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  • Get Cultured: Eat Bacteria
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Todd Robert Klaenhammer

    The Klaenhammer group at North Carolina State University pioneered genomic applications in food microbiology and beneficial lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures and probiotics. Dr. Todd Klaenhammer was honored to be the first food scientist elected to the National Academy of Sciences (2001). The program was recognized with the highest research awards presented by the American Dairy Science Association (Borden Award 1996), the Institute of Food Technologists (Nicholas Appert Medal, 2007), and the International Dairy Federation (Eli Metchnikoff Award in Biotechnology, 2010) as well as with the Outstanding Achievement Award from the University of Minnesota (2001) and the Oliver Max Gardner Award (2009) for outstanding research across the 16-campus University of North Carolina system. Dr. Klaenhammer is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Dairy Science Association, and the Institute of Food Technology. Over his career, six of his PhD graduate students were awarded the annual Kenneth Keller award for the outstanding PhD dissertation that year in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. He championed the use of basic microbiology and genomic approaches to set a platform for translational applications of beneficial microbes in foods and their use in food preservation and probiotics and as oral delivery vehicles for vaccines and biotherapeutics. Dr. Klaenhammer was also a founding and co-chief editor of the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Owen Fennema: Food Chemist Extraordinaire
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    D.B. Lund

    Periodically someone comes into a field and forces a change in direction, a paradigm shift. Owen Fennema was such a person in food science and technology. When he started his academic career, curricula in food science and technology had courses describing how to process plant produce and animal tissue into safer food with an extended shelf life. The “why” was often overlooked. Owen changed all that. He participated in and greatly contributed to a paradigm shift in teaching food science by editing one of the most important textbook series in food science and technology. In addition, his research on water and ice as they impacted the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of plant and animal tissues extended the bounds of knowledge. He did the same for edible bilayers with research done in his laboratory. Who was this man, and how could he have such impact? Hopefully, this review provides some insights into Owen Fennema, Renaissance man.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Advances in Infant Formula Science
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Grace J. Ahern, A.A. Hennessy, C. Anthony Ryan, R. Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton

    Human milk contains a plethora of nutrients and bioactive components to help nourish the developing neonate and is considered the “gold standard” for early life nutrition—as befits the only food “designed” by evolution to feed human infants. Over the past decade, there is considerable evidence that highlights the “intelligence” contained in milk components that contribute to infant health beyond basic nutrition—in areas such as programming the developing microbiome and immune system and protecting against infection. Such discoveries have led to new opportunities for infant milk formula (IMF) manufacturers to refine nutritional content in order to simulate the functionality of breast milk. These include the addition of specialized protein fractions as well as fatty acid and complex carbohydrate components—all of which have mechanistic supporting evidence in terms of improving the health and nutrition of the infant. Moreover, IMF is the single most important dietary intervention whereby the human microbiome can be influenced at a crucial early stage of development. In this respect, it is expected that the complexity of IMF will continue to increase as we get a greater understanding of how it can modulate microbiota development (including the development of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and influence long-term health. This review provides a scientific evaluation of key features of importance to infant nutrition, including differences in milk composition and emerging “humanized” ingredients.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Quillaja Saponin Characteristics and Functional Properties
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Corina L. Reichert, Hanna Salminen, Jochen Weiss

    Consumer concerns about synthetically derived food additives have increased current research efforts to find naturally occurring alternatives. This review focuses on a group of natural surfactants, the Quillaja saponins, that can be extracted from the Quillaja saponaria Molina tree. Quillaja saponins are triterpenoid saponins comprising a hydrophobic quillaic acid backbone and hydrophilic sugar moieties. Commercially available Quillaja saponin products and their composition and properties are described, and the technofunctionality of Quillaja saponins in a variety of food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical product applications is discussed. These applications make use of the biological and interfacial activities of Quillaja saponins and their ability to form and stabilize colloidal structures such as emulsions, foams, crystallized lipid particles, heteroaggregates, and micelles. Further emphasis is given to the complexation and functional properties of Quillaja saponins with other cosurfactants to create mixed surfactant systems, an approach that has the potential to facilitate new interfacial structures and novel functionalities.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Advances in Spray-Drying Encapsulation of Food Bioactive Ingredients: From Microcapsules to Nanocapsules
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Elham Assadpour, Seid Mahdi Jafari

    Many natural food bioactive ingredients are sensitive to processing and environmental conditions and thus it is necessary to improve their stability to create products with long shelf lives. Encapsulation by spray drying is a widely used economical strategy to tackle this issue, and many scientists and manufacturers are using it in their research, development, and production activities. In this review, the spray-drying process is described, as are recent trends in the encapsulation of fish oils, essential fatty acids, probiotics, phenolic compounds, and natural food colorants. The formulation and process conditions used in previous research and the results obtained are tabulated. Also, new innovations in bioactive encapsulation using nano–spray drying are described.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Applications of CRISPR Technologies Across the Food Supply Chain
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Katelyn Brandt, Rodolphe Barrangou

    The food industry faces a 2050 deadline for the advancement and expansion of the food supply chain to support the world's growing population. Improvements are needed across crops, livestock, and microbes to achieve this goal. Since 2005, researchers have been attempting to make the necessary strides to reach this milestone, but attempts have fallen short. With the introduction of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, the food production field is now able to achieve some of its most exciting advancements since the Green Revolution. This review introduces the concept of applying CRISPR-Cas technology as a genome-editing tool for use in the food supply chain, focusing on its implementation to date in crop, livestock, and microbe production, advancement of products to market, and regulatory and societal hurdles that need to be overcome.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Bacteriophages in Food Applications: From Foe to Friend
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Lisa O'Sullivan, Declan Bolton, Olivia McAuliffe, Aidan Coffey

