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  • Isomorphic Data Type Transformations
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Alessandro CoglioKestrel Institute; Stephen WestfoldKestrel Institute

    In stepwise derivations of programs from specifications, data type refinements are common. Many data type refinements involve isomorphic mappings between the more abstract and more concrete data representations. Examples include refinement of finite sets to duplicate-free ordered lists or to bit vectors, adding record components that are functions of the other fields to avoid expensive recomputation

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Ethereum's Recursive Length Prefix in ACL2
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Alessandro CoglioKestrel Institute

    Recursive Length Prefix (RLP) is used to encode a wide variety of data in Ethereum, including transactions. The work described in this paper provides a formal specification of RLP encoding and a verified implementation of RLP decoding, developed in the ACL2 theorem prover. This work has led to improvements to the Ethereum documentation and additions to the Ethereum test suite.

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Generating Mutually Inductive Theorems from Concise Descriptions
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Sol SwordsCentaur Technology, Inc.

    We describe defret-mutual-generate, a utility for proving ACL2 theorems about large mutually recursive cliques of functions. This builds on previous tools such as defret-mutual and make-flag, which automate parts of the process but still require a theorem body to be written out for each function in the clique. For large cliques, this tends to mean that certain common hypotheses and conclusions are

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Quadratic Extensions in ACL2
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Ruben GamboaUniversity of Wyoming; John CowlesUniversity of Wyoming; Woodrow GamboaStanford University

    Given a field K, a quadratic extension field L is an extension of K that can be generated from K by adding a root of a quadratic polynomial with coefficients in K. This paper shows how ACL2(r) can be used to reason about chains of quadratic extension fields Q = K_0, K_1, K_2, ..., where each K_i+1 is a quadratic extension field of K_i. Moreover, we show that some specific numbers, such as the cube

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • RP-Rewriter: An Optimized Rewriter for Large Terms in ACL2
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Mertcan TemelUniversity of Texas at Austin

    RP-Rewriter (Retain-Property) is a verified clause processor that can use some of the existing ACL2 rewrite rules to prove conjectures through term rewriting. Optimized for conjectures that can expand into large terms, the rewriter tries to mimic some of the ACL2 rewriting heuristics but also adds some extra features. It can attach side-conditions to terms that help the rewriter retain properties about

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Computing and Proving Well-founded Orderings through Finite Abstractions
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Rob SumnersCentaur Technology

    A common technique for checking properties of complex state machines is to build a finite abstraction then check the property on the abstract system -- where a passing check on the abstract system is only transferred to the original system if the abstraction is proven to be representative. This approach does require the derivation or definition of the finite abstraction, but can avoid the need for

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • New Rewriter Features in FGL
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Sol SwordsCentaur Technology, Inc.

    FGL is a successor to GL, a proof procedure for ACL2 that allows complicated finitary conjectures to be translated into efficient Boolean function representations and proved using SAT solvers. A primary focus of FGL is to allow greater programmability using rewrite rules. While the FGL rewriter is modeled on ACL2's rewriter, we have added several features in order to make rewrite rules more powerful

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Iteration in ACL2
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Matt KaufmannUniv. of Texas at Austin; J Strother MooreUniv. of Texas at Austin

    Iterative algorithms are traditionally expressed in ACL2 using recursion. On the other hand, Common Lisp provides a construct, loop, which -- like most programming languages -- provides direct support for iteration. We describe an ACL2 analogue loop$ of loop that supports efficient ACL2 programming and reasoning with iteration.

