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  • Injection Molding of Carbon Fiber Composite Automotive Wheel
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Zheng Min Huang, Hyung Min Kim, Jae Ryoun Youn, Young Seok Song

    Injection molding (IM) is a manufacturing process that produces polymeric parts by injecting molten thermoplastic polymer into a mold cavity. It mainly fabricates geometrically complicated parts with dimensional accuracy. In this paper, injection molding of carbon fiber composite automotive wheels with complex shape was investigated numerically. Insert injection molding was also considered to reduce the deformation of the part. Injection molding conditions were determined based on the simulation results such as filling time, mechanical property, and warpage for manufacturing of composite automotive wheels.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Poly(vinyl alcohol) Fibers with Excellent Mechanical Properties Produced by Reinforcement of Single-walled Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons with Complete Morphology Obtained by Freeze-drying
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Di Hu, Chao Xiao, Xia Wang, Xike Xiong, Jun Sun, Qiqi Zhuo, Jianjun Wang, Chuanxiang Qin, Lixing Dai

    Abstract Nanofiller reinforcement is an effective approach to realize high performance of regular synthetic fibers. In this paper, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) with complete morphology were prepared via unzipping single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through long-time freeze-drying after oxidation. GONRs derived from SWCNTs (SGONRs) did not need any modification and could be directly added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form uniform dispersions and then continuous fibers were fabricated using wet spinning and hot-drawing. SGONRs provided abundant hydrogen bonding interaction with PVA chains, so SGONRs could not only obviously improve the dispersibility in PVA, but also enhance the mechanical properties of the composites. The tensile strength of PVA/SGONRs composite fibers with 0.4 wt% loading of SGONRs reach 1032 MPa, improved by 121 % compared with PVA/SWCNTs fiber, and by 200% with PVA fiber, respectively.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Modification of Radiation Grafted Banana Trunk Fibers for Adsorption of Anionic Dyes
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Sarala Selambakkannu, Nor Azillah Fatimah Othman, Khomsaton Abu Bakar, Ting Teo Ming, Reshina Devi Segar, Zulhairun Abdul Karim

    Pre-treated banana fiber were successfully grafted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by employing preirradiation grafting technique with the aid of electron beam accelerator. GMA-grafted fibers were subsequently functionalized with trimethylamine (TMA). TMA functionalized fibers were subjected to elemental analysis to quantify the presence of nitrogen on the fibers. The adsorption of anionic dyes, acid blue (AB 80) and acid red (AR 86) in aqueous solution by TMA functionalized fibers were studied in this paper. The adsorption kinetics were evaluated with pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order. The kinetic adsorption data obtained follows the pseudo-second kinetic model which is supported by higher coefficient value, r2 > 0.99, good agreement with qe,cal and qe,exp values and also represents chemisorption process control. The equilibrium adsorption data were also analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. The adsorption of AB 80 dye obeys the Langmuir adsorption model whereas adsorption of AR 86 dye obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. Adsorption capacity of AR 86 dye is higher than AB 80 dye. The adsorption process was favorable as shown by the separation factor (RL) in the range of 0 < RL < 1. In desorption studies, high amount dyes was eluted with mixture of 50 % methanol + 30 % NaCl (0.5N) + 20% NaClO (1.0N).

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Electrochemical Polymerization of Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Acrylate on Carbon Fiber for Improved Interfacial Properties
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Qiu Li, Ai-ling Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fang-fang Li, Song Wang, San-xi Li, Yong-jiang Li, Ze-fei Sun

    Abstract: Methoxy polyethylene glycol acrylate (MPGA) was electrochemical polymerized on carbon fiber (CF) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) to enhance the surface properties of CF. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) investigations confirmed that MPGA electropolymerized on CF (MPGA-CF) was obtained. The low frequency capacitance of MPGA-CF (CLF=5.85 mF·cm-2) was higher than CF(CLF=4.75 mF·cm-2) based on the result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) and the data obtained fitted with an R(Q(R(Q(R(CR))))) equivalent circuit model. Contact angle experiment showed that the contact angle between water and MPGA-CF is significantly lower than that between water and CF. Mechanical experimental results indicated that the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of MPGA-CF/epoxy resin composites (32.24 MPa) has improved by 134.81 % compare with the CF/epoxy resin composites (13.73 MPa), which significantly enhanced interfacial properties of epoxy resin composites.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Measurement of Liquid Transport Properties of Sanitary Napkin with Modified Forced Flow Water Transport Tester
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ka-Po Maggie Tang, Ching-Hei Li, Chi-Wai Kan

    Abstract Sanitary napkin is worn in direct skin contact and is an essential product for most women. Its liquid transport properties, depending on the material and design, affect skin wetness, skin irritating potential and comfortable feeling. Disposable sanitary napkin is commonly used whilst reusable sanitary napkin is also available in the market for sustainable reason. In this study, a measurement method originated from Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT) was introduced which can characterize the direction of liquid transport of sanitary napkin under different pressure loadings. Disposable sanitary napkins with nonwoven or perforated film surface were compared against the reusable sanitary napkins. The results found that the reusable sanitary napkins tend to accumulate more next-to-skin moisture than the disposable sanitary napkin at equivalent loadings. Also, its transplanar wicking is poor. Besides, disposable sanitary napkins incorporated with superabsorbent polymer provide acceptable liquid transport property whilst those made of flex foam give the best performance.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Thermal Effects of Microwave Reduced-Graphene-Oxide Coated Polyester Fabric on a Simulated Human Skin in Cool and Neutral Air Temperatures
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Joonhee Park, Dahee Jung, Yelin Ko, Yong Seok Choi, Byung Hee Hong, Joo-Young Lee