    Bacteriophages (phages) have traditionally been considered troublesome in food fermentations, as they are an important cause of starter-culture failure and trigger significant financial losses. In addition, from an evolutionary perspective, phages have contributed to the pathogenicity of many bacteria through transduction of virulence genes. In contrast, phages have played an important positive role in molecular biology. Moreover, these agents are increasingly being recognized as a potential solution to the detection and biocontrol of various undesirable bacteria, which cause either spoilage of food materials, decreased microbiological safety of foods, or infectious diseases in food animals and crops. The documented successful applications of phages and various phage-derived molecules are discussed in this review, as are many promising new uses that are currently under development.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Biofilms in Food Processing Environments: Challenges and Opportunities
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez, Laura M. Coughlan, Romain Briandet, Paul D. Cotter

    This review examines the impact of microbial communities colonizing food processing environments in the form of biofilms on food safety and food quality. The focus is both on biofilms formed by pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and on those formed by harmless or beneficial microbes, which are of particular relevance in the processing of fermented foods. Information is presented on intraspecies variability in biofilm formation, interspecies relationships of cooperativism or competition within biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm ecology and architecture, and how these factors may influence removal. The effect on the biofilm formation ability of particular food components and different environmental conditions that commonly prevail during food processing is discussed. Available tools for the in situ monitoring and characterization of wild microbial biofilms in food processing facilities are explored. Finally, research on novel agents or strategies for the control of biofilm formation or removal is summarized.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Advanced Techniques for Hyperspectral Imaging in the Food Industry: Principles and Recent Applications
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Ji Ma, Da-Wen Sun, Hongbin Pu, Jun-Hu Cheng, Qingyi Wei

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a technology integrating optical sensing technologies of imaging, spectroscopy, and chemometrics. The sensor of HSI can obtain both spatial and spectral information simultaneously. Therefore, the chemical and physical information of food products can be monitored in a rapid, nondestructive, and noncontact manner. There are numerous reports and papers and much research dealing with the applications of HSI in food in recent years. This review introduces the principle of HSI technology, summarizes its recent applications in food, and pinpoints future trends.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Effect of Food Structure and Processing on (Poly)phenol–Gut Microbiota Interactions and the Effects on Human Health
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, Juan C. Espín

    The two-way interaction of food (poly)phenols with the human gut microbiota has been studied throughout the past ten years. Research has shown that this interaction can be relevant to explain the health effects of these phytochemicals. The effect of the food matrix and food processing on this interaction has only been partially studied. In this article, the studies within this field have been critically reviewed, with a special focus on the following groups of phenolic metabolites: citrus flavanones, pomegranate ellagitannins, and cocoa proanthocyanidins. The available research shows that both the food matrix and food processing can be relevant factors for gut microbiota reshaping to reach a healthier microbial ecology and for the conversion of polyphenols to bioactive and bioavailable metabolites. There are, however, some research gaps that indicate a more comprehensive research approach is needed to reach valid conclusions regarding the gut microbiota–mediated effects of polyphenols on human health.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Emulsion Formation by Homogenization: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Andreas Håkansson

    Emulsion formation by homogenization is commonly used in food production and research to increase product stability and to design colloidal structures. High-energy methods such as high-pressure homogenizers and rotor–stator mixers are the two most common techniques. However, to what extent does the research community understand the emulsion formation taking place in these devices? This contribution attempts to answer this question through critically reviewing the scientific literature, starting with the hydrodynamics of homogenizers and continuing by reviewing drop breakup and coalescence. It is concluded that although research in this field has been ongoing for a century and has provided a substantial amount of empirical correlations and scaling laws, the fundamental understanding is still limited, especially in the case of emulsions with a high-volume fraction of the disperse phase, as seen in many food applications. These limitations in the current understanding are also used to provide future perspectives and suggest directions for further investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Fatty Acid Esters of 3-Monochloropropanediol: A Review
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Boyan Gao, Yanfang Li, Guoren Huang, Liangli Yu

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters) are a new group of processing-induced chemical toxicants with possible nephrotoxicity and testicular toxicity. 3-MCPD esters have been detected in many food categories, including refined edible oils, bread, coffee, and infant formula. 3-MCPD esters have also been detected in human breast milk, indicating their possible absorption and distribution in human organs and tissues. 3-MCPD esters have become a food safety concern, and in 2013 the European Food Safety Authority estimated a tolerable daily value (TDI) of 2 μg/kg body weight (BW) for the amount of free 3-MCPD. This review summarizes the available information on 3-MCPD ester research, including the analytical methods, exposure biomarkers, absorption and metabolism, toxicities, formation mechanisms, and mitigation strategies as well as the occurrence of 3-MCPD esters in human foods. This review may serve as a scientific foundation for advancing our understanding of 3-MCPD esters and their food safety concerns.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Food Matrix Design for Effective Lactic Acid Bacteria Delivery
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    F. Gomand, F. Borges, J. Burgain, J. Guerin, A.-M. Revol-Junelles, C. Gaiani

    The range of foods featuring lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with potential associated health benefits has expanded over the years from traditional dairy products to meat, cereals, vegetables and fruits, chocolate, etc. All these new carriers need to be compared for their efficacy to protect, carry, and deliver LAB, but because of their profusion and the diversity of methods this remains difficult. This review points out the advantages and disadvantages of the main food matrix types, and an additional distinction between dairy and nondairy foods is made. The food matrix impact on LAB viability during food manufacturing, storage, and digestion is also discussed. The authors propose an ideal hypothetical food matrix that includes structural and physicochemical characteristics such as pH, water activity, and buffering capacities, all of which need to be taken into account when performing LAB food matrix design. Guidelines are finally provided to optimize food matrix design in terms of effective LAB delivery.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Food Proteins: Technological, Nutritional, and Sustainability Attributes of Traditional and Emerging Proteins
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Simon M. Loveday

    Protein is an essential macronutrient and a key structural component of many foods. The nutritional and technological properties of food protein ingredients depend on their source, extraction and purification, modification during food manufacture, and interactions with other food components. In addition to covering these elements, this review seeks to highlight underappreciated aspects of protein environmental sustainability and explores the potential of cultured meat and insect-derived proteins.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Immunometabolism: A Multi-Omics Approach to Interpreting the Influence of Exercise and Diet on the Immune System
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    David C. Nieman, Mary Ann Lila, Nicholas D. Gillitt

