当前期刊: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Reduced‐sodium cheeses: Implications of reducing sodium chloride on cheese quality and safety
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Venus Bansal; Santosh Kumar Mishra

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) universally well‐known as table salt is an ancient food additive, which is broadly used to increase the storage stability and the palatability of foods. Though, in recent decades, use of table salt in foods is a major concern among the health agencies of the world owing to ill effects of sodium (Na) that are mostly linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. As a result, food scientists are working to decrease the sodium content in food either by decreasing the rate of NaCl addition or by partial or full replacement of NaCl with other suitable salts like potassium chloride (KCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), or magnesium chloride (MgCl2). However, in cheese, salt reduction is difficult to accomplish owing to its multifaceted role in cheese making. Considering the significant contribution in dietary salt intake (DSI) from cheese, researchers across the globe are exploring various technical interventions to develop reduced‐sodium cheeses (RSCs) without jeopardizing the quality and safety of cheeses. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide an insight of NaCl reduction on sensory, physicochemical, and technofunctional attributes of RSCs with an aim to explore various strategies for salt reduction without affecting the cheese quality and safety. The relationship between salt reduction and survival of pathogenic and spoilage‐causing microorganisms and growth of RSCs microflora is also discussed. Based on the understanding of conceptual and applied information on the complex changes that occur in the development of RSCs, the quality and safety of RSCs can be accomplished effectively in order to reduce the DSI from cheese.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Roadmap of cocoa quality and authenticity control in the industry: A review of conventional and alternative methods
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Maribel Alexandra Quelal‐Vásconez; María Jesús Lerma‐García; Édgar Pérez‐Esteve; Pau Talens; José Manuel Barat

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and its derivatives are appreciated for their aroma, color, and healthy properties, and are commodities of high economic value worldwide. Wide ranges of conventional methods have been used for years to guarantee cocoa quality. Recently, however, demand for global cocoa and the requirements of sensory, functional, and safety cocoa attributes have changed. On the one hand, society and health authorities are increasingly demanding new more accurate quality control tests, including not only the analysis of physicochemical and sensory parameters, but also determinations of functional compounds and contaminants (some of which come in trace quantities). On the other hand, increased production forces industries to seek quality control techniques based on fast, nondestructive online methods. Finally, an increase in global cocoa demand and a consequent rise in prices can lead to future cases of fraud. For this reason, new analytes, technologies, and ways to analyze data are being researched, developed, and implemented into research or quality laboratories to control cocoa quality and authenticity. The main advances made in destructive techniques focus on developing new and more sensitive methods such as chromatographic analysis to detect metabolites and contaminants in trace quantities. These methods are used to assess cocoa quality; study new functional properties; control cocoa authenticity; or detect frequent emerging frauds. Regarding nondestructive methods, spectroscopy is the most explored technique, which is conducted within the near infrared range, and also within the medium infrared range to a lesser extent. It is applied mainly in the postharvest stage of cocoa beans to analyze different biochemical parameters or to assess the authenticity of cocoa and its derivatives.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Understanding spoilage microbial community and spoilage mechanisms in foods of animal origin
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Olumide Adedokun Odeyemi; Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye; Mariyana Strateva; Deyan Stratev

    The increasing global population has resulted in increased demand for food. Goods quality and safe food is required for healthy living. However, food spoilage has resulted in food insecurity in different regions of the world. Spoilage of food occurs when the quality of food deteriorates from its original organoleptic properties observed at the time of processing. Food spoilage results in huge economic losses to both producers (farmers) and consumers. Factors such as storage temperature, pH, water availability, presence of spoilage microorganisms including bacteria and fungi, initial microbial load (total viable count—TVC), and processing influence the rate of food spoilage. This article reviews the spoilage microbiota and spoilage mechanisms in meat and dairy products and seafood. Understanding food spoilage mechanisms will assist in the development of robust technologies for the prevention of food spoilage and waste.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Reducing the glycemic impact of carbohydrates on foods and meals: Strategies for the food industry and consumers with special focus on Asia
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    May S. M. Wee; Christiani Jeyakumar Henry

    Type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent in Asia, which can be attributed to a carbohydrate‐rich diet, consisting of foods in the form of grains, for example, rice, or a food product made from flours or isolated starch, for example, noodles. Carbohydrates become a health issue when they are digested and absorbed rapidly (high glycemic index), and more so when they are consumed in large quantities (high glycemic load). The principal strategies of glycemic control should thus aim to reduce the amount of carbohydrate available for digestion, reduce the rate of digestion of the food, reduce the rate of glucose absorption, and increase the rate of glucose removal from blood. From a food perspective, the composition and structure of the food can be modified to reduce the amount of carbohydrates or alter starch digestibility and glucose absorption rates via using different food ingredients and processing methods. From a human perspective, eating behavior and food choices surrounding a meal can also affect glycemic response. This review therefore identifies actionable strategies and opportunities across foods and meals that can be considered by food manufacturers or consumers. They are (a) using alternative ingredients, (b) adding functional ingredients, and (c) changing processing methods and parameters for foods, and optimizing (a) eating behavior, (b) preloading or co‐ingestion of other macronutrients, and (c) meal sequence and history. The effectiveness of a strategy would depend on consumer acceptance, compatibility of the strategy with an existing food product, and whether it is economically or technologically feasible. A combination of two or more strategies is recommended for greater effectiveness and flexibility.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Antibacterial applications of metal–organic frameworks and their composites
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Mofei Shen; Fereidoun Forghani; Xueqian Kong; Donghong Liu; Xingqian Ye; Shiguo Chen; Tian Ding

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous coordination materials composed of multidentate organic ligands and metal ions or metal clusters. MOFs have the great potential to be utilized in antibacterial materials for biological, environmental, and food antimicrobial fields. In recent years, MOFs have been applied to various antibacterial fields due to their sustained release capability, porosity, and structural flexibility in combination with many chemicals and/or materials (such as nanoparticles, antibiotics, phytochemicals, and polymers). This review offers a detailed summary of the antibacterial applications of MOFs and their composites, focusing on the combination types of MOFs composites and the antibacterial effect in different applications. These applications are illustrated by the examples discussed in this review.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Fermented foods in a global age: East meets West
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Paul D. Cotter; Akihito Endo; Nam Soo Han; Remco Kort; Shao Quan Liu; Baltasar Mayo; Nieke Westerik; Robert Hutkins

    Fermented foods and alcoholic beverages have long been an important part of the human diet in nearly every culture on every continent. These foods are often well‐preserved and serve as stable and significant sources of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Despite these common features, however, many differences exist with respect to substrates and products and the types of microbes involved in the manufacture of fermented foods and beverages produced globally. In this review, we describe these differences and consider the influence of geography and industrialization on fermented foods manufacture. Whereas fermented foods produced in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand usually depend on defined starter cultures, those made in Asia and Africa often rely on spontaneous fermentation. Likewise, in developing countries, fermented foods are not often commercially produced on an industrial scale. Although many fermented products rely on autochthonous microbes present in the raw material, for other products, the introduction of starter culture technology has led to greater consistency, safety, and quality. The diversity and function of microbes present in a wide range of fermented foods can now be examined in detail using molecular and other omic approaches. The nutritional value of fermented foods is now well‐appreciated, especially in resource‐poor regions where yoghurt and other fermented foods can improve public health and provide opportunities for economic development. Manufacturers of fermented foods, whether small or large, should follow Good Manufacturing Practices and have sustainable development goals. Ultimately, preferences for fermented foods and beverages depend on dietary habits of consumers, as well as regional agricultural conditions and availability of resources.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Bioavailability and metabolism of chlorogenic acids (acyl‐quinic acids) in humans
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Michael N. Clifford; Asimina Kerimi; Gary Williamson