    Batteryless wearable technology has wide applications. In particular, human body surface temperature controlling fabrics can help regulate skin temperature in heat or cold. This study investigated surface temperature distribution of the fabrics coated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on simulated human body skin conditions at 18 °C (cool) and 27 °C (neutral) ambient air temperatures. Polyester fabrics were spin-coated with a graphene-oxide (GO) solution of 0.2 wt%. Preparation of rGO was processed by using a microwave oven (MW-rGO). Non-treated fabric (CON) was compared to GO and MW-rGO. The surface temperature of a hot plate was maintained at 35 °C or 40 °C. The test fabrics were put on the heated hot plate or non-heated-outer portions of the hot plate. Surface temperatures of MW-rGO on the heated hot plate at an air temperature of 18 °C (cool) were higher than those of non-treated fabric (CON) under the same conditions (p < 0.01). No effects from the graphene treatment were found on non-heated portions of the graphene oxide fabric (GO) or the reduced graphene oxide fabric (MW-rGO). On the non-heated portions, surface temperatures were higher at the location closer to the hot plate compared to the location farther from the hot plate (p < 0.05). These results partially represent thermal effects of MW-rGO under a specific environment and heat source. Our findings enable an application of reduced graphene oxide to body temperature regulating clothing.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Preparation of Electroconductive, Antibacterial, Photoactive Cotton Fabric Through Green Synthesis of ZnO/reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ali Nazari

    Abstract In this study, a simple and environment friendly approach was used to prepare the multifunctional composite fabrics via coating ZnO/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite on the surface of cotton without any chemical reducing agent. Graphene oxide was coated on to commercial cotton fabric by dipping the fabric in graphene oxide solution and drying in an oven. The nanocomposite was synthesized on cotton fabric in a single step by reduction of zinc acetate and graphene oxide with pomegranate juice in the impregnation bath. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the successful formation of ZnO/graphene nanocomposite on the fabric surface. The treated fabric had superior photocatalytic property in methylene blue degradation, and had excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Furthermore, the electrical resistance of coated fabrics was decreased significantly by the presence of reduced graphene oxide on the surface of cotton fabrics.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Green Approach to Dye PET and Nylon 6 Fabrics with Novel Pyrazole Disperse Dyes under Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Its Aqueous Analogue
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Tarek Abou Elmaaty, Mamdouh Sofan, Tamer Kosbar, Hanan Elsisi, Ilham Negm

    Abstract The development of a water-free dyeing process for synthetic fabrics is of great importance for the textile industry due to environmental and economic reasons. In this study, a series of novel 3-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-phenyl-4-(diazenyl derivatives)-lH-pyrazol-5-amine dyes were specifically synthesized for use with supercritical carbon dioxide. The new dyes were characterized by MS, IR, and NMR spectral data, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the proposed structures. The new dyestuffs were applied to dye polyester and nylon 6 fabrics under supercritical carbon dioxide and aqueous media. The color uptake expressed through the color strength (K/S) was assessed, and the values obtained showed that the dyeing of polyester and nylon 6 fabrics using the scCO2 method was significantly better than that using the aqueous method. The fastness properties of all the dyed fabrics were evaluated and exhibited excellent results. Raman micro spectroscopy indicated conclusively that the dye absorbance took place through all layers of the fabrics. Elimination of water and its costly processing can now be achieved in the dyeing of synthetic fabrics.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Surface Modification Method of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Fibers by L-cysteine Coupling Protein
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Zixuan Yang, Yao Yao, Yujiao Huang, Wu Chen, Xiongwei Dong

    This study reports an innovative environmental friendly polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber grafting modification method, which is using L-cysteine as a coupling agent to link the hydrolyzed PAN fibers with protein macromolecules by covalent bonds. After hydrolysis of PAN fibers, protein grafting was carried out after cysteine treatment. This method could improve the grafting efficiency of grafted polyacrylonitrile fiber without producing toxic by-products to human body and environment. The structure and surface appearance of the grafted fibers were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and XPS. It was proved that the protein was successfully grafted onto the surface of acrylic fibers. The grafted fibers also showed improved mechanical properties and good hygroscopicity.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Silver Sulfadiazine-loaded PVA/CMC Nanofibers for the Treatment of Wounds Caused by Excision
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Reza Alipour, Alireza Khorshidi, Abdollah Fallah Shojaei, Farhad Mashayekhi, Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    Polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethylcellulose/silver sulfadiazine composite nanofibers (PVA/CMC/SSD) containing different proportions of each ingredient were prepared by electrospinning and characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The obtained nanofibers were uni-axially formed with randomly oriented longitudinal axes without entanglement, and their mean diameters ranged from 160 to 210 ran. Silver sulfadiazine, on the other hand, was appeared as a non-uniform dispersion of spherical nanoparticles ranging from 35 to 75 nm over the surface of nanofibers. Efficacy of the silver sulfadiazine loaded nanofibers for treatment of wounds caused be excision in rabbits in a period of 14 days was evaluated and it was found that the extent of skin repair in the applied dressing depends on the total Ag content. The dressing composed of 73.6:24.6:1.8 weight percent of PVA/CMC/SSD provided the best result in comparison with a control dressing made form PVA/CMC (88.8:11.2 %). In vitro cell viability of fibers on HSF-PI 18 fibroblast like cells was assessed by MTT assay. Antibacterial activity of the prepared nanofibers was also evaluated against gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. PVA/CMC/SSD samples, was shown to have significant inhibition effect in comparison with drug references including penicillin G, chloramphenicol and erythromycin as positive controls (P0.05).

