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  • The Card1 nuclease provides defence during type-III CRISPR immunity
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Jakob T. Rostøl; Wei Xie; Vitaly Kuryavyi; Pascal Maguin; Kevin Kao; Ruby Froom; Dinshaw J. Patel; Luciano A. Marraffini

    During the prokaryotic type III CRISPR-Cas immune response, infection triggers the production of cyclic oligoadenylates, which bind and activate CARF domain-containing proteins1,2. Many type III loci are associated with proteins in which the CARF domain is fused to an endonuclease-like domain3,4; however, with the exception of the well-characterized Csm6/Csx1 RNases5,6, whether and how these inducible

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Christian Gaebler; Zijun Wang; Julio C. C. Lorenzi; Frauke Muecksch; Shlomo Finkin; Minami Tokuyama; Alice Cho; Mila Jankovic; Dennis Schaefer-Babajew; Thiago Y. Oliveira; Melissa Cipolla; Charlotte Viant; Christopher O. Barnes; Yaron Bram; Gaëlle Breton; Thomas Hägglöf; Pilar Mendoza; Arlene Hurley; Martina Turroja; Kristie Gordon; Katrina G. Millard; Victor Ramos; Fabian Schmidt; Yiska Weisblum;

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 78 million individuals and is responsible for over 1.7 million deaths to date. Infection is associated with development of variable levels of antibodies with neutralizing activity that can protect against infection in animal models1,2. Antibody levels decrease with time, but the nature and quality of the memory B cells that would

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Giant lungfish genome elucidates the conquest of land by vertebrates
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Axel Meyer; Siegfried Schloissnig; Paolo Franchini; Kang Du; Joost Woltering; Iker Irisarri; Wai Yee Wong; Sergej Nowoshilow; Susanne Kneitz; Akane Kawaguchi; Andrej Fabrizius; Peiwen Xiong; Corentin Dechaud; Herman Spaink; Jean-Nicolas Volff; Oleg Simakov; Thorsten Burmester; Elly M. Tanaka; Manfred Schartl

    Lungfishes belong to lobe-fined fish (Sarcopterygii) that in the Devonian ‘conquered’ land and gave rise to all land vertebrates, including humans1–3. We determined the largest chromosome-quality animal genome, the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. Its vast size (~14x of human) is attributable mostly to huge intergenic regions and introns with high repeat content (≈90%) whose components resemble

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Correlation-driven topological phases in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Youngjoon Choi; Hyunjin Kim; Yang Peng; Alex Thomson; Cyprian Lewandowski; Robert Polski; Yiran Zhang; Harpreet Singh Arora; Kenji Watanabe; Takashi Taniguchi; Jason Alicea; Stevan Nadj-Perge

    Magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MATBG) exhibits a range of correlated phenomena that originate from strong electron–electron interactions. These interactions make the Fermi surface highly susceptible to reconstruction when ±1, ±2 and ±3 electrons occupy each moiré unit cell, and lead to the formation of various correlated phases1,2,3,4. Although some phases have been shown to have a non-zero

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Chaperone-mediated autophagy sustains haematopoietic stem-cell function
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Shuxian Dong; Qian Wang; Yun-Ruei Kao; Antonio Diaz; Inmaculada Tasset; Susmita Kaushik; Victor Thiruthuvanathan; Aliona Zintiridou; Edward Nieves; Monika Dzieciatkowska; Julie A. Reisz; Evripidis Gavathiotis; Angelo D’Alessandro; Britta Will; Ana Maria Cuervo

    The activation of mostly quiescent haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a prerequisite for life-long production of blood cells1. This process requires major molecular adaptations to allow HSCs to meet the regulatory and metabolic requirements for cell division2,3,4. The mechanisms that govern cellular reprograming upon stem-cell activation, and the subsequent return of stem cells to quiescence, have

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Giant nonlinear optical responses from photon-avalanching nanoparticles
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Changhwan Lee; Emma Z. Xu; Yawei Liu; Ayelet Teitelboim; Kaiyuan Yao; Angel Fernandez-Bravo; Agata M. Kotulska; Sang Hwan Nam; Yung Doug Suh; Artur Bednarkiewicz; Bruce E. Cohen; Emory M. Chan; P. James Schuck

    Avalanche phenomena use steeply nonlinear dynamics to generate disproportionately large responses from small perturbations, and are found in a multitude of events and materials1. Photon avalanching enables technologies such as optical phase-conjugate imaging2, infrared quantum counting3 and efficient upconverted lasing4,5,6. However, the photon-avalanching mechanism underlying these optical applications

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • m 6 A RNA methylation regulates the fate of endogenous retroviruses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Tomasz Chelmicki; Emeline Roger; Aurélie Teissandier; Mathilde Dura; Lorraine Bonneville; Sofia Rucli; François Dossin; Camille Fouassier; Sonia Lameiras; Deborah Bourc’his

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are abundant and heterogenous groups of integrated retroviral sequences that affect genome regulation and cell physiology throughout their RNA-centred life cycle1. Failure to repress ERVs is associated with cancer, infertility, senescence and neurodegenerative diseases2,3. Here, using an unbiased genome-scale CRISPR knockout screen in mouse embryonic stem cells, we identify