    Acyl‐quinic acids (chlorogenic acids) are produced by many plants, including fruits, vegetables, and herbal remedies, with coffee and maté particularly rich dietary sources. Epidemiological and intervention studies suggest that they can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review addresses their metabolic handling after oral consumption to provide a mechanistic basis to explain their possible effects on health. Intact acyl‐quinic acids are absorbed only to a small extent in the small intestine, but the cinnamic acids are efficiently absorbed after hydrolysis by either digestive or microbial enzymes in the colon. Metabolism results in phenolic conjugates in the blood and urine, but varying dependent on the acyl‐quinic acid, and subject to significant interperson variability. The balance between hydrogenation and complete β‐oxidation of the cinnamic acids, both by liver and gut microbiota, determines the profile of metabolites. Pharmacokinetic data suggest that some metabolites are bound to human serum albumin and/or sequestered in tissues, and some exhibit biological activity in vitro, consistent with proposed protective action in vivo. Significant gaps in the literature include lack of plasma and urinary data for free‐living individuals, and pharmacokinetic data for groups who consume coffee or maté at regular short intervals. Data are required for cis isomers. There is a critical need for precise urinary biomarkers of consumption of acyl‐quinic acids, accounting for variability in individual metabolism and in beverage composition, thus facilitating better translation of urinary metabolite measurements into accurate coffee consumption data to improve the outcomes of future epidemiological and intervention studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Colorants in cheese manufacture: Production, chemistry, interactions, and regulation
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Prateek Sharma; Annalisa Segat; Alan L. Kelly; Jeremiah J. Sheehan

    Colored Cheddar cheeses are prepared by adding an aqueous annatto extract (norbixin) to cheese milk; however, a considerable proportion (∼20%) of such colorant is transferred to whey, which can limit the end use applications of whey products. Different geographical regions have adopted various strategies for handling whey derived from colored cheeses production. For example, in the United States, whey products are treated with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide to obtain white and colorless spray‐dried products; however, chemical bleaching of whey is prohibited in Europe and China. Fundamental studies have focused on understanding the interactions between colorants molecules and various components of cheese. In addition, the selective delivery of colorants to the cheese curd through approaches such as encapsulated norbixin and microcapsules of bixin or use of alternative colorants, including fat‐soluble/emulsified versions of annatto or beta‐carotene, has been studied. This review provides a critical analysis of pertinent scientific and patent literature pertaining to colorant delivery in cheese and various types of colorant products on the market for cheese manufacture, and also considers interactions between colorant molecules and cheese components; various strategies for elimination of color transfer to whey during cheese manufacture are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Induction, detection, formation, and resuscitation of viable but non‐culturable state microorganisms
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Kai Dong; Hanxu Pan; Dong Yang; Lei Rao; Liang Zhao; Yongtao Wang; Xiaojun Liao

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state has been recognized as a strategy for bacteria to cope with stressful environments; in this state, bacteria fail to grow on routine culture medium but are actually alive and can resuscitate into a culturable state under favorable conditions. The VBNC state may pose a great threat to food safety and public health. To date, more than 100 VBNC microorganism species have been proven to exist in fields of food safety, environmental application, and agricultural diseases. Most harsh conditions can induce these microorganisms into the VBNC state, including food processing and preservation methods, adverse environmental conditions, and plant‐disease controlling means. The characteristics of VBNC state cells differ from those of normally growing cells and dead cells, based on which of the various detection methods are developed, and they are of great significance for potential risk assessment. To provide molecular level insights into this state, many studies on induction and resuscitation mechanisms have emerged over the past three decades, including research on omics, specific genes, or proteins involved in VBNC state formation and the roles of promoters in resuscitation from the VBNC state. In this review, microorganism species, induction and resuscitation factors, detection methods, and formation and resuscitation mechanisms of the VBNC state are comprehensively and systematically summarized.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Hempseed in food industry: Nutritional value, health benefits, and industrial applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    William Leonard; Pangzhen Zhang; Danyang Ying; Zhongxiang Fang

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds have been consumed in Asian communities since prehistoric times. Recently, Australia, Canada, and the United States have legalized the cultivation and consumption of hempseed at low (<0.3%) tetrahydrocannabinol levels, and there's a growing interest in hempseed due to its nutritional value and pharmaceutical potential. This review aims to summarize the chemical composition, nutritional value, and potential health benefits of hempseed, as researched via in vitro and in vivo trials. The application of hempseed in the food industry is limited due to its poor performance on some functional properties, so the latest processing methods developed to improve these properties were compared. Additionally, manufacturing technologies incorporating hemp seeds into existing food products are also elaborated. This review would promote further in‐depth research on this recently approved food resources and maximize its utilization in new food product development.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Sesquiterpenes in grapes and wines: Occurrence, biosynthesis, functionality, and influence of winemaking processes
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Zizhan Li; Kate Howell; Zhongxiang Fang; Pangzhen Zhang

    Grapes are an important global horticultural product, and are mainly used for winemaking. Typically, grapes and wines are rich in various phytochemicals, including phenolics, terpenes, pyrazines, and benzenoids, with different compounds responsible for different nutritional and sensory properties. Among these compounds, sesquiterpenes, a subcategory of the terpenes, are attracting increasing interest as they affect aroma and have potential health benefits. The characteristics of sesquiterpenes in grapes and wines in terms of classification, biosynthesis pathway, and active functions have not been extensively reviewed. This paper summarizes 97 different sesquiterpenes reported in grapes and wines and reviews their biosynthesis pathways and relevant bio‐regulation mechanisms. This review further discusses the functionalities of these sesquiterpenes including their aroma contribution to grapes and wines and potential health benefits, as well as how winemaking processes affect sesquiterpene concentrations.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Application of extrusion technology in plant food processing byproducts: An overview
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    William Leonard; Pangzhen Zhang; Danyang Ying; Zhongxiang Fang

    The food processing industry generates an immense amount of waste, which leads to major concerns for its environmental impact. However, most of these wastes, such as plant‐derived byproducts, are still nutritionally adequate for use in food manufacturing. Extrusion is one of the most versatile and commercially successful processing technologies, with its widespread applications in the production of pasta, snacks, crackers, and meat analogues. It allows a high degree of user control over the processing parameters that significantly alters the quality of final products. This review features the past research on manufacture of extruded foods with integration of various plant food processing byproducts. The impact of extrusion parameters and adding various byproducts on the nutritional, physicochemical, sensory, and microbiological properties of food products are comprehensively discussed. This paper also provides fundamental knowledge and practical techniques for food manufacturers and researchers on the extrusion processing of plant food byproducts, which may increase economical return to the industry and reduce the environmental impact.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Marine omega‐3 (n‐3) phospholipids: A comprehensive review of their properties, sources, bioavailability, and relation to brain health
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Mirja Kaizer Ahmmed, Fatema Ahmmed, Hong (Sabrina) Tian, Alan Carne, Alaa El‐Din Bekhit

    For several decades, there has been considerable interest in marine‐derived long chain n‐3 fatty acids (n‐3 LCPUFAs) due to their outstanding health benefits. n‐3 LCPUFAs can be found in nature either in triglycerides (TAGs) or in phospholipid (PL) form. From brain health point of view, PL n‐3 is more bioavailable and potent compared to n‐3 in TAG form, as only PL n‐3 is able to cross the blood–brain barrier and can be involved in brain biochemical reactions. However, PL n‐3 has been ignored in the fish oil industry and frequently removed as an impurity during degumming processes. As a result, PL products derived from marine sources are very limited compared to TAG products. Commercially, PLs are being used in pharmaceutical industries as drug carriers, in food manufacturing as emulsifiers and in cosmetic industries as skin care agents, but most of the PLs used in these applications are produced from vegetable sources that contain less (without EPA, DPA, and DHA) or sometimes no n‐3 LCPUFAs. This review provides a comprehensive account of the properties, structures, and major sources of marine PLs, and provides focussed discussion of their relationship to brain health. Epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical studies on n‐3 LCPUFAs enriched PLs using different model systems in relation to brain and mental health that have been published over the past few years are discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Novel oil extraction technologies: Process conditions, quality parameters, and optimization
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Peter Waboi Mwaurah, Sunil Kumar, Nitin Kumar, Arun Kumar Attkan, Anil Panghal, Vijay Kumar Singh, Mukesh Kumar Garg

