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  • Online Identity Crisis Identity Issues in Online Communities
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Selene Arfini, Lorenzo Botta Parandera, Camilla Gazzaniga, Nicolò Maggioni, Alessandro Tacchino

    How have online communities affected the ways their users construct, view, and define their identity? In this paper, we will approach this issue by considering two philosophical sets of problems related to personal identity: the “Characterization Question” and the “Self-Other Relations Question.” Since these queries have traditionally brought out different problems around the concept of identity, here

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Artificial Intelligence, Values, and Alignment
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Iason Gabriel

    This paper looks at philosophical questions that arise in the context of AI alignment. It defends three propositions. First, normative and technical aspects of the AI alignment problem are interrelated, creating space for productive engagement between people working in both domains. Second, it is important to be clear about the goal of alignment. There are significant differences between AI that aligns

    更新日期:2020-10-02
  • The Translator’s Extended Mind
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Yuri Balashov

    The rapid development of natural language processing in the last three decades has drastically changed the way professional translators do their work. Nowadays most of them use computer-assisted translation (CAT) or translation memory (TM) tools whose evolution has been overshadowed by the much more sensational development of machine translation (MT) systems, with which TM tools are sometimes confused

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • The Governance of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Aviation Law, Human Rights, and the Free Movement of Data in the EU.
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Ugo Pagallo,Eleonora Bassi

    The paper deals with the governance of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in European law. Three different kinds of balance have been struck between multiple regulatory systems, in accordance with the sector of the governance of UAS which is taken into account. The first model regards the field of civil aviation law and its European Union (EU)’s regulation: the model looks like a traditional mix of top-down

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The State Space of Artificial Intelligence
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Holger Lyre

    The goal of the paper is to develop and propose a general model of the state space of AI. Given the breathtaking progress in AI research and technologies in recent years, such conceptual work is of substantial theoretical interest. The present AI hype is mainly driven by the triumph of deep learning neural networks. As the distinguishing feature of such networks is the ability to self-learn, self-learning

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Embedding Values in Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Ibo van de Poel

    Organizations such as the EU High-Level Expert Group on AI and the IEEE have recently formulated ethical principles and (moral) values that should be adhered to in the design and deployment of artificial intelligence (AI). These include respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, fairness, transparency, explainability, and accountability. But how can we ensure and verify that an AI system actually respects

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • Rethinking Turing’s Test and the Philosophical Implications
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Diane Proudfoot

    In the 70 years since Alan Turing’s ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’ appeared in Mind, there have been two widely-accepted interpretations of the Turing test: the canonical behaviourist interpretation and the rival inductive or epistemic interpretation. These readings are based on Turing’s Mind paper; few seem aware that Turing described two other versions of the imitation game. I have argued

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Building Thinking Machines by Solving Animal Cognition Tasks
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Matthew Crosby

    In ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, Turing, sceptical of the question ‘Can machines think?’, quickly replaces it with an experimentally verifiable test: the imitation game. I suggest that for such a move to be successful the test needs to be relevant, expansive, solvable by exemplars, unpredictable, and lead to actionable research. The Imitation Game is only partially successful in this regard

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • Deceptive Appearances: the Turing Test, Response-Dependence, and Intelligence as an Emotional Concept
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Michael Wheeler

    The Turing Test is routinely understood as a behaviourist test for machine intelligence. Diane Proudfoot (Rethinking Turing’s Test, Journal of Philosophy, 2013) has argued for an alternative interpretation. According to Proudfoot, Turing’s claim that intelligence is what he calls ‘an emotional concept’ indicates that he conceived of intelligence in response-dependence terms. As she puts it: ‘Turing’s

    更新日期:2020-08-12
  • Accountability and Control Over Autonomous Weapon Systems: A Framework for Comprehensive Human Oversight
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Ilse Verdiesen, Filippo Santoni de Sio, Virginia Dignum

    Accountability and responsibility are key concepts in the academic and societal debate on Autonomous Weapon Systems, but these notions are often used as high-level overarching constructs and are not operationalised to be useful in practice. “Meaningful Human Control” is often mentioned as a requirement for the deployment of Autonomous Weapon Systems, but a common definition of what this notion means

    更新日期:2020-08-01
  • Correction to: The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Thilo Hagendorff

    In the original publication of this article, the Table 1 has been published incorrectly. Now the same has been provided in this correction.

