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  • Iterated Admissibility Through Forcing in Strategic Belief Models
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Fernando Tohmé, Gianluca Caterina, Jonathan Gangle

    Iterated admissibility embodies a minimal criterion of rationality in interactions. The epistemic characterization of this solution has been actively investigated in recent times: it has been shown that strategies surviving \(m+1\) rounds of iterated admissibility may be identified as those that are obtained under a condition called rationality and m assumption of rationality in complete lexicographic

  • Correction to: On the Logical Philosophy of Assertive Graphs
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2020-05-16
    Daniele Chiffi, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen

    This erratum is to correct in the paper of Daniele Chiffi and Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen, On the Logical Philosophy of Assertive Graphs.

  • On the Logical Philosophy of Assertive Graphs
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Daniele Chiffi, Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen

    The logic of assertive graphs (AGs) is a modification of Peirce’s logic of existential graphs (EGs), which is intuitionistic and which takes assertions as its explicit object of study. In this paper we extend AGs into a classical graphical logic of assertions (ClAG) whose internal logic is classical. The characteristic feature is that both AGs and ClAG retain deep-inference rules of transformation

  • A Four-Valued Dynamic Epistemic Logic
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Yuri David Santos

    Epistemic logic is usually employed to model two aspects of a situation: the factual and the epistemic aspects. Truth, however, is not always attainable, and in many cases we are forced to reason only with whatever information is available to us. In this paper, we will explore a four-valued epistemic logic designed to deal with these situations, where agents have only knowledge about the available

  • A Closeness- and Priority-Based Logical Study of Social Network Creation
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Sonja Smets, Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada

    This paper is part of an on-going programme on the study of the logical aspects of social network formation. It recalls the so-called social network model, discussing the properties of a notion of closeness between agents (in terms of the number of traits they have in common); then introduces an extended social network model in which different agents might assign different values to different traits

  • Natural Density and the Quantifier “Most”
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Selçuk Topal, Ahmet Çevik

    This paper proposes a formalization of the class of sentences quantified by most, which is also interpreted as proportion of or majority of depending on the domain of discourse. We consider sentences of the form “Most A are B”, where A and B are plural nouns and the interpretations of A and B are infinite subsets of \( \mathbb {N} \). There are two widely used semantics for Most A are B: (i) \(C(A

  • Towards an Algebraic Semantics for Implicatives
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    R. Zuber

    An algebraic semantics, based on factor algebras, for one-way and two-way implicative verbs is proposed. Implicative verbs denote elements of filters or of ideals generated by identity functions in factor algebras. This semantics explains in particular the problem of implicational equivalence raised by two-way implicative verbs, and shows that the negation necessary to establish the implicativity of

  • A “Maximal Exclusion” Approach to Structural Underspecification in Dynamic Syntax
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Tohru Seraku

    ‘Case’ and ‘grammatical relations’ are central to syntactic theory, but rigorous treatments of these concepts in surface-oriented grammars such as Dynamic Syntax are pending. In this respect, Japanese is worthy of mention; in this language, the nominative case particle ga, which typically marks a subject, may mark an object in certain syntactic contexts, and more than one instance of ga may be present

  • Formalizing GDPR Provisions in Reified I/O Logic: The DAPRECO Knowledge Base
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Livio Robaldo, Cesare Bartolini, Monica Palmirani, Arianna Rossi, Michele Martoni, Gabriele Lenzini

    The DAPRECO knowledge base is the main outcome of the interdisciplinary project bearing the same name (https://www.fnr.lu/projects/data-protection-regulation-compliance). It is a repository of rules written in LegalRuleML, an XML formalism designed to be a standard for representing the semantic and logical content of legal documents. The rules represent the provisions of the General Data Protection

  • A History Based Logic for Dynamic Preference Updates
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Can Başkent, Guy McCusker

    History based models suggest a process-based approach to epistemic and temporal reasoning. In this work, we introduce preferences to history based models. Motivated by game theoretical observations, we discuss how preferences can dynamically be updated in history based models. Following, we consider arrow update logic and event calculus, and give history based models for these logics. This allows us