    Conventional techniques of extracting oil using organic solvents pose health, safety, and environmental concerns. In modern extraction methods, green solvents such as water, ethanol, ethyl acetate, carbon dioxide, ionic liquids, and terpenes are currently gaining prominence. These green solvents present no signs of pollution and remain in liquid form over a temperature range of 0 to 140 °C. Other techniques covered in this review include microwave‐assisted enzymatic extraction, ultrasound‐assisted extraction, supercritical fluid technology, high pressure–assisted extraction, and pulse electric field–assisted extraction. These techniques are considered environmentally friendly because they exhibit less hazardous chemical synthesis, use renewable feedstock, and reduce the chemical load and emissions generated by organic solvents. Aqueous enzymatic extraction is a novel technique that uses enzymes as the medium for extraction of oil. Selection of the enzymes solely depends on the structure of the oilseed and the composition of the cell wall. Studies reveal an enzyme to substrate ratio of 1% to 8%, the temperature of 40 to 55 °C, and a pH of 4 to 8 to be typical for enzymatic extraction of oil from different oilseeds. Microwave‐assisted extraction has proven to impart significant effects on mass transfer and offers high throughput and extraction efficiency. A microwave power of 275 to 1,000 W and a temperature range of 30 to 60 °C are noticed in the different studies. The review presents a comprehensive account of the modern extraction techniques, the parameters responsible for yield and quality, and their industrial applications. Besides, the review highlights the optimized parameters for oil extraction from different oil‐bearing materials.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Meat color is determined not only by chromatic heme pigments but also by the physical structure and achromatic light scattering properties of the muscle
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Joanne M. Hughes, Frank M. Clarke, Peter P. Purslow, Robyn D. Warner

    Meat color is important for consumer acceptability, with excessively dark meat often associated with consumer rejection. It is determined chromatically by pigment content (measured by hue and chroma) and achromatically by scattering of light by the microstructure (measured by lightness), the latter of which has received minimal research focus. This review discusses the individual components of the meat microstructure that cause differences in achromatic contributions to color. Differences in achromatic light scattering between light and dark extremes of meat color are most likely explained by structural attributes within the muscle cell. These differences are proposed to arise from variations in (a) transverse shrinkage of the structural lattice of the myofilaments, myofibrils, and muscles fibers, (b) longitudinal shrinkage of the sarcomere, and (c) different protein composition of the surrounding medium (sarcoplasm and extracellular space). These are discussed at a mechanistic level, in relation to six parameters of the muscle cell: (a) protein surface charge altering the myofilament spacing, (b) protein solubility, (c) sarcoplasmic protein binding to myofilaments and myofibrils, (d) integrity of the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion proteins, (e) sarcomere integrity and myofibrillar proteins, and (f) myosin denaturation and rigor bond modification. New data are presented to support the proposed role of structural elements in muscle causing achromatic light scattering and their contribution to the surface color of meat. In addition, the relationships between lightness and water holding capacity and pH are explored and the economic impact of dark meat for the meat industry is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Recent advances in heterocyclic aromatic amines: An update on food safety and hazardous control from food processing to dietary intake
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Xiaoqian Chen, Wei Jia, Li Zhu, Lei Mao, Yu Zhang

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) as probable carcinogenic substances are mainly generated in meat products during thermal processing. Numerous studies have contributed to the analysis, formation, and mitigation of HAAs during food processing. However, few articles have comprehensively reviewed food safety aspects from both food processing and dietary intake regarding the formation, mitigation, metabolism, biomarkers for exposure, hazard control, and risk assessment of HAAs, and related food safety researches. Several factors may influence the generation of HAAs, including processing temperature, processing time, and chemical composition of the meat. Nonetheless, these mutagenic compounds are attenuated to different levels by the addition of natural or synthetic flavorings and antioxidant‐rich marinades, as well as pretreatments using technique such as microwave heating. After dietary intake, different types of HAAs are metabolized in humans by several enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, peroxidases, N‐acetyltransferases, sulfotransferases, uridine diphosphate‐glucuronosyltransferases, and glutathione S‐transferases. Their primary metabolites are further conjugated with DNA or ultimately excreted in urine and feces. The 2‐amino‐1‐methyl‐6‐phenylimidazo[4,5‐b]pyridine in hair as well as DNA, hemoglobin, and serum albumin adducts has been considered as biomarkers for exposure assessment. Dietary intake information obtained from questionnaires and the results of epidemiological investigations have shown a positive relationship between the intakes of red meat and processed meat and high risk of cancer incidence. As several cancers have been reported to be associated with HAAs, HAAs should be both effectively reduced during food processing and controlled from dietary intake to facilitate human health.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Acacia seed proteins: Low or high quality? A comprehensive review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Oladipupo Q. Adiamo, Michael E. Netzel, Louwrens C. Hoffman, Yasmina Sultanbawa

    The popularity of adding value to indigenous plant protein sources has increased due to the rise in the world population, high costs of animal protein as compared to plant proteins, and an increase in the consumer awareness of the nutritional and functional roles of dietary plant protein. Seeds of acacia plants (containing over 1,350 species) have considerable amount of protein (18.25% to 35.5%) and nutritionists have shown great interest in assessing the quality and functionality of proteins from these protein‐rich plants. In this review, the overall nutritional and health‐promoting properties of acacia seed (AS) species are introduced. Extraction, quality, and functional properties of proteins from different AS species are discussed. Furthermore, anti‐nutritional components and protease inhibitors present in AS species and the effects of processing methods applied to lower the levels of anti‐nutrients are also discussed. Previous applications of AS in food formulations are highlighted. This review aims to provide updated findings that have been reported on AS proteins and to highlight areas for further studies in order to increase the utilization potential of the seeds.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2016-07-28
    Brittany L Graf,Patricio Rojas-Silva,Leonel E Rojo,Jose Delatorre-Herrera,Manuel E Baldeón,Ilya Raskin

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant‐based Milks: A Review of the Science Underpinning Their Design, Fabrication, and Performance
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    David Julian McClements, Emily Newman, Isobelle Farrell McClements

    Many consumers are interested in decreasing their consumption of animal products, such as bovine milk, because of health, environmental, and ethical reasons. The food industry is therefore developing a range of plant‐based milk alternatives. These milk substitutes should be affordable, convenient, desirable, nutritional, and sustainable. This article reviews our current understanding of the development of plant‐based milks. Initially, an overview of the composition, structure, properties, and nutritional profile of conventional bovine milk is given, because the development of successful alternatives depends on understanding the characteristics of real milk. The two main production routes for fabricating plant‐based milks are then highlighted: (i) disruption of plant materials (such as nuts, seeds, or legumes) to form aqueous suspensions of oil bodies; (ii) formation of oil‐in‐water emulsions by homogenization of oil, water, and emulsifiers. The roles of the different functional ingredients in plant‐based milks are highlighted, including oils, emulsifiers, thickeners, antioxidants, minerals, and other additives. The physicochemical basis of the appearance, texture, and stability of plant‐based milks is covered. The importance of the sensory attributes and gastrointestinal fate of bovine milk and plant‐based alternatives is also highlighted. Finally, potential areas for future work are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Sorghum Grain: From Genotype, Nutrition, and Phenolic Profile to Its Health Benefits and Food Applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Yun Xiong, Pangzhen Zhang, Robyn Dorothy Warner, Zhongxiang Fang

    Globally, sorghum is one of the most important but least utilized staple crops. Sorghum grain is a rich source of nutrients and health‐beneficial phenolic compounds. The phenolic profile of sorghum is exceptionally unique and more abundant and diverse than other common cereal grains. The phenolic compounds in sorghum are mainly composed of phenolic acids, 3‐deoxyanthocyanidins, and condensed tannins. Studies have shown that sorghum phenolic compounds have potent antioxidant activity in vitro, and consumption of sorghum whole grain may improve gut health and reduce the risks of chronic diseases. Recently, sorghum grain has been used to develop functional foods and beverages, and as an ingredient incorporated into other foods. Moreover, the phenolic compounds, 3‐deoxyanthocyanidins, and condensed tannins can be isolated and used as promising natural multifunctional additives in broad food applications. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of nutrition and phenolic compounds derived from sorghum and their related health effects, and demonstrate the potential for incorporation of sorghum in food systems as a functional component and food additive to improve food quality, safety, and health functions.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Antimicrobial Coatings for Food Contact Surfaces: Legal Framework, Mechanical Properties, and Potential Applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Eduardo Torres Dominguez, Phong H. Nguyen, Heather K. Hunt, Azlin Mustapha

    Food contact surfaces (FCS) in food processing facilities may become contaminated with a number of unwanted microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus. To reduce contamination and the spread of disease, these surfaces may be treated with sanitizers or have active antimicrobial components adhered to them. Although significant efforts have been devoted to the development of coatings that improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of FCS, other important coating considerations, such as hardness, adhesion to a substrate, and migration of the antimicrobial substance into the food matrix, have largely been disregarded to the detriment of their translation into practical application. To address this gap, this review examines the mechanical properties of antimicrobial coatings (AMC) applied to FCS and their interplay with their antimicrobial properties within the framework of relevant regulatory constraints that would apply if these were used in real‐world applications. This review also explores the various assessment techniques for examining these properties, the effects of the deposition methods on coating properties, and the potential applications of such coatings for FCS. Overall, this review attempts to provide a holistic perspective. Evaluation of the current literature urges a compromise between antimicrobial effectiveness and mechanical stability in order to adhere to various regulatory frameworks as the next step toward improving the industrial feasibility of AMC for FCS applications.

