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  • Alin: improving interactive ontology matching by interactively revising mapping suggestions
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jomar Da Silva; Kate Revoredo; Fernanda Baião; Jérôme Euzenat

    Ontology matching aims at discovering mappings between the entities of two ontologies. It plays an important role in the integration of heterogeneous data sources that are described by ontologies. Interactive ontology matching involves domain experts in the matching process. In some approaches, the expert provides feedback about mappings between ontology entities, that is, these approaches select mappings to present to the expert who replies which of them should be accepted or rejected, so taking advantage of the knowledge of domain experts towards finding an alignment. In this paper, we present Alin, an interactive ontology matching approach which uses expert feedback not only to approve or reject selected mappings but also to dynamically improve the set of selected mappings, that is, to interactively include and to exclude mappings from it. This additional use for expert answers aims at increasing in the benefit brought by each expert answer. For this purpose, Alin uses four techniques. Two techniques were used in the previous versions of Alin to dynamically select concept and attribute mappings. Two new techniques are introduced in this paper: one to dynamically select relationship mappings and another one to dynamically reject inconsistent selected mappings using anti-patterns. We compared Alin with state-of-the-art tools, showing that it generates alignment of comparable quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Data preprocessing in predictive data mining
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-01-09
    Stamatios-Aggelos N. Alexandropoulos; Sotiris B. Kotsiantis; Michael N. Vrahatis

    A large variety of issues influence the success of data mining on a given problem. Two primary and important issues are the representation and the quality of the dataset. Specifically, if much redundant and unrelated or noisy and unreliable information is presented, then knowledge discovery becomes a very difficult problem. It is well-known that data preparation steps require significant processing time in machine learning tasks. It would be very helpful and quite useful if there were various preprocessing algorithms with the same reliable and effective performance across all datasets, but this is impossible. To this end, we present the most well-known and widely used up-to-date algorithms for each step of data preprocessing in the framework of predictive data mining.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dimensions in programming multi-agent systems
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-01-14
    Olivier Boissier; Rafael H. Bordini; Jomi F. Hübner; Alessandro Ricci

    Research on Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) has led to the development of several models, languages, and technologies for programming not only agents, but also their interaction, the application environment where they are situated, as well as the organization in which they participate. Research on those topics moved from agent-oriented programming towards multi-agent-oriented programming (MAOP). A MAS program is then designed and developed using a structured set of concepts and associated first-class design and programming abstractions that go beyond the concepts normally associated with agents. They include those related to environment, interaction, and organization. JaCaMo is a platform for MAOP built on top of three seamlessly integrated dimensions (i.e. structured sets of concepts and associated execution platforms): for programming belief desire intention (BDI) agents, their artefact-based environments, and their normative organizations. The key purpose of our work on JaCaMo is to support programmers in exploring the synergy between these dimensions, providing a comprehensive programming model, as well as a corresponding platform for developing and running MAS. This paper provides a practical overview of MAOP using JaCaMo. We show how emphasizing one particular dimension leads to different solutions to the same problem, and discuss the issues of each of those solutions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Principles and practice of multi-agent systems
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-02-05
    Qingliang Chen; Paolo Torroni; Serena Villata

    None

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Jargon of Hadoop MapReduce scheduling techniques: a scientific categorization
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Muhammad Hanif; Choonhwa Lee

    Recently, valuable knowledge that can be retrieved from a huge volume of datasets (called Big Data) set in motion the development of frameworks to process data based on parallel and distributed computing, including Apache Hadoop, Facebook Corona, and Microsoft Dryad. Apache Hadoop is an open source implementation of Google MapReduce that attracted strong attention from the research community both in academia and industry. Hadoop MapReduce scheduling algorithms play a critical role in the management of large commodity clusters, controlling QoS requirements by supervising users, jobs, and tasks execution. Hadoop MapReduce comprises three schedulers: FIFO, Fair, and Capacity. However, the research community has developed new optimizations to consider advances and dynamic changes in hardware and operating environments. Numerous efforts have been made in the literature to address issues of network congestion, straggling, data locality, heterogeneity, resource under-utilization, and skew mitigation in Hadoop scheduling. Recently, the volume of research published in journals and conferences about Hadoop scheduling has consistently increased, which makes it difficult for researchers to grasp the overall view of research and areas that require further investigation. A scientific literature review has been conducted in this study to assess preceding research contributions to the Apache Hadoop scheduling mechanism. We classify and quantify the main issues addressed in the literature based on their jargon and areas addressed. Moreover, we explain and discuss the various challenges and open issue aspects in Hadoop scheduling optimizations.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A review of generalized planning
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-03-12
    Sergio Jiménez; Javier Segovia-Aguas; Anders Jonsson