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • A bright γ-ray flare interpreted as a giant magnetar flare in NGC 253
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    D. Svinkin; D. Frederiks; K. Hurley; R. Aptekar; S. Golenetskii; A. Lysenko; A. V. Ridnaia; A. Tsvetkova; M. Ulanov; T. L. Cline; I. Mitrofanov; D. Golovin; A. Kozyrev; M. Litvak; A. Sanin; A. Goldstein; M. S. Briggs; C. Wilson-Hodge; A. von Kienlin; X.-L. Zhang; A. Rau; V. Savchenko; E. Bozzo; C. Ferrigno; P. Ubertini; A. Bazzano; J. C. Rodi; S. Barthelmy; J. Cummings; H. Krimm; D. M. Palmer; W. Boynton;

    Soft γ-ray repeaters exhibit bursting emission in hard X-rays and soft γ-rays. During the active phase, they emit random short (milliseconds to several seconds long), hard-X-ray bursts, with peak luminosities1 of 1036 to 1043 erg per second. Occasionally, a giant flare with an energy of around 1044 to 1046 erg is emitted2. These phenomena are thought to arise from neutron stars with extremely high

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Entangling logical qubits with lattice surgery
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Alexander Erhard; Hendrik Poulsen Nautrup; Michael Meth; Lukas Postler; Roman Stricker; Martin Stadler; Vlad Negnevitsky; Martin Ringbauer; Philipp Schindler; Hans J. Briegel; Rainer Blatt; Nicolai Friis; Thomas Monz

    The development of quantum computing architectures from early designs and current noisy devices to fully fledged quantum computers hinges on achieving fault tolerance using quantum error correction1,2,3,4. However, these correction capabilities come with an overhead for performing the necessary fault-tolerant logical operations on logical qubits (qubits that are encoded in ensembles of physical qubits

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Loop extrusion mediates physiological Igh locus contraction for RAG scanning
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Hai-Qiang Dai; Hongli Hu; Jiangman Lou; Adam Yongxin Ye; Zhaoqing Ba; Xuefei Zhang; Yiwen Zhang; Lijuan Zhao; Hye Suk Yoon; Aimee M. Chapdelaine-Williams; Nia Kyritsis; Huan Chen; Kerstin Johnson; Sherry Lin; Andrea Conte; Rafael Casellas; Cheng-Sheng Lee; Frederick W. Alt

    RAG endonuclease initiates Igh V(D)J recombination in progenitor B cells by binding a JH-recombination signal sequence (RSS) within a recombination centre (RC) and then linearly scanning upstream chromatin, presented by loop extrusion mediated by cohesin, for convergent D-RSSs1,2. The utilization of convergently oriented RSSs and cryptic RSSs is intrinsic to long-range RAG scanning3. Scanning of RAG

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Functional refolding of the penetration protein on a non-enveloped virus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Tobias Herrmann; Raúl Torres; Eric N. Salgado; Cristina Berciu; Daniel Stoddard; Daniela Nicastro; Simon Jenni; Stephen C. Harrison

    A non-enveloped virus requires a membrane lesion to deliver its genome into a target cell1. For rotaviruses, membrane perforation is a principal function of the viral outer-layer protein, VP42,3. Here we describe the use of electron cryomicroscopy to determine how VP4 performs this function and show that when activated by cleavage to VP8* and VP5*, VP4 can rearrange on the virion surface from an ‘upright’

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Rapid spectral variability of a giant flare from a magnetar in NGC 253
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    O. J. Roberts; P. Veres; M. G. Baring; M. S. Briggs; C. Kouveliotou; E. Bissaldi; G. Younes; S. I. Chastain; J. J. DeLaunay; D. Huppenkothen; A. Tohuvavohu; P. N. Bhat; E. Göğüş; A. J. van der Horst; J. A. Kennea; D. Kocevski; J. D. Linford; S. Guiriec; R. Hamburg; C. A. Wilson-Hodge; E. Burns

    Magnetars are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields (1013 to 1015 gauss)1,2, which episodically emit X-ray bursts approximately 100 milliseconds long and with energies of 1040 to 1041 erg. Occasionally, they also produce extremely bright and energetic giant flares, which begin with a short (roughly 0.2 seconds), intense flash, followed by fainter, longer-lasting emission that is modulated

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Structure and function of a neocortical synapse
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Simone Holler; German Köstinger; Kevan A. C. Martin; Gregor F. P. Schuhknecht; Ken J. Stratford

    In 1986, electron microscopy was used to reconstruct by hand the entire nervous system of a roundworm, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans1. Since this landmark study, high-throughput electron-microscopic techniques have enabled reconstructions of much larger mammalian brain circuits at synaptic resolution2,3. Nevertheless, it remains unknown how the structure of a synapse relates to its physiological

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Dire wolves were the last of an ancient New World canid lineage
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Angela R. Perri; Kieren J. Mitchell; Alice Mouton; Sandra Álvarez-Carretero; Ardern Hulme-Beaman; James Haile; Alexandra Jamieson; Julie Meachen; Audrey T. Lin; Blaine W. Schubert; Carly Ameen; Ekaterina E. Antipina; Pere Bover; Selina Brace; Alberto Carmagnini; Christian Carøe; Jose A. Samaniego Castruita; James C. Chatters; Keith Dobney; Mario dos Reis; Allowen Evin; Philippe Gaubert; Shyam Gopalakrishnan;

    Dire wolves are considered to be one of the most common and widespread large carnivores in Pleistocene America1, yet relatively little is known about their evolution or extinction. Here, to reconstruct the evolutionary history of dire wolves, we sequenced five genomes from sub-fossil remains dating from 13,000 to more than 50,000 years ago. Our results indicate that although they were similar morphologically