    更新日期:2020-07-28
  • The Machine Scenario: A Computational Perspective on Alternative Representations of Indeterminism
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Vincent Grandjean, Matteo Pascucci

    In philosophical logic and metaphysics there is a long-standing debate around the most appropriate structures to represent indeterministic scenarios concerning the future. We reconstruct here such a debate in a computational setting, focusing on the fundamental difference between moment-based and history-based structures. Our presentation is centered around two versions of an indeterministic scenario

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Synthetic Deliberation: Can Emulated Imagination Enhance Machine Ethics?
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Robert Pinka

    Artificial intelligence is becoming increasingly entwined with our daily lives: AIs work as assistants through our phones, control our vehicles, and navigate our vacuums. As these objects become more complex and work within our societies in ways that affect our well-being, there is a growing demand for machine ethics—we want a guarantee that the various automata in our lives will behave in a way that

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Analysing the Combined Health, Social and Economic Impacts of the Corovanvirus Pandemic Using Agent-Based Social Simulation.
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Frank Dignum,Virginia Dignum,Paul Davidsson,Amineh Ghorbani,Mijke van der Hurk,Maarten Jensen,Christian Kammler,Fabian Lorig,Luis Gustavo Ludescher,Alexander Melchior,René Mellema,Cezara Pastrav,Loïs Vanhee,Harko Verhagen

    During the COVID-19 crisis there have been many difficult decisions governments and other decision makers had to make. E.g. do we go for a total lock down or keep schools open? How many people and which people should be tested? Although there are many good models from e.g. epidemiologists on the spread of the virus under certain conditions, these models do not directly translate into the interventions

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • 更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Algorithmic Fairness in Mortgage Lending: from Absolute Conditions to Relational Trade-offs
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Michelle Seng Ah Lee, Luciano Floridi

    To address the rising concern that algorithmic decision-making may reinforce discriminatory biases, researchers have proposed many notions of fairness and corresponding mathematical formalizations. Each of these notions is often presented as a one-size-fits-all, absolute condition; however, in reality, the practical and ethical trade-offs are unavoidable and more complex. We introduce a new approach

    更新日期:2020-06-09
  • A Normative Approach to Artificial Moral Agency
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Dorna Behdadi; Christian Munthe

    This paper proposes a methodological redirection of the philosophical debate on artificial moral agency (AMA) in view of increasingly pressing practical needs due to technological development. This “normative approach” suggests abandoning theoretical discussions about what conditions may hold for moral agency and to what extent these may be met by artificial entities such as AI systems and robots.

    更新日期:2020-05-19
  • Moral Gridworlds: A Theoretical Proposal for Modeling Artificial Moral Cognition
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Julia Haas

    I describe a suite of reinforcement learning environments in which artificial agents learn to value and respond to moral content and contexts. I illustrate the core principles of the framework by characterizing one such environment, or “gridworld,” in which an agent learns to trade-off between monetary profit and fair dealing, as applied in a standard behavioral economic paradigm. I then highlight

    更新日期:2020-04-25
  • What is a Simulation Model?
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-03-07
    Juan M. Durán

    Many philosophical accounts of scientific models fail to distinguish between a simulation model and other forms of models. This failure is unfortunate because there are important differences pertaining to their methodology and epistemology that favor their philosophical understanding. The core claim presented here is that simulation models are rich and complex units of analysis in their own right,

    更新日期:2020-04-18
  • Towards the Ethical Publication of Country of Origin Information (COI) in the Asylum Process
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-03-28
    Nikita Aggarwal; Luciano Floridi

    This article addresses the question of how ‘Country of Origin Information’ (COI) reports—that is, research developed and used to support decision-making in the asylum process—can be published in an ethical manner. The article focuses on the risk that published COI reports could be misused and thereby harm the subjects of the reports and/or those involved in their development. It supports a situational

    更新日期:2020-03-28
  • The Abstraction/Representation Account of Computation and Subjective Experience
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Jochen Szangolies

    I examine the abstraction/representation theory of computation put forward by Horsman et al., connecting it to the broader notion of modeling, and in particular, model-based explanation, as considered by Rosen. I argue that the ‘representational entities’ it depends on cannot themselves be computational, and that, in particular, their representational capacities cannot be realized by computational

    更新日期:2020-03-26
  • The Physical Mandate for Belief-Goal Psychology
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Simon McGregor; Ron Chrisley