    Generalized planning studies the representation, computation and evaluation of solutions that are valid for multiple planning instances. These are topics studied since the early days of AI. However, in recent years, we are experiencing the appearance of novel formalisms to compactly represent generalized planning tasks, the solutions to these tasks (called generalized plans) and efficient algorithms to compute generalized plans. The paper reviews recent advances in generalized planning and relates them to existing planning formalisms, such as planning with domain control knowledge and approaches for planning under uncertainty, that also aim at generality.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Predictive models and abstract argumentation: the case of high-complexity semantics
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-04-18
    Mauro Vallati; Federico Cerutti; Massimiliano Giacomin

    In this paper, we describe how predictive models can be positively exploited in abstract argumentation. In particular, we present two main sets of results. On one side, we show that predictive models are effective for performing algorithm selection in order to determine which approach is better to enumerate the preferred extensions of a given argumentation framework. On the other side, we show that predictive models predict significant aspects of the solution to the preferred extensions enumeration problem. By exploiting an extensive set of argumentation framework features—that is, values that summarize a potentially important property of a framework—the proposed approach is able to provide an accurate prediction about which algorithm would be faster on a given problem instance, as well as of the structure of the solution, where the complete knowledge of such structure would require a computationally hard problem to be solved. Improving the ability of existing argumentation-based systems to support human sense-making and decision processes is just one of the possible exploitations of such knowledge obtained in an inexpensive way.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Short-text learning in social media: a review
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Antonela Tommasel; Daniela Godoy

    Social networks occupy a ubiquitous and pervasive place in the life of their users. The substantial amount of content generated and shared by social networking users offers new research opportunities across a wide variety of disciplines, including media and communication studies, linguistics, sociology, psychology, information and computer sciences, or education. This situation, in combination with the continuous growth of social media data, creates an imperative need for content organisation. Thus, large-scale text learning tasks in social environments arise as one of the most relevant problems in machine learning and data mining. Interestingly, social media data pose several challenges due to its sparse, high-dimensional and large-volume characteristics. This survey reviews the field of social media data learning, focusing on classification and clustering techniques, as they are two of the most frequent learning tasks. It reviews not only new techniques that have been developed to tackle the new challenges posed by short-texts, but also how traditional techniques can be adapted to overcome such challenges. Then, open issues and research opportunities for social media data learning are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Introspective Q-learning and learning from demonstration
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Mao Li; Tim Brys; Daniel Kudenko

    One challenge faced by reinforcement learning (RL) agents is that in many environments the reward signal is sparse, leading to slow improvement of the agent’s performance in early learning episodes. Potential-based reward shaping can help to resolve the aforementioned issue of sparse reward by incorporating an expert’s domain knowledge into the learning through a potential function. Past work on reinforcement learning from demonstration (RLfD) directly mapped (sub-optimal) human expert demonstration to a potential function, which can speed up RL. In this paper we propose an introspective RL agent that significantly further speeds up the learning. An introspective RL agent records its state–action decisions and experience during learning in a priority queue. Good quality decisions, according to a Monte Carlo estimation, will be kept in the queue, while poorer decisions will be rejected. The queue is then used as demonstration to speed up RL via reward shaping. A human expert’s demonstration can be used to initialize the priority queue before the learning process starts. Experimental validation in the 4-dimensional CartPole domain and the 27-dimensional Super Mario AI domain shows that our approach significantly outperforms non-introspective RL and state-of-the-art approaches in RLfD in both domains.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Time-sensitive resource re-allocation strategy for interdependent continuous tasks
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Valeriia Haberland; Simon Miles; Michael Luck