    Immunometabolism is an evolving field of scientific endeavor that merges immunology and metabolism and has provided valuable context when evaluating the influence of dietary interventions on exercise-induced immune dysfunction. Metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics provide a system-wide view of the metabolic response to exercise by simultaneously measuring and identifying a large number of small-molecule metabolites, lipids, and proteins. Many of these are involved with immune function and regulation and are sensitive to dietary influences, especially acute carbohydrate ingestion from either sugar beverages or fruits such as bananas. Emerging evidence using large multi-omics data sets supports the combined intake of fruit sugars and phytochemicals by athletes during heavy exertion as an effective strategy to improve metabolic recovery, augment viral defense, and counter postexercise inflammation and immune dysfunction at the cell level. Multi-omics methodologies have given investigators new outcome targets to assess the efficacy of various dietary interventions for physiologically stressed athletes.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Improving the Efficacy of Essential Oils as Antimicrobials in Foods: Mechanisms of Action
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Jiajia Rao, Bingcan Chen, David Julian McClements

    The consumer preference for clean-label products is requiring the food industry to reformulate their products by replacing artificial additives with natural alternatives. Essential oils are natural antimicrobials isolated from plant sources that have the potential to combat many foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. This review begins by discussing the antimicrobial properties of essential oils, the relationships between their chemical structure and antimicrobial efficacy, and their potential limitations for commercial applications (such as strong flavor, volatility, and chemical instability). We then review the commonly used methods for screening the antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils and elucidating their mechanisms of action. Finally, potential applications of essential oils as antimicrobials in foods are reviewed and the major types of food-grade delivery systems available for improving their efficacy are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Interactions Between Food and Gut Microbiota: Impact on Human Health
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Yanbei Wu, Jiawei Wan, Uyory Choe, Quynhchi Pham, Norberta W. Schoene, Qiang He, Bin Li, Liangli Yu, Thomas T.Y. Wang

    Understanding the relationship between food and the gut microbiota, their interactions, and how each modulates the other is critical for successful promotion of human health. This review seeks to summarize (a) the current knowledge on the effects of food and food components on gut microbiota and (b) the association between gut microbiota, consumption of food, and food bioactive components and the resulting beneficial health outcomes. Our goal is to provide state-of-the-art information on food and gut microbiota interactions and to stimulate discussions and research approaches that will move the field forward.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Microbiological Safety of Dried Spices
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2016-03-18
    Joshua B. Gurtler, Susanne E. Keller

    Spices in the desiccated state provide an environment that allows the survival of many foodborne pathogens. Currently, the incidence of pathogen-positive spices imported into the United States is 1.9 times higher than for any other imported food. Correspondingly, imported spices have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks and multiple product recalls. Despite the association with recalls and outbreaks, the actual pathogen populations in spices, when found, are frequently extremely small. In addition to pathogenic bacterial species, toxigenic molds have been frequently recovered from spices, and aflatoxins have been found in as many as 58% of the spices sampled. The presence of toxigenic molds is especially problematic to the immunocompromised or those on immunosuppressive therapy and has been linked to gut aspergillosis. Numerous detection methods, including both traditional and advanced DNA regimes, are being tested to optimize recovery of pathogens from spices. Further, a number of new inactivation intervention methods to decontaminate spices are examined and discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Nontargeted Detection Methods for Food Safety and Integrity
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Bing Shao, Hui Li, Jianzhong Shen, Yongning Wu

    Nontargeted workflows for chemical hazard analyses are highly desirable in the food safety and integrity fields to ensure human health. Two different analytical strategies, nontargeted metabolomics and chemical database filtering, can be used to screen unknown contaminants in food matrices. Sufficient mass and chromatographic resolutions are necessary for the detection of compounds and subsequent componentization and interpretation of candidate ions. Analytical chemistry–based technologies, including gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE-MS), combined with chemometrics analysis are being used to generate molecular formulas of compounds of interest. The construction of a chemical database plays a crucial role in nontargeted detection. This review provides an overview of the current sample preparation, analytical chemistry–based techniques, and data analysis as well as the limitations and challenges of nontargeted detection methods for analyzing complex food matrices. Improvements in sample preparation and analytical platforms may enhance the relevance of food authenticity, quality, and safety.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Recent Advances in the Application of Metabolomics for Nutrition and Health
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Diana González-Peña, Lorraine Brennan

    Metabolomics is the study of small molecules called metabolites in biological samples. Application of metabolomics to nutrition research has expanded in recent years, with emerging literature supporting multiple applications. Key examples include applications of metabolomics in the identification and development of objective biomarkers of dietary intake, in developing personalized nutrition strategies, and in large-scale epidemiology studies to understand the link between diet and health. In this review, we provide an overview of the current applications and identify key challenges that need to be addressed for the further development of the field. Successful development of metabolomics for nutrition research has the potential to improve dietary assessment, help deliver personalized nutrition, and enhance our understanding of the link between diet and health.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Optimizing the Quality of Food Powder Products: The Challenges of Moisture-Mediated Phase Transformations
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Lisa J. Mauer, Laurent Forny, Vincent D.M. Meunier, Lynne S. Taylor

    Water is ubiquitous in the environment and is present to varying degrees even within dry powder products and most ingredients. Water migration between the environment and a solid, or between different components of a product, may lead to detrimental physical and chemical changes. In efforts to optimize the quality of dry products, as well as the efficiency of production practices, it is crucial to understand the cause–effect relationships of water interactions with different solids. Therefore, this review addresses the basis of moisture migration in dry products, and the modes of water vapor interactions with crystalline and amorphous solids (e.g., adsorption, capillary condensation, deliquescence, crystal hydrate formation, absorption into amorphous solids) and related moisture-induced phase and state changes, and provides examples of how these moisture-induced changes affect the quality of the dry products.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Soft-Matter Approaches for Controlling Food Protein Interactions and Assembly
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Adeline Boire, Denis Renard, Antoine Bouchoux, Stéphane Pezennec, Thomas Croguennec, Valérie Lechevalier, Cécile Le Floch-Fouéré, Saïd Bouhallab, Paul Menut