    更新日期:2019-10-17
  • Enzymatic Production, Bioactivity, and Bitterness of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Peptides
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Luis M. Real Hernandez, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

    Chickpeas are inexpensive, protein rich (approximately 20% dry mass) pulses available worldwide whose consumption has been correlated with positive health outcomes. Dietary peptides are important molecules derived from dietary proteins, but a comprehensive analysis of the peptides that can be produced from chickpea proteins is missing in the literature. This review provides information from the past 20 years on the enzymatic production of peptides from chickpea proteins, the reported bioactivities of chickpea protein hydrolysates and peptides, and the potential bitterness of chickpea peptides in food products. Chickpea peptides have been enzymatically produced with pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alcalase, flavorzyme, and papain either alone or in combination, but the sequences of many of the peptides in chickpea protein hydrolysates remain unknown. In addition, a theoretical hydrolysis of chickpea legumin by stem bromelain and ficin was performed by the authors to highlight the potential use of these enzymes to produce bioactive chickpea peptides. Antioxidant activity, hypocholesterolemic, and angiotensin 1‐converting enzyme inhibition are the most studied bioactivities of chickpea protein hydrolysates and peptides, but anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, and anti‐inflammatory effects have also been reported for chickpea protein hydrolysates and peptides. Chickpea bioactive peptides are not currently commercialized, but their bitterness could be a major impediment to their incorporation in food products. Use of flavorzyme in the production of chickpea protein hydrolysates has been proposed to decrease their bitterness. Future research should focus on the optimization of chickpea bioactive peptide enzymatic production, studying the bioactivity of chickpea peptides in humans, and systematically analyzing chickpea peptide bitterness.

    更新日期:2019-10-16
  • Microbial Contamination of Fresh Produce: What, Where, and How?
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Bernardino Machado‐Moreira, Karl Richards, Fiona Brennan, Florence Abram, Catherine M. Burgess

    Promotion of healthier lifestyles has led to an increase in consumption of fresh produce. Such foodstuffs may expose consumers to increased risk of foodborne disease, as often they are not subjected to processing steps to ensure effective removal or inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms before consumption. Consequently, reports of ready‐to‐eat fruit and vegetable related disease outbreak occurrences have increased substantially in recent years, and information regarding these events is often not readily available. Identifying the nature and source of microbial contamination of these foodstuffs is critical for developing appropriate mitigation measures to be implemented by food producers. This review aimed to identify the foodstuffs most susceptible to microbial contamination and the microorganisms responsible for disease outbreaks from information available in peer‐reviewed scientific publications. A total of 571 outbreaks were identified from 1980 to 2016, accounting for 72,855 infections and 173 deaths. Contaminated leafy green vegetables were responsible for 51.7% of reported outbreaks. Contaminated soft fruits caused 27.8% of infections. Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, norovirus, and hepatitis A accounted for the majority of cases. Large outbreaks resulted in particular biases such as the observation that contaminated sprouted plants caused 31.8% of deaths. Where known, contamination mainly occurred via contaminated seeds, water, and contaminated food handlers. There is a critical need for standardized datasets regarding all aspects of disease outbreaks, including how foodstuffs are contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. Providing food business operators with this knowledge will allow them to implement better strategies to improve safety and quality of fresh produce.

    更新日期:2019-10-16
  • Nonthermal Plasma–Liquid Interactions in Food Processing: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Sellam Perinban, Valérie Orsat, Vijaya Raghavan

    Nonthermal processing methods are often preferred over conventional food processing methods to ensure nutritional quality. Nonthermal plasma (NTP) is a new field of nonthermal processing technology and seeing increased interest for application in food preservation. In food applications of NTP, liquid interactions are the most prevalent. The NTP reactivity and product storability are altered during this interaction. The water activated by NTP (plasma‐activated water [PAW]) has gained considerable attention during recent years as a potential disinfectant in fruits and vegetable washing. However, detailed understanding of the interactions of NTP reactive species with food nutritional components in the presence of water and their stability in food is required to be explored to establish the potential of this emerging technology. Hence, the main objective of this review is to give a complete overview of existing NTP–liquid interactions. Further, their microbial inactivation mechanisms and the effects on food quality are discussed in detail. Most of the research findings have suggested the successful application of NTP and PAW for microbial inactivation and food preservation. Still, there are some research gaps identified and a complete analysis of the stability of plasma reactive species in food is still missing. By addressing these issues, along with the available research output in this field, it is possible that NTP can be successfully used as a food decontamination method in the near future.

    更新日期:2019-10-16
  • Recent Advances in Microalgal Bioactives for Food, Feed, and Healthcare Products: Commercial Potential, Market Space, and Sustainability
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Nethravathy M. U., Jitendra G. Mehar, Sandeep N. Mudliar, Ajam Y. Shekh

    To combat food scarcity as well as to ensure nutritional food supply for sustainable living of increasing population, microalgae are considered as innovative sources for adequate nutrition. Currently, the dried biomass, various carotenoids, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, omega fatty acids, and enzymes are being used as food additives, food coloring agents, and food supplements. Apart from nutritional importance, microalgae are finding the place in the market as “functional foods.” When compared to the total market size of food and feed products derived from all the possible sources, the market portfolio of microalgae‐based products is still smaller, but increasing steadily. On the other hand, the genetic modification of microalgae for enhanced production of commercially important metabolites holds a great potential. However, the success of commercial application of genetically modified (GM) algae will be defined by their safety to human health and environment. In view of this, the present study attempts to highlight the industrially important microalgal metabolites, their production, and application in food, feed, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. The current and future market trends for microalgal products have been thoroughly discussed. Importantly, the safety pertaining to microalgae cultivation and consumption, and regulatory issues for GM microalgae have also been covered.

    更新日期:2019-10-16
  • An Analysis of the Published Literature on the Effects of Edible Coatings Formed by Polysaccharides and Essential Oils on Postharvest Microbial Control and Overall Quality of Fruit
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Evandro L. de Souza, Giovanna A. Lundgren, Kataryne Á. R. de Oliveira, Lúcia R. R. Berger, Marciane Magnani

    Consumers have shown increased concern about the importance of adopting regular fresh fruit consumption. Because fresh fruit are highly susceptible to postharvest decay, several studies have focused on the development of alternative technologies to extend their market period. The application of polysaccharides in combination with essential oils (EOs) to formulate edible coatings has been considered an innovative strategy to reduce postharvest losses in fruit. However, available studies have used different methodological procedures related to the production and application of these coatings on fruit, which could be potential influential factors on the achievement of the desired effects in coated fruit. This review summarized the studies focusing on the application of edible coatings formed by polysaccharides and EOs to preserve fruit, in addition to examine and discuss possible factors affecting their functionalities. The approach given in this review envisages to contribute to research in edible coatings formed by polysaccharides and EOs and help to their optimized application as a postharvest treatment of fruit. Despite of the different methods selected for use in experimental assays, data of available literature demonstrate that coatings formed by polysaccharides (that is, chitosan—the only polysaccharide used as an antimicrobial, cassava starch, flaxseed gum, gum arabic, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, locust bean gum, mesquite gum, pectin, pullulan, and sodium alginate) and different EOs (or their individual constituents) are effective to reduce postharvest losses in fruit and generally do not adversely affected their physicochemical and sensory characteristics during storage.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Food Safety Interventions to Control Listeria monocytogenes in the Fresh Apple Packing Industry: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
    Ewa Pietrysiak, Stephanie Smith, Girish M Ganjyal

