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  • Streaming Data Reorganization at Scale with DeltaFS Indexed Massive Directories
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Qing Zheng; Charles D. Cranor; Ankush Jain; Gregory R. Ganger; Garth A. Gibson; George Amvrosiadis; Bradley W. Settlemyer; Gary Grider

    Complex storage stacks providing data compression, indexing, and analytics help leverage the massive amounts of data generated today to derive insights. It is challenging to perform this computation, however, while fully utilizing the underlying storage media. This is because, while storage servers with large core counts are widely available, single-core performance and memory bandwidth per core grow

  • Inspection and Characterization of App File Usage in Mobile Devices
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Cheng Ji; Riwei Pan; Li-Pin Chang; Liang Shi; Zongwei Zhu; Yu Liang; Tei-Wei Kuo; Chun Jason Xue

    While the computing power of mobile devices has been quickly evolving in recent years, the growth of mobile storage capacity is, however, relatively slower. A common problem shared by budget-phone users is that they frequently run out of storage space. This article conducts a deep inspection of file usage of mobile applications and their potential implications on user experience. Our major findings

  • Hybrid Codes: Flexible Erasure Codes with Optimized Recovery Performance
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Liuqing Ye; Dan Feng; Yuchong Hu; Xueliang Wei

    Erasure codes are being extensively deployed in practical storage systems to prevent data loss with low redundancy. However, these codes require excessive disk I/Os and network traffic for recovering unavailable data. Among all erasure codes, Minimum Storage Regenerating (MSR) codes can achieve optimal repair bandwidth under the minimum storage during recovery, but some open issues remain to be addressed

  • Cosmos+ OpenSSD: Rapid Prototype for Flash Storage Systems
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Jaewook Kwak; Sangjin Lee; Kibin Park; Jinwoo Jeong; Yong Ho Song

    As semiconductor technology has advanced, many storage systems have begun to use non-volatile memories as storage media. The organization and architecture of storage controllers have become more complex to meet various design requirements in terms of performance, response time, quality of service (QoS), and so on. In addition, due to the evolution of memory technology and the emergence of new applications

  • Spiffy: Enabling File-System Aware Storage Applications
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Kuei Sun; Daniel Fryer; Russell Wang; Sagar Patel; Joseph Chu; Matthew Lakier; Angela Demke Brown; Ashvin Goel

    Many file-system applications such as defragmentation tools, file-system checkers, or data recovery tools, operate at the storage layer. Today, developers of these file-system aware storage applications require detailed knowledge of the file-system format, which requires significant time to learn, often by trial and error, due to insufficient documentation or specification of the format. Furthermore

  • B3-Tree: Byte-Addressable Binary B-Tree for Persistent Memory
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Hokeun Cha; Moohyeon Nam; Kibeom Jin; Jiwon Seo; Beomseok Nam

    In this work, we propose B3-tree, a hybrid index for persistent memory that leverages the byte-addressability of the in-memory index and the page locality of B-trees. As in the byte-addressable in-memory index, B3-tree is updated by 8-byte store instructions. Also, as in disk-based index, B3-tree is failure-atomic since it makes every 8-byte store instruction transform a consistent index into another

  • Cache What You Need to Cache: Reducing Write Traffic in Cloud Cache via “One-Time-Access-Exclusion” Policy
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Hua Wang; Jiawei Zhang; Ping Huang; Xinbo Yi; Bin Cheng; Ke Zhou

    The SSD has been playing a significantly important role in caching systems due to its high performance-to-cost ratio. Since the cache space is typically much smaller than that of the backend storage by one order of magnitude or even more, write density (defined as writes per unit time and space) of the SSD cache is therefore much more intensive than that of HDD storage, which brings about tremendous

  • Batch-file Operations to Optimize Massive Files Accessing: Analysis, Design, and Application
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Yang Yang; Qiang Cao; Jie Yao; Hong Jiang; Li Yang

    Existing local file systems, designed to support a typical single-file access mode only, can lead to poor performance when accessing a batch of files, especially small files. This single-file mode essentially serializes accesses to batched files one by one, resulting in a large number of non-sequential, random, and often dependent I/Os between file data and metadata at the storage ends. Such access

  • Introduction to the Special Section on SOSP 2019
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau; Yuanyuan (YY) Zhou

    No abstract available.

  • SlimCache
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Yichen Jia; Zili Shao; Feng Chen

    Flash-based key-value caching is becoming popular in data centers for providing high-speed key-value services. These systems adopt slab-based space management on flash and provide a low-cost solution for key-value caching. However, optimizing cache efficiency for flash-based key-value cache systems is highly challenging, due to the huge number of key-value items and the unique technical constraints

  • Practical Quick File Server Migration
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Keiichi Matsuzawa; Mitsuo Hayasaka; Takahiro Shinagawa

    Regular file server upgrades are indispensable to improve performance, robustness, and power consumption. In upgrading file servers, it is crucial to quickly migrate file-sharing services between heterogeneous servers with little downtime while minimizing performance interference. We present a practical quick file server migration scheme based on the postcopy approach that defers file copy until after

  • On Fault Tolerance, Locality, and Optimality in Locally Repairable Codes
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Oleg Kolosov; Gala Yadgar; Matan Liram; Itzhak Tamo; Alexander Barg

    Erasure codes in large-scale storage systems allow recovery of data from a failed node. A recently developed class of codes, locally repairable codes (LRCs), offers tradeoffs between storage overhead and repair cost. LRCs facilitate efficient recovery scenarios by adding parity blocks to the system. However, these additional blocks may eventually increase the number of blocks that must be reconstructed

  • The Case for Custom Storage Backends in Distributed Storage Systems
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Abutalib Aghayev; Sage Weil; Michael Kuchnik; Mark Nelson; Gregory R. Ganger; George Amvrosiadis

    For a decade, the Ceph distributed file system followed the conventional wisdom of building its storage backend on top of local file systems. This is a preferred choice for most distributed file systems today, because it allows them to benefit from the convenience and maturity of battle-tested code. Ceph’s experience, however, shows that this comes at a high price. First, developing a zero-overhead

  • Finding Bugs in File Systems with an Extensible Fuzzing Framework
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Seulbae Kim; Meng Xu; Sanidhya Kashyap; Jungyeon Yoon; Wen Xu; Taesoo Kim

    File systems are too large to be bug free. Although handwritten test suites have been widely used to stress file systems, they can hardly keep up with the rapid increase in file system size and complexity, leading to new bugs being introduced. These bugs come in various flavors: buffer overflows to complicated semantic bugs. Although bug-specific checkers exist, they generally lack a way to explore

  • ShieldNVM
    ACM Trans. Storage (IF 1.176) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Fan Yang; Youmin Chen; Haiyu Mao; Youyou Lu; Jiwu Shu

    Data encryption and authentication are essential for secure non-volatile memory (NVM). However, the introduced security metadata needs to be atomically written back to NVM along with data, so as to provide crash consistency, which unfortunately incurs high overhead. To support fine-grained data protection and fast recovery for a secure NVM system without compromising the performance, we propose ShieldNVM

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