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Formal Verification of Arithmetic RTL: Translating Verilog to C++ to ACL2
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    David M. RussinoffArm

    We present a methodology for formal verification of arithmetic RTL designs that combines sequential logic equivalence checking with interactive theorem proving. An intermediate model of a Verilog module is hand-coded in Restricted Algorithmic C (RAC), a primitive subset of C augmented by the integer and fixed-point register class templates of Algorithmic C. The model is designed to be as abstract and

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Parameterized Synthesis with Safety Properties
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Oliver Markgraf; Chih-Duo Hong; Anthony W. Lin; Muhammad Najib; Daniel Neider

    Parameterized synthesis offers a solution to the problem of constructing correct and verified controllers for parameterized systems. Such systems occur naturally in practice (e.g., in the form of distributed protocols where the amount of processes is often unknown at design time and the protocol must work regardless of the number of processes). In this paper, we present a novel learning based approach

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • The Probabilistic Description Logic $\mathcal{BALC}$
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Leonard Botha; Thomas Meyer; Rafael Peñaloza

    Description logics (DLs) are well-known knowledge representation formalisms focused on the representation of terminological knowledge. Due to their first-order semantics, these languages (in their classical form) are not suitable for representing and handling uncertainty. A probabilistic extension of a light-weight DL was recently proposed for dealing with certain knowledge occurring in uncertain contexts

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Reachability for Updatable Timed Automata made faster and more effective
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Paul Gastin; Sayan Mukherjee; B Srivathsan

    Updatable timed automata (UTA) are extensions of classic timed automata that allow special updates to clock variables, like x:= x - 1, x := y + 2, etc., on transitions. Reachability for UTA is undecidable in general. Various subclasses with decidable reachability have been studied. A generic approach to UTA reachability consists of two phases: first, a static analysis of the automaton is performed

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Decisiveness of Stochastic Systems and its Application to Hybrid Models (Full Version)
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Patricia Bouyer; Thomas Brihaye; Mickael Randour; Cédric Rivière; Pierre Vandenhove

    In [ABM07], Abdulla et al. introduced the concept of decisiveness, an interesting tool for lifting good properties of finite Markov chains to denumerable ones. Later, this concept was extended to more general stochastic transition systems (STSs), allowing the design of various verification algorithms for large classes of (infinite) STSs. We further improve the understanding and utility of decisiveness

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • The Complexity of Reachability in Parametric Markov Decision Processes
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Sebastian Junges; Joost-Pieter Katoen; Guillermo A. Pérez; Tobias Winkler

    This article presents the complexity of reachability decision problems for parametric Markov decision processes (pMDPs), an extension to Markov decision processes (MDPs) where transitions probabilities are described by polynomials over a finite set of parameters. In particular, we study the complexity of finding values for these parameters such that the induced MDP satisfies some maximal or minimal

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Fixed Points Theorems for Non-Transitive Relations
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Jérémy Dubut; Akihisa Yamada

    In this paper, we develop an Isabelle/HOL library of order-theoretic fixed-point theorems. We keep our formalization as general as possible: we reprove several well-known results about complete orders, often with only antisymmetry or attractivity, a mild condition implied by either antisymmetry or transitivity. In particular, we generalize various theorems ensuring the existence of a quasi-fixed point

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Equivalence of Hidden Markov Models with Continuous Observations
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Oscar Darwin; Stefan Kiefer

    We consider Hidden Markov Models that emit sequences of observations that are drawn from continuous distributions. For example, such a model may emit a sequence of numbers, each of which is drawn from a uniform distribution, but the support of the uniform distribution depends on the state of the Hidden Markov Model. Such models generalise the more common version where each observation is drawn from

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Workshop on the ACL2 Theorem Prover and its Applications
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-26
    Grant PassmoreImandra, Inc. and Clare Hall, Cambridge; Ruben GamboaUniversity of Wyoming

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 16th International Workshop on the ACL2 Theorem Prover and its Applications (ACL2-2020). The workshops are the premier technical forum for presenting research and experiences related to ACL2.