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Preparation and Characterization of Thermally Stable Polybenzoxazole Copolymer Films Fabricated from Their Precursors
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Chan Sol Kang, Doo Hyun Baik

    The polyhydroxyamide copolymers (F-PHAs) were synthesized by low-temperature solution polycondensation of 2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (BAHHFP) and/or 3,3′-dihydroxybenzidine (DHB) with terephthaloyl chloride (TPC) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with the aid of lithium chloride (LiCl). A series of polybenzoxazole copolymer (F-PBO) films were fabricated via an efficient solution-casting and thermal-treatment technique, using their precursors (F-PHA films) with different BAHHFP fractions (25-100 mol%). The solubility results show that F-PHAs with higher BAHHFP content (≥75 mol%) are readily soluble in anhydrous DMAc and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) without LiCl at room temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicates that the thermal cyclization temperature of the F-PHA films decreases with increasing BAHHFP content. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that the F-PHA and F-PBO films are well prepared and completely converted. The UV-visible spectra indicate that the F-75-PBO film (BAHHFP content: 75 mol%) has reasonable transparency, with 84.9 % transmittance at 600 nm and 397-nm UV cut-off wavelength. It also has lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) (48 ppm/°C) and water absorption (WA) values (0.14%). The BAHHFP as diamine component provides the final F-PBO film with desirable properties, e.g., flexibility, thermal stability, transparency, and WA values.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Optimization and Characterization of Prepared Nano-Disperse Dyes via a Sonication Process and Their Application in Textile Dyeing and Printing
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    N. S. Elshemy, H. S. EL-Sayad, A. A. Abd El-Rahman, H. M. Mashaly, S. H. Nassar

    Disperse blue 3 and disperse orange 1 dyes were subjected to an innovative process to convert them to a nanoscale size by sonication via an ultrasonic homogenizer. The obtained dyes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sonicated dyes (SNDs) were used for dyeing and printing (flat screen and transfer printing techniques) of polyester (PET) and cotton fabrics and compared with a non-sonicated (NSND) dye. Variable studies including sonicated and non-sonicated durations were used to optimize the sonication conditions. The effects of dye concentration, dyeing temperature, dyeing time, and carrier concentration were studied in terms of dye uptake and shade in dyed and printed fabrics. Additionally, in the transfer printing technique, the proper transfer fixation times were evaluated. To determine the significance of this treatment, analysis of variance was implemented via a two-way ANOVA test. The dyed and printed samples were evaluated for fastness properties.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Superior Self-cleaning and Antimicrobial Properties on Cotton Fabrics Using Nano Titanium Dioxide along with Green Walnut Shell Dye
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ali Nazari

    In this study, functional cotton fabrics were prepared through applying nano titanium dioxide as photocatalyst and using green walnut shell dye as both natural dye for coloration and agent capable of modifying TiO2 nanoparticles. Natural dye extract of green walnut shells was used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Surface modification and coloration of cotton fabrics were performed by adding modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles in exhaustion bath. Produced cotton fabrics were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicated that all properties such as self-cleaning, antibacterial and antifungal of treated cotton fabric were superior with modified titanium dioxide compared to treated sample with TiO2 alone. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide has no negative effect on fabric color.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Production of Disposable Antibacterial Textiles Via Application of Tea Tree Oil Encapsulated into Different Wall Materials
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Burcu Sancar Beşen

    In the present paper, it was aimed to produce disposable antibacterial textile surfaces with applications of TTO capsules having different wall materials. For this purpose, tea tree oil (TTO) was encapsulated into β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Arabic gum (GA), and the prepared capsules were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The capsules, which were proved that they had been prepared successfully by the analyses, were applied to the 100 % viscose nonwoven fabric surfaces by padding method at the concentration of 20 % (w/v). The treated fabric samples were characterized through SEM and FTIR analyses, as well as the antibacterial activities of the samples were evaluated against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. The results indicated that the TTO/β-CD, TTO/PVA and TTO/GA capsules could be successfully applied onto textiles and the samples gained antibacterial activity properties at the different levels depending on the wall materials.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Effect of Water and Chemical Stresses on the Silver Coated Polyamide Yarns
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ezgi Ismar, Shahood uz Zaman, Xuyuan Tao, Cédric Cochrane, Vladan Koncar

    Abstract E-textiles; new emerging hybrid systems and devices require novel standards regarding their reliability and durability in order to gain the attraction and satisfaction for the customers and market readiness. Launderability of e-textiles is one of the key problems for their reliability and maintenance. Standards should fulfill the requirements for both: the textile and electronic parts of e-textile products. In this article, an analysis of water and detergent influence on the conductive yarns which are generally used as a connection in e-textile products is investigated. During the washing process various stresses (mechanical, temperature, chemical, etc.) damage the connection elements such as electrically yarns that make all together a textile circuit board (textile motherboard). All those stresses are moreover interdependent. Water or chemical stresses are supposed to be strongly damaging and should be discussed in details. During the washing procedure it is important to understand the water and detergent effects on the conductive yarns. Therefore, experimental studies are conducted by dipping conductive yarns in those solutions and by extended characterization. Structural changes of yarns are tested by FTIR-ATR, and peaks before and after dipping in the solutions were noted. Results point out the level of damage on the yarn surface caused by chemical stresses due to dipping in solutions. Furthermore, yarn surfaces were analyzed with optical microscopy. Remaining solutions after removing the dipped yarn were also analyzed by UV-Visible Spectroscopy to check any possible removal of silver coating from the yarn into solution, due to water or water detergent solutions. UV-Visible Spectroscopy validated our results obtained by FTIR-ATR peaks. By these experiments, time duration e-textiles can withstand in liquid solution without any loss of conductivity can be evaluated and predicted.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Electrospun Polyphenylquinoxaline Ultraline Non-woven Fibrous Membranes with Excellent Thermal and Alkaline Resistance: Preparation and Characterization
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Chen-yu Guo, Lu-meng Yin, Jin-gang Liu, Xin-ke Wang, Na Zhang, Lin Qi, Yan Zhang, Xiao Wu, Xiu-min Zhang