    Listeria monocytogenes, in fresh and ready‐to‐eat produce such as whole fresh apples, is of concern as there is no “kill step” in their packing process that would eliminate the pathogenic bacteria. Recent listeriosis outbreaks revealed that insufficient cleaning and sanitation practices in fresh apple packing houses may lead to contamination of fruit with L. monocytogenes. This article discusses three fundamental aspects for ensuring microbiological safety of fresh apples: protection of fresh apples from microbial contamination during the packing process, decontamination intervention techniques, and the challenges in removal of L. monocytogenes from fresh apples. Currently used and novel methods of fresh produce decontamination are discussed and evaluated on their usefulness for the apple packing process. Additionally, present regulatory requirements, possible routes of produce contamination, and bacteria attachment and survival mechanisms are described. Optimum methods for microbial decontamination of whole fresh apples are still to be determined. Critical aspects that should be considered in developing the interventions include apple morphology, conditions and scale of the packing process, and influence of the interventions on apple quality. Evaluation of the currently used and emerging decontamination methods indicated that the hurdle technology and rotating use of sanitizers to avoid development of bacterial biofilm resistance may give the best results, although not conclusively.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Effect of Dietary Red Meat on Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Sun Jin Hur, Yohan Yoon, Cheorun Jo, Jong Youn Jeong, Keun Taik Lee

    Heme iron overload has been implicated as the main cause of the increased risk of cancer due to the consumption of red meat. However, fish and shellfish, teas, and spices contain up to five times more iron than red meat. There is insufficient evidence that iron intake in dietary red meat is the primary causal factor for colorectal cancer. In addition, harmful substances produced during the preparation of red meat, including heterocyclic amines (HCAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), N‐nitroso compounds, and acrylamide, are extrinsic factors that increase carcinogenicity. HCAs are produced during the cooking of red meat, poultry meat, and fish. PAHs may also be produced during the cooking of diverse food groups, such as dairy products, fruits, vegetables, and cereals. The average daily intake of red meat among Korean individuals is 62 g; the amount of PAHs entering the body via red meat is less than the average amount of PAHs the body is exposed to in the air. Therefore, it is difficult to conclude that dietary red meat is the main cause of colorectal cancer. Rather, there may be an intricate influence of multiple factors, including fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, overweight, obesity, and stress.

    更新日期:2019-10-01
  • Self‐Assembled Carbohydrate Polymers for Food Applications: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Germán Ayala Valencia, Ehsan Nazarzadeh Zare, Pooyan Makvandi, Tomy J. Gutiérrez

    The self‐assembled natural and synthetic polymers are booming. However, natural polymers obtained from native or modified carbohydrate polymers (CPs), such as celluloses, chitosan, glucans, gums, pectins, and starches, have had special attention as raw material in the manufacture of self‐assembled polymer composite materials having several forms: films, hydrogels, micelles, and particles. The easy manipulation of the architecture of the CPs, as well as their high availability in nature, low cost, and being sustainable and green polymers have been the main positive points in the use of them for different applications. CPs have been used as building blocks for composite structures, and their easy orientation and ordering has given rise to self‐assembled CPs (SCPs). These macromolecules have been little studied for food applications. Nonetheless, their research has grown mainly in the last 5 years as encapsulated food additive wall materials, food coatings, and edible films. The multifaceted properties (systems sensitive to pH, temperature, ionic strength, types of ions, mechanical force, and enzymes) of these devices are leading to the development of advanced food materials. This review article focused on the analysis of SCPs for food applications in order to encourage other research groups for their preparation and implementation.

    更新日期:2019-10-01
  • The Evolution and Cultural Framing of Food Safety Management Systems—Where From and Where Next?
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Louise Manning, Pieternel A Luning, Carol A Wallace

    The aim of this paper is to review the development of food safety management systems (FSMS) from their origins in the 1950s to the present. The food safety challenges in modern food supply systems are explored and it is argued that there is a need for a more holistic thinking approach to food safety management. The narrative review highlights that while the transactional elements of how FSMS are developed, validated, implemented, monitored, and verified remains largely unchanged, how organizational culture frames the operation and efficacy of FSMS is becoming more important. The evolution of a wider academic and industry understanding of both the influence of food safety culture (FS‐culture) and also how such culture frames and enables, or conversely restricts the efficacy of the FSMS is crucial for consumer well‐being. Potential research gaps worthy of further study are identified as well as recommendations given for the application of the research findings within the food industry.

    更新日期:2019-09-19
  • Alginate Oligosaccharides: Production, Biological Activities, and Potential Applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Jun Liu, Shaoqing Yang, Xiuting Li, Qiaojuan Yan, Martin J. T. Reaney, Zhengqiang Jiang

    Alginate, a group of polyuronic saccharides, has been widely used in both pharmaceutical and food industries due to its unique physicochemical properties as well as beneficial health effects. However, the potential applications of alginate are restricted because of its low water solubility and high solution viscosity when significant concentrations are needed, particularly in food products. Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), oligomers containing 2 to 25 monomers, can be obtained via hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds, organic synthesis, or through biosynthesis. Generally, AOS have shorter chain lengths and thus improved water solubility when compared with higher molecular weight alginates of the same monomers. These oligosaccharides have attracted interest from both basic and applied researchers. AOS have unique bioactivity and can impart health benefits. They have shown immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, prebiotic, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antitumor, anticoagulant, and other activities. As examples, they have been utilized as prebiotics, feed supplements for aquaculture, poultry, and swine, elicitors for plants and microorganisms, cryoprotectors for frozen foods, and postharvest treatments. This review comprehensively covers methods for AOS production from alginate, such as physical/chemical methods, enzymatic methods, fermentation, organic synthesis, and biosynthesis. Moreover, current progress in structural characterization, potential health benefits, and AOS metabolism after ingestion are summarized in this review. This review will discuss methods for producing and modified AOS with desirable structures that are suited for novel applications.

    更新日期:2019-09-19
  • Review on the Stability Mechanism and Application of Water‐in‐Oil Emulsions Encapsulating Various Additives
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Qiaomei Zhu, Yijun Pan, Xin Jia, Jinlong Li, Min Zhang, Lijun Yin

    Water‐in‐oil (W/O) emulsions can be used to encapsulate and control the release of bioactive compounds for nutrition fortification in fat‐based food products. However, long‐term stabilization of W/O emulsions remains a challenging task in food science and thereby limits their potential application in the food industry. To develop high‐quality emulsion‐based food products, it is essential to better understand the factors that affect the emulsions’ stability. In real food system, the stability situation of W/O emulsions is more complicated by the fact that various additives are contained in the products, such as NaCl, sugar, and other large molecular additives. The potential stability issues of W/O emulsions caused by these encapsulated additives are a current concern, and special attention should be given to the relevant theoretical knowledge. This article presents several commonly used methods for the preparation of W/O emulsions, and the roles of different additives (water‐ and oil‐soluble types) in stabilizing W/O emulsions are mainly discussed and illustrated to gain new insights into the stability mechanism of emulsion systems. In addition, the review provides a comprehensive and state‐of‐art overview of the potential applications of W/O emulsions in food systems, for example, as fat replacers, controlled‐release platforms of nutrients, and delivery carrier systems of water‐soluble bioactive compounds. The information may be useful for optimizing the formulation of W/O emulsions for utilization in commercial functional food products.

    更新日期:2019-09-18
  • Application of Deep Learning in Food: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Lei Zhou, Chu Zhang, Fei Liu, Zhengjun Qiu, Yong He

    Deep learning has been proved to be an advanced technology for big data analysis with a large number of successful cases in image processing, speech recognition, object detection, and so on. Recently, it has also been introduced in food science and engineering. To our knowledge, this review is the first in the food domain. In this paper, we provided a brief introduction of deep learning and detailedly described the structure of some popular architectures of deep neural networks and the approaches for training a model. We surveyed dozens of articles that used deep learning as the data analysis tool to solve the problems and challenges in food domain, including food recognition, calories estimation, quality detection of fruits, vegetables, meat and aquatic products, food supply chain, and food contamination. The specific problems, the datasets, the preprocessing methods, the networks and frameworks used, the performance achieved, and the comparison with other popular solutions of each research were investigated. We also analyzed the potential of deep learning to be used as an advanced data mining tool in food sensory and consume researches. The result of our survey indicates that deep learning outperforms other methods such as manual feature extractors, conventional machine learning algorithms, and deep learning as a promising tool in food quality and safety inspection. The encouraging results in classification and regression problems achieved by deep learning will attract more research efforts to apply deep learning into the field of food in the future.