    An increase in volumes of data and a shift towards live data enabled a stronger focus on resource-intensive tasks which run continuously over long periods. A Grid has potential to offer the required resources for these tasks, while considering a fair and balanced allocation of resources among multiple client agents. Taking this into account, a Grid might be unwilling to allocate its resources for long time, leading to task interruptions. This problem becomes even more serious if an interruption of one task may lead to the interruption of dependent tasks. Here, we discuss a new strategy for resource re-allocation which is utilized by a client with the aim to prevent too long interruptions by re-allocating resources between its own tasks. Those re-allocations are suggested by a client agent, but only a Grid can re-allocate resources if agreed. Our strategy was tested under the different Grid settings, accounting for the adjusted coefficients, and demonstrated noticeable improvements in client utilities as compared to when it is not considered. Our experiment was also extended to tests with environmental modelling and realistic Grid resource simulation, grounded in real-life Grid studies. These tests have also shown a useful application of our strategy.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Pre-training with non-expert human demonstration for deep reinforcement learning
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
    Gabriel V. de la Cruz; Yunshu Du; Matthew E. Taylor

    Deep reinforcement learning (deep RL) has achieved superior performance in complex sequential tasks by using deep neural networks as function approximators to learn directly from raw input images. However, learning directly from raw images is data inefficient. The agent must learn feature representation of complex states in addition to learning a policy. As a result, deep RL typically suffers from slow learning speeds and often requires a prohibitively large amount of training time and data to reach reasonable performance, making it inapplicable to real-world settings where data are expensive. In this work, we improve data efficiency in deep RL by addressing one of the two learning goals, feature learning. We leverage supervised learning to pre-train on a small set of non-expert human demonstrations and empirically evaluate our approach using the asynchronous advantage actor-critic algorithms in the Atari domain. Our results show significant improvements in learning speed, even when the provided demonstration is noisy and of low quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Automatic landmark discovery for learning agents under partial observability
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Alper Demіr; Erkіn Çіlden; Faruk Polat

    In the reinforcement learning context, a landmark is a compact information which uniquely couples a state, for problems with hidden states. Landmarks are shown to support finding good memoryless policies for Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDP) which contain at least one landmark. SarsaLandmark, as an adaptation of Sarsa(λ), is known to promise a better learning performance with the assumption that all landmarks of the problem are known in advance.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Team learning from human demonstration with coordination confidence
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Bikramjit Banerjee; Syamala Vittanala; Matthew Edmund Taylor

    Among an array of techniques proposed to speed-up reinforcement learning (RL), learning from human demonstration has a proven record of success. A related technique, called Human-Agent Transfer, and its confidence-based derivatives have been successfully applied to single-agent RL. This article investigates their application to collaborative multi-agent RL problems. We show that a first-cut extension may leave room for improvement in some domains, and propose a new algorithm called coordination confidence (CC). CC analyzes the difference in perspectives between a human demonstrator (global view) and the learning agents (local view) and informs the agents’ action choices when the difference is critical and simply following the human demonstration can lead to miscoordination. We conduct experiments in three domains to investigate the performance of CC in comparison with relevant baselines.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Action learning and grounding in simulated human–robot interactions
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Oliver Roesler; Ann Nowé

    In order to enable robots to interact with humans in a natural way, they need to be able to autonomously learn new tasks. The most natural way for humans to tell another agent, which can be a human or robot, to perform a task is via natural language. Thus, natural human–robot interactions also require robots to understand natural language, i.e. extract the meaning of words and phrases. To do this, words and phrases need to be linked to their corresponding percepts through grounding. Afterward, agents can learn the optimal micro-action patterns to reach the goal states of the desired tasks. Most previous studies investigated only learning of actions or grounding of words, but not both. Additionally, they often used only a small set of tasks as well as very short and unnaturally simplified utterances. In this paper, we introduce a framework that uses reinforcement learning to learn actions for several tasks and cross-situational learning to ground actions, object shapes and colors, and prepositions. The proposed framework is evaluated through a simulated interaction experiment between a human tutor and a robot. The results show that the employed framework can be used for both action learning and grounding.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Two-level Q-learning: learning from conflict demonstrations
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Mao Li; Yi Wei; Daniel Kudenko