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Neural Proof Nets
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-26
    Konstantinos Kogkalidis; Michael Moortgat; Richard Moot

    Linear logic and the linear {\lambda}-calculus have a long standing tradition in the study of natural language form and meaning. Among the proof calculi of linear logic, proof nets are of particular interest, offering an attractive geometric representation of derivations that is unburdened by the bureaucratic complications of conventional prooftheoretic formats. Building on recent advances in set-theoretic

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • Effective Kan fibrations in simplicial sets
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-26
    Benno van den Berg; Eric Faber

    We introduce the notion of an effective Kan fibration, a new mathematical structure that can be used to study simplicial homotopy theory. Our main motivation is to make simplicial homotopy theory suitable for homotopy type theory. Effective Kan fibrations are maps of simplicial sets equipped with a structured collection of chosen lifts that satisfy certain non-trivial properties. This contrasts with

    更新日期:2020-09-29
  • The algebra of non-deterministic programs: demonic operators, orders and axioms
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Robin Hirsch; Szabolcs Mikulás; Tim Stokes

    Demonic composition, demonic refinement and demonic union are alternatives to the usual "angelic" composition, angelic refinement (inclusion) and angelic (usual) union defined on binary relations. We first motivate both the angelic and demonic via an analysis of the behaviour of non-deterministic programs, with the angelic associated with partial correctness and demonic with total correctness, both

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Emergence of complex data from simple local rules in a network game
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Felipe S. Abrahão; Klaus Wehmuth; Artur Ziviani

    As one of the main subjects of investigation in data science, network science has been demonstrated a wide range of applications to real-world networks analysis and modeling. For example, the pervasive presence of structural or topological characteristics, such as the small-world phenomenon, small-diameter, scale-free properties, or fat-tailed degree distribution were one of the underlying pillars

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Towards a Modular Ontology for Space Weather Research
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Cogan Shimizu; Ryan McGranaghan; Aaron Eberhart; Adam C. Kellerman

    The interactions between the Sun, interplanetary space, near Earth space environment, the Earth's surface, and the power grid are, perhaps unsurprisingly, very complicated. The study of such requires the collaboration between many different organizations spanning the public and private sectors. Thus, an important component of studying space weather is the integration and analysis of heterogeneous information

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Trace-Checking CPS Properties: Bridging the Cyber-Physical Gap
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Claudio Menghi; Enrico Viganò; Donemico Bianculli; Lionel C. Briand

    Cyber-physical systems combine software and physical components. Specification-driven trace-checking tools for CPS usually provide users with a specification language to express the requirements of interest, and an automatic procedure to check whether these requirements hold on the execution traces of a CPS. Although there exist several specification languages for CPS, they are often not sufficiently

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Weighed Model Counting in FO$^2$ with Cardinality Constraints and Counting Quantifiers: A Closed Form Formula
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Sagar Malhotra; Luciano Serafini

    Weighted First Order Model Counting (WFOMC) computes the weighted sum of the models of a first order theory on a domain of a given finite size. WFOMC has emerged as a fundamental tool for probabilistic inference. Algorithms for WFOMC that run in polynomial time w.r.t. the domain size are called lifted inference algorithms. Such algorithms have been developed for multiple extensions of FO$^2$(the fragment

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Integration of Formal Proof into Unified Assurance Cases with Isabelle/SACM
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Simon Foster; Yakoub Nemouchi; Mario Gleirscher; Ran Wei; Tim Kelly

    Assurance cases are often required to certify critical systems. The use of formal methods in assurance can improve automation, increase confidence, and overcome errant reasoning. However, assurance cases can never be fully formalised, as the use of formal methods is contingent on models that are validated by informal processes. Consequently, assurance techniques should support both formal and informal

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Successor-Invariant First-Order Logic on Classes of Bounded Degree
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Julien Grange

    We study the expressive power of successor-invariant first-order logic, which is an extension of first-order logic where the usage of an additional successor relation on the structure is allowed, as long as the validity of formulas is independent on the choice of a particular successor. We show that when the degree is bounded, successor-invariant first-order logic is no more expressive than first-order

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • CertRL: Formalizing Convergence Proofs for Value and Policy Iteration in Coq
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Koundinya Vajjha; Avraham Shinnar; Vasily Pestun; Barry Trager; Nathan Fulton