  • The Class of All Natural Implicative Expansions of Kleene’s Strong Logic Functionally Equivalent to Łkasiewicz’s 3-Valued Logic Ł3
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Gemma Robles, José M. Méndez

    We consider the logics determined by the set of all natural implicative expansions of Kleene’s strong 3-valued matrix (with both only one and two designated values) and select the class of all logics functionally equivalent to Łukasiewicz’s 3-valued logic Ł3. The concept of a “natural implicative matrix” is based upon the notion of a “natural conditional” defined in Tomova (Rep Math Log 47:173–182

  • Parameterized Complexity of Theory of Mind Reasoning in Dynamic Epistemic Logic.
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2018-01-01
    Iris van de Pol,Iris van Rooij,Jakub Szymanik

    Theory of mind refers to the human capacity for reasoning about others' mental states based on observations of their actions and unfolding events. This type of reasoning is notorious in the cognitive science literature for its presumed computational intractability. A possible reason could be that it may involve higher-order thinking (e.g., 'you believe that I believe that you believe'). To investigate

  • Transition Semantics for Branching Time.
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2016-04-14
    Antje Rumberg

    In this paper we develop a novel propositional semantics based on the framework of branching time. The basic idea is to replace the moment-history pairs employed as parameters of truth in the standard Ockhamist semantics by pairs consisting of a moment and a consistent, downward closed set of so-called transitions. Whereas histories represent complete possible courses of events, sets of transitions

  • A Double Team Semantics for Generalized Quantifiers.
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2015-04-28
    Antti Kuusisto

    We investigate extensions of dependence logic with generalized quantifiers. We also introduce and investigate the notion of a generalized atom. We define a system of semantics that can accommodate variants of dependence logic, possibly extended with generalized quantifiers and generalized atoms, under the same umbrella framework. The semantics is based on pairs of teams, or double teams. We also devise

  • A Note on the Issue of Cohesiveness in Canonical Models
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    Matteo Pascucci

    In their presentation of canonical models for normal systems of modal logic, Hughes and Cresswell observe that some of these models are based on a frame which can be also thought of as a collection of two or more isolated frames; they call such frames ‘non-cohesive’. The problem of checking whether the canonical model of a given system is cohesive is still rather unexplored and no general decision

  • The Thin Red Line, Molinism, and the Flow of Time
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    Ciro De Florio, Aldo Frigerio

    In addressing the problem of the (in)compatibility of divine foreknowledge and human freedom, philosophers of religion encounter problems regarding the metaphysics and structure of time. Some models of temporal logic developed for completely independent reasons have proved especially appropriate for representing the temporal structure of the world as Molinism conceives it. In particular, some models

  • Group Conformity in Social Networks
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Colby Morrison, Pavel Naumov

    Diffusion in social networks is a result of agents’ natural desires to conform to the behavioral patterns of their peers. In this article we show that the recently proposed “propositional opinion diffusion model” could be used to model an agent’s conformity to different social groups that the same agent might belong to, rather than conformity to the society as whole. The main technical contribution

  • On Relation Between Linear Temporal Logic and Quantum Finite Automata
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Amandeep Singh Bhatia, Ajay Kumar

    Linear temporal logic is a widely used method for verification of model checking and expressing the system specifications. The relationship between theory of automata and logic had a great influence in the computer science. Investigation of the relationship between quantum finite automata and linear temporal logic is a natural goal. In this paper, we present a construction of quantum finite automata

  • Residual Contraction
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Marco Garapa, Maurício D. L. Reis

    In this paper, we propose and axiomatically characterize residual contractions, a new kind of contraction operators for belief bases. We establish that the class of partial meet contractions is a strict subclass of the class of residual contractions. We identify an extra condition that may be added to the definition of residual contractions, which is such that the class of residual contractions that

  • Truth Diagrams Versus Extant Notations for Propositional Logic
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Peter C.-H. Cheng