    One way to address this low sample efficiency of reinforcement learning (RL) is to employ human expert demonstrations to speed up the RL process (RL from demonstration or RLfD). The research so far has focused on demonstrations from a single expert. However, little attention has been given to the case where demonstrations are collected from multiple experts, whose expertise may vary on different aspects of the task. In such scenarios, it is likely that the demonstrations will contain conflicting advice in many parts of the state space. We propose a two-level Q-learning algorithm, in which the RL agent not only learns the policy of deciding on the optimal action but also learns to select the most trustworthy expert according to the current state. Thus, our approach removes the traditional assumption that demonstrations come from one single source and are mostly conflict-free. We evaluate our technique on three different domains and the results show that the state-of-the-art RLfD baseline fails to converge or performs similarly to conventional Q-learning. In contrast, the performance level of our novel algorithm increases with more experts being involved in the learning process and the proposed approach has the capability to handle demonstration conflicts well.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • User validation in ontology alignment: functional assessment and impact
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Huanyu Li; Zlatan Dragisic; Daniel Faria; Valentina Ivanova; Ernesto Jiménez-Ruiz; Patrick Lambrix; Catia Pesquita

    User validation is one of the challenges facing the ontology alignment community, as there are limits to the quality of the alignments produced by automated alignment algorithms. In this paper, we present a broad study on user validation of ontology alignments that encompasses three distinct but inter-related aspects: the profile of the user, the services of the alignment system, and its user interface. We discuss key issues pertaining to the alignment validation process under each of these aspects and provide an overview of how current systems address them. Finally, we use experiments from the Interactive Matching track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative 2015–2018 to assess the impact of errors in alignment validation, and how systems cope with them as function of their services.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Localization and obstacle avoidance in soccer competition of humanoid robot by gait and vision system
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Shu-Yin Chiang; Jia-Huei Lu

    In this study, we designed a localization and obstacle avoidance system for humanoid robots in the Federation of International Robot-soccer Association (FIRA) HuroCup united soccer competition event. The localization is implemented by using grid points, gait, and steps to determine the positions of each robot. To increase the localization accuracy and eliminate the accumulated distance errors resulting from step counting, the localization is augmented with image pattern matching using a system model. The system also enables the robot to determine the ball’s position on the field using a color model of the ball. Moreover, to avoid obstacles, the robots calculate the obstacle distance using data extracted from real-time images and determine a suitable direction for movement. With the integration of this accurate self-localization algorithm, ball identification scheme, and obstacle avoidance system, the robot team is capable of accomplishing the necessary tasks for a FIRA soccer game.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Ontologies for Industry 4.0
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Veera Ragavan Sampath Kumar; Alaa Khamis; Sandro Fiorini; Joel Luís Carbonera; Alberto Olivares Alarcos; Maki Habib; Paulo Goncalves; Howard Li; Joanna Isabelle Olszewska

    The current fourth industrial revolution, or ‘Industry 4.0’ (I4.0), is driven by digital data, connectivity, and cyber systems, and it has the potential to create impressive/new business opportunities. With the arrival of I4.0, the scenario of various intelligent systems interacting reliably and securely with each other becomes a reality which technical systems need to address. One major aspect of I4.0 is to adopt a coherent approach for the semantic communication in between multiple intelligent systems, which include human and artificial (software or hardware) agents. For this purpose, ontologies can provide the solution by formalizing the smart manufacturing knowledge in an interoperable way. Hence, this paper presents the few existing ontologies for I4.0, along with the current state of the standardization effort in the factory 4.0 domain and examples of real-world scenarios for I4.0.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A sketch drawing humanoid robot using image-based visual servoing
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Meng-Cheng Lau; John Anderson; Jacky Baltes

    This paper presents our sketch drawing artist humanoid robot research. One of the limitations of the existing artist humanoid robot is the lack of feedback on the error that occurs during the drawing process. The contribution of this research is the development of a humanoid robot artist with drawing error correction capability. Based on our previous work with open-loop control pen-and-ink humanoid robot artist, we have implemented a closed-loop visual servoing approach to address this problem. Our experimental results show that this approach is sufficient to correct drawing errors that occur due to mechanical limitation of a robot.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A multi-objective evolutionary hyper-heuristic algorithm for team-orienteering problem with time windows regarding rescue applications
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Hadi S. Aghdasi; Saeed Saeedvand; Jacky Baltes