    Animal- and plant-based proteins are present in a wide variety of raw and processed foods. They play an important role in determining the final structure of food matrices. Food proteins are diverse in terms of their biological origin, molecular structure, and supramolecular assembly. This diversity has led to segmented experimental studies that typically focus on one or two proteins but hinder a more general understanding of food protein structuring as a whole. In this review, we propose a unified view of how soft-matter physics can be used to control food protein assembly. We discuss physical models from polymer and colloidal science that best describe and predict the phase behavior of proteins. We explore the occurrence of phase transitions along two axes: increasing protein concentration and increasing molecular attraction. This review provides new perspectives on the link between the interactions, phase transitions, and assembly of proteins that can help in designing new food products and innovative food processing operations.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Source, Extraction, Characterization, and Applications of Novel Antioxidants from Seaweed
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Charlotte Jacobsen, Ann-Dorit M. Sørensen, Susan L. Holdt, Casimir C. Akoh, Ditte B. Hermund

    Driven by a general demand for clean labels on food and cosmetic products, these industries are currently searching for efficient natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants. Seaweed contains several compounds with antioxidative properties (phlorotannins, pigments, tocopherols, and polysaccharides). It is possible to extract these compounds via different extraction techniques, which are discussed in this review. Among the abovementioned compounds, phlorotannins are probably the most important in terms of the antioxidative potential of seaweed extracts. We review how the different antioxidative compounds can be characterized. We discuss the current knowledge of the relationship between phlorotannin's structure and antioxidant properties in in vitro studies as well as in food systems. Concerning food systems, most studies on the antioxidative effect of seaweed extracts have been performed with extracts prepared from Fucus vesiculosus, despite the fact that this species is less available than other species, such as Ascophyllum nodosum, which also has high phlorotannin content.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • The Roles of Food Processing in Translation of Dietary Guidance for Whole Grains, Fruits, and Vegetables
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Min Li, Kacie K.H.Y. Ho, Micaela Hayes, Mario G. Ferruzzi

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend the consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables as part of a healthy diet. However, current consumption patterns suggest that most Americans are not meeting these recommendations. The challenge remains to align the DGA guidance with the food environment and consumers’ expectations for product quality, availability, and affordability. Currently, processed foods play an increasingly important role in American diets. Often characterized as unhealthy, processed foods are contributors to both food and nutritional security. When the alignment of processing strategies with DGA principles exists, achieving DGA goals is more likely, regardless of processing level. In this review, select processing strategies for whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are described to show how DGA principles can guide processing efforts to create healthier products. Although whole grains, supported by industry-wide innovation and guidance, have had some success with consumers, improving intake of fruit and vegetable products remains a challenge. Closing consumption gaps requires new innovations and products aligned with consumer preferences and DGA principles.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Curcumin: Recent Advances in the Development of Strategies to Improve Oral Bioavailability
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Katherine Z. Sanidad, Elvira Sukamtoh, Hang Xiao, David Julian McClements, Guodong Zhang

    Substantial human and preclinical studies have shown that curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has a variety of health-promoting effects including but not limited to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer actions. However, curcumin has poor bioavailability, and high doses of curcumin are usually needed to exert its health-promoting effects in vivo, limiting its applications for disease prevention. Here, we discuss the health-promoting effects of curcumin, factors limiting its bioavailability, and strategies to improve its oral bioavailability.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • The Role of Nutrition for the Aging Population: Implications for Cognition and Alzheimer's Disease
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2016-03-18
    Rebecca Power, Alfonso Prado-Cabrero, Ríona Mulcahy, Alan Howard, John M. Nolan

    Improved life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a significant increase in age-related diseases. Dementia is one of the fastest growing age-related diseases, with 75 million adults globally projected to develop the condition by 2030. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and represents the most significant stage of cognitive decline. With no cure identified to date for AD, focus is being placed on preventative strategies to slow progression, minimize the burden of neurological disease, and promote healthy aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutrition (e.g., via fruit, vegetables, fish) is important for optimizing cognition and reducing risk of AD. This review examines the role of nutrition on cognition and AD, with specific emphasis on the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and key nutritional components of the MeDi, namely xanthophyll carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids. Given their selective presence in the brain and their ability to attenuate proposed mechanisms involved in AD pathogenesis (namely oxidative damage and inflammation), these nutritional compounds offer potential for optimizing cognition and reducing the risk of AD.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-16
    Felicia Wu,John D Groopman,James J Pestka

    Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-03-04
    E J Smid,M Kleerebezem

    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Body weight regulation and obesity: dietary strategies to improve the metabolic profile.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-03-04
    M J M Munsters,W H M Saris

    This review discusses dietary strategies that may improve the metabolic profile and body weight regulation in obesity. Recent evidence demonstrated that long-term health effects seem to be more beneficial for low-glycemic index (GI) diets compared to high-protein diets. Still, these results need to be confirmed by other prospective cohort studies and long-term clinical trials, and the discrepancy between these study designs needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, the current literature is mixed with regard to the efficacy of increased meal frequency (or snacking) regimens in causing metabolic alterations, particularly in relation to body weight control. In conclusion, a growing body of evidence suggests that dietary strategies with the aim to reduce postprandial insulin response and increase fat oxidation, and that tend to restore metabolic flexibility, have a place in the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Opportunities and progress.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-03-04
    John H Litchfield

    In this review, I cover my professional experiences in food science and technology and related areas of applied and industrial microbiology over the span of my career. It emphasizes opportunities and technological problems that I encountered together with my progress in follow-up development of products and processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New developments on the role of intramuscular connective tissue in meat toughness.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-21
    Peter P Purslow

    Intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) forms a series of continuous networks integrating muscle fibers and fascicles into a whole organ. The contributions of IMCT to cooked meat toughness have long been recognized. This review concentrates on (a) the potential to manipulate IMCT in the growing animal, (b) postmortem effects on structure and properties of IMCT, and (c) developments in techniques to quantify IMCT in meat. A new hypothesis can explain why IMCT is enzymatically degraded in postmortem aging; however, after cooking, no differences are seen in the IMCT contribution to toughness. This hypothesis proposes that heat-insoluble collagen occurs in a weak pool and a strong pool, where the weak pool is most easily degraded by both proteolysis and heat. Far from being a constant background feature, the IMCT contribution to cooked meat toughness can be varied and deserves fresh research on how to achieve this.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic stimulation of plant phenolics for food preservation and health.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-16
    Dipayan Sarkar,Kalidas Shetty

    Plant phenolics as secondary metabolites are key to a plant's defense response against biotic and abiotic stresses. These phytochemicals are also increasingly relevant to food preservation and human health in terms of chronic disease management. Phenolic compounds from different food crops with different chemical structures and biological functions have the potential to act as natural antioxidants. Plant-based human foods are rich with these phenolic phytochemicals and can be used effectively for food preservation and bioactive enrichments through metabolic stimulation of key pathways. Phenolic metabolites protect against microbial degradation of plant-based foods during postharvest storage. Phenolics not only provide biotic protection but also help to counter biochemical and physical food deteriorations and to enhance shelf life and nutritional quality. This review summarizes the role of metabolically stimulated plant phenolics in food preservation and their impact on the prevention of oxidative stress-induced human diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Applications of power ultrasound in food processing.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-16
    Sandra Kentish,Hao Feng

    Acoustic energy as a form of physical energy has drawn the interests of both industry and scientific communities for its potential use as a food processing and preservation tool. Currently, most such applications deal with ultrasonic waves with relatively high intensities and acoustic power densities and are performed mostly in liquids. In this review, we briefly discuss the fundamentals of power ultrasound. We then summarize the physical and chemical effects of power ultrasound treatments based on the actions of acoustic cavitation and by looking into several ultrasound-assisted unit operations. Finally, we examine the biological effects of ultrasonication by focusing on its interactions with the miniature biological systems present in foods, i.e., microorganisms and food enzymes, as well as with selected macrobiological components.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-16
    L Federico Casassa,James F Harbertson

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phage therapy in the food industry.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-16
    Lorraine Endersen,Jim O'Mahony,Colin Hill,R Paul Ross,Olivia McAuliffe,Aidan Coffey

    Despite advances in modern technologies, the food industry is continuously challenged with the threat of microbial contamination. The overuse of antibiotics has further escalated this problem, resulting in the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Efforts to develop new methods for controlling microbial contamination in food and the food processing environment are extremely important. Accordingly, bacteriophages (phages) and their derivatives have emerged as novel, viable, and safe options for the prevention, treatment, and/or eradication of these contaminants in a range of foods and food processing environments. Whole phages, modified phages, and their derivatives are discussed in terms of current uses and future potential as antimicrobials in the traditional farm-to-fork context, encompassing areas such as primary production, postharvest processing, biosanitation, and biodetection. The review also presents some safety concerns to ensure safe and effective exploitation of bacteriophages in the future.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Designing food structures for nutrition and health benefits.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    Jennifer E Norton,Gareth A Wallis,Fotis Spyropoulos,Peter J Lillford,Ian T Norton

    In addition to providing specific sensory properties (e.g., flavor or textures), there is a need to produce foods that also provide functionality within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, over and above simple nutrition. As such, there is a need to understand the physical and chemical processes occurring in the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, in addition to the food structure-physiology interactions. In vivo techniques and in vitro models have allowed us to study and simulate these processes, which aids us in the design of food microstructures that can provide functionality within the human body. Furthermore, it is important to be aware of the health or nutritional needs of different groups of consumers when designing food structures, to provide targeted functionality. Examples of three groups of consumers (elderly, obese, and athletes) are given to demonstrate their differing nutritional requirements and the formulation engineering approaches that can be utilized to improve the health of these individuals. Eating is a pleasurable process, but foods of the future will be required to provide much more in terms of functionality for health and nutrition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impact of diet on human intestinal microbiota and health.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    Anne Salonen,Willem M de Vos

    Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate systemic immune and metabolic responses. Due to the immense metabolic capacity of the intestinal microbiota and its relatively high plasticity, there is great interest in identifying dietary approaches that allow intentional and predictable modulation of the microbiota. In this article, we review the current insights on dietary influence on the human intestinal microbiota based on recent high-throughput molecular studies and interconnections with health. We focus especially on the emerging data that identify the amount and type of dietary fat as significant modulators of the colonic microbiota and its metabolic output.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gastric digestion in vivo and in vitro: how the structural aspects of food influence the digestion process.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    Gail M Bornhorst,R Paul Singh

    Food digestion is crucial for sustaining life. Although it has been examined for more than 300 years, the basic principles are not entirely understood. Antral motility is well characterized, and current research is seeking to determine flow patterns generated by the stomach's peristaltic contractions. The rate of gastric emptying for solid and liquid meals has been determined according to variations in meal composition, energy content, and subject characteristics. The glycemic response has been measured for many carbohydrate foods and is altered by factors such as amount of processing, particle size, and starch structure. Similarly, ileal starch digestibility is altered by food and starch properties. Even though many foods have been studied according to their glycemic response, starch digestibility, and in vitro digestion kinetics, the rate-determining processes and underlying mechanisms remain to be established. The link between food properties, digestion processes, and final health outcomes must be strengthened for functional food optimization.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Strategies to mitigate peanut allergy: production, processing, utilization, and immunotherapy considerations.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    Brittany L White,Xiaolei Shi,Caitlin M Burk,Michael Kulis,A Wesley Burks,Timothy H Sanders,Jack P Davis