    Truth diagrams (TDs) are introduced as a novel graphical representation for propositional logic (PL). To demonstrate their epistemic efficacy a set of 28 concepts are proposed that any comprehensive representation for PL should encompass. TDs address all the criteria whereas seven other existing representations for PL only provide partial coverage. These existing representations are: the linear formula

  • Formal Semantics and Applied Mathematics: An Inferential Account
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Ryan M. Nefdt

    In this paper, I utilise the growing literature on scientific modelling to investigate the nature of formal semantics from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Specifically, I incorporate the inferential framework proposed by Bueno and Colyvan (Nous 45(2): 345–374, 2011) in the philosophy of applied mathematics to offer an account of how formal semantics explains and models its data. This

  • Confused Terms in Ordinary Language
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Greg Frost-Arnold, James R. Beebe

    Confused terms appear to signify more than one entity. Carnap (Meaning and necessity, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956) maintained that any putative name that is associated with more than one object in a relevant universe of discourse fails to be a genuine name. Although many philosophers have agreed with Carnap, they have not always agreed among themselves about the truth-values of atomic

  • Multi-agent Logics for Reasoning About Higher-Order Upper and Lower Probabilities
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Dragan Doder, Nenad Savić, Zoran Ognjanović

    We present a propositional and a first-order logic for reasoning about higher-order upper and lower probabilities. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics and we prove decidability in the propositional case. Furthermore, we show that the introduced logics generalize some existing probability logics.

  • On the Logic of Balance in Social Networks
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-08-24
    Zuojun Xiong, Thomas Ågotnes

    Modal logics for reasoning about social networks is currently an active field of research. There is still a gap, however, between the state of the art in logical formalisations of concepts related to social networks and the much more mature field of social network analysis. In this paper we take a step to bridge that gap. One of the key foundations of social network analysis is balance theory, which

  • A Revised Projectivity Calculus for Inclusion and Exclusion Reasoning
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Ka-fat Chow

    We present a Revised Projectivity Calculus (denoted RC) that extends the scope of inclusion and exclusion inferences derivable under the Projectivity Calculus (denoted C) developed by Icard (Stud Log 100(4):705–725, 2012). After pointing out the inadequacies of C, we introduce four opposition properties (OPs) which have been studied by Chow (in: Aloni et al (eds) Proceedings of the 18th Amsterdam Colloquium

  • Translation Invariance and Miller’s Weather Example
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-05-13
    J. B. Paris, A. Vencovská

    In his 1974 paper “Popper’s qualitative theory of verisimilitude” published in the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science David Miller gave his so called ‘Weather Example’ to argue that the Hamming distance between constituents is flawed as a measure of proximity to truth since the former is not, unlike the latter, translation invariant. In this present paper we generalise David Miller’s Weather

  • Lewis’ Triviality for Quasi Probabilities
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-04-12
    Eric Raidl

    According to Stalnaker’s Thesis (S), the probability of a conditional is the conditional probability. Under some mild conditions, the thesis trivialises probabilities and conditionals, as initially shown by David Lewis. This article asks the following question: does (S) still lead to triviality, if the probability function in (S) is replaced by a probability-like function? The article considers plausibility

  • Choice revision
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-03-14
    Li Zhang

    Choice revision is a sort of non-prioritized multiple revision, in which the agent partially accepts the new information represented by a set of sentences. We investigate the construction of choice revision based on a new approach to belief change called descriptor revision. We prove that each of two variants of choice revision based on such construction is axiomatically characterized with a set of

  • Inductive Reasoning in Social Choice Theory
    J. Log. Lang. Inf. (IF 0.44) Pub Date : 2019-01-12
    Fernando Tohmé, Federico Fioravanti, Marcelo Auday

    The usual procedure in the theory of social choice consists in postulating some desirable properties which an aggregation procedure should verify and derive from them the features of a corresponding social choice function and the outcomes that arise at each possible profile of preferences. In this paper we invert this line of reasoning and try to infer, up from what we call social situations (each

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