    This article describes a heuristic argument for understanding certain physical systems in terms of properties that resemble the beliefs and goals of folk psychology. The argument rests on very simple assumptions. The core of the argument is that predictions about certain events can legitimately be based on assumptions about later events, resembling Aristotelian ‘final causation’; however, more nuanced

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • Ethical Foresight Analysis: What it is and Why it is Needed?
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Luciano Floridi; Andrew Strait

    An increasing number of technology firms are implementing processes to identify and evaluate the ethical risks of their systems and products. A key part of these review processes is to foresee potential impacts of these technologies on different groups of users. In this article, we use the expression Ethical Foresight Analysis (EFA) to refer to a variety of analytical strategies for anticipating or

    更新日期:2020-03-09
  • A Puzzle concerning Compositionality in Machines
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Ryan M. Nefdt

    This paper attempts to describe and address a specific puzzle related to compositionality in artificial networks such as Deep Neural Networks and machine learning in general. The puzzle identified here touches on a larger debate in Artificial Intelligence related to epistemic opacity but specifically focuses on computational applications of human level linguistic abilities or properties and a special

    更新日期:2020-02-23
  • Ethical Implications of Closed Loop Brain Device: 10-Year Review
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Swati Aggarwal; Nupur Chugh

    Closed Loop medical devices such as Closed Loop Deep Brain Stimulation (CL-DBS) and Brain Computer Interface (BCI) are some of the emerging neurotechnologies. New generations of implantable brain–computer interfaces have recently gained success in human clinical trials. These implants detect specific neuronal patterns and provide the subject with information to respond to these patterns. Further, Closed

    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • The Ethics of AI Ethics: An Evaluation of Guidelines
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-02-01
    Thilo Hagendorff

    Current advances in research, development and application of artificial intelligence (AI) systems have yielded a far-reaching discourse on AI ethics. In consequence, a number of ethics guidelines have been released in recent years. These guidelines comprise normative principles and recommendations aimed to harness the “disruptive” potentials of new AI technologies. Designed as a semi-systematic evaluation

    更新日期:2020-02-01
  • Dynamical Emergence Theory (DET): A Computational Account of Phenomenal Consciousness
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Roy Moyal; Tomer Fekete; Shimon Edelman

    Scientific theories of consciousness identify its contents with the spatiotemporal structure of neural population activity. We follow up on this approach by stating and motivating Dynamical Emergence Theory (DET), which defines the amount and structure of experience in terms of the intrinsic topology and geometry of a physical system’s collective dynamics. Specifically, we posit that distinct perceptual

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • “ Oh, Dignity too?” Said the Robot: Human Dignity as the Basis for the Governance of Robotics
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Lexo Zardiashvili; Eduard Fosch-Villaronga

    Healthcare robots enable practices that seemed far-fetched in the past. Robots might be the solution to bridge the loneliness that the elderly often experience; they may help wheelchair users walk again, or may help navigate the blind. European Institutions, however, acknowledge that human contact is an essential aspect of personal care and that the insertion of robots could dehumanize caring practices

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The Unbearable Shallow Understanding of Deep Learning
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Alessio Plebe; Giorgio Grasso

    This paper analyzes the rapid and unexpected rise of deep learning within Artificial Intelligence and its applications. It tackles the possible reasons for this remarkable success, providing candidate paths towards a satisfactory explanation of why it works so well, at least in some domains. A historical account is given for the ups and downs, which have characterized neural networks research and its

    更新日期:2019-12-12
  • Algorithmic Decision-Making and the Control Problem
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    John Zerilli; Alistair Knott; James Maclaurin; Colin Gavaghan

    The danger of human operators devolving responsibility to machines and failing to detect cases where they fail has been recognised for many years by industrial psychologists and engineers studying the human operators of complex machines. We call it “the control problem”, understood as the tendency of the human within a human–machine control loop to become complacent, over-reliant or unduly diffident

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Design of GDPR-Abiding Drones Through Flight Operation Maps: A Win–Win Approach to Data Protection, Aerospace Engineering, and Risk Management
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Eleonora Bassi; Nicoletta Bloise; Jacopo Dirutigliano; Gian Piero Fici; Ugo Pagallo; Stefano Primatesta; Fulvia Quagliotti

    Risk management is a well-known method to face technological challenges through a win–win combination of protective and proactive approaches, fostering the collaboration of operators, researchers, regulators, and industries for the exploitation of new markets. In the field of autonomous and unmanned aerial systems, or UAS, a considerable amount of work has been devoted to risk analysis, the generation