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Antarctic icebergs reorganize ocean circulation during Pleistocene glacials
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Aidan Starr; Ian R. Hall; Stephen Barker; Thomas Rackow; Xu Zhang; Sidney R. Hemming; H. J. L. van der Lubbe; Gregor Knorr; Melissa A. Berke; Grant R. Bigg; Alejandra Cartagena-Sierra; Francisco J. Jiménez-Espejo; Xun Gong; Jens Gruetzner; Nambiyathodi Lathika; Leah J. LeVay; Rebecca S. Robinson; Martin Ziegler

    The dominant feature of large-scale mass transfer in the modern ocean is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). The geometry and vigour of this circulation influences global climate on various timescales. Palaeoceanographic evidence suggests that during glacial periods of the past 1.5 million years the AMOC had markedly different features from today1; in the Atlantic basin, deep waters

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal pain
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Javier Aguilera-Lizarraga; Morgane V. Florens; Maria Francesca Viola; Piyush Jain; Lisse Decraecker; Iris Appeltans; Maria Cuende-Estevez; Naomi Fabre; Kim Van Beek; Eluisa Perna; Dafne Balemans; Nathalie Stakenborg; Stavroula Theofanous; Goele Bosmans; Stéphanie U. Mondelaers; Gianluca Matteoli; Sales Ibiza Martínez; Cintya Lopez-Lopez; Josue Jaramillo-Polanco; Karel Talavera; Yeranddy A. Alpizar;

    Up to 20% of people worldwide develop gastrointestinal symptoms following a meal1, leading to decreased quality of life, substantial morbidity and high medical costs. Although the interest of both the scientific and lay communities in this issue has increased markedly in recent years, with the worldwide introduction of gluten-free and other diets, the underlying mechanisms of food-induced abdominal

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Patterns of de novo tandem repeat mutations and their role in autism
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Ileena Mitra; Bonnie Huang; Nima Mousavi; Nichole Ma; Michael Lamkin; Richard Yanicky; Sharona Shleizer-Burko; Kirk E. Lohmueller; Melissa Gymrek

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an early-onset developmental disorder characterized by deficits in communication and social interaction and restrictive or repetitive behaviours1,2. Family studies demonstrate that ASD has a substantial genetic basis with contributions both from inherited and de novo variants3,4. It has been estimated that de novo mutations may contribute to 30% of all simplex cases

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • STING controls nociception via type I interferon signalling in sensory neurons
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Christopher R. Donnelly; Changyu Jiang; Amanda S. Andriessen; Kaiyuan Wang; Zilong Wang; Huiping Ding; Junli Zhao; Xin Luo; Michael S. Lee; Yu L. Lei; William Maixner; Mei-Chuan Ko; Ru-Rong Ji

    The innate immune regulator STING is a critical sensor of self- and pathogen-derived DNA. DNA sensing by STING leads to the induction of type-I interferons (IFN-I) and other cytokines, which promote immune-cell-mediated eradication of pathogens and neoplastic cells1,2. STING is also a robust driver of antitumour immunity, which has led to the development of STING activators and small-molecule agonists

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Circuits between infected macrophages and T cells in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Rogan A. Grant; Luisa Morales-Nebreda; Nikolay S. Markov; Suchitra Swaminathan; Melissa Querrey; Estefany R. Guzman; Darryl A. Abbott; Helen K. Donnelly; Alvaro Donayre; Isaac A. Goldberg; Zasu M. Klug; Nicole Borkowski; Ziyan Lu; Hermon Kihshen; Yuliya Politanska; Lango Sichizya; Mengjia Kang; Ali Shilatifard; Chao Qi; Jon W. Lomasney; A. Christine Argento; Jacqueline M. Kruser; Elizabeth S. Malsin;

    Some patients infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)1. Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from other types of pneumonia2. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from

    更新日期:2021-01-11
  • Transporting and concentrating vibrational energy to promote isomerization
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Jascha A. Lau; Li Chen; Arnab Choudhury; Dirk Schwarzer; Varun B. Verma; Alec M. Wodtke

    Visible-light absorption and transport of the resultant electronic excitations to a reaction centre through Förster resonance energy transfer1,2,3 (FRET) are critical to the operation of biological light-harvesting systems4, and are used in various artificial systems made of synthetic dyes5, polymers6 or nanodots7,8. The fundamental equations describing FRET are similar to those describing vibration-to-vibration

    更新日期:2021-01-11
  • Competing magnetic orders in a bilayer Hubbard model with ultracold atoms
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Marcell Gall; Nicola Wurz; Jens Samland; Chun Fai Chan; Michael Köhl

    Fermionic atoms in optical lattices have served as a useful model system in which to study and emulate the physics of strongly correlated matter. Driven by the advances of high-resolution microscopy, the current research focus is on two-dimensional systems1,2,3, in which several quantum phases—such as antiferromagnetic Mott insulators for repulsive interactions4,5,6,7 and charge-density waves for attractive

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Control of osteoblast regeneration by a train of Erk activity waves
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Alessandro De Simone; Maya N. Evanitsky; Luke Hayden; Ben D. Cox; Julia Wang; Valerie A. Tornini; Jianhong Ou; Anna Chao; Kenneth D. Poss; Stefano Di Talia

    Regeneration is a complex chain of events that restores a tissue to its original size and shape. The tissue-wide coordination of cellular dynamics that is needed for proper morphogenesis is challenged by the large dimensions of regenerating body parts. Feedback mechanisms in biochemical pathways can provide effective communication across great distances1,2,3,4,5, but how they might regulate growth

