo Rossi, Miguel Angel Olivero

    Abstract Web augmentation is a set of techniques allowing users to define and execute software which is dependent on the presentation layer of a concrete Web page. Through the use of specialized Web augmentation artifacts, the end users may satisfy several kinds of requirements that were not considered by the analysts, developers and stakeholders that built the application. Although some augmentation

  • Model-driven process enactment for NFV systems with MAPLE
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-02-28
    Sadaf Mustafiz; Omar Hassane; Guillaume Dupont; Ferhat Khendek; Maria Toeroe

    The network functions virtualization (NFV) advent is making way for the rapid deployment of network services (NS) for telecoms. Automation of network service management is one of the main challenges currently faced by the NFV community. Explicitly defining a process for the design, deployment, and management of network services and automating it is therefore highly desirable and beneficial for NFV

  • Model-based safety assessment with SysML and component fault trees: application and lessons learned
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Peter Munk; Arne Nordmann

    Mastering the complexity of safety assurance for modern, software-intensive systems is challenging in several domains, such as automotive, robotics, and avionics. Model-based safety analysis techniques show promising results to handle this challenge by automating the generation of required artifacts for an assurance case. In this work, we adapt prominent approaches and propose to augment of SysML models

  • A semi-automated BPMN-based framework for detecting conflicts between security, data-minimization, and fairness requirements
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Qusai Ramadan; Daniel Strüber; Mattia Salnitri; Jan Jürjens; Volker Riediger; Steffen Staab

    Requirements are inherently prone to conflicts. Security, data-minimization, and fairness requirements are no exception. Importantly, undetected conflicts between such requirements can lead to severe effects, including privacy infringement and legal sanctions. Detecting conflicts between security, data-minimization, and fairness requirements is a challenging task, as such conflicts are context-specific

  • Integrated model-driven development of self-adaptive user interfaces
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Enes Yigitbas; Ivan Jovanovikj; Kai Biermeier; Stefan Sauer; Gregor Engels

    Modern user interfaces (UIs) are increasingly expected to be plastic, in the sense that they retain a constant level of usability, even when subjected to context changes at runtime. Self-adaptive user interfaces (SAUIs) have been promoted as a solution for context variability due to their ability to automatically adapt to the context-of-use at runtime. The development of SAUIs is a challenging and

  • A model-based architecture for interactive run-time monitoring
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Nicolas Hili; Mojtaba Bagherzadeh; Karim Jahed; Juergen Dingel

    We present a model-based architecture for monitoring executions of models of real-time and embedded systems. This architecture is highly configurable and allows for the combination of various run-time monitoring tools, not only for observing the system execution, but also for interacting with it. Using a variety of case studies, we illustrate the use of the architecture for connecting the code generated

  • Scalable modeling technologies in the wild: an experience report on wind turbines control applications development
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Abel Gómez; Xabier Mendialdua; Konstantinos Barmpis; Gábor Bergmann; Jordi Cabot; Xabier de Carlos; Csaba Debreceni; Antonio Garmendia; Dimitrios S. Kolovos; Juan de Lara

    Scalability in modeling has many facets, including the ability to build larger models and domain-specific languages (DSLs) efficiently. With the aim of tackling some of the most prominent scalability challenges in model-based engineering (MBE), the MONDO EU project developed the theoretical foundations and open-source implementation of a platform for scalable modeling and model management. The platform

  • Grand challenges in model-driven engineering: an analysis of the state of the research
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Antonio Bucchiarone; Jordi Cabot; Richard F. Paige; Alfonso Pierantonio

    In 2017 and 2018, two events were held—in Marburg, Germany, and San Vigilio di Marebbe, Italy, respectively—focusing on an analysis of the state of research, state of practice, and state of the art in model-driven engineering (MDE). The events brought together experts from industry, academia, and the open-source community to assess what has changed in research in MDE over the last 10 years, what challenges