    Abstract A series of polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) ultrafine non-woven fibrous membranes have been first successfully prepared via the electrospinning procedure with the soluble PPQ solutions as the starting materials. For this purpose, various organo-soluble PPQ resins were synthesized via the one-step high temperature polycondensation procedure from the aromatic ether-bridged bis(α-diketone) and bis(o-diamine) monomers. Flexible ether linkages and pendant bulky phenyl substituents endowed the PPQ resins good solubility in polar aprotic solvents. The high-molecular-weight PPQ resins were dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) to afford the PPQ electrospinning solution except PPQ-Ia derived from 4,4′-oxydibenzil (ODB) and 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB) due to the limited solubility in the solvent. All the derived PPQ ultrafine non-woven fibrous membranes maintained good structure integrity after hydrolysis aging either at room temperature (25 °C) for 72 h or at refluxing temperature (100 °C) for 24 h in an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at a solid content of 20 wt%. Comparatively, the polyimide (PI) reference electrospun membrane (PI-ref) derived from 1,2,4,5-pyrromellitic anhydride (PMDA) and 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA) lost its original structure only after boiling in the same NaOH solution within 3 h. In addition, the developed PPQ ultrafine non-woven fibrous membranes exhibited good thermal stability with the 5 % weight loss temperatures (T5%) higher than 555.0 °C in nitrogen and glass transition temperatures (Tg) in the range of 248.1–266.1 °C, respectively.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Influence of Yarn Manufacturing Techniques on Dyeing Behavior of Polyester/Cotton Blended Woven Fabrics
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Wardah Anam, Munir Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal Qadir, Khurram Shehzad Akhtar, Sheraz Ahmad, Ali Afzal, Tehseen Ullah

    Abstract In this research work, we have studied the dyeing behaviour of fabrics made from ring, rotor and MVS yarns. The discrete structure of respective yarns made by different spinning techniques have significant effect on dyeing behaviour of fabrics. The fabrics were investigated for K/S values of polyester dyed, cotton dyed and polyester+cotton dyed fabrics and their colour fastness to crocking. The analysis of dyeing behaviour revealed that yarn manufacturing technique has substantial effect on the colour strength of their respective fabrics. Due to unique distribution of fibers within the crosssection of yarn, the cotton dyed and polyester+cotton dyed fabrics made from MVS yarns exhibited better K/S values as compared to other fabrics. The fabrics also exhibited a difference in colour fastness to crocking in dry and wet form. The color fastness of fabrics to crocking in dry form were found higher than in wet form. The polyester dyed and polyester+cotton dyed fabrics made from MVS yarns have shown higher color fastness to crocking.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Flame Retardancy, Mechanical Properties and Antibacterial Activity for Polyester Fabric Coated with a Sol-gel Coating and Pomegranate Rind
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    A. A. Younis

    Abstract This manuscript aimed to improve the ignition, mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of polyester fabric irradiated with UV/Ozone (for 30 minutes) after coated with sol-solution and pomegranate rind natural dye (PRND). Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS) was used to form siloxane bonds as the main chain of the sol coating. The effect of (PRND) concentration was studied. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), illustrated the inter-chemical reaction between (-OH) groups in sol-solution with the free radical on the irradiated polyester fabric. Adding different amounts of PRND during solsolution synthesis, lead to increase reduction percent of gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria and improve the thermal and mechanical properties with no flame retardancy effect. The flame chamber (UL/94), limiting oxygen index (LOI), and EN ISO 11925 tests were used to investigate the ignition properties of the treated and untreated specimens.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • In situ Preparation of PVA/Schizophyllan-AgNPs Nanofiber as Potential of Wound Healing: Characterization and Cytotoxicity
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Mohammad Reza Safaee-Ardakani, Ashrafalsadat Hatamian-Zarmi, Seyedeh Mahdieh Sadat, Zahra Beagom Mokhtari-Hosseini, Bahman Ebrahimi-Hosseinzadeh, Hamid Kooshki, Jamal Rashidiani

    The use of natural polymers and electrospinning as a new method of wound dressing production is one of the things that can revolutionize the medical world. Due to the importance of wound healing and characteristics such as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, it is possible to use natural compounds such as fungi and metabolites derived from them to produce wound dressing. In this study, schizophyllan (SPG) as an extracellular polysaccharide was extracted from Iranian Schizophyllum commune (NCBI MG761830) and then the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced by the in-situ method in 1.5 % SPG solution. Afterward, they were combined with polyvinyl alcohol 10 % (PVA) polymer to strengthen the fiber structure. We investigated the properties of nanofibers containing PVA/SPG-AgNPs and PVA/SPG20 %. The physicochemical properties of two fibers were investigated by SEM, TEM, FTIR, contact angle, water uptake, nanoparticle release, and biological test (antibacterial, and MTT). The diameter of the nanofiber-containing the AgNPs was about 169 nm and the other nanofiber was about 212 nm. The highest inhibition of the growth of the bacterium by PVA/SPG-AgNPs against E. coli and S. aureus was about 88.34 % and 64.7 %, respectively. The silver ion release from PVA/SPG-AgNPs nanofibers was 21 μg/ml after fifth day. Both nanofibers had no toxic effect on L929 fibroblast cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Probing the Photoluminescence Characteristics and Dyeability of Dyed Luminous Polypropylene Fabric
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Amin Ebrahimzade, Rouhollah Semnani Rahbar, Mohammad Reza Mohaddes Mojtahedi, Milad Valibeigi

    Abstract Luminous polypropylene fibers were melt-spun using different amounts of phosphor strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4: Eu+2, Dy+3) as luminescent agent. The knitted fabrics were then prepared from these fibers and dyed with various disperse dyes, acid and basic dyes. Photoluminescence and dyeability properties of the fabrics were studied. According to the photoluminescence spectroscopy results, a broad peak with a maximum at around 540 nm was observed for luminous fabrics after exciting at the wavelength of 400 nm, indicating that luminescent particles were not destroyed or destructured during masterbatch preparation and melt spinning process. The dyeing performance of luminous PP fabrics was further evaluated by the color strength (K/S values) and photographic images. Interesting improvement of the K/S values was observed for the luminous fabric dyed with acid dye. The results showed that the ionic charge of dye used and its molecular size could be affected the afterglow intensity of dyed luminous fabrics. Although dyed luminous fabrics showed afterglow properties, the afterglow intensity diminished by enhancing the dyeability because of increased interference of dye molecules with luminescent particles. The color coordinates L*,a*,b*,c*, and ΔE specifications of dyed fabrics were marginally influenced in the presence of luminescent particles.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The Application of Atmospheric Plasma for Cotton Fabric Desizing
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Xuemei Wang, Hongmei Zhao, Fuxing Chen, Xin Ning, Shaojuan Chen, Qunli Guan, Shouxiang Jiang, Dagang Miao