    更新日期:2019-09-16
  • Global Concerns with B Vitamin Statuses: Biofortification, Fortification, Hidden Hunger, Interactions, and Toxicity
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Tyler J. Titcomb, Sherry A. Tanumihardjo

    The prevalence of undernutrition due to insufficient energy intake has been reduced by nearly 50% since 1990. This reduction is largely attributed to improved yields of staple crops, such as wheat, rice, and maize; however, these improvements did little for micronutrient deficiencies that affect an estimated two billion people worldwide. Starchy staple crops are energy dense but are often lacking in one or more B vitamins, making resource‐constrained people who consume monotonous diets comprised predominantly of these staples at risk for developing deficiency. B vitamin deficiencies occur due to a poor overall nondiversified diet and rarely occur alone. Many B vitamins are essential cofactors involved in the metabolism of other nutrients, including other B vitamins, whereby the deficiency of one B vitamin affects the metabolism and status measurements of another. Food fortification efforts have nearly eradicated diseases of extreme B vitamin deficiency, such as beriberi from thiamin deficiency and pellagra from niacin deficiency. However, subclinical deficiency, sometimes referred to as hidden hunger, is still common especially in low‐income countries. Most dietary B vitamins, due to their water‐soluble nature, are not a concern for excessive intakes, but synthetic forms used for fortification and supplements sometimes can have adverse effects when consumed in high amounts. Biofortified crops offer a long‐term sustainable method to increase the amount of dietary B vitamins for people who rely on staple crops for most of their caloric intake. Efforts have been made to improve B vitamin content of crops, especially for thiamin, vitamin B6, and folate, but none have undergone human feeding trials; therefore, more research is needed to provide sustainable and scalable solutions in many parts of the world.

    更新日期:2019-09-11
  • Wheat Seed Proteins: Factor's Influencing Their Content, Composition, and Technological Properties, and Strategies to Reduce Adverse Reactions
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Sachin Rustgi, Peter Shewry, Fred Brouns, Lomme Deleu, Jan A. Delcour

    Wheat is the primary source of nutrition for many, especially those living in developing countries, and wheat proteins are among the most widely consumed dietary proteins in the world. However, concerns about disorders related to the consumption of wheat and/or wheat gluten proteins have increased sharply in the last 20 years. This review focuses on wheat gluten proteins and amylase trypsin inhibitors, which are considered to be responsible for eliciting most of the intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms experienced by susceptible individuals. Although several approaches have been proposed to reduce the exposure to gluten or immunogenic peptides resulting from its digestion, none have proven sufficiently effective for general use in coeliac‐safe diets. Potential approaches to manipulate the content, composition, and technological properties of wheat proteins are therefore discussed, as well as the effects of using gluten isolates in various food systems. Finally, some aspects of the use of gluten‐free commodities are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Effect of Carcass Chilling on the Palatability Traits and Safety of Fresh Red Meat
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Yimin Zhang, Yanwei Mao, Ke Li, Xin Luo, David L. Hopkins

    Chilling procedures have been widely used in livestock abattoirs since the development of refrigeration systems. The major criteria when applying chilling regimes is not only complying with regulations, but economic concerns, and also meat safety and quality assurance requirements. Given recent developments, an updated review is required to guide the industry to choose the best chilling method and to inspire the development of new approaches to chilling. Thus in this paper, the quality and microbial safety of beef, lamb, pork, venison, and bison resulting from different chilling treatments has been reviewed, as well as the underlying mechanism(s) for the different impacts on meat quality traits as a result of different chilling regimes. The effect of fast chilling on the tenderness of beef and lamb is a focus, as some new findings, have recently been reported, while multistep chilling is highlighted as it incorporates the advantages of fast chilling to reduce carcass weight loss, resulting in similar quality improvements as found with slow chilling. It is, suggested, that if spray chilling can be combined with the second phase of multi‐step chilling, it will benefit the meat industry in terms of both meat quality and safety. Future studies should focus on combinations of chilling methods with new technologies, such as medium voltage electrical stimulation, muscle stretching, or ultrasound and so on, to move meat quality and safety to a new level.

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Texture Modification Technologies and Their Opportunities for the Production of Dysphagia Foods: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Sirada Sungsinchai, Chalida Niamnuy, Pattra Wattanapan, Manop Charoenchaitrakool, Sakamon Devahastin

    Dysphagia or swallowing difficulty is a common morbidity experienced by those who have suffered a stroke or those undergone such treatments as head and neck surgeries. Dysphagic patients require special foods that are easier to swallow. Various technologies, including high‐pressure processing, high‐hydrodynamic pressure processing, pulsed electric field treatment, plasma processing, ultrasound‐assisted processing, and irradiation have been applied to modify food texture to make it more suitable for such patients. This review surveys the applications of these technologies for food texture modification of products made of meat, rice, starch, and carbohydrates, as well as fruits and vegetables. The review also attempts to categorize, via the use of such key characteristics as hardness and viscosity, texture‐modified foods into various dysphagia diet levels. Current and future trends of dysphagia food production, including the use of three‐dimensional food printing to reduce the design and fabrication time, to enhance the sensory characteristics, as well as to create visually attractive foods, are also mentioned.

    更新日期:2019-09-07
  • Dietary Fibers from Fruits and Vegetables and Their Health Benefits via Modulation of Gut Microbiota
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Jiefen Cui, Yunhe Lian, Chengying Zhao, Hengjun Du, Yanhui Han, Wei Gao, Hang Xiao, Jinkai Zheng

    Dietary fibers (DFs) regulate host health through various mechanisms related to their dietary sources, specific physicochemical structures, fermentability, and physiological properties in the gut. Considering the numerous types and sources of DFs and their different physicochemical and physiological properties, it is challenging yet important to establish the key mechanisms for the beneficial health effects of DFs. In this review, the types and structures of DFs from different fruits and vegetables were summarized and the effects of different processing methods on DF properties were discussed. Moreover, the impacts of DFs on gut microbial ecology, host physiology, and health were described. Understanding the complex interaction between different DFs and gut microbiota is vital for personalized nutrition. It is also important to comprehend factors influencing gut microbiota and strategies to regulate the microbiota, thereby augmenting beneficial health responses. The exploration of molecular mechanism linking DFs, gut microbiota, and host physiology may allow for the identification of effective targets to fight against major chronic diseases.

    更新日期:2019-08-23
  • Natural Antifungal Peptides/Proteins as Model for Novel Food Preservatives
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Thibaut Thery, Kieran M. Lynch, Elke K. Arendt

    A large range of ingredients for food and food products are subject to fungal contamination, which is a major cause of destruction of crops, exposure of animals and humans to invasive mycotoxins, and food spoilage. The resistance of fungal species to common preservation methods highlights the necessity of new ways to increase the shelf life of raw material for food and food products. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) are essential members of the immune system of most living organisms. Due to their broad range of activity and their stability to commonly used food processes, they represent promising alternatives to traditional preservatives. However, despite the growing number of reports of potential food applications of these AMPs, the number of approved peptides is low. Poor solubility, toxicity, and a time‐consuming extraction are hurdles that limit their application in food products. Thanks to a deep understanding of the key determinants of their activity, the development of optimized synthetic peptides has reduced these drawbacks. This review presents natural and synthetic antifungal peptides/proteins (AFPs), effective against food‐related fungi, with particular emphasis on AFPs from plant sources. The design of novel antifungal peptides via key elements of antifungal activity is also reviewed. The potential applications of natural and synthetic AFPs as novel antifungal food preservatives are finally discussed.

    更新日期:2019-08-23
  • Recovery of High Value‐Added Nutrients from Fruit and Vegetable Industrial Wastewater
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Honglin Chen, Hua Zhang, Jinhu Tian, John Shi, Robert J. Linhardt, Tian Ding Xingqian Ye, Shiguo Chen

    The industrial processing water of fruit and vegetables has raised serious environmental concerns due to the presence of many important bioactive compounds being disposed in the wastewater. Bioactive compounds have great potential for the food industry to optimize their process and to recover these compounds in order to develop value‐added products and to reduce environmental impacts. However, to achieve this goal, some challenges need to be addressed such as safety assurance, technology request, product regulations, cost effectiveness, and customer factors. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the recent advances of bioactive compounds recovery and the current challenges in wastewater from fruit and vegetable processing industry, including fruit and beverage, soybean by‐products, starch and edible oil industry. Moreover, future direction for novel and green technology of bioactive compounds recovery are discussed, and a prospect of bioactive compounds reuse and sustainable development is proposed.