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Design of biologically active binary protein 2D materials
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Ariel J. Ben-Sasson; Joseph L. Watson; William Sheffler; Matthew Camp Johnson; Alice Bittleston; Logeshwaran Somasundaram; Justin Decarreau; Fang Jiao; Jiajun Chen; Ioanna Mela; Andrew A. Drabek; Sanchez M. Jarrett; Stephen C. Blacklow; Clemens F. Kaminski; Greg L. Hura; James J. De Yoreo; Justin M. Kollman; Hannele Ruohola-Baker; Emmanuel Derivery; David Baker

    Ordered two-dimensional arrays such as S-layers1,2 and designed analogues3,4,5 have intrigued bioengineers6,7, but with the exception of a single lattice formed with flexible linkers8, they are constituted from just one protein component. Materials composed of two components have considerable potential advantages for modulating assembly dynamics and incorporating more complex functionality9,10,11,12

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Gut-licensed IFNγ + NK cells drive LAMP1 + TRAIL + anti-inflammatory astrocytes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Liliana M. Sanmarco; Michael A. Wheeler; Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez; Carolina Manganeli Polonio; Mathias Linnerbauer; Felipe A. Pinho-Ribeiro; Zhaorong Li; Federico Giovannoni; Katelyn V. Batterman; Giulia Scalisi; Stephanie E. J. Zandee; Evelyn S. Heck; Moneera Alsuwailm; Douglas L. Rosene; Burkhard Becher; Isaac M. Chiu; Alexandre Prat; Francisco J. Quintana

    Astrocytes are glial cells that are abundant in the central nervous system (CNS) and that have important homeostatic and disease-promoting functions1. However, little is known about the homeostatic anti-inflammatory activities of astrocytes and their regulation. Here, using high-throughput flow cytometry screening, single-cell RNA sequencing and CRISPR–Cas9-based cell-specific in vivo genetic perturbations

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Structures of the glucocorticoid-bound adhesion receptor GPR97–G o complex
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Yu-Qi Ping; Chunyou Mao; Peng Xiao; Ru-Jia Zhao; Yi Jiang; Zhao Yang; Wen-Tao An; Dan-Dan Shen; Fan Yang; Huibing Zhang; Changxiu Qu; Qingya Shen; Caiping Tian; Zi-jian Li; Shaolong Li; Guang-Yu Wang; Xiaona Tao; Xin Wen; Ya-Ni Zhong; Jing Yang; Fan Yi; Xiao Yu; H. Eric Xu; Yan Zhang; Jin-Peng Sun

    Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a major family of GPCRs, but limited knowledge of their ligand regulation or structure is available1,2,3. Here we report that glucocorticoid stress hormones activate adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor G3 (ADGRG3; also known as GPR97)4,5,6, a prototypical adhesion GPCR. The cryo-electron microscopy structures of GPR97–Go complexes bound to the anti-inflammatory

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Poleward and weakened westerlies during Pliocene warmth
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Jordan T. Abell; Gisela Winckler; Robert F. Anderson; Timothy D. Herbert

    The prevailing mid-latitude westerly winds, known as the westerlies, are a fundamental component of the climate system because they have a crucial role in driving surface ocean circulation1 and modulating air–sea heat, momentum and carbon exchange1,2,3. Recent work suggests that westerly wind belts are migrating polewards in response to anthropogenic forcing4,5. Reconstructing the westerlies during

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Platypus and echidna genomes reveal mammalian biology and evolution
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Yang Zhou; Linda Shearwin-Whyatt; Jing Li; Zhenzhen Song; Takashi Hayakawa; David Stevens; Jane C. Fenelon; Emma Peel; Yuanyuan Cheng; Filip Pajpach; Natasha Bradley; Hikoyu Suzuki; Masato Nikaido; Joana Damas; Tasman Daish; Tahlia Perry; Zexian Zhu; Yuncong Geng; Arang Rhie; Ying Sims; Jonathan Wood; Bettina Haase; Jacquelyn Mountcastle; Olivier Fedrigo; Qiye Li; Huanming Yang; Jian Wang; Stephen

    Egg-laying mammals (monotremes) are the only extant mammalian outgroup to therians (marsupial and eutherian animals) and provide key insights into mammalian evolution1,2. Here we generate and analyse reference genomes of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), which represent the only two extant monotreme lineages. The nearly complete platypus genome assembly has

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • In vivo base editing rescues Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome in mice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Luke W. Koblan; Michael R. Erdos; Christopher Wilson; Wayne A. Cabral; Jonathan M. Levy; Zheng-Mei Xiong; Urraca L. Tavarez; Lindsay M. Davison; Yantenew G. Gete; Xiaojing Mao; Gregory A. Newby; Sean P. Doherty; Narisu Narisu; Quanhu Sheng; Chad Krilow; Charles Y. Lin; Leslie B. Gordon; Kan Cao; Francis S. Collins; Jonathan D. Brown; David R. Liu

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS or progeria) is typically caused by a dominant-negative C•G-to-T•A mutation (c.1824 C>T; p.G608G) in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamin A. This mutation causes RNA mis-splicing that produces progerin, a toxic protein that induces rapid ageing and shortens the lifespan of children with progeria to approximately 14 years1,2,3,4. Adenine base editors (ABEs)