    The team-orienteering problem (TOP) has broad applicability. Examples of possible uses are in factory and automation settings, robot sports teams, and urban search and rescue applications. We chose the rescue domain as a guiding example throughout this paper. Hence, this paper explores a practical variant of TOP with time window (TOPTW) for rescue applications by humanoid robots called TOPTWR. Due to the significant range of algorithm choices and their parameters tuning challenges, the use of hyper-heuristics is recommended. Hyper-heuristics can select, order, or generate different low-level heuristics with different optimization algorithms. In this paper, first, a general multi-objective (MO) solution is defined, with five objectives for TOPTWR. Then a robust and efficient MO and evolutionary hyper-heuristic algorithm for TOPTW based on the humanoid robot’s characteristics in the rescue applications (MOHH-TOPTWR) is proposed. MOHH-TOPTWR includes two MO evolutionary metaheuristics algorithms (MOEAs) known as non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-III) and MOEA based on decomposition (MOEA/D). In this paper, new benchmark instances are proposed for rescue applications using the existing ones for TOPTW. The experimental results show that MOHH-TOPTWR in both MOEAs can outperform all the state-of-the-art algorithms as well as NSGA-III and MOEA/D MOEAs.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A comprehensive survey on humanoid robot development
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Saeed Saeedvand; Masoumeh Jafari; Hadi S. Aghdasi; Jacky Baltes

    The development of a versatile, fully-capable humanoid robot as envisioned in science fiction books is one of the most challenging but interesting issues in the robotic field. Currently, existing humanoid robots are designed with different purposes and applications in mind. In humanoid robot development process, each robot is designed with various characteristics, abilities, and equipment, which influence the general structure, cost, and difficulty of development. Even though humanoid robot development is very popular, a few review papers are focusing on the design and development process of humanoid robots. Motivated by this, we present this review paper to show variations in the requirements, design, and development process and also propose a taxonomy of existing humanoid robots. It aims at demonstrating a general perspective of existing humanoid robots’ characteristics and applications. This paper includes state-of-the-art and successfully reported existing humanoid robot designs along with different robots used in various robot competitions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Imitation of human motion for humanoid robot in lift and carry event
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Shu-Yin Chiang; Hao-Ge Jiang

    This study proposed a method to enable a humanoid robot to step up onto a stair by imitating the step-up motion of a human and to accomplish a lift and carry event in HuroCup of Federation of International RoboSports Association. The step-up motion, divided into five states, was captured by a Kinect sensor, and the human joints corresponded to the humanoid robot joints. Selected servomotors and their angle variation were matched with that of human joint numbers by a designed fuzzy inference system on the basis between the human and the humanoid robot joints. Then, the rest of the robot motors were adjusted by the zero moment point obtained from force-sensing registers to maintain stability. Next, two intermediate transition states were added between each state of the humanoid robot step-up to maintain its balance and reduce motor damage. Finally, to be applied in a real lift and carry event, a vision system was integrated to recognize the edge of a color board and determine a suitable site for the step-up. With these functions integrated, the robot under the proposed method was verified to successfully achieve the task of the lift and carry event without losing its balance or falling.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Adaptive computational SLAM incorporating strategies of exploration and path planning
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Jacky Baltes; Da-Wei Kung; Wei-Yen Wang; Chen-Chien Hsu

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a well-known and fundamental topic for autonomous robot navigation. Existing solutions include the FastSLAM family-based approaches which are based on Rao–Blackwellized particle filter. The FastSLAM methods slow down greatly when the number of landmarks becomes large. Furthermore, the FastSLAM methods use a fixed number of particles, which may result in either not enough algorithms to find a solution in complex domains or too many particles and hence wasted computation for simple domains. These issues result in reduced performance of the FastSLAM algorithms, especially on embedded devices with limited computational capabilities, such as commonly used on mobile robots. To ease the computational burden, this paper proposes a modified version of FastSLAM called Adaptive Computation SLAM (ACSLAM), where particles are predicted only by odometry readings, and are updated only when an expected measurement has a maximum likelihood. As for the states of landmarks, they are also updated by the maximum likelihood. Furthermore, ACSLAM uses the effective sample size (ESS) to adapt the number of particles for the next generation. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed ACSLAM performed 40% faster than FastSLAM 2.0 and also has higher accuracy.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Coupling the normative regulation with the constitutive state management in Situated Artificial Institutions
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Maiquel De Brito; Jomi Fred Hübner; Olivier Boissier