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • A Common Frame for Formal Imagination
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Joan Casas-Roma; M. Elena Rodríguez; Antonia Huertas

    In this paper, we review three influential theories of imagination in order to understand how the dynamics of imagination acts could be modeled using formal languages. While reviewing them, we notice that they are not detailed enough to account for all the mechanisms involved in creating and developing imaginary worlds. We claim those theories could be further refined into what we call the Common Frame

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • A Misdirected Principle with a Catch: Explicability for AI
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Scott Robbins

    There is widespread agreement that there should be a principle requiring that artificial intelligence (AI) be ‘explicable’. Microsoft, Google, the World Economic Forum, the draft AI ethics guidelines for the EU commission, etc. all include a principle for AI that falls under the umbrella of ‘explicability’. Roughly, the principle states that “for AI to promote and not constrain human autonomy, our

    更新日期:2019-10-15
  • Ethics of AI and Cybersecurity When Sovereignty is at Stake
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Paul Timmers

    Sovereignty and strategic autonomy are felt to be at risk today, being threatened by the forces of rising international tensions, disruptive digital transformations and explosive growth of cybersecurity incidents. The combination of AI and cybersecurity is at the sharp edge of this development and raises many ethical questions and dilemmas. In this commentary, I analyse how we can understand the ethics

    更新日期:2019-10-11
  • The Rhetoric and Reality of Anthropomorphism in Artificial Intelligence
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-09-21
    David Watson

    Artificial intelligence (AI) has historically been conceptualized in anthropomorphic terms. Some algorithms deploy biomimetic designs in a deliberate attempt to effect a sort of digital isomorphism of the human brain. Others leverage more general learning strategies that happen to coincide with popular theories of cognitive science and social epistemology. In this paper, I challenge the anthropomorphic

    更新日期:2019-09-21
  • Cognitive Architecture, Holistic Inference and Bayesian Networks
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Timothy J. Fuller

    Two long-standing arguments in cognitive science invoke the assumption that holistic inference is computationally infeasible. The first is Fodor’s skeptical argument toward computational modeling of ordinary inductive reasoning. The second advocates modular computational mechanisms of the kind posited by Cosmides, Tooby and Sperber. Based on advances in machine learning related to Bayes nets, as well

    更新日期:2019-09-17
  • Qualitative Models in Computational Simulative Sciences: Representation, Confirmation, Experimentation
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Nicola Angius

    The Epistemology Of Computer Simulation (EOCS) has developed as an epistemological and methodological analysis of simulative sciences using quantitative computational models to represent and predict empirical phenomena of interest. In this paper, Executable Cell Biology (ECB) and Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) are examined to show how one may take advantage of qualitative computational models to evaluate

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • The Pragmatic Turn in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Andrés Páez

    In this paper I argue that the search for explainable models and interpretable decisions in AI must be reformulated in terms of the broader project of offering a pragmatic and naturalistic account of understanding in AI. Intuitively, the purpose of providing an explanation of a model or a decision is to make it understandable to its stakeholders. But without a previous grasp of what it means to say

    更新日期:2019-05-29
  • Triviality Arguments Reconsidered
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Paul Schweizer

    Opponents of the computational theory of mind (CTM) have held that the theory is devoid of explanatory content, since whatever computational procedures are said to account for our cognitive attributes will also be realized by a host of other ‘deviant’ physical systems, such as buckets of water and possibly even stones. Such ‘triviality’ claims rely on a simple mapping account (SMA) of physical implementation

    更新日期:2019-05-28
  • Verification and Validation of Simulations Against Holism
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-04-22
    Julie Jebeile; Vincent Ardourel

    It has been argued that the Duhem problem is renewed with computational models since model assumptions having a representational aim and computational assumptions cannot be tested in isolation. In particular, while the Verification and Validation methodology is supposed to prevent such holism, Winsberg (Philos Compass 4:835–845, 2009; Science in the age of computer simulation, University of Chicago

    更新日期:2019-04-22
  • The Epistemic Importance of Technology in Computer Simulation and Machine Learning
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-04-06
    Michael Resch; Andreas Kaminski

    Scientificity is essentially methodology. The use of information technology as methodological instruments in science has been increasing for decades, this raises the question: Does this transform science? This question is the subject of the Special Issue in Minds and Machines “The epistemological significance of methods in computer simulation and machine learning”. We show that there is a technological