    Reinforcement learning algorithms solve sequential decision-making problems in probabilistic environments by optimizing for long-term reward. The desire to use reinforcement learning in safety-critical settings inspires a recent line of work on formally constrained reinforcement learning; however, these methods place the implementation of the learning algorithm in their Trusted Computing Base. The

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Variant-based Equational Unification under Constructor Symbols
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Damián Aparicio-SánchezVRAIN; Santiago EscobarVRAIN; Julia SapiñaVRAIN

    Equational unification of two terms consists of finding a substitution that, when applied to both terms, makes them equal modulo some equational properties. A narrowing-based equational unification algorithm relying on the concept of the variants of a term is available in the most recent version of Maude, version 3.0, which provides quite sophisticated unification features. A variant of a term t is

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Behavioral Specification Theories: an Algebraic Taxonomy
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Uli Fahrenberg; Axel Legay

    We develop a taxonomy of different behavioral specification theories and expose their algebraic properties. We start by clarifying what precisely constitutes a behavioral specification theory and then introduce logical and structural operations and develop the resulting algebraic properties. In order to motivate our developments, we give plenty of examples of behavioral specification theories with

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • LTLf Synthesis on Probabilistic Systems
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Andrew M. WellsRice University; Morteza LahijanianUniversity of Colorado at Boulder; Lydia E. KavrakiRice University; Moshe Y. VardiRice University

    Many systems are naturally modeled as Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), combining probabilities and strategic actions. Given a model of a system as an MDP and some logical specification of system behavior, the goal of synthesis is to find a policy that maximizes the probability of achieving this behavior. A popular choice for defining behaviors is Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Policy synthesis on MDPs

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Local Higher-Order Fixpoint Iteration
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Florian BruseUniversity of Kassel; Jörg KreikerUniversity of Applied Sciences, Fulda; Martin LangeUniversity of Kassel; Marco SälzerUniversity of Kassel

    Local fixpoint iteration describes a technique that restricts fixpoint iteration in function spaces to needed arguments only. It has been studied well for first-order functions in abstract interpretation and also in model checking. Here we consider the problem for least and greatest fixpoints of arbitrary type order. We define an abstract algebra of simply typed higher-order functions with fixpoints

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Bounded Game-Theoretic Semantics for Modal Mu-Calculus and Some Variants
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Lauri Hella; Antti Kuusisto; Raine Rönnholm

    We introduce a new game-theoretic semantics (GTS) for the modal mu-calculus. Our so-called bounded GTS replaces parity games with alternative evaluation games where only finite paths arise; infinite paths are not needed even when the considered transition system is infinite. The novel games offer alternative approaches to various constructions in the framework of the mu-calculus. For example, they

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • A Game Theoretical Semantics for Logics of Nonsense
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Can BaşkentDepartment of Computer Science, Middlesex University, London

    Logics of non-sense allow a third truth value to express propositions that are \emph{nonsense}. These logics are ideal formalisms to understand how errors are handled in programs and how they propagate throughout the programs once they appear. In this paper, we give a Hintikkan game semantics for logics of non-sense and prove its correctness. We also discuss how a known solution method in game theory

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Symbolic Execution + Model Counting + Entropy Maximization = Automatic Search Synthesis
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Mara DowningHarvey Mudd College; Abtin MolaviHarvey Mudd College; Lucas BangHarvey Mudd College

    We present a method of automatically synthesizing steps to solve search problems. Given a specification of a search problem, our approach uses symbolic execution to analyze the specification in order to extract a set of constraints which model the problem. These constraints are used in a process called model counting, which is leveraged to compute probability distributions relating search steps to

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Symbolic Parity Game Solvers that Yield Winning Strategies
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Oebele LijzengaUniversity of Twente; Tom van DijkUniversity of Twente