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop grown worldwide for food and edible oil. The surge of peanut allergy in the past 25 years has profoundly impacted both affected individuals and the peanut and related food industries. In response, several strategies to mitigate peanut allergy have emerged to reduce/eliminate the allergenicity of peanuts or to better treat peanut-allergic individuals. In this review, we give an overview of peanut allergy, with a focus on peanut proteins, including the impact of thermal processing on peanut protein structure and detection in food matrices. We discuss several strategies currently being investigated to mitigate peanut allergy, including genetic engineering, novel processing strategies, and immunotherapy in terms of mechanisms, recent research, and limitations. All strategies are discussed with considerations for both peanut-allergic individuals and the numerous industries/government agencies involved throughout peanut production and utilization.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Soft materials deformation, flow, and lubrication between compliant substrates: impact on flow behavior, mouthfeel, stability, and flavor.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    Nichola Selway,Jason R Stokes

    Foods are rationally designed to be semifluids or soft solids for optimal stabilization of the multiple phases they contain and to provide favorable textural properties. Although rheology provides a guide to physical stability and initial texture perception, measurements on intact foods do not enable predictions of the organoleptic properties experienced during oral processing. Oral processing includes lubrication between compliant oral substrates, and studies into soft lubrication/tribology are providing new insights into the physical processes experienced by soft foods in the mouth. We provide a review of the key rheological considerations for food product stability and texture, and we delve into how rheology and soft tribology, with consideration for oral physiology and saliva, are providing new insights into texture, mouthfeel, taste, and aroma.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    Bart M Nicolaï,Thijs Defraeye,Bart De Ketelaere,Els Herremans,Maarten L A T M Hertog,Wouter Saeys,Alessandro Torricelli,Thomas Vandendriessche,Pieter Verboven

    We review nondestructive techniques for measuring internal and external quality attributes of fruit and vegetables, such as color, size and shape, flavor, texture, and absence of defects. The different techniques are organized according to their physical measurement principle. We first describe each technique and then list some examples. As many of these techniques rely on mathematical models and particular data processing methods, we discuss these where needed. We pay particular attention to techniques that can be implemented online in grading lines.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nanodelivery of bioactive components for food applications: types of delivery systems, properties, and their effect on ADME profiles and toxicity of nanoparticles.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2014-01-07
    T Borel,C M Sabliov

    Food bioactives are known to prevent aging, cancer, and other diseases for an overall improved health of the consumer. Nanodelivery provides a means to control stability, solubility, and bioavailability, and also provides controlled release of food bioactives. There are two main types of nanodelivery systems, liquid and solid. Liquid nanodelivery systems include nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, and nanopolymersomes. Solid nanodelivery systems include nanocrystals, lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Each type of nanodelivery system offers distinct benefits depending on the compatibility of nanoparticle properties with the properties of the bioactive and the desired application. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as size, charge, hydrophobicity, and targeting molecules affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of nanodelivery systems. The fate of the bioactive depends on its physicochemical properties and the location of its release. The safety of nanodelivery systems for use in food applications is largely unknown. Toxicological studies consisting of a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo studies are needed to reveal the safety of nanodelivery systems for successful applications in food and agriculture.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Delivery of lipophilic bioactives: assembly, disassembly, and reassembly of lipid nanoparticles.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-12-18
    Mingfei Yao,Hang Xiao,David Julian McClements

    The oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactive molecules can be greatly increased by encapsulating them within engineered lipid nanoparticles (ELNs), such as micelles, microemulsions, nanoemulsions, or solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). After ingestion, these ELNs are disassembled in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and then reassembled into biological lipid nanoparticles (mixed micelles) in the small intestine. These mixed micelles solubilize and transport lipophilic bioactive components to the epithelial cells. The mixed micelles are then disassembled and reassembled into yet another form of biological lipid nanoparticle [chylomicrons (CMs)] within the enterocyte cells. The CMs carry the bioactive components into the systemic (blood) circulation via the lymphatic system, thereby avoiding first-pass metabolism. This article provides an overview of the various physicochemical and physiological processes responsible for the assembly and disassembly of lipid nanoparticles outside and inside the GIT. This knowledge can be used to design food-grade delivery systems to improve the oral bioavailability of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive components.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • From Tomato King to World Food Prize laureate.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-12-18
    Philip E Nelson

    This autobiographical article describes my early years, education, and career at Purdue University. Helping form and expand the Department of Food Science at Purdue was exciting and gratifying, and working with students in the classroom and on research projects was rewarding and kept me feeling young. My research on bulk aseptic processing allowed me to help solve problems relevant to the tomato industry, but I learned later that it had much broader relevance. I certainly never expected the impact and visibility of the work to result in my being awarded the World Food Prize. Being the first food scientist to win this award has enabled me to focus increased attention on the need to reduce food losses.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modern supercritical fluid technology for food applications.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-12-18
    Jerry W King

    This review provides an update on the use of supercritical fluid (SCF) technology as applied to food-based materials. It advocates the use of the solubility parameter theory (SPT) for rationalizing the results obtained when employing sub- and supercritical media to food and nutrient-bearing materials and for optimizing processing conditions. Total extraction and fractionation of foodstuffs employing SCFs are compared and are illustrated by using multiple fluids and unit processes to obtain the desired food product. Some of the additional prophylactic benefits of using carbon dioxide as the processing fluid are explained and illustrated with multiple examples of commercial products produced using SCF media. I emphasize the role of SCF technology in the context of environmentally benign and sustainable processing, as well as its integration into an overall biorefinery concept. Conclusions are drawn in terms of current trends in the field and future research that is needed to secure new applications of the SCF platform as applied in food science and technology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A new generation of food-borne pathogen detection based on ribosomal RNA.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Kristin Livezey,Shannon Kaplan,Michele Wisniewski,Michael M Becker

    Listeria and Salmonella detection assays for food and environmental surfaces that target ribosomal RNA (rRNA) have been developed. The large number of rRNA molecules in bacteria enabled the development of molecular assays that use enrichment times as short as 12 hours for Salmonella and 24 hours for Listeria. These assays run on a fully automated molecular pathogen detection system, which provides walk-away capability and produces 300 assay results in eight hours.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Advances in food crystallization.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Richard W Hartel

    Crystals often play an important role in food product quality and shelf life. Controlling crystallization to obtain the desired crystal content, size distribution, shape, and polymorph is key to manufacturing products with desired functionality and shelf life. Technical developments in the field have improved the tools with which we study and characterize crystals in foods. These developments also help our understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena that govern crystallization and improve our ability to control it during processing and storage. In this review, some of the more important recent developments in measuring and controlling crystallization are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The secretion, components, and properties of saliva.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Guy H Carpenter