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • An integrated space-to-ground quantum communication network over 4,600 kilometres
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Yu-Ao Chen; Qiang Zhang; Teng-Yun Chen; Wen-Qi Cai; Sheng-Kai Liao; Jun Zhang; Kai Chen; Juan Yin; Ji-Gang Ren; Zhu Chen; Sheng-Long Han; Qing Yu; Ken Liang; Fei Zhou; Xiao Yuan; Mei-Sheng Zhao; Tian-Yin Wang; Xiao Jiang; Liang Zhang; Wei-Yue Liu; Yang Li; Qi Shen; Yuan Cao; Chao-Yang Lu; Rong Shu; Jian-Yu Wang; Li Li; Nai-Le Liu; Feihu Xu; Xiang-Bin Wang; Cheng-Zhi Peng; Jian-Wei Pan

    Quantum key distribution (QKD)1,2 has the potential to enable secure communication and information transfer3. In the laboratory, the feasibility of point-to-point QKD is evident from the early proof-of-concept demonstration in the laboratory over 32 centimetres4; this distance was later extended to the 100-kilometre scale5,6 with decoy-state QKD and more recently to the 500-kilometre scale7,8,9,10

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Origins of structural and electronic transitions in disordered silicon
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Volker L. Deringer; Noam Bernstein; Gábor Csányi; Chiheb Ben Mahmoud; Michele Ceriotti; Mark Wilson; David A. Drabold; Stephen R. Elliott

    Structurally disordered materials pose fundamental questions1,2,3,4, including how different disordered phases (‘polyamorphs’) can coexist and transform from one phase to another5,6,7,8,9. Amorphous silicon has been extensively studied; it forms a fourfold-coordinated, covalent network at ambient conditions and much-higher-coordinated, metallic phases under pressure10,11,12. However, a detailed mechanistic

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • 11 TOPS photonic convolutional accelerator for optical neural networks
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Xingyuan Xu; Mengxi Tan; Bill Corcoran; Jiayang Wu; Andreas Boes; Thach G. Nguyen; Sai T. Chu; Brent E. Little; Damien G. Hicks; Roberto Morandotti; Arnan Mitchell; David J. Moss

    Convolutional neural networks, inspired by biological visual cortex systems, are a powerful category of artificial neural networks that can extract the hierarchical features of raw data to provide greatly reduced parametric complexity and to enhance the accuracy of prediction. They are of great interest for machine learning tasks such as computer vision, speech recognition, playing board games and

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Genomic basis of geographical adaptation to soil nitrogen in rice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Yongqiang Liu; Hongru Wang; Zhimin Jiang; Wei Wang; Ruineng Xu; Qihui Wang; Zhihua Zhang; Aifu Li; Yan Liang; Shujun Ou; Xiujie Liu; Shouyun Cao; Hongning Tong; Yonghong Wang; Feng Zhou; Hong Liao; Bin Hu; Chengcai Chu

    The intensive application of inorganic nitrogen underlies marked increases in crop production, but imposes detrimental effects on ecosystems1,2: it is therefore crucial for future sustainable agriculture to improve the nitrogen-use efficiency of crop plants. Here we report the genetic basis of nitrogen-use efficiency associated with adaptation to local soils in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using a panel

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Single-defect phonons imaged by electron microscopy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Xingxu Yan; Chengyan Liu; Chaitanya A. Gadre; Lei Gu; Toshihiro Aoki; Tracy C. Lovejoy; Niklas Dellby; Ondrej L. Krivanek; Darrell G. Schlom; Ruqian Wu; Xiaoqing Pan

    Crystal defects affect the thermal and heat-transport properties of materials by scattering phonons and modifying phonon spectra1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. To appreciate how imperfections in solids influence thermal conductivity and diffusivity, it is thus essential to understand phonon–defect interactions. Sophisticated theories are available to explore such interactions, but experimental validation is limited

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Parallel convolutional processing using an integrated photonic tensor core
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    J. Feldmann; N. Youngblood; M. Karpov; H. Gehring; X. Li; M. Stappers; M. Le Gallo; X. Fu; A. Lukashchuk; A. S. Raja; J. Liu; C. D. Wright; A. Sebastian; T. J. Kippenberg; W. H. P. Pernice; H. Bhaskaran

    With the proliferation of ultrahigh-speed mobile networks and internet-connected devices, along with the rise of artificial intelligence (AI)1, the world is generating exponentially increasing amounts of data that need to be processed in a fast and efficient way. Highly parallelized, fast and scalable hardware is therefore becoming progressively more important2. Here we demonstrate a computationally

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Activation and disruption of a neural mechanism for novel choice in monkeys
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Alessandro Bongioanni; Davide Folloni; Lennart Verhagen; Jérôme Sallet; Miriam C. Klein-Flügge; Matthew F. S. Rushworth

    Neural mechanisms that mediate the ability to make value-guided decisions have received substantial attention in humans and animals1,2,3,4,5,6. Experiments in animals typically involve long training periods. By contrast, choices in the real world often need to be made between new options spontaneously. It is therefore possible that the neural mechanisms targeted in animal studies differ from those

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Core-collapse supernova explosion theory
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    A. Burrows; D. Vartanyan

    Most supernova explosions accompany the death of a massive star. These explosions give birth to neutron stars and black holes, and eject solar masses of heavy elements. However, determining the mechanism of explosion has been a half-century journey of great numerical and physical complexity. Here we present the status of this theoretical quest and the physics and astrophysics upon which its resolution