    更新日期:2019-08-22
  • A Comprehensive Review on Food Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Leili Afsah‐Hejri, Parvaneh Hajeb, Parsa Ara, Reza J. Ehsani

    Food product safety is a public health concern. Most of the food safety analytical and detection methods are expensive, labor intensive, and time consuming. A safe, rapid, reliable, and nondestructive detection method is needed to assure consumers that food products are safe to consume. Terahertz (THz) radiation, which has properties of both microwave and infrared, can penetrate and interact with many commonly used materials. Owing to the technological developments in sources and detectors, THz spectroscopic imaging has transitioned from a laboratory‐scale technique into a versatile imaging tool with many practical applications. In recent years, THz imaging has been shown to have great potential as an emerging nondestructive tool for food inspection. THz spectroscopy provides qualitative and quantitative information about food samples. The main applications of THz in food industries include detection of moisture, foreign bodies, inspection, and quality control. Other applications of THz technology in the food industry include detection of harmful compounds, antibiotics, and microorganisms. THz spectroscopy is a great tool for characterization of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Despite its potential applications, THz technology has some limitations, such as limited penetration, scattering effect, limited sensitivity, and low limit of detection. THz technology is still expensive, and there is no available THz database library for food compounds. The scanning speed needs to be improved in the future generations of THz systems. Although many technological aspects need to be improved, THz technology has already been established in the food industry as a powerful tool with great detection and quantification ability. This paper reviews various applications of THz spectroscopy and imaging in the food industry.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Ingredient Functionality During Foam‐Type Cake Making: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Thibault Godefroidt, Nand Ooms, Bram Pareyt, Kristof Brijs, Jan A. Delcour

    Foam‐type cakes are complex food systems. Their main ingredients are wheat flour, hen eggs, sugar, leavening agent, and, in some cases, oil and/or surfactants. In contrast to the vast amount of research outcomes on the contribution of ingredients to the quality of batter‐type cake systems, information on the functionality and importance of the ingredients and their constituents in foam‐type cake systems is lacking. This review defines foam‐type cakes, describes how they are made, summarizes the current knowledge of factors determining their quality, and identifies the current knowledge gaps.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Brazilian Artisanal Cheeses: An Overview of their Characteristics, Main Types and Regulatory Aspects
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Bruna A. Kamimura, Marciane Magnani, Winnie A. Luciano, Fernanda B. Campagnollo, Tatiana C. Pimentel, Verônica O. Alvarenga, Beatriz O. Pelegrino, Adriano G. Cruz, Anderson S. Sant'Ana

    A large variety of cheeses exist in Brazil, reflecting historical and cultural aspects. Brazilian artisanal cheeses present differences in the processing, ripening time (when applied), type of milk used, texture, size, shape, color, moisture content, flavor, the use or not of starter cultures, among others. This review describes the main artisanal cheeses produced in Brazil, focusing on general and particular characteristics associated with their making process and geographical identity. Overall, the high variability of the physicochemical data and deficiency of information on sensorial properties of Brazilian artisanal cheeses were noticed. On the other hand, culture‐dependent methods were mostly used to expand the knowledge into the microbiology of these cheeses, whereas their microbial diversity has been recently discovered through the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing‐based methods. The certification of a geographical indication for Brazilian artisanal cheeses may encompass an essential milestone for adding value to these products. Regardless of their significance in the diet, culture, and economy of producing regions, taken together, the reviewed literature discloses the need of insightful studies to generate scientific data to support the expansion of the market, while ensuring the protection of historic aspects related to the production of Brazilian artisanal cheeses.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Development of Nanozymes for Food Quality and Safety Detection: Principles and Recent Applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Lunjie Huang, Da‐Wen Sun, Hongbin Pu, Qingyi Wei

    The public concerns about agrifood safety call for innovative and reformative analytical techniques to meet the inspection requirements of high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. Enzyme‐mimetic nanomaterials or nanozymes, which combine enzyme‐like properties with nanoscale features, emerge as an excellent tool for quality and safety detection in the agrifood sector, due to not only their robust capacity in detection but also their attraction in future‐oriented exploitations. However, in‐depth understanding about the fundamental principles of nanozymes for food quality and safety detection remains limited, which makes their applications largely empirical. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the principles, designs, and applications of nanozyme‐based detection technique in the agrifood industry. The discussion mainly involves three mimicking types, that is, peroxidase, oxidase, and catalase‐like nanozymes, capable of detecting major agrifood analytes. The current principles and strategies are classified and then discussed in details through discriminating the roles of nanozymes in diverse detection platforms. Thereafter, recent applications of nanozymes in detecting various endogenous ingredients and exogenous contaminants in foods are reviewed, and the outlook of profound developments are explained. Evidenced by the increasing publications, nanozyme‐based detection techniques are narrowing the gap to practical‐oriented food analytical methods, while some challenges in optimization of nanozymes, diversification of recognition‐to‐signal manners, and sustainability of methodology need to conquer in the future.

    更新日期:2019-08-20
  • Lactic Acid Bacteria as Antifungal and Anti‐Mycotoxigenic Agents: A Comprehensive Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Faizan Ahmed Sadiq, Bowen Yan, Fengwei Tian, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen

    Fungal contamination of food and animal feed, especially by mycotoxigenic fungi, is not only a global food quality concern for food manufacturers, but it also poses serious health concerns because of the production of a variety of mycotoxins, some of which present considerable food safety challenges. In today's mega‐scale food and feed productions, which involve a number of processing steps and the use of a variety of ingredients, fungal contamination is regarded as unavoidable, even good manufacturing practices are followed. Chemical preservatives, to some extent, are successful in retarding microbial growth and achieving considerably longer shelf‐life. However, the increasing demand for clean label products requires manufacturers to find natural alternatives to replace chemically derived ingredients to guarantee the clean label. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with the status generally recognized as safe (GRAS), are apprehended as an apt choice to be used as natural preservatives in food and animal feed to control fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin production. LAB species produce a vast spectrum of antifungal metabolites to inhibit fungal growth; and also have the capacity to adsorb, degrade, or detoxify fungal mycotoxins including ochratoxins, aflatoxins, and Fusarium toxins. The potential of many LAB species to circumvent spoilage associated with fungi has been exploited in a variety of human food and animal feed stuff. This review provides the most recent updates on the ability of LAB to serve as antifungal and anti‐mycotoxigenic agents. In addition, some recent trends of the use of LAB as biopreservative agents against fungal growth and mycotoxin production are highlighted.

    更新日期:2019-08-13
  • The Predominance of Psychrotrophic Pseudomonads on Aerobically Stored Chilled Red Meat
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Nirmani N. Wickramasinghe, Joshua Ravensdale, Ranil Coorey, Scott P. Chandry, Gary A. Dykes

    Microbial spoilage of meat during chilled aerobic storage causes significant financial losses to the industry. Even with modern day preservation techniques, spoilage remains an unsolved problem. Spoilage of meat is a complex process that involves the activity of endogenous enzymes and microorganisms. Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas species are the key microorganisms that cause spoilage in aerobically stored chilled meat. Spoilage pseudomonads are highly robust and able to withstand stressful environmental conditions that would otherwise inhibit the growth of other spoilage organisms. In order to implement efficient control measures, and to minimize spoilage, a thorough understanding of the characteristics of spoilage pseudomonads is essential. This review focuses on the spoilage process and the key metabolic attributes of the main psychrotrophic spoilage Pseudomonas species to explain their predominance on meat over other psychrotrophic bacteria. This review also highlights less studied, but important, characteristics of psychrotrophic pseudomonads such as biofilm formation and quorum sensing in the context of meat spoilage. The importance of the use of model systems that are closely applicable to the food industry is also discussed in detail.

    更新日期:2019-08-13
  • Salt Intake from Processed Meat Products: Benefits, Risks and Evolving Practices
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Gaëlle Petit, Vanessa Jury, Marie de Lamballerie, Frédérique Duranton, Laurence Pottier, Jean‐Luc Martin

    Currently, there is major consumer concern about dietary salt intake worldwide. However, even with the development of contemporary preservation practices, sodium chloride is still essential in processed meat products. Despite a long history of use, salt is now seriously controversial in food due to health concerns that are mostly related to high blood pressure and cardiovascular risks. Changes in meat processing methods have reduced those potential risks, but different perceptions continue to shape how consumers and society view dietary salt. The current consumer demand for additive‐free food, such as the clean‐label movement, has renewed consumer willingness for naturalness in food products.