    Parity games play an important role for LTL synthesis as evidenced by recent breakthroughs on LTL synthesis, which rely in part on parity game solving. Yet state space explosion remains a major issue if we want to scale to larger systems or specifications. In order to combat this problem, we need to investigate symbolic methods such as BDDs, which have been successful in the past to tackle exponentially

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • LTLf Synthesis under Partial Observability: From Theory to Practice
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Lucas M. TabajaraRice University; Moshe Y. VardiRice University

    LTL synthesis is the problem of synthesizing a reactive system from a formal specification in Linear Temporal Logic. The extension of allowing for partial observability, where the system does not have direct access to all relevant information about the environment, allows generalizing this problem to a wider set of real-world applications, but the difficulty of implementing such an extension in practice

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • The Quotient in Preorder Theories
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Íñigo X. Íncer RomeoUniversity of California, Berkeley; Leonardo MangerucaRaytheon Technologies Research Center, Rome, Italy; Tiziano VillaUniversità di Verona, Italy; Alberto Sangiovanni-VincentelliUniversity of California, Berkeley

    Seeking the largest solution to an expression of the form A x <= B is a common task in several domains of engineering and computer science. This largest solution is commonly called quotient. Across domains, the meanings of the binary operation and the preorder are quite different, yet the syntax for computing the largest solution is remarkably similar. This paper is about finding a common framework

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Logic Programming and Machine Ethics
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Abeer DyoubUniversity of L'Aquila, Italy; Stefania CostantiniUniversity of L'Aquila, Italy; Francesca A. LisiUniversity of Bari "A. Moro", Italy

    Transparency is a key requirement for ethical machines. Verified ethical behavior is not enough to establish justified trust in autonomous intelligent agents: it needs to be supported by the ability to explain decisions. Logic Programming (LP) has a great potential for developing such perspective ethical systems, as in fact logic rules are easily comprehensible by humans. Furthermore, LP is able to

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Learning Concepts Described by Weight Aggregation Logic
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Steffen van Bergerem; Nicole Schweikardt

    We consider weighted structures, which extend ordinary relational structures by assigning weights, i.e. elements from a particular group or ring, to tuples present in the structure. We introduce an extension of first-order logic that allows to aggregate weights of tuples, compare such aggregates, and use them to build more complex formulas. We provide locality properties of fragments of this logic

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • LP2PB: Translating Answer Set Programs into Pseudo-Boolean Theories
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Wolf De WulfVrije Universiteit Brussel; Bart BogaertsVrije Universiteit Brussel

    Answer set programming (ASP) is a well-established knowledge representation formalism. Most ASP solvers are based on (extensions of) technology from Boolean satisfiability solving. While these solvers have shown to be very successful in many practical applications, their strength is limited by their underlying proof system, resolution. In this paper, we present a new tool LP2PB that translates ASP

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Enhancing Linear Algebraic Computation of Logic Programs Using Sparse Representation
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Tuan Nguyen QuocNational Institute of Informatics; Katsumi InoueNational Institute of Informatics; Chiaki SakamaWakayama University

    Algebraic characterization of logic programs has received increasing attention in recent years. Researchers attempt to exploit connections between linear algebraic computation and symbolic computation in order to perform logical inference in large scale knowledge bases. This paper proposes further improvement by using sparse matrices to embed logic programs in vector spaces. We show its great power

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Sequent-Type Calculi for Systems of Nonmonotonic Paraconsistent Logics
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Tobias Geibinger; Hans Tompits

    Paraconsistent logics constitute an important class of formalisms dealing with non-trivial reasoning from inconsistent premisses. In this paper, we introduce uniform axiomatisations for a family of nonmonotonic paraconsistent logics based on minimal inconsistency in terms of sequent-type proof systems. The latter are prominent and widely-used forms of calculi well-suited for analysing proof search

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Burden of Persuasion in Argumentation
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Roberta CalegariCIRSFID - Alma AI, University of Bologna, Italy; Giovanni SartorCIRSFID - Alma AI, University of Bologna, Italy