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery operates by β-barrel switching
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Hironori Takeda; Akihisa Tsutsumi; Tomohiro Nishizawa; Caroline Lindau; Jon V. Busto; Lena-Sophie Wenz; Lars Ellenrieder; Kenichiro Imai; Sebastian P. Straub; Waltraut Mossmann; Jian Qiu; Yu Yamamori; Kentaro Tomii; Junko Suzuki; Takeshi Murata; Satoshi Ogasawara; Osamu Nureki; Thomas Becker; Nikolaus Pfanner; Nils Wiedemann; Masahide Kikkawa; Toshiya Endo

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains so-called β-barrel proteins, which allow communication between the cytosol and the mitochondrial interior1,2,3. Insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane is mediated by the multisubunit mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery (SAM, also known as TOB)4,5,6. Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structures of two different forms

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • A functional map for diverse forelimb actions within brainstem circuitry
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Ludwig Ruder; Riccardo Schina; Harsh Kanodia; Sara Valencia-Garcia; Chiara Pivetta; Silvia Arber

    The brainstem is a key centre in the control of body movements. Although the precise nature of brainstem cell types and circuits that are central to full-body locomotion are becoming known1,2,3,4,5, efforts to understand the neuronal underpinnings of skilled forelimb movements have focused predominantly on supra-brainstem centres and the spinal cord6,7,8,9,10,11,12. Here we define the logic of a functional

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Landau quantization and highly mobile fermions in an insulator
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Pengjie Wang; Guo Yu; Yanyu Jia; Michael Onyszczak; F. Alexandre Cevallos; Shiming Lei; Sebastian Klemenz; Kenji Watanabe; Takashi Taniguchi; Robert J. Cava; Leslie M. Schoop; Sanfeng Wu

    In strongly correlated materials, quasiparticle excitations can carry fractional quantum numbers. An intriguing possibility is the formation of fractionalized, charge-neutral fermions—for example, spinons1 and fermionic excitons2,3—that result in neutral Fermi surfaces and Landau quantization4,5 in an insulator. Although previous experiments in quantum spin liquids1, topological Kondo insulators6,7

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Nociceptive nerves regulate haematopoietic stem cell mobilization
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Xin Gao; Dachuan Zhang; Chunliang Xu; Huihui Li; Kathleen M. Caron; Paul S. Frenette

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized microenvironments in the bone marrow—often referred to as ‘niches’—that represent complex regulatory milieux influenced by multiple cellular constituents, including nerves1,2. Although sympathetic nerves are known to regulate the HSC niche3,4,5,6, the contribution of nociceptive neurons in the bone marrow remains unclear. Here we show that nociceptive

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Chromothripsis drives the evolution of gene amplification in cancer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Ofer Shoshani; Simon F. Brunner; Rona Yaeger; Peter Ly; Yael Nechemia-Arbely; Dong Hyun Kim; Rongxin Fang; Guillaume A. Castillon; Miao Yu; Julia S. Z. Li; Ying Sun; Mark H. Ellisman; Bing Ren; Peter J. Campbell; Don W. Cleveland

    Focal chromosomal amplification contributes to the initiation of cancer by mediating overexpression of oncogenes1,2,3, and to the development of cancer therapy resistance by increasing the expression of genes whose action diminishes the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. Here we used whole-genome sequencing of clonal cell isolates that developed chemotherapeutic resistance to show that chromothripsis is

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Pairing of segmentation clock genes drives robust pattern formation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Oriana Q. H. Zinani; Kemal Keseroğlu; Ahmet Ay; Ertuğrul M. Özbudak

    Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process1,2; however, organismal development and homeostasis require cells to coordinate the spatiotemporal expression of large sets of genes. In metazoans, pairs of co-expressed genes often reside in the same chromosomal neighbourhood, with gene pairs representing 10 to 50% of all genes, depending on the species3,4,5,6. Because shared upstream regulators

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Molecular basis of nucleosomal H3K36 methylation by NSD methyltransferases
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Wanqiu Li; Wei Tian; Gang Yuan; Pujuan Deng; Deepanwita Sengupta; Zhongjun Cheng; Yinghua Cao; Jiahao Ren; Yan Qin; Yuqiao Zhou; Yulin Jia; Or Gozani; Dinshaw J. Patel; Zhanxin Wang

    Histone methyltransferases of the nuclear receptor-binding SET domain protein (NSD) family, including NSD1, NSD2 and NSD3, have crucial roles in chromatin regulation and are implicated in oncogenesis1,2. NSD enzymes exhibit an autoinhibitory state that is relieved by binding to nucleosomes, enabling dimethylation of histone H3 at Lys36 (H3K36)3,4,5,6,7. However, the molecular basis that underlies this

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Cell-type-specific asynchronous modulation of PKA by dopamine in learning
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Suk Joon Lee; Bart Lodder; Yao Chen; Tommaso Patriarchi; Lin Tian; Bernardo L. Sabatini

    Reinforcement learning models postulate that neurons that release dopamine encode information about action and action outcome, and provide a teaching signal to striatal spiny projection neurons in the form of dopamine release1. Dopamine is thought to guide learning via dynamic and differential modulation of protein kinase A (PKA) in each class of spiny projection neuron2. However, the real-time relationship

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • IspH inhibitors kill Gram-negative bacteria and mobilize immune clearance
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Kumar Sachin Singh; Rishabh Sharma; Poli Adi Narayana Reddy; Prashanthi Vonteddu; Madeline Good; Anjana Sundarrajan; Hyeree Choi; Kar Muthumani; Andrew Kossenkov; Aaron R. Goldman; Hsin-Yao Tang; Maxim Totrov; Joel Cassel; Maureen E. Murphy; Rajasekharan Somasundaram; Meenhard Herlyn; Joseph M. Salvino; Farokh Dotiwala