    Artificial Institutions are systems where the regulation defined through norms is based on an interpretation of the concrete world where the agents are situated and interact. Such interpretation can be defined through constitutive rules. The literature proposes independent approaches for the definition and management of both norms and constitutive rules. However, they are usually either not coupled or coupled in an ad hoc and limiting solution. This paper investigates how to make such a coupling. The main contribution of this paper is a formal model basing the regulation provided by the norms on the institutional interpretation of the world provided by constitutive rules. This contribution is based on the Situated Artificial Institutions model that proposes an integrated model of constitutive rules based on status functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • TempCourt: evaluation of temporal taggers on a new corpus of court decisions
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    María Navas-Loro; Erwin Filtz; Víctor Rodríguez-Doncel; Axel Polleres; Sabrina Kirrane

    The extraction and processing of temporal expressions (TEs) in textual documents have been extensively studied in several domains; however, for the legal domain it remains an open challenge. This is possibly due to the scarcity of corpora in the domain and the particularities found in legal documents that are highlighted in this paper. Considering the pivotal role played by temporal information when it comes to analyzing legal cases, this paper presents TempCourt, a corpus of 30 legal documents from the European Court of Human Rights, the European Court of Justice, and the United States Supreme Court with manually annotated TEs. The corpus contains two different temporal annotation sets that adhere to the TimeML standard, the first one capturing all TEs and the second dedicated to TEs that are relevant for the case under judgment (thus excluding dates of previous court decisions). The proposed gold standards are subsequently used to compare ten state-of-the-art cross-domain temporal taggers, and to identify not only the limitations of cross-domain temporal taggers but also limitations of the TimeML standard when applied to legal documents. Finally, the paper identifies the need for dedicated resources and the adaptation of existing tools, and specific annotation guidelines that can be adapted to different types of legal documents.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Designing emotional BDI agents: good practices and open questions
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Yanet Sánchez-López; Eva Cerezo

    Intelligent agents built on the basis of the BDI (belief–desire–intention) architecture are known as BDI agents. Currently, due to the increasing importance given to the affective capacities, they have evolved giving way to the BDI emotional agents. These agents are generally characterized by affective states such as emotions, mood or personality but sometimes also by affective capacities such as empathy or emotional regulation. In the paper, a review of the most relevant proposals to include emotional aspects in the design of BDI agents is presented. Both BDI formalizations and BDI architecture extensions are covered. From the review, common findings and good practices modeling affect, empathy and regulatory capacities in BDI agents, are extracted. In spite of the great advance in the area several, open questions remain and are also discussed in the paper.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The average speed of motion and optimal power consumption in biped robots
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Vida Shams Esfanabadi; Mostafa Rostami; Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati; Jacky Baltes; Soroush Sadeghnejad

    One of the issues that have garnered little attention, but that is nevertheless important for developing practical robots, is optimal walking conditions like power consumption during walking. The main contribution of this research is to prepare a correct walking pattern for humans who have a problem with their walking and also study the effect of average motion speed on optimal power consumption. In this study, we firstly optimize the stability and minimize the power consumption of the robot during the single support phase using parameter optimization. Our approach is based on the well-known Zero Moment Point method to calculate the stability of the proposed biped robot. Secondly, we performed experiments on healthy male, age 29 years, to analyze human walking by placing 28 markers, attached to anatomical positions and two power plates for a distance of more than one gait cycle at an average speed of 1.23 ± 0.1 m s−1 validate our results for motion analysis of correct walking ability. Our model was continuously validated by comparing the results of our empirical evaluation against the prediction of our model. The errors between experimental test and our prediction were about 4%–11% for the joint trajectories and about 0.2%–0.5% for the ground reaction forces which is acceptable for our prediction. Due to the presented model and optimized issue and predicted path, the robot can move like a person in a way that has maximum stability along with the minimum power consumption. Finally, the robot was able to walk like a specific person that we considered. This study is a case study and also can be generalized to all samples and can perform these procedures to another person’s with different features.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dr. Eureka: a humanoid robot manipulation case study
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Lin Yu-Ren; Guilherme Henrique Galelli Christmann; Ricardo Bedin Grando; Rodrigo Da Silva Guerra; Jacky Baltes