  • Transitive-closure-based model checking (TCMC) in Alloy
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sabria Farheen; Nancy A. Day; Amirhossein Vakili; Ali Abbassi

    We present transitive-closure-based model checking (TCMC): a symbolic representation of the semantics of computational tree logic with fairness constraints (CTLFC) for finite models in first-order logic with transitive closure (FOLTC). TCMC is an expression of the complete model checking problem for CTLFC as a set of constraints in FOLTC without induction, iteration, or invariants. We implement TCMC

  • The Software Language Extension Problem
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Manuel Leduc; Thomas Degueule; Eric Van Wyk; Benoit Combemale

    The problem of software language extension and composition drives much of the research in Software Language Engineering (SLE). Although various solutions have already been proposed, there is still little understanding of the specific ins and outs of this problem, which hinders the comparison and evaluation of existing solutionsIn this SoSyM Expert Voice, we introduce the Language Extension Problem

  • Personal programming and the object computer
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Trygve M. H. Reenskaug

    My objective is to create an intuitive computer for laypeople who want to go beyond ready-made apps and create programs to control their electronic environment. I submit Loke, a new kind of computer that is a universe of objects and nothing but objects. I call it an object computer. Loke is implemented in Squeak, a variant of Smalltalk, and is an extensible, conceptual model for execution, inspection

  • Using empirical studies to mitigate symbol overload in iStar extensions
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Enyo Gonçalves; Camilo Almendra; Miguel Goulão; João Araújo; Jaelson Castro

    Modelling languages are frequently extended to include new constructs to be used together with the original syntax. New constructs may be proposed by adding textual information, such as UML stereotypes, or by creating new graphical representations. Thus, these new symbols need to be expressive and proposed in a careful way to increase the extension’s adoption. A method to create symbols for the original

  • On model-based analysis of organizational structures: an assessment of current modeling approaches and application of multi-level modeling in support of design and analysis of organizational structures
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Sybren de Kinderen; Monika Kaczmarek-Heß

    Conceptual modeling promises to support various analysis questions on organizational structures, such as allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authority in an organization. In this paper, we first synthesize requirements on an organizational structure analysis from the business scholar literature and assess to what extent and how current modeling languages fulfill these. In particular, we find

  • CoqTL: a Coq DSL for rule-based model transformation
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Zheng Cheng; Massimo Tisi; Rémi Douence

    In model-driven engineering, model transformation (MT) verification is essential for reliably producing software artifacts. While recent advancements have enabled automatic Hoare-style verification for non-trivial MTs, there are certain verification tasks (e.g. induction) that are intrinsically difficult to automate. Existing tools that aim at simplifying the interactive verification of MTs typically

  • Comparing and classifying model transformation reuse approaches across metamodels
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Jean-Michel Bruel; Benoit Combemale; Esther Guerra; Jean-Marc Jézéquel; Jörg Kienzle; Juan de Lara; Gunter Mussbacher; Eugene Syriani; Hans Vangheluwe

    Model transformations are essential elements of model-driven engineering (MDE) solutions, as they enable the automatic manipulation of models. MDE promotes the creation of domain-specific metamodels, but without proper reuse mechanisms, model transformations need to be developed from scratch for each new metamodel. In this paper, our goal is to understand whether transformation reuse across metamodels

  • Ark: a constraint-based method for architectural synthesis of smart systems
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Milena Guessi; Flavio Oquendo; Elisa Yumi Nakagawa

    As smart systems leverage capabilities of heterogeneous systems for accomplishing complex combined behaviors, they pose new challenges to traditional software engineering practices that considered software architectures to be mostly static and stable. The software architecture of a smart system is inherently dynamic due to uncertainty surrounding its operational environment. While the abstract architecture

  • Systematic review of matching techniques used in model-driven methodologies
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Ferenc Attila Somogyi; Mark Asztalos

    In model-driven methodologies, model matching is the process of finding a matching pair for every model element between two or more software models. Model matching is an important task as it is often used while differencing and merging models, which are key processes in version control systems. There are a number of different approaches to model matching, with most of them focusing on different goals