    Isoprenoids are vital for all organisms, in which they maintain membrane stability and support core functions such as respiration1. IspH, an enzyme in the methyl erythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, is essential for Gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and apicomplexans2,3. Its substrate, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), is not produced in metazoans, and in

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • A genetic history of the pre-contact Caribbean
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Daniel M. Fernandes; Kendra A. Sirak; Harald Ringbauer; Jakob Sedig; Nadin Rohland; Olivia Cheronet; Matthew Mah; Swapan Mallick; Iñigo Olalde; Brendan J. Culleton; Nicole Adamski; Rebecca Bernardos; Guillermo Bravo; Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht; Kimberly Callan; Francesca Candilio; Lea Demetz; Kellie Sara Duffett Carlson; Laurie Eccles; Suzanne Freilich; Richard J. George; Ann Marie Lawson; Kirsten

    Humans settled the Caribbean about 6,000 years ago, and ceramic use and intensified agriculture mark a shift from the Archaic to the Ceramic Age at around 2,500 years ago1,2,3. Here we report genome-wide data from 174 ancient individuals from The Bahamas, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (collectively, Hispaniola), Puerto Rico, Curaçao and Venezuela, which we co-analysed with 89 previously published

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Astrocytes phagocytose adult hippocampal synapses for circuit homeostasis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Joon-Hyuk Lee; Ji-young Kim; Seulgi Noh; Hyoeun Lee; Se Young Lee; Ji Young Mun; Hyungju Park; Won-Suk Chung

    In the adult hippocampus, synapses are constantly formed and eliminated1,2. However, the exact function of synapse elimination in the adult brain, and how it is regulated, are largely unknown. Here we show that astrocytic phagocytosis3 is important for maintaining proper hippocampal synaptic connectivity and plasticity. By using fluorescent phagocytosis reporters, we find that excitatory and inhibitory

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Superconducting qubit to optical photon transduction
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Mohammad Mirhosseini; Alp Sipahigil; Mahmoud Kalaee; Oskar Painter

    Conversion of electrical and optical signals lies at the foundation of the global internet. Such converters are used to extend the reach of long-haul fibre-optic communication systems and within data centres for high-speed optical networking of computers. Likewise, coherent microwave-to-optical conversion of single photons would enable the exchange of quantum states between remotely connected superconducting

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Mastering Atari, Go, chess and shogi by planning with a learned model
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Julian Schrittwieser; Ioannis Antonoglou; Thomas Hubert; Karen Simonyan; Laurent Sifre; Simon Schmitt; Arthur Guez; Edward Lockhart; Demis Hassabis; Thore Graepel; Timothy Lillicrap; David Silver

    Constructing agents with planning capabilities has long been one of the main challenges in the pursuit of artificial intelligence. Tree-based planning methods have enjoyed huge success in challenging domains, such as chess1 and Go2, where a perfect simulator is available. However, in real-world problems, the dynamics governing the environment are often complex and unknown. Here we present the MuZero

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Xolography for linear volumetric 3D printing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Martin Regehly; Yves Garmshausen; Marcus Reuter; Niklas F. König; Eric Israel; Damien P. Kelly; Chun-Yu Chou; Klaas Koch; Baraa Asfari; Stefan Hecht

    The range of applications for additive manufacturing is expanding quickly, including mass production of athletic footwear parts1, dental ceramics2 and aerospace components3 as well as fabrication of microfluidics4, medical devices5, and artificial organs6. The light-induced additive manufacturing techniques7 used are particularly successful owing to their high spatial and temporal control, but such

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Mechanism of EBV inducing anti-tumour immunity and its therapeutic use
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Il-Kyu Choi; Zhe Wang; Qiang Ke; Min Hong; Dereck W. Paul; Stacey M. Fernandes; Zhuting Hu; Jonathan Stevens; Indira Guleria; Hye-Jung Kim; Harvey Cantor; Kai W. Wucherpfennig; Jennifer R. Brown; Jerome Ritz; Baochun Zhang

    Tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) comprise a large set of non-mutated cellular antigens recognized by T cells in human and murine cancers. Their potential as targets for immunotherapy has been explored for more than two decades1, yet the origins of TAA-specific T cells remain unclear. While tumour cells may be an important source of TAAs for T cell priming2, several recent studies suggest that infection

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Plasmonic topological quasiparticle on the nanometre and femtosecond scales
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Yanan Dai; Zhikang Zhou; Atreyie Ghosh; Roger S. K. Mong; Atsushi Kubo; Chen-Bin Huang; Hrvoje Petek

    At the interface of classical and quantum physics, the Maxwell and Schrödinger equations describe how optical fields drive and control electronic phenomena to enable lightwave electronics at terahertz or petahertz frequencies and on ultrasmall scales1,2,3,4,5. The electric field of light striking a metal interacts with electrons and generates light–matter quasiparticles, such as excitons6 or plasmons7

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Evolving schema representations in orbitofrontal ensembles during learning
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Jingfeng Zhou; Chunying Jia; Marlian Montesinos-Cartagena; Matthew P. H. Gardner; Wenhui Zong; Geoffrey Schoenbaum

    How do we learn about what to learn about? Specifically, how do the neural elements in our brain generalize what has been learned in one situation to recognize the common structure of—and speed learning in—other, similar situations? We know this happens because we become better at solving new problems—learning and deploying schemas1,2,3,4,5—through experience. However, we have little insight into this