    更新日期:2019-04-06
  • Prayer-Bots and Religious Worship on Twitter: A Call for a Wider Research Agenda
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-04-01
    Carl Öhman; Robert Gorwa; Luciano Floridi

    The automation of online social life is an urgent issue for researchers and the public alike. However, one of the most significant uses of such technologies seems to have gone largely unnoticed by the research community: religion. Focusing on Islamic Prayer Apps, which automatically post prayers from its users’ accounts, we show that even one such service is already responsible for millions of tweets

    更新日期:2019-04-01
  • Can Machines Read our Minds?
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-03-27
    Christopher Burr; Nello Cristianini

    We explore the question of whether machines can infer information about our psychological traits or mental states by observing samples of our behaviour gathered from our online activities. Ongoing technical advances across a range of research communities indicate that machines are now able to access this information, but the extent to which this is possible and the consequent implications have not

    更新日期:2019-03-27
  • Computer Modeling and Simulation: Increasing Reliability by Disentangling Verification and Validation
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-03-20
    Vitaly Pronskikh

    Verification and validation (V&V) of computer codes and models used in simulations are two aspects of the scientific practice of high importance that recently have been discussed widely by philosophers of science. While verification is predominantly associated with the correctness of the way a model is represented by a computer code or algorithm, validation more often refers to the model’s relation

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Information Processing Artifacts
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-01-28
    Neal G. Anderson

    What is a computer? What distinguishes computers from other artificial or natural systems with alleged computational capacities? What does use of a physical system for computation entail, and what distinguishes such use from otherwise identical transformation of that same system when it is not so used? This paper addresses such questions through a theory of information processing artifacts (IPAs),

    更新日期:2019-01-28
  • Robotic Simulations, Simulations of Robots
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-01-25
    Edoardo Datteri; Viola Schiaffonati

    Simulation studies have been carried out in robotics for a variety of epistemic and practical purposes. Here it is argued that two broad classes of simulation studies can be identified in robotics research. The first one is exemplified by the use of robotic systems to acquire knowledge on living systems in so-called biorobotics, while the second class of studies is more distinctively connected to cases

    更新日期:2019-01-25
  • Reproducibility and the Concept of Numerical Solution
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Johannes Lenhard; Uwe Küster

    In this paper, we show that reproducibility is a severe problem that concerns simulation models. The reproducibility problem challenges the concept of numerical solution and hence the conception of what a simulation actually does. We provide an expanded picture of simulation that makes visible those steps of simulation modeling that are numerically relevant, but often escape notice in accounts of simulation

    更新日期:2019-01-23
  • A Minimalist Epistemology for Agent-Based Simulations in the Artificial Sciences
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Giuseppe Primiero

    The epistemology of computer simulations has become a mainstream topic in the philosophy of technology. Within this large area, significant differences hold between the various types of models and simulation technologies. Agent-based and multi-agent systems simulations introduce a specific constraint on the types of agents and systems modelled. We argue that such difference is crucial and that simulation

    更新日期:2019-01-11
  • Epistemic Entitlements and the Practice of Computer Simulation
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-01-04
    John Symons; Ramón Alvarado

    What does it mean to trust the results of a computer simulation? This paper argues that trust in simulations should be grounded in empirical evidence, good engineering practice, and established theoretical principles. Without these constraints, computer simulation risks becoming little more than speculation. We argue against two prominent positions in the epistemology of computer simulation and defend

    更新日期:2019-01-04
  • The Bit (and Three Other Abstractions) Define the Borderline Between Hardware and Software
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Russ Abbott

    Modern computing is generally taken to consist primarily of symbol manipulation. But symbols are abstract, and computers are physical. How can a physical device manipulate abstract symbols? Neither Church nor Turing considered this question. My answer is that the bit, as a hardware-implemented abstract data type, serves as a bridge between materiality and abstraction. Computing also relies on three

    更新日期:2019-01-01
  • Simulation, Epistemic Opacity, and ‘Envirotechnical Ignorance’ in Nuclear Crisis
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-12-27
    Tudor B. Ionescu

    The Fukushima nuclear accident from 2011 provided an occasion for the public display of radiation maps (or dose projections) generated using decision-support systems for nuclear emergency management. Such systems rely on computer models for simulating the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials and estimating potential doses in the event of a radioactive release from a nuclear reactor. In Germany

    更新日期:2018-12-27
  • Computers Are Syntax All the Way Down: Reply to Bozşahin
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-12-17
    William J. Rapaport

    A response to a recent critique by Cem Bozşahin of the theory of syntactic semantics as it applies to Helen Keller, and some applications of the theory to the philosophy of computer science.