  • Mining reading patterns from eye-tracking data: method and demonstration
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Constantina Ioannou; Indira Nurdiani; Andrea Burattin; Barbara Weber

    Understanding how developers interact with different software artifacts when performing comprehension tasks has a potential to improve developers’ productivity. In this paper, we propose a method to analyze eye-tracking data using process mining to find distinct reading patterns of how developers interacted with the different artifacts. To validate our approach, we conducted an exploratory study using

  • A security requirements modelling language for cloud computing environments
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    Haralambos Mouratidis; Shaun Shei; Aidan Delaney

    This paper presents a novel security modelling language and a set of original analysis techniques, for capturing and analysing security requirements for cloud computing environments. The novelty of the language lies in the integration of concepts from cloud computing, with concepts from security and goal-oriented requirements engineering to elicit, model and analyse security requirements for cloud

  • Modeling languages in Industry 4.0: an extended systematic mapping study
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Andreas Wortmann; Olivier Barais; Benoit Combemale; Manuel Wimmer

    Industry 4.0 integrates cyber-physical systems with the Internet of Things to optimize the complete value-added chain. Successfully applying Industry 4.0 requires the cooperation of various stakeholders from different domains. Domain-specific modeling languages promise to facilitate their involvement through leveraging (domain-specific) models to primary development artifacts. We aim to assess the

  • A framework for FMI-based co-simulation of human–machine interfaces
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Maurizio Palmieri; Cinzia Bernardeschi; Paolo Masci

    A framework for co-simulation of human–machine interfaces in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) is presented. The framework builds on formal (i.e. mathematical) methods. It aims to support the work of formal methods experts in charge of modelling and analysing safety-critical aspects of user interfaces in CPS. To carry out these modelling and analysis activities, formal methods experts usually need to engage

  • Towards high-level fuzzy control specifications for building automation systems
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Juan C. Vidal; Paulo Carreira; Vasco Amaral; Joao Aguiam; João Sousa

    The control logic underlying building automation systems has consisted, traditionally, of embedded discrete programs created using either low-level or proprietary scripting languages, or using general purpose fourth-generation visual languages like Simulink. It is also well known that programs developed in this way are hard to evolve, test, and maintain. These difficulties are intensified when continuous

  • Early-stage analysis of cyber-physical production systems through collaborative modelling
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Mihai Neghina; Constantin-Bala Zamfirescu; Ken Pierce

    This paper demonstrates the flexible methodology of modelling cyber-physical systems (CPSs) using the INTO-CPS technology through co-simulation based on Functional Mock-up Units (FMUs). It explores a novel method with two main co-simulation phases: homogeneous and heterogeneous. In the first phase, high-level, abstract FMUs are produced for all subsystems using a single discrete-event formalism (the

  • Extending organizational capabilities with Open Data to support sustainable and dynamic business ecosystems
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Jānis Kampars; Jelena Zdravkovic; Janis Stirna; Jānis Grabis

    Open Data (OD) is data available in a machine-readable format and without restrictions on the permissions for using or distributing it. OD may include textual artifacts, images, maps, video content, and other. The data can be published and maintained by different entities, both public and private. Despite its power to distribute knowledge freely and availability of a large number of datasets, OD initiatives

  • Benchmarking bidirectional transformations: theory, implementation, application, and assessment
    Softw. Syst. Model. (IF 1.876) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Anthony Anjorin; Thomas Buchmann; Bernhard Westfechtel; Zinovy Diskin; Hsiang-Shang Ko; Romina Eramo; Georg Hinkel; Leila Samimi-Dehkordi; Albert Zündorf

    Bidirectional transformations (bx) are relevant for a wide range of application domains. While bx problems may be solved with unidirectional languages and tools, maintaining separate implementations of forward and backward synchronizers with mutually consistent behavior can be difficult, laborious, and error-prone. To address the challenges involved in handling bx problems, dedicated languages and

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