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Boundary-anchored neural mechanisms of location-encoding for self and others
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Matthias Stangl; Uros Topalovic; Cory S. Inman; Sonja Hiller; Diane Villaroman; Zahra M. Aghajan; Leonardo Christov-Moore; Nicholas R. Hasulak; Vikram R. Rao; Casey H. Halpern; Dawn Eliashiv; Itzhak Fried; Nanthia Suthana

    Everyday tasks in social settings require humans to encode neural representations of not only their own spatial location, but also the location of other individuals within an environment. At present, the vast majority of what is known about neural representations of space for self and others stems from research in rodents and other non-human animals1,2,3. However, it is largely unknown how the human

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • RANK links thymic regulatory T cells to fetal loss and gestational diabetes in pregnancy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Magdalena Paolino; Rubina Koglgruber; Shane J. F. Cronin; Iris Uribesalgo; Esther Rauscher; Jürgen Harreiter; Michael Schuster; Dagmar Bancher-Todesca; Blanka Pranjic; Maria Novatchkova; Juan P. Fededa; Andrea J. White; Verena Sigl; Sabine Dekan; Thomas Penz; Christoph Bock; Lukas Kenner; Georg A. Holländer; Graham Anderson; Alexandra Kautzky-Willer; Josef M. Penninger

    Successful pregnancies rely on adaptations within the mother1, including marked changes within the immune system2. It has long been known that the thymus, the central lymphoid organ, changes markedly during pregnancy3. However, the molecular basis and importance of this process remain largely obscure. Here we show that the osteoclast differentiation receptor RANK4,5 couples female sex hormones to the

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Underdetection of COVID-19 cases in France threatens epidemic control
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Giulia Pullano; Laura Di Domenico; Chiara E. Sabbatini; Eugenio Valdano; Clément Turbelin; Marion Debin; Caroline Guerrisi; Charly Kengne-Kuetche; Cécile Souty; Thomas Hanslik; Thierry Blanchon; Pierre-Yves Boëlle; Julie Figoni; Sophie Vaux; Christine Campèse; Sibylle Bernard-Stoecklin; Vittoria Colizza

    As countries in Europe gradually relaxed lockdown restrictions after the first wave, test-trace-isolate strategies became critical to maintain COVID-19 viral activity at low levels1,2. Reviewing their shortcomings can provide elements to consider in light of the second wave currently underway in Europe. Here we estimate the rate of detection of COVID-19 symptomatic cases in France after lockdown through

    更新日期:2020-12-21
  • Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-16

    The safe, highly effective measles vaccine has been recommended globally since 1974, yet in 2017 there were more than 17 million cases of measles and 83,400 deaths in children under 5 years old, and more than 99% of both occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)1,2,3,4. Globally comparable, annual, local estimates of routine first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage are critical

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Small-molecule inhibitors of human mitochondrial DNA transcription
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Nina A. Bonekamp; Bradley Peter; Hauke S. Hillen; Andrea Felser; Tim Bergbrede; Axel Choidas; Moritz Horn; Anke Unger; Raffaella Di Lucrezia; Ilian Atanassov; Xinping Li; Uwe Koch; Sascha Menninger; Joanna Boros; Peter Habenberger; Patrick Giavalisco; Patrick Cramer; Martin S. Denzel; Peter Nussbaumer; Bert Klebl; Maria Falkenberg; Claes M. Gustafsson; Nils-Göran Larsson

    Altered expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) occurs in ageing and a range of human pathologies (for example, inborn errors of metabolism, neurodegeneration and cancer). Here we describe first-in-class specific inhibitors of mitochondrial transcription (IMTs) that target the human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT), which is essential for biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system1

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Fat1 deletion promotes hybrid EMT state, tumour stemness and metastasis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Ievgenia Pastushenko; Federico Mauri; Yura Song; Florian de Cock; Bob Meeusen; Benjamin Swedlund; Francis Impens; Delphi Van Haver; Matthieu Opitz; Manuel Thery; Yacine Bareche; Gaelle Lapouge; Marjorie Vermeersch; Yves-Rémi Van Eycke; Cédric Balsat; Christine Decaestecker; Youri Sokolow; Sergio Hassid; Alicia Perez-Bustillo; Beatriz Agreda-Moreno; Luis Rios-Buceta; Pedro Jaen; Pedro Redondo; Ramon

    FAT1, which encodes a protocadherin, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers1,2,3,4,5. However, the role and the molecular mechanisms by which FAT1 mutations control tumour initiation and progression are poorly understood. Here, using mouse models of skin squamous cell carcinoma and lung tumours, we found that deletion of Fat1 accelerates tumour initiation and malignant progression

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Entanglement on an optical atomic-clock transition
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Edwin Pedrozo-Peñafiel; Simone Colombo; Chi Shu; Albert F. Adiyatullin; Zeyang Li; Enrique Mendez; Boris Braverman; Akio Kawasaki; Daisuke Akamatsu; Yanhong Xiao; Vladan Vuletić

    State-of-the-art atomic clocks are based on the precise detection of the energy difference between two atomic levels, which is measured in terms of the quantum phase accumulated over a given time interval1,2,3,4. The stability of optical-lattice clocks (OLCs) is limited both by the interrupted interrogation of the atomic system by the local-oscillator laser (Dick noise5) and by the standard quantum

    更新日期:2020-12-16
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