    更新日期:2018-12-17
  • Peeking Inside the Black Box: A New Kind of Scientific Visualization
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Michael T. Stuart; Nancy J. Nersessian

    Computational systems biologists create and manipulate computational models of biological systems, but they do not always have straightforward epistemic access to the content and behavioural profile of such models because of their length, coding idiosyncrasies, and formal complexity. This creates difficulties both for modellers in their research groups and for their bioscience collaborators who rely

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • AI4People-An Ethical Framework for a Good AI Society: Opportunities, Risks, Principles, and Recommendations.
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Luciano Floridi,Josh Cowls,Monica Beltrametti,Raja Chatila,Patrice Chazerand,Virginia Dignum,Christoph Luetge,Robert Madelin,Ugo Pagallo,Francesca Rossi,Burkhard Schafer,Peggy Valcke,Effy Vayena

    This article reports the findings of AI4People, an Atomium—EISMD initiative designed to lay the foundations for a “Good AI Society”. We introduce the core opportunities and risks of AI for society; present a synthesis of five ethical principles that should undergird its development and adoption; and offer 20 concrete recommendations—to assess, to develop, to incentivise, and to support good AI—which

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Pictures, Plants, and Propositions
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-11-12
    Alex Morgan

    Philosophers have traditionally held that propositions mark the domain of rational thought and inference. Many philosophers have held that only conceptually sophisticated creatures like us could have propositional attitudes. But in recent decades, philosophers have adopted increasingly liberal views of propositional attitudes that encompass the mental states of various non-human animals. These views

    更新日期:2018-11-12
  • Grounds for Trust: Essential Epistemic Opacity and Computational Reliabilism
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-10-29
    Juan M. Durán; Nico Formanek

    Several philosophical issues in connection with computer simulations rely on the assumption that results of simulations are trustworthy. Examples of these include the debate on the experimental role of computer simulations (Parker in Synthese 169(3):483–496, 2009; Morrison in Philos Stud 143(1):33–57, 2009), the nature of computer data (Barberousse and Vorms, in: Durán, Arnold (eds) Computer simulations

    更新日期:2018-10-29
  • Computational Functionalism for the Deep Learning Era
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Ezequiel López-Rubio

    Deep learning is a kind of machine learning which happens in a certain type of artificial neural networks called deep networks. Artificial deep networks, which exhibit many similarities with biological ones, have consistently shown human-like performance in many intelligent tasks. This poses the question whether this performance is caused by such similarities. After reviewing the structure and learning

    更新日期:2018-10-05
  • An Analysis of the Interaction Between Intelligent Software Agents and Human Users.
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Christopher Burr,Nello Cristianini,James Ladyman

    Interactions between an intelligent software agent (ISA) and a human user are ubiquitous in everyday situations such as access to information, entertainment, and purchases. In such interactions, the ISA mediates the user’s access to the content, or controls some other aspect of the user experience, and is not designed to be neutral about outcomes of user choices. Like human users, ISAs are driven by

    更新日期:2018-09-25
  • What an Entangled Web We Weave: An Information-centric Approach to Time-evolving Socio-technical Systems
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Markus Luczak-Roesch; Kieron O’Hara; Jesse David Dinneen; Ramine Tinati

    A new layer of complexity, constituted of networks of information token recurrence, has been identified in socio-technical systems such as the Wikipedia online community and the Zooniverse citizen science platform. The identification of this complexity reveals that our current understanding of the actual structure of those systems, and consequently the structure of the entire World Wide Web, is incomplete

    更新日期:2018-09-20
  • Info-Metrics for Modeling and Inference
    Minds Mach. (IF 1.855) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Amos Golan

    Info-metrics is a framework for rational inference based on insufficient information. The complete info-metric framework, accompanied with many interdisciplinary examples and case studies, as well as graphical representations of the theory appear in the new book “Foundations of Info-Metrics: Modeling, Inference and Imperfect Information,” Oxford University Press, 2018. In this commentary, I describe

    更新日期:2018-09-11
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