    This paper provides a formal model for the burden of persuasion in dialogues, and in particular, in legal proceedings. The model shows how an allocation of the burden of persuasion may induce single outcomes in dialectical contexts in which, without such an allocation, the status of conflicting arguments would remain undecided. Our approach is based on a two-stage labelling. The first-stage labelling

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Deriving Theorems in Implicational Linear Logic, Declaratively
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Paul TarauUniversity of North Texas; Valeria de PaivaTopos Institute

    The problem we want to solve is how to generate all theorems of a given size in the implicational fragment of propositional intuitionistic linear logic. We start by filtering for linearity the proof terms associated by our Prolog-based theorem prover for Implicational Intuitionistic Logic. This works, but using for each formula a PSPACE-complete algorithm limits it to very small formulas. We take a

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Justifications for Goal-Directed Constraint Answer Set Programming
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Joaquín Arias; Manuel Carro; Zhuo Chen; Gopal Gupta

    Ethical and legal concerns make it necessary for programs that may directly influence the life of people (via, e.g., legal or health counseling) to justify in human-understandable terms the advice given. Answer Set Programming has a rich semantics that makes it possible to very concisely express complex knowledge. However, justifying why an answer is a consequence from an ASP program may be non-trivial

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Negative probabilities: What they are and what they are for
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Andreas Blass; Yuri Gurevich

    In quantum mechanics, the probability distributions of position and momentum of a particle are normally not the marginals of a joint distribution, that is unless -- as shown by Wigner in 1932 -- negative probabilities are allowed. Since then, much theoretical work has been done to study negative probabilities; most of this work is about what those probabilities are. We suggest shifting the emphasis

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • A Machine Learning guided Rewriting Approach for ASP Logic Programs
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Elena MastriaDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Calabria, Italy; Jessica ZangariDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Calabria, Italy; Simona PerriDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Calabria, Italy; Francesco CalimeriDepartment of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Calabria, Italy

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is a declarative logic formalism that allows to encode computational problems via logic programs. Despite the declarative nature of the formalism, some advanced expertise is required, in general, for designing an ASP encoding that can be efficiently evaluated by an actual ASP system. A common way for trying to reduce the burden of manually tweaking an ASP program consists

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Less Manual Work for Safety Engineers: Towards an Automated Safety Reasoning with Safety Patterns
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Yuri Gil Dantasfortiss GmbH; Antoaneta Kondevafortiss GmbH; Vivek Nigamfortiss GmbH

    The development of safety-critical systems requires the control of hazards that can potentially cause harm. To this end, safety engineers rely during the development phase on architectural solutions, called safety patterns, such as safety monitors, voters, and watchdogs. The goal of these patterns is to control (identified) faults that can trigger hazards. Safety patterns can control such faults by

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • An application of Answer Set Programming in Distributed Architectures: ASP Microservices
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Stefania CostantiniUniversity of L'Aquila, Italy; Lorenzo De LauretisUniversity of L'Aquila, Italy

    We propose an approach to the definition of microservices with an Answer Set Programming (ASP) `core', where microservices are a successful abstraction for designing distributed applications as suites of independently deployable interacting components. Such ASP-based components might be employed in distributed architectures related to Cloud Computing or to the Internet of Things (IoT).

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Dynamic Multi-Agent Path Finding based on Conflict Resolution using Answer Set Programming
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Basem AtiqSabanci University; Volkan PatogluSabanci University; Esra ErdemSabanci University

    We study a dynamic version of multi-agent path finding problem (called D-MAPF) where existing agents may leave and new agents may join the team at different times. We introduce a new method to solve D-MAPF based on conflict-resolution. The idea is, when a set of new agents joins the team and there are conflicts, instead of replanning for the whole team, to replan only for a minimal subset of agents

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Tabling Optimization for Contextual Abduction
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Ridhwan Dewoprabowo; Ari Saptawijaya