    To this day, manipulation still stands as one of the hardest challenges in robotics. In this work, we examine the board game Dr. Eureka as a benchmark to encourage further development in the field. The game consists of a race to solve a manipulation puzzle: reordering colored balls in transparent tubes, in which the solution requires planning, dexterity and agility. In this work, we present a robot (Tactical Hazardous Operations Robot 3) that can solve this problem, nicely integrating several classical and state-of-the-art techniques. We represent the puzzle states as graph and solve it as a shortest path problem, in addition to applying computer vision combined with precise motions to perform the manipulation. In this paper, we also present a customized implementation of YOLO (called YOLO-Dr. Eureka) and we implement an original neural network (NN)-based incremental solution to the inverse kinematics problem. We show that this NN outperforms the inverse of the Jacobian method for large step sizes. Albeit requiring more computation per control cycle, the larger steps allow for much larger movements per cycle. To evaluate the experiment, we perform trials against a human using the same set of initial conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Artificial intelligence for team sports: a survey
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Ryan Beal; Timothy J. Norman; Sarvapali D. Ramchurn

    The sports domain presents a number of significant computational challenges for artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). In this paper, we explore the techniques that have been applied to the challenges within team sports thus far. We focus on a number of different areas, namely match outcome prediction, tactical decision making, player investments, fantasy sports, and injury prediction. By assessing the work in these areas, we explore how AI is used to predict match outcomes and to help sports teams improve their strategic and tactical decision making. In particular, we describe the main directions in which research efforts have been focused to date. This highlights not only a number of strengths but also weaknesses of the models and techniques that have been employed. Finally, we discuss the research questions that exist in order to further the use of AI and ML in team sports.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A review and comparison of ontology-based approaches to robot autonomy
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Alberto Olivares-Alarcos; Daniel Beßler; Alaa Khamis; Paulo Goncalves; Maki K. Habib; Julita Bermejo-Alonso; Marcos Barreto; Mohammed Diab; Jan Rosell; João Quintas; Joanna Olszewska; Hirenkumar Nakawala; Edison Pignaton; Amelie Gyrard; Stefano Borgo; Guillem Alenyà; Michael Beetz; Howard Li

    Within the next decades, robots will need to be able to execute a large variety of tasks autonomously in a large variety of environments. To relax the resulting programming effort, a knowledge-enabled approach to robot programming can be adopted to organize information in re-usable knowledge pieces. However, for the ease of reuse, there needs to be an agreement on the meaning of terms. A common approach is to represent these terms using ontology languages that conceptualize the respective domain. In this work, we will review projects that use ontologies to support robot autonomy. We will systematically search for projects that fulfill a set of inclusion criteria and compare them with each other with respect to the scope of their ontology, what types of cognitive capabilities are supported by the use of ontologies, and which is their application domain.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Learning Qualitative Differential Equation models: a survey of algorithms and applications.
    Knowl. Eng. Rev. (IF 0.814) Pub Date : 2010-03-01
    Wei Pang,George M Coghill

    Over the last two decades, qualitative reasoning (QR) has become an important domain in Artificial Intelligence. QDE (Qualitative Differential Equation) model learning (QML), as a branch of QR, has also received an increasing amount of attention; many systems have been proposed to solve various significant problems in this field. QML has been applied to a wide range of fields, including physics, biology and medical science. In this paper, we first identify the scope of this review by distinguishing QML from other QML systems, and then review all the noteworthy QML systems within this scope. The applications of QML in several application domains are also introduced briefly. Finally, the future directions of QML are explored from different perspectives.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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