    Saliva has one of the most difficult roles to perform in the body. It must facilitate the taste and detection of foods nutritious to the body but also defend the mucosa from infection by the ever-present microbiota present in the mouth. It achieves these roles by having a complex composition and versatile physical properties. The protein and ion components make a solution that is 99% water into a viscoelastic solution capable of many roles, such as acting as a lubricant and an antimicrobial, preventing the dissolution of teeth, aiding digestion, and facilitating taste. This review describes the neural regulation of salivary secretion in terms of fluid, protein, and ion secretion. It then describes some of the components and physical properties of saliva and attempts to relate them to the functions that saliva must perform.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Breeding research on sake yeasts in Japan: history, recent technological advances, and future perspectives.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Hiroshi Kitagaki,Katsuhiko Kitamoto

    Sake is an alcoholic beverage of Japan, with a tradition lasting more than 1,300 years; it is produced from rice and water by fermenting with the koji mold Aspergillus oryzae and sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Breeding research on sake yeasts was originally developed in Japan by incorporating microbiological and genetic research methodologies adopted in other scientific areas. Since the advent of a genetic paradigm, isolation of yeast mutants has been a dominant approach for the breeding of favorable sake yeasts. These sake yeasts include (a) those that do not form foams (produced by isolating a mutant that does not stick to foams, thus decreasing the cost of sake production); (b) those that do not produce urea, which leads to the formation of ethyl carbamate, a possible carcinogen (isolated by positive selection in a canavanine-, arginine-, and ornithine-containing medium); (c) those that produce an increased amount of ethyl caproate, an apple-like flavor (produced by isolating a mutant resistant to cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty-acid synthesis); and (d) those that produce a decreased amount of pyruvate (produced by isolating a mutant resistant to an inhibitor of mitochondrial transport, thus decreasing the amount of diacetyl). Given that sake yeasts perform sexual reproduction, sporulation and mating are potent approaches for their breeding. Recently, the genome sequences of sake yeasts have been determined and made publicly accessible. By utilizing this information, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the brewing characteristics of sake yeasts have been identified, which paves a way to DNA marker-assisted selection of the mated strains. Genetic engineering technologies for experimental yeast strains have recently been established by academic groups, and these technologies have also been applied to the breeding of sake yeasts. Sake yeasts whose genomes have been modified with these technologies correspond to genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, technologies that enable the elimination of extraneous DNA sequences from the genome of sake yeast have been developed. Sake yeasts genetically modified with these technologies are called self-cloning yeasts and do not contain extraneous DNA sequences. These yeasts were exempted from the Japanese government's guidelines for genetically modified food. Protoplast fusion has also been utilized to breed favorable sake yeasts. Future directions for the breeding of sake yeasts are also proposed in this review. The reviewed research provides perspectives for the breeding of brewery yeasts in other fermentation industries.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetic and phenotypic characteristics of baker's yeast: relevance to baking.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Francisca Randez-Gil,Isaac Córcoles-Sáez,José A Prieto

    Yeasts rarely encounter ideal physiological conditions during their industrial life span; therefore, their ability to adapt to changing conditions determines their usefulness and applicability. This is especially true for baking strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The success of this yeast in the ancient art of bread making is based on its capacity to rapidly transform carbohydrates into CO2 rather than its unusual resistance to environmental stresses. Moreover, baker's yeast must exhibit efficient respiratory metabolism during yeast manufacturing, which determines biomass yield. However, optimal growth conditions often have negative consequences in other commercially important aspects, such as fermentative power or stress tolerance. This article reviews the genetic and physiological characteristics of baking yeast strains, emphasizing the activation of regulatory mechanisms in response to carbon source and stress signaling and their importance in defining targets for strain selection and improvement.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impacts of preharvest factors during kernel development on rice quality and functionality.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Terry J Siebenmorgen,Brandon C Grigg,Sarah B Lanning

    Rice quality and functionality are characterized in many ways, depending largely on the industry segment using the rice. These characteristics include appearance, milling, and cooking parameters. Recently, variable quality of rice grown in the United States has been reported, but the cause was not well documented. Agronomic impacts include planting time, irrigation and fertility, cultivar selection, and harvest conditions. However, recent research suggests that ambient air temperature, specifically elevated nighttime air temperature (NTAT) during grain filling, dramatically affects the variability of rice milling quality, in terms of milled- and head-rice yields; appearance, in terms of chalkiness; and functional characteristics, including viscosity profiles, gelatinization temperatures, and proximate concentrations. Future research is needed to develop cultivars that are resistant to stress resulting from elevated NTAT during the critical period of grain filling, and, for the near term, to develop altered production management practices that mitigate elevated-temperature stress.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Wine matrix compounds affect perception of wine aromas.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Remedios R Villamor,Carolyn F Ross

    Wine is a complex alcoholic beverage. The wine matrix or the components that are present in the wine play an important role in the perceived aroma and flavor of the wine. The wine matrix is composed of two fractions, the nonvolatile fraction, which includes ethanol (in liquid phase), polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and carbohydrates, and the volatile fraction, which incorporates flavor and aroma compounds. Interactions among these compounds may arise through various mechanisms, thus affecting the sensory and chemical properties of the wine. The main focus of this review is to highlight recent research on wine component interactions and their effects on perceived aroma in the wine. An overview of the wine impact odorants and their determination using sensory and chemical methods is also provided in this paper.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutrimetabonomics:applications for nutritional sciences, with specific reference to gut microbial interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-01-10
    Sandrine P Claus,Jonathan R Swann