    Production process of cotton fabric involves numerous water and chemical consumptions, causing serious energy waste and environmental problem. In this study, a waterless atmospheric plasma treatment (APT) was applied on cotton fabric to desize the starch coated in the weaving process. Plasma parameters, i.e., plasma voltage, plasma duty cycle and oxygen flow rate, are varied in order to systematically evaluate their influence on fabric physical properties such as the impurity removal, whiteness, capillary effect, tensile strength and breaking elongation of fabric. Optimal plasma parameters for oxygen APT were determined, with plasma voltage of 320 V, plasma duty cycle of 60 % and oxygen flow rate of 1000 l/h. The APT desizing method attained comparable fabric performances with the traditional amylase desizing method. The results were further supported by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • An Investigation on Comfort Properties of Dyed Mulberry Silk/Cotton Blended Fabrics
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Memik Bunyamin Uzumcu, Burak Sari, Nida Oglakcioglu, Huseyin Kadoglu

    Mulberry silk is one of the well known silk types. Especially, its lustrous appearance and handle properties make this fiber type an important natural source for textiles. Even if its properties let the fiber to be produced by itself, blending with other fiber types can be preferred in order to reduce raw material costs and make it more affordable. Cotton can be a good companion to this fiber type because of its tendency to be textile material. In this study, mulberry silk/combed cotton blended yarns were produced by using siro and ring spinning systems, in three different yarn counts. These yarns were dyed and then knitted in a laboratory type circular knitting machine. The comfort properties of these fabrics were investigated. According to test results, increasing silk content in the blend and using the siro spinning system positively affected the comfort properties of fabrics, in general.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A Novel Natural Dye Derivative for Natural Fabric Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Dyeing Technology
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Jinsong Wu, Hongjuan Zhao, Mingyue Wang, Weiru Zhi, Xiaoqing Xiong, Laijiu Zheng

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) dyeing technology is a green dyeing technology, and the usage of natural dye makes SC-CO2 dyeing technology safer and more environment-friendly. Nevertheless, after using natural dye in SC-CO2 dyeing, the color depth and fastness of dyed natural fabric are poor. In this study, alkyl and hydroxyalkyl groups were grafted onto alizarin, which is a natural dye, to elevate the color depths and fastness of alizarin-derivative-dyed natural fabric. The results demonstrate that the color depths of alkyl-alizarin-dyed and hydroxyalkyl-alizarin-dyed natural fabrics were increased. This has to do with the increase in the solubilities of alkyl alizarin and hydroxyalkyl alizarin in SC-CO2. The hydroxybutyl-alizarin-dyed wool displayed the best color depth (K/S value: 6.44). And the hydroxyalkyl-alizarin-dyed natural fabric showed good washing fastness and rubbing fastness (about 4–5 level), because that hydroxyalkyl alizarin could be linked by a covalent bond to the natural fabric.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Reverse Micellar Dyeing of Wool Fabric with Reactive Dyes
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yanming Wang, Yiu-lun Tang, Cheng-hao Lee, Chi-wai Kan

    The approach of using reverse micelle with nonionic surfactant (poly(ethylene glycol), PEG)) as building block has been employed to investigate dyeability of wool fabrics with reactive dyes in a one-bath non-aqueous solvent system. Three colours were used and they were encapsulated in the core of the PEG-based reverse micelle under optimised process parameters (i.e. (i) Solvent volume to wool fabric weight ratio (v/w)=10:1; (ii) Surfactant/water mole ratio=0.04:1; (iii) Surfactant/co-surfactant mole ratio=l:8; (iv) Volume of water-pool for dye=0.5 ml; (v) Dyeing time=50 minutes; and (vi) Dyeing temperature=88 °C). Comparison of non-aqueous and aqueous-based (water-based) dyeing was conducted in terms of dyeability as reflected by colour yield and colour fastness properties. Experimental results revealed that the reverse micellar non-aqueous dyeing system can provide a better dyeing performance than aqueous-based dyeing system.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Multifunctional Formaldehyde Free Finishing of Cotton by Using Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Ecofriendly Cross-Linkers
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Nasir Sarwar, Munir Ashraf, Muhammad Mohsin, Abdur Rehman, Ayesha Younus, Amjed Javid, Kashif Iqbal, Shagufta Riaz

    Importance of multifunctional finishing of textiles is increasing day by day due to greater consumer demand. Cross-linker is one of the commonly used finishes agent to impart functionality in textiles. In this research work the performance of the formaldehyde free carboxylic acid based eco-friendly cross-linkers; citric acid (CA) and maleic acid (MA) was enhanced by incorporating three different types of metal oxides nanoparticle (ZnO, MgO and CaO). Two different fixation methods of pad-dry-cure with and without UV irradiation were used. ZnO along with CA and MA was found to be most effective in increasing crease recovery performance of the cotton fabric followed by MgO while CaO was found to be ineffective. Fabric tear strength was also improved by the incorporation of these nanoparticles. Additionally, incorporation of these nanoparticles exhibited improvement in the fabric handle and antimicrobial properties.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Thermal Properties and Fire Retardancy of Polypropylene/Wood Flour Composites Containing Eco-friendly Flame Retardants
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Lam H. Pham, Hai D. Nguyen, Jinhwan Kim, DongQuy Hoang

    Thermal properties and the flame retardancy of polypropylene/wood flour (PP-WF) composite were improved by adding aluminum hydrogen phosphonate (AHP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) flame retardants. PP-WF composites containing 30 wt% of AHP and 30 wt% of TPP achieved UL-94 HB standard with the horizontal burning rate of 20.8 mm/min and of 11.5 mm/min, respectively. Thermal properties of PP-WF composite with and without flame retardant, as well as the interaction between PP-WF and flame retardant were investigated through TGA analysis. The flame retardant mechanism is mainly in condensed phase for AHP and in gas phase for TPP. The residual char after the decomposition of PP-WF/AHP composite was analyzed by FTIR to understand how the formation of char affected on the flame retardancy and thermal stability PP-WF composite.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Knitted Fabrics Produced from Various Fiber Types
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    E. Oner