    Tabling for contextual abduction in logic programming has been introduced as a means to store previously obtained abductive solutions in one context to be reused in another context. This paper identifies a number of issues in the existing implementations of tabling in contextual abduction and aims to mitigate the issues. We propose a new program transformation for integrity constraints to deal with

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Automated Aggregator -- Rewriting with the Counting Aggregate
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Michael DingessUniversity of Kentucky; Miroslaw TruszczynskiUniversity of Kentucky

    Answer set programming is a leading declarative constraint programming paradigm with wide use for complex knowledge-intensive applications. Modern answer set programming languages support many equivalent ways to model constraints and specifications in a program. However, so far answer set programming has failed to develop systematic methodologies for building representations that would uniformly lend

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • SQuARE: Semantics-based Question Answering and Reasoning Engine
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Kinjal Basu; Sarat Chandra Varanasi; Farhad Shakerin; Gopal Gupta

    Understanding the meaning of a text is a fundamental challenge of natural language understanding (NLU) and from its early days, it has received significant attention through question answering (QA) tasks. We introduce a general semantics-based framework for natural language QA and also describe the SQuARE system, an application of this framework. The framework is based on the denotational semantics

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Solving Gossip Problems using Answer Set Programming: An Epistemic Planning Approach
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Esra ErdemSabanci University; Andreas HerzigInstitut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse

    We investigate the use of Answer Set Programming to solve variations of gossip problems, by modeling them as epistemic planning problems.

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Modeling Hierarchical System with Operads
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Spencer BreinerNIST; Blake PollardNIST; Eswaran SubrahmanianCMU; Olivier Marie-RosePrometheus Computing

    This paper applies operads and functorial semantics to address the problem of failure diagnosis in complex systems. We start with a concrete example, developing a hierarchical interaction model for the Length Scale Interferometer, a high-precision measurement system operated by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The model is expressed in terms of combinatorial/diagrammatic structures

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • On the Intrinsic Redundancy in Huge Natural Deduction proofs II: Analysing $M_{\imply}$ Super-Polynomial Proofs
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Edward Hermann Haeusler

    This article precisely defines huge proofs within the system of Natural Deduction for the Minimal implicational propositional logic \mil. This is what we call an unlimited family of super-polynomial proofs. We consider huge families of expanded normal form mapped proofs, a device to explicitly help to count the E-parts of a normal proof in an adequate way. Thus, we show that for almost all members

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • SHACL Satisfiability and Containment (Extended Paper)
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Paolo Pareti; George Konstantinidis; Fabio Mogavero; Timothy J. Norman

    The Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL) is a recent W3C recommendation language for validating RDF data. Specifically, SHACL documents are collections of constraints that enforce particular shapes on an RDF graph. Previous work on the topic has provided theoretical and practical results for the validation problem, but did not consider the standard decision problems of satisfiability and containment

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Foundations
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-20
    Jeremy Avigad

    This is a draft of a chapter on mathematical logic and foundations for an upcoming handbook of computational proof assistants.

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Characterizing Positively Invariant Sets: Inductive and Topological Methods
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Khalil Ghorbal; Andrew Sogokon

    Set positive invariance is an important concept in the theory of dynamical systems and one which also has practical applications in areas of computer science, such as formal verification, as well as in control theory. Great progress has been made in understanding positively invariant sets in continuous dynamical systems and powerful computational tools have been developed for reasoning about them;

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Answering Counting Queries over DL-Lite Ontologies
    arXiv.cs.LO Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Meghyn BienvenuUB, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LaBRI; Quentin ManièreUB, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, LaBRI; Michaël ThomazoVALDA

    Ontology-mediated query answering (OMQA) is a promising approach to data access and integration that has been actively studied in the knowledge representation and database communities for more than a decade. The vast majority of work on OMQA focuses on conjunctive queries, whereas more expressive queries that feature counting or other forms of aggregation remain largely unex-plored. In this paper,

    更新日期:2020-09-22
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