    Understanding the role of the diet in determining human health and disease is one major objective of modern nutrition. Mammalian biocomplexity necessitates the incorporation of systems biology technologies into contemporary nutritional research. Metabonomics is a powerful approach that simultaneously measures the low-molecular-weight compounds in a biological sample, enabling the metabolic status of a biological system to be characterized. Such biochemical profiles contain latent information relating to inherent parameters, such as the genotype, and environmental factors, including the diet and gut microbiota. Nutritional metabonomics, or nutrimetabonomics, is being increasingly applied to study molecular interactions between the diet and the global metabolic system. This review discusses three primary areas in which nutrimetabonomics has enjoyed successful application in nutritional research: the illumination of molecular relationships between nutrition and biochemical processes; elucidation of biomarker signatures of food components for use in dietary surveillance; and the study of complex trans-genomic interactions between the mammalian host and its resident gut microbiome. Finally, this review illustrates the potential for nutrimetabonomics in nutritional science as an indispensable tool to achieve personalized nutrition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Off-flavor precursors in soy protein isolate and novel strategies for their removal.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-01-10
    Srinivasan Damodaran,Akshay Arora

    Off-flavors remain a major hurdle in expanding the use of soy protein isolate (SPI) in mainstream food applications. The complexity in solving this problem arises from the presence of protein-bound precursors in SPI. Among the most predominant sources of off-flavors in SPI is the residual amount of phospholipids that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Autoxidation of PUFAs generates several classes of volatile compounds that contribute to the beany, grassy, or green odor of SPI. In addition, several polyphenolic compounds, such as isoflavones, saponins, phenolic acids, etc., impart bitter and astringent tastes to SPI. Traditional methods for removing protein-bound precursors from SPI and their limitations are reviewed. The most notable trade-off of conventional methods is the loss of protein functionality to some degree. Therefore, pursuit of gentler treatments to overcome SPI off-flavor has been the focus of industry and academia alike. Novel approaches that employ β-cyclodextrin to remove both SPI-bound precursors and volatile compounds are described.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parameter estimation in food science.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-01-10
    Kirk D Dolan,Dharmendra K Mishra

    Modeling includes two distinct parts, the forward problem and the inverse problem. The forward problem-computing y(t) given known parameters-has received much attention, especially with the explosion of commercial simulation software. What is rarely made clear is that the forward results can be no better than the accuracy of the parameters. Therefore, the inverse problem-estimation of parameters given measured y(t)-is at least as important as the forward problem. However, in the food science literature there has been little attention paid to the accuracy of parameters. The purpose of this article is to summarize the state of the art of parameter estimation in food science, to review some of the common food science models used for parameter estimation (for microbial inactivation and growth, thermal properties, and kinetics), and to suggest a generic method to standardize parameter estimation, thereby making research results more useful. Scaled sensitivity coefficients are introduced and shown to be important in parameter identifiability. Sequential estimation and optimal experimental design are also reviewed as powerful parameter estimation methods that are beginning to be used in the food science literature.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applied to food safety.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2013-01-10
    Ana Paula Craig,Adriana S Franca,Joseph Irudayaraj

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an advanced Raman technique that enhances the vibrational spectrum of molecules adsorbed on or in the vicinity of metal particles and/or surfaces. Because of its readiness, sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation requirements, SERS is being considered as a powerful technique for food inspection. Key aspects of food-safety assurance, spectroscopy methods, and SERS are briefly discussed in an extended introduction of this review. The recent and potential advances in SERS are highlighted in sections that deal with the (a) detection of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms and (b) the detection of food contaminants and adulteration, concentrated specifically on antibiotics, drugs, hormones, melamine, and pesticides. This review provides an outlook of the work done and a perspective on the future directions of SERS as a reliable tool for food-safety assessment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Naturally occurring antimicrobials for minimally processed foods.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2012-12-19
    P Michael Davidson,Faith J Critzer,T Matthew Taylor

    Natural antimicrobials are gaining increased interest from researchers and food manufacturers alike seeking to discover label-friendly alternatives to the widely implemented synthetic compounds. Naturally occurring antimicrobials can be applied directly to food to protect food quality, extend food shelf life by inhibiting or inactivating spoilage microorganisms, and improve food safety by inhibiting or inactivating food-borne pathogens. There are a great number of natural antimicrobials derived from animal, plant, and microbial sources. This manuscript reviews their efficacy against spoilage and pathogenic organisms, their methods of evaluation, and their application in various foods as well as the development of novel delivery systems and incorporation with other hurdles.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Food oral processing: conversion of food structure to textural perception.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2012-12-19
    H Koç,C J Vinyard,G K Essick,E A Foegeding

    Food oral processing includes all muscle activities, jaw movements, and tongue movements that contribute to preparing food for swallowing. Simultaneously, during the transformation of food structure to a bolus, a cognitive representation of food texture is formed. These physiological signals detected during oral processing are highly complex and dynamic in nature because food structure changes continuously due to mechanical and biochemical breakdown coupled with the lubricating action of saliva. Multiple and different sensations are perceived at different stages of the process. Although much work has focused on factors that determine mechanical (e.g., rheological and fracture) and sensory properties of foods, far less attention has been paid to linking food transformations that occur during oral processing with sensory perception of texture. Understanding how food structure influences specific patterns of oral processing and how these patterns relate to specific textural properties and their cognitive representations facilitates the design of foods that are nutritious, healthy, and enjoyable.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2012-12-19
    Ludmila V Roze,Sung-Yong Hong,John E Linz

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacteriophages in food fermentations: new frontiers in a continuous arms race.
    Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. (IF 8.511) Pub Date : 2012-12-19
    Julie E Samson,Sylvain Moineau

    Phage contamination represents an important risk to any process requiring bacterial growth, particularly in the biotechnology and food industries. The presence of unwanted phages may lead to manufacturing delays, lower quality product, or, in the worst cases, total production loss. Thus, constant phage monitoring and stringent application of the appropriate control measures are indispensable. In fact, a systematic preventive approach to phage contamination [phage analysis and critical control points (PACCP)] should be put in place. In this review, sources of phage contamination and novel phage detection methods are described, with an emphasis on bacterial viruses that infect lactic acid bacteria used in food fermentations. Recent discoveries related to antiphage systems that are changing our views on phage-host interactions are highlighted. Finally, future directions are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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