    Although there are several parameters affecting fabric behavior, one of the most important factors that determines the fabric properties is the fiber type and its features. Many types of natural and chemical fibers can be used according to the usage areas and expected performance characteristics from the fabrics. Therefore, it has great importance to know the effects of fiber types, which have different sources, structures and properties, on the fabric properties. In this study, the performance and thermal comfort properties of nine different knitted fabrics made from natural, regenerated and synthetic fibers were investigated. Within this scope, air permeability, abrasion resistance, bursting strength, thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal resistance and thermal absorptivity of knitted fabrics made from different fiber types were measured. In general, it is concluded that the characteristic properties of the fibers are important in determining the mechanical and thermal properties of the fabrics.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Durable Antibacterial Functionality of Cotton/Polyester Blended Fabrics Using Antibiotic/MONPs Composite
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Basma M. Eid, Ghada M. El-Sayed, Hassan M. Ibrahim, Nourhan H. Habib

    To fulfil the ever-growing demand for durable and multi-resistant textile fabrics against pathogenic bacteria, this work is aim to investigate the dual effect of coating cotton/polyester fabrics by composite of antibiotics/metal oxide nanoparticles. To carry out this study, cotton/polyester blended fabrics with different constructions were coated with ZnONPs, ZrO2NPs, antibiotics namely doxymycin, cefadroxil, and ciprofloxacin (1 % w/v) individually and combined in presence of citric acid and sodium hypophosphite as a crosslinking agent and a catalyst respectively. Nitrogen content (%N), metal content, and antibacterial activity as well as performance and physical properties were assessed. Full characterization of untreated and treated fabrics by FTIR, SEM and EDX analysis were also carried out to confirm the binding and fixation of the used antibiotics and/or MONPs onto/within the fabric structure. The results revealed that the coated fabric samples by antibiotic/MONPs exhibited high nitrogen and metal contents as well as excellent antibacterial activity compared to the coated fabrics by the nominated MONPs and antibiotics individually. The results also showed that the variation in the antibacterial functionality, performance and physical properties of the treated fabrics are governed by the type of substrate, type of construction and type of additives. Additionally, coated fabrics evinced satisfactory antibacterial efficacy even after 15 washing cycles.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Investigation and Optimization of Mechanical Properties of Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber/Polyvinyl Chloride/NiFe 2 O 4 Nanocomposite
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Mahdi Ashrafi, Masood Hamadanian, Saeed Mirsafai, Keivan Torabi

    In this study, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) based nanocomposites reinforced with PVC as a polymeric filler and NiFe2O4 as nanofllers with different weight fractions (wt%) were prepared and characterized. The experiments were developed according to response surface methodology (RSM) combined with central composite design (CCD) to optimize the effects of two variable parameters (PVC and NiFe2O4) on the mechanical properties. The NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method and, the NBR/PVC/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites were prepared by two-roll mill method. The elongation and tensile strength of the optimized nanocomposite were obtained to be 300 % and 18 MPa, respectively. The surface SEM images showed that the NiFe2O4 NPs were well distributed in the NBR matrix. Furthermore, cross-sectional SEM images showed that the cracks on the nanocomposite matrix decreased compared to pure NBR. Also, NBR/PVC/NiFe2O4 nanocomposite shows weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature than NiFe2O4NPs. The NiFe2O4 NPs and optimal sample of NBR/PVC/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Analysis of Polymeric Knitted Fabrics on Properties for Telecommunications Devices Application
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Marcos S. Aquino, Samanta M. Holanda, Thiago F. Santos, Moisés V. Melo, Nestor D. L. Junior, Idalmir S. Q. Júnior, Humberto D. Andrade

    The growing development of telecommunications, especially mobile telecommunications, has intensified research into microfiber antennas in the last years, since these have unique properties as well as a wide range of applications. The research in the field of wearable technology is impelled by the demand for increasingly light and flexible devices, where electronic components are entirely embedded in their textile structures. The knitted fabrics have the necessary elasticity to create adaptive and sporty pieces, allowing high mobility and comfort to its users. The concept of textile antennas is based on malleability and, for this reason, they can have great utility in applications where the stiffness of traditional antennas is considered a limitation, especially in military or biomedical garments. This study aims to determine the properties of the natural and synthetic fibers knitted fabric for use in microwave devices, presenting the materials and methods used in the research to the prototyping and simulation of a microstrip antenna. Four knitted fabrics with different structures (Jersey and Simple Piquet) and fiber compositions (Cotton and Cotton with Polyamide) were selected. The determination of the electrical properties was performed through the coaxial probe method to obtain the permittivity and tangent loss properties, and the determination of the physical properties according to the technical standards, where the textile properties (weight, dimensional stability, yarn count and tensile strength) of the analyzed samples were determined. The results were analyzed according to the proposed application and the CO_Piquet presented the lower loss tangent and better dimensional stability, the microstrip antenna was dimensioned to a frequency of 2.45 GHz according to the transmission line and resonant cavity method, and simulated in the HFSS where loss return, radiation diagrams and current density parameters was obtained.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Influence of Transport Properties of Laminated Membrane-fabric on Thermal Protective Performance Against Steam Hazard
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yun Su, Rui Li, Jie Yang, Chunhui Xiang, Guowen Song, Jun Li

    The breathable fabric and membrane application in protective clothing designed for protection against flame, radiation, hot liquid and steam are vital in thermal protective performance and thermal comfort. Four kinds of laminated membrane-fabrics were selected to investigate the influence of configuration and properties of the fabric on thermal protective performance under a pressurized steam hazard simulation. Surface morphology, water repellency, air permeability, water vapor permeability and other characteristics were evaluated to explore their impact on the mechanism of heat and moisture transfer in laminated fabric. It is found that the configuration critically affects the thermal protective performance. The thickness, mass and moisture regain of laminated fabric exhibit different levels of positive correlation with thermal protective performance of two configurations. Additionally, absorptive and porous membranes have different modes of water vapor transmission, while heat conduction and steam condensation in two kinds of membranes are both key influential factors in producing skin burn under steam hazard. Therefore, effective protection against steam hazard is achieved by decreasing the penetration and storage of steam within protective clothing.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A Research on the Mechanical Properties of Worsted Fabrics Made of High Tenacity Polyamide
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    D. Yavuzkasap Ayakta, E. Oner, S. Celikkiran

