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  • Parallelism in Randomized Incremental Algorithms
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Guy E. Blelloch; Yan Gu; Julian Shun; Yihan Sun

    In this article, we show that many sequential randomized incremental algorithms are in fact parallel. We consider algorithms for several problems, including Delaunay triangulation, linear programming, closest pair, smallest enclosing disk, least-element lists, and strongly connected components. We analyze the dependencies between iterations in an algorithm and show that the dependence structure is

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Invited Articles Foreword
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Eva Tardos

    No abstract available.

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Universally Composable Security
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ran Canetti

    This work presents a general framework for describing cryptographic protocols and analyzing their security. The framework allows specifying the security requirements of practically any cryptographic task in a unified and systematic way. Furthermore, in this framework the security of protocols is preserved under a general composition operation, called universal composition. The proposed framework with

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Automating Resolution is NP-Hard
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Albert Atserias; Moritz Müller

    We show that the problem of finding a Resolution refutation that is at most polynomially longer than a shortest one is NP-hard. In the parlance of proof complexity, Resolution is not automatable unless P = NP. Indeed, we show that it is NP-hard to distinguish between formulas that have Resolution refutations of polynomial length and those that do not have subexponential length refutations. This also

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • A Proof of the CSP Dichotomy Conjecture
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Dmitriy Zhuk

    Many natural combinatorial problems can be expressed as constraint satisfaction problems. This class of problems is known to be NP-complete in general, but certain restrictions on the form of the constraints can ensure tractability. The standard way to parameterize interesting subclasses of the constraint satisfaction problem is via finite constraint languages. The main problem is to classify those

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Planar Graphs Have Bounded Queue-Number
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Vida Dujmović; Gwenaël Joret; Piotr Micek; Pat Morin; Torsten Ueckerdt; David R. Wood

    We show that planar graphs have bounded queue-number, thus proving a conjecture of Heath et al. [66] from 1992. The key to the proof is a new structural tool called layered partitions, and the result that every planar graph has a vertex-partition and a layering, such that each part has a bounded number of vertices in each layer, and the quotient graph has bounded treewidth. This result generalises

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • The Log-Approximate-Rank Conjecture Is False
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-21
    Arkadev Chattopadhyay; Nikhil S. Mande; Suhail Sherif

    We construct a simple and total Boolean function F = f ○ XOR on 2n variables that has only O(√n) spectral norm, O(n2) approximate rank, and O(n2.5) approximate nonnegative rank. We show it has polynomially large randomized bounded-error communication complexity of Ω(√n). This yields the first exponential gap between the logarithm of the approximate rank and randomized communication complexity for total

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • A Simple and Approximately Optimal Mechanism for an Additive Buyer
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Moshe Babaioff; Nicole Immorlica; Brendan Lucier; S. Matthew Weinberg

    We consider a monopolist seller with n heterogeneous items, facing a single buyer. The buyer has a value for each item drawn independently according to (non-identical) distributions, and her value for a set of items is additive. The seller aims to maximize his revenue. We suggest using the a priori better of two simple pricing methods: selling the items separately, each at its optimal price, and bundling

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • Forcing and Calculi for Hybrid Logics
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Daniel Găină

    The definition of institution formalizes the intuitive notion of logic in a category-based setting. Similarly, the concept of stratified institution provides an abstract approach to Kripke semantics. This includes hybrid logics, a type of modal logics expressive enough to allow references to the nodes/states/worlds of the models regarded as relational structures, or multi-graphs. Applications of hybrid

    更新日期:2020-08-18
  • The Power of Shunning: Efficient Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement Revisited*
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Laasya Bangalore; Ashish Choudhury; Arpita Patra

    The problem of Byzantine Agreement (BA) is of interest to both the distributed computing and cryptography communities. Following well-known results from distributed computing literature, the BA problem in the asynchronous network setting encounters inevitable non-termination issues. The impasse is overcome via randomization that allows construction of BA protocols in two flavors of termination guarantee—with

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Distributed Exact Shortest Paths in Sublinear Time
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Michael Elkin

    The distributed single-source shortest paths problem is one of the most fundamental and central problems in the message-passing distributed computing. Classical Bellman-Ford algorithm solves it in O(n) time, where n is the number of vertices in the input graph G. Peleg and Rubinovich [49] showed a lower bound of ˜Ω(D + √ n) for this problem, where D is the hop-diameter of G. Whether or not this problem

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Representative Sets and Irrelevant Vertices: New Tools for Kernelization
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Stefan Kratsch; Magnus WahlströM

    We continue the development of matroid-based techniques for kernelization, initiated by the present authors [47]. We significantly extend the usefulness of matroid theory in kernelization by showing applications of a result on representative sets due to Lovász [51] and Marx [53]. As a first result, we show how representative sets can be used to derive a polynomial kernel for the elusive ALMOST 2-SAT

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Fully Online Matching
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Zhiyi Huang; Ning Kang; Zhihao Gavin Tang; Xiaowei Wu; Yuhao Zhang; Xue Zhu

    We introduce a fully online model of maximum cardinality matching in which all vertices arrive online. On the arrival of a vertex, its incident edges to previously arrived vertices are revealed. Each vertex has a deadline that is after all its neighbors’ arrivals. If a vertex remains unmatched until its deadline, then the algorithm must irrevocably either match it to an unmatched neighbor or leave

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • A Near-linear Time ε-Approximation Algorithm for Geometric Bipartite Matching
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Sharath Raghvendra; Pankaj K. Agarwal

    For point sets A, B ⊂ Rd, ∣A∣ = ∣B∣ = n, and for a parameter ε > 0, we present a Monte Carlo algorithm that computes, in O(npoly(log n, 1/ε)) time, an ε-approximate perfect matching of A and B under any Lp-norm with high probability; the previously best-known algorithm takes Ω(n3/2) time. We approximate the Lp-norm using a distance function, d(⋅, ⋅) based on a randomly shifted quad-tree. The algorithm

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Embeddability in R3is NP-hard
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Arnaud de Mesmay; Yo’av Rieck; Eric Sedgwick; Martin Tancer

    We prove that the problem of deciding whether a two- or three-dimensional simplicial complex embeds into R3 is NP-hard. Our construction also shows that deciding whether a 3-manifold with boundary tori admits an S3 filling is NP-hard. The former stands in contrast with the lower-dimensional cases, which can be solved in linear time, and the latter with a variety of computational problems in 3-manifold

    更新日期:2020-06-04
  • Scene Grammars, Factor Graphs, and Belief Propagation
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Jeroen Chua; Pedro F. Felzenszwalb

    We describe a general framework for probabilistic modeling of complex scenes and for inference from ambiguous observations. The approach is motivated by applications in image analysis and is based on the use of priors defined by stochastic grammars. We define a class of grammars that capture relationships between the objects in a scene and provide important contextual cues for statistical inference

    更新日期:2020-05-30
  • Planar Graph Perfect Matching Is in NC
    J. ACM (IF 1.686) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Nima Anari; Vijay V. Vazirani

    Is perfect matching in NC? That is, is there a deterministic fast parallel algorithm for it? This has been an outstanding open question in theoretical computer science for over three decades, ever since the discovery of RNC perfect matching algorithms. Within this question, the case of planar graphs has remained an enigma: On the one hand, counting the number of perfect matchings is far harder than

    更新日期:2020-05-30
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