    In accordance with developing technologies in textile and garment industries, innovative products are submitted to the market continuously. Almost each innovative product introduced to the market provides a different functionality to the textiles such as breathability, lightweight, ultrathin etc. Some of the functional designs are turned into commercial products and some of them are still in experimental stage. In this study, it is aimed to analyze the worsted fabrics, which was designed to have higher tensile properties. Within the scope of this study, worsted fabrics produced from wool and high tenacity polyamide 6.6 fibers, which were mixed in the blend, with/without elastane. Compression, extensibility, bending rigidity, shear rigidity, tear strength, breaking strength and abrasion resistance properties of the fabrics were measured. According to the results, the use of elastane in the fabric structure causes an increase in the surface thickness, extensibility, formability of the fabrics, and a decrease in the bending rigidity, shear rigidity of the fabrics. Besides, the fabrics produced in this study have generally high tensile and abrasion resistance performance because of the high tenacity polyamide 6.6.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Vancomycin Loaded Gelatin Microspheres Containing Wet Spun Poly(ε-caprolactone) Fibers and Films for Osteomyelitis Treatment
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Eda Ayse Aksoy, Betul Suyumbike Yagci, Gulseher Manap, Ipek Eroglu, Sukru Ozturk, Melike Ekizoglu, Kezban Ulubayram

    In this study, it was aimed to develop drug eluting biodegradable and biocompatible bone supportive fibers and films, which can locally be applicable on the infected bone defect area for osteomyelitis treatment. For this purpose, vancomycin (Vm) loaded gelatin (G) microspheres were prepared and dispersed into poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) solution and then the suspension was processed as films and fibers by solvent casting and wet spinning techniques, respectively. The mean particle size distribution and morphology of Vm loaded G microspheres were characterized by laser diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. In vitro Vm release profiles and release kinetics from microsphere, fiber and film formulations were investigated. In vitro biodegradation properties of fiber and film formulations were examined in both hydrolytic and enzymatic media during 25 days period. The cytotoxicity of Vm eluting films and fibers were tested on L929 cells by MTT assay. Presence of PCL in film and fiber formulations retarded the release of Vm from microspheres and provided long term sustained release. Vm eluting films and fibers exhibited strong antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Functionalization of Electrospun Poly(Acrylonitrile-co-Styrene/Pyrrole) Copolymer Nanofibers for Using as a High-performance Carrier for Laccase Immobilization
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    M. R. El-Aassar, Mahmoud H. M. A. Shibraen, Yasser R Abdel-Fattah, Ahmed A. Elzain

    Enzyme immobilization onto nanomaterials is a strategy to overcome the difficulties of the free enzymes applications where the immobilization process affords excellent reusability and operational stability against temperature and pH, and high surface area for the catalytic reaction. In this work, poly(Acrylonitrile-co-Styrene/Pyrrole), (poly(AN-co-ST/ Py)), copolymer nanofibers were successfully fabricated using the electrospinning technique. Laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor was immobilized onto functionalized poly(AN-co-ST/Py) nanofibers by covalent attachment using polyethylenediamine (PEI) via physical adsorption and multipoint covalent attachment to the functional groups onto the polymeric surface. Since the relative activity of the immobilized Laccase depends on the amount of the coupled PEI onto the polymeric nanofibers, a colorimetric assay via copper ions complex formation was applied for the estimation of the process yield. Accordingly, the various factors affecting the PEI coupling process such as concentration, time, pH and temperature were investigated; Besides their influence on the morphology of the resultant nanofibers. Furthermore, thermal and pH stability, storage stability, and reusability were evaluated and compared. The optimum reaction temperature and pH for the immobilized enzyme were 70 °C and 6.0, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the modified nanofibers with PEI have kept its nanofibers structure and uniform morphology with an average diameter of approximately 559.2 nm. Within 35 days, the immobilization process reduces the activity loss from 59 % to 29 %, while thermal incubation at 50 °C for 2 hrs causes activity loss for the free and immobilized enzymes by 65 % and 30 % respectively. Therefore, the prepared copolymer nanofibers proposed in this work showed promising potential for applications to enzyme immobilization.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Broad Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activity of Cotton Fabric Modified with Oxalic Acid and CuO/Cu 2 O Nanoparticles
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Darka Marković, Jelena Ašanin, Tim Nunney, Željko Radovanović, Marija Radoičić, Miodrag Mitrić, Dušan Mišić, Maja Radetić

    This study discusses the possibility of fabrication of textile nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity against antibiotics-resistant bacterial strains and yeast. Modification of cotton fabric with oxalic acid solutions of different concentrations provided free carboxyl groups for binding of Cu2+ -ions from copper (II) sulfate solution which were further reduced with sodium borohydride in alkaline solution. An increase in the concentration of applied oxalic acid resulted in larger amounts of free carboxyl groups on the cotton fibers, Cu2+ -ions uptake and total amounts of Cu-based nanoparticles after reduction. XPS and XRD analyses suggested that nanoparticles mainly consisted of CuO with fractions of Cu2O. Fabricated textile nanocomposites ensured maximum reduction of Gram-negative E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli NCTC 13846, E. coli ATCC BAA-2469, K. pneumoniae ATCC-BAA 2146 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. aureus ATCC 43300 and yeast C. albicans ATCC 24433. Additionally, controlled release of Cu2+ -ions from fabrics into the physiological saline solution was obtained within 24 hours.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Preparation and Characterization of Surface Modified PPTA Fibers by Ultrasonic-Assisted Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Zhao Jia, Chunmei Duan

    The simplest peroxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to prepare the surface modified poly(p-phenylene terephthalaramide) (PPTA) fibers under the assistant of ultrasonic vibration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra indicated the increase of the active polar groups on the surface of the fibers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that more carboxyl groups and hydroxyl groups have been obtained after this treatment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the surface roughness of the fibers has been improved accordingly. The interfacial properties of modified PPTA fiber/epoxy composites were investigated by the single fiber pull-out test (SFP). The results showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of PPTA/epoxy composites was remarkably improved by 42.14 % while the breaking strength was not affected appreciably. The modified fiber presented 26.9 % higher moisture regain compared with the original fiber. It proved to be an efficient method to make the surface modified PPTA fiber for the application of the advanced composites at a relatively low cost.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Interfacial and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polycarbonate (PC) Film and PC Fiber Impregnated Composites
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Yeong-Min Baek, Pyeong-Su Shin, Jong-Hyun Kim, Ha-Seung Park, K. Lawrence DeVries, Joung-Man Park

    Currently, continuous polymer fibers are usually manufactured in versatile forms such as, aramid fiber. In this study, continuous polycarbonate (PC) fiber having the uniform diameter was manufactured from a thermoplastic PC resin using a twin screw extruder. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly dispersed in the PC resin, using a solvent dispersion method. The effect of CNT on the mechanical properties of PC fiber was analyzed statistically, using Weibull distribution, by single PC fiber tensile test. Dynamic contact angle was measured to compare the surface energies of PC fiber and PC-CNT fiber on the water droplet. The difference in the wetting patterns was also observed by injecting a solvent between two fibers. Tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PC fiber was significantly increased by the addition of even a small amount of CNT. This improvement can be attributed to the excellent reinforcing and stress transferring effects of the CNT filler. Composites were made of both types of PC film and PC fiber as a matrix and their impregnation properties were investigated by inspection of photographs of their cross-sections. The mechanical properties of the two-types of composites were also compared by tensile testing. From the cross-sectional fractography and the permeated PC weight, PC fiber type exhibited better impregnation property than the PC film type, and thus resulted in the improved tensile strength.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Flax Fibres Fabric Surface Decoration with Nanoparticles - A Promising Tool for Developing Hybrid Reinforcing Agent of Thermoplastic Polymers
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Maria Sonmez, Denisa Ficai, Ioana Lavinia Ardelean, Roxana Trusca, Laurentia Alexandrescu, Doina Constantinescu, Zeno Ghizdavet, Ovidiu Oprea, Anton Ficai, Ecaterina Andronescu

    In this study, the synthesis and characterization of functionalized flax fabric with adequate titanium and aluminium precursors is presented (AlCl3 or Ti(C4H9O)4). The modified flax fabrics were analysed both visually and instrumentally by IR spectroscopy and microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG). The data highlight that the nature and amount of functionalizing agent induce important morphological changes of the surface. These flax fabrics decorated with alumina or titanium dioxide nanoparticles are desired to be used as reinforcing agents of different recycled polyethylene terephthalate. The properties will be designed by the nature, processing route and amount of the precursors used for the surface modification of these cellulosic fibres/fabrics, the surface decoration increasing their thermal properties (especially thermal stability) but also surface properties (especially roughness, hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio, etc.). All these factors will finally induce improved compatibility between phases and thus improved physico-mechanical and thermal properties. Taking into account the large amount of natural cellulosic fibres and recycled thermoplastic polymers, added-value products will be obtained and at the same time some environmental issues are solved. The expected applications can include the fabrication of automotive parts, protective panels for highways and railways, etc.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Effect of Wall Structures on Mechanical Properties of Small Caliber PHBHHx Vascular Grafts
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Jing Gao, Zhenzhen Huang, Huiwen Guo, Shunzhu Tian, Lu Wang, Yuling Li

    In order to analyze the effect of vascular wall structures on static and dynamic mechanical properties of vascular grafts, small calibre PHBHHx (Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxhexanoate)) vascular grafts (inner diameter 6 mm) with various wall shapes and thicknesses were fabricated by changing electrospinning time and receiving molds. As spinning time increased, wall thickness of the vascular grafts increased and both circumferential tensile strength and suture retention strength improved significantly. When the wall thicknesses of straight grafts were about 120 μm, the great radial dynamic compliance was exhibited, however, the tensile strength and suture retention strength of the straight tubes can’t reach the requirements of normal blood vessel grafting. With the wall thicknesses increasing above 250 μm, although the circumferential tensile strength and suture retention strength gradually achieved the transplanting requirements, the dynamic compliance of the straight tubes declined too sharply to adapt the blood radial shock. For corrugated grafts, the effect of wall thickness on radial dynamic compliance was little, and the radial dynamic compliance was close to that of the commercial vascular grafts. The circumferential tensile strength and suture retention strength of the corrugated grafts were also improved to approach the commercial vessels’ performances with the wall thickness improving to about 425 μm. Elastic recovery rates of all the prepared vascular grafts were superior to that of the commercial sample. Along with the wall thickness exceeding 250 μm, the water permeabilities of both the straight and the corrugated grafts were less than 300 ml/(cm2·min).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Failure Analysis of CFRP Multidirectional Laminates Using the Probabilistic Weibull Distribution Model under Static Loading
    Fibers Polym. (IF 1.439) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Alok Behera, Manjusha M. Thawre, Atul Ballal

    The application of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) Multidirectional (MD) laminates in aircraft structure have motivated the manufacturers to tailor the mechanical strength in desired directions. The complex stress field owing to multiple orientations with the loading direction increases the intricacy of failure analysis. Hence, the macroscopic and microscopic fracture behaviour of MD CFRP laminates under static loading needs to be explored further. In this study, four different MD CFRP laminates were fabricated using IMA/M21 prepregs by the autoclaving technique. Effect of fiber orientation on static strength i.e. tensile and compressive strength was studied. The strength decreased with the increase in orientation angle. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that irrespective of the lay-up sequence individual layers failed parallel to the fiber direction. Fiber breakage and delamination were the major failure modes in tensile specimens while kinking, matrix failure, in-plane shear, stepped fracture, and fiber-matrix debonding were dominated in compression specimens. The theoretical and experimental data was in good agreement with the Weibull distribution model.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
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