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Chemistry and Biological Activities of Processed Camellia sinensis Teas: A Comprehensive Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Liang Zhang, Chi‐Tang Ho, Jie Zhou, Jânio Sousa Santos, Lorene Armstrong, Daniel Granato

    Tea is a typical processed beverage from the fresh leaves of Camellia sinensis [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] or Camellia assamica [Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Mast.) Kitamura] through different manufacturing techniques. The secondary metabolites of fresh tea leaves are mainly flavan‐3‐ols, phenolic acids, purine alkaloids, condensed tannins, hydrolysable tannins, saponins, flavonols, and their glycoside forms. During the processing, tea leaves go through several steps, such as withering, rolling, fermentation, postfermentation, and roasting (drying) to produce different types of tea. After processing, theaflavins, thearubigins, and flavan‐3‐ols derivatives emerge as the newly formed compounds with a corresponding decrease in concentrations of catechins. Each type of tea has its own critical process and presents unique chemical composition and flavor. The components among different teas also cause significant changes in their biological activities both in vitro and in vivo. In the present review, the progress of tea chemistry and the effects of individual unit operation on components were comprehensively described. The health benefits of tea were also reviewed based on the human epidemiological and clinical studies. Although there have been multiple studies about the tea chemistry and biological activities, most of existing results are related to tea polyphenols, especially (‐)‐epigallocatechin gallate. Other compounds, including the novel compounds, as well as isomers of amino acids and catechins, have not been explored in depth.

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Adverse Reactions to Wheat or Wheat Components
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Fred Brouns, Gonny van Rooy, Peter Shewry, Sachin Rustgi, Daisy Jonkers

    Wheat is an important staple food globally, providing a significant contribution to daily energy, fiber, and micronutrient intake. Observational evidence for health impacts of consuming more whole grains, among which wheat is a major contributor, points to significant risk reduction for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer. However, specific wheat components may also elicit adverse physical reactions in susceptible individuals such as celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA). Recently, broad coverage in the popular and social media has suggested that wheat consumption leads to a wide range of adverse health effects. This has motivated many consumers to avoid or reduce their consumption of foods that contain wheat/gluten, despite the absence of diagnosed CD or WA, raising questions about underlying mechanisms and possible nocebo effects. However, recent studies did show that some individuals may suffer from adverse reactions in absence of CD and WA. This condition is called non‐celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or non‐celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). In addition to gluten, wheat and derived products contain many other components which may trigger symptoms, including inhibitors of α‐amylase and trypsin (ATIs), lectins, and rapidly fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs). Furthermore, the way in which foods are being processed, such as the use of yeast or sourdough fermentation, fermentation time and baking conditions, may also affect the presence and bioactivity of these components. The present review systematically describes the characteristics of wheat‐related intolerances, including their etiology, prevalence, the components responsible, diagnosis, and strategies to reduce adverse reactions.

    更新日期:2019-07-17
  • 3‐Deoxyanthocyanidin Colorant: Nature, Health, Synthesis, and Food Applications
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-07-17
    Yun Xiong, Pangzhen Zhang, Robyn Dorothy Warner, Zhongxiang Fang

    3‐Deoxyanthocyanidins are a rare type of anthocyanins that are present in mosses, ferns, and some flowering plants. They are water‐soluble pigments and impart orange‐red and blue‐violet color to plants and play a role as phytoalexins against microbial infection and environmental stress. In contrast to anthocyanins, the lack of a hydroxyl group at the C‐3 position confers unique chemical and biochemical properties. They are potent natural antioxidants with a number of potential health benefits including cancer prevention. 3‐Deoxyanthocyanidin pigments have attracted much attention in the food industry as natural food colorants, mainly due to their higher stability during processing and handling conditions compared with anthocyanins. They are also photochromic compounds capable of causing a change in “perceived” color, when exposed to UV light, which can be used to design novel foods and beverages. Due to their interesting properties and potential industrial applications, great efforts have been made to synthesize these compounds. For biosynthesis, researchers have discovered the 3‐deoxyanthocyanidin biosynthetic pathway and their biosynthetic genes. For chemical synthesis, advances have been made to synthesize the compounds in a simpler and more efficient way as well as looking for its novel derivative with enhanced coloration properties. This review summarizes the developments in the research on 3‐deoxyanthocyanidin as a colorant, from natural sources to chemical syntheses and from health benefits to applications and future prospects, providing comprehensive insights into this group of interesting compounds.

    更新日期:2019-07-17
  • Edible Insects Processing: Traditional and Innovative Technologies
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-30
    Guiomar Melgar‐Lalanne, Alan‐Javier Hernández‐Álvarez, Alejandro Salinas‐Castro

    Insects are part of the human diet in many parts of the world. Their nutritional value is widely recognized. Currently, most edible insects are harvested from the wild, although semi‐domestication and indoor farming have increased insect availability and the sustainability of production. In traditional cultures, insects are processed in a number of ways (steaming, roasting, smoking, frying, stewing, and curing, among others) to improve their sensory and nutritional qualities as well as their shelf‐life. In order to increase consumer interest in the West, various technologies have been developed that are aimed primarily at using insects as ingredients in a non‐recognizable form, such as powders or flour. These technologies include drying (sun‐drying, freeze‐drying, oven‐drying, fluidized bed drying, and microwave‐drying) and new processing methods (ultrasound‐assisted extraction, cold atmospheric pressure plasma, and dry fractionation) designed mainly for protein, fat, and/or chitin extraction. Insect‐based ingredients are sold for the production of cookies, chocolates, tortilla‐style chips, and other snacks. This review focuses on edible insect production, processing technologies, and commercialization using strategies ranging from traditional to novel as a sustainable approach for improving food security worldwide.

    更新日期:2019-07-01
  • Peanut Allergy: Characteristics and Approaches for Mitigation
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Faisal Shah, Aimin Shi, Jon Ashley, Christina Kronfel, Qiang Wang, Soheila J. Maleki, Benu Adhikari, Jinchuang Zhang

    Peanut allergy has garnered significant attention because of the high sensitization rate, increase in allergy, and severity of the reaction. Sufficiently reliable therapies and efficient mitigating techniques to combat peanut allergy are still lacking. Current management relies on avoiding peanuts and nuts and seeds with homologous proteins, although adverse events mostly occur with accidental ingestion. There is a need for hypoallergenic peanut products to protect sensitized individuals and perhaps serve as immunotherapeutic products. Alongside traditional practices of thermal and chemical treatment, novel processing approaches such as high‐pressure processing, pulsed ultraviolet light, high‐intensity ultrasound, irradiation, and pulsed electric field have been performed toward reducing the immunoreactivity of peanut. Covalent and noncovalent chemical modifications to proteins also have the tendency to alter peanut allergenicity. Enzymatic hydrolysis seems to be the most advantageous technique in diminishing the allergenic potential of peanut. Furthermore, the combined processing approach (hurdle technologies) such as enzymatic hydrolysis followed by, or in conjunction with, roasting, high pressure and heat, ultrasound with enzymatic treatment, or germination have shown a significant reduction of peanut immunoreactivity and may emerge as useful techniques in reducing the allergenicity of peanut and other foods. This study represents our current knowledge about the alterations in allergenic properties of peanut via different processing mechanisms as well as evaluating its future potential, geographical based data on increasing sensitization, clinical relevance, eliciting dose, and current management of peanut allergy. Furthermore, the molecular characteristics and clinical relevance of peanut allergens have been discussed.

    更新日期:2019-06-26
  • Recent Advances in Food Thawing Technologies
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Luyun Cai, Minjie Cao, Joe Regenstein, Ailing Cao

    Serious quality deterioration can occur with suboptimal thawing, and thus innovative thawing technologies may have an important role in improving the final quality of frozen foods. In recent years, although several new thawing technologies have been extensively studied, such as ultra‐high pressure assisted thawing, ultrasound‐assisted thawing, high‐voltage electrostatic field thawing, ohmic thawing, and radio frequency thawing, more research is needed to make them more applicable to thawing of food industrially. A better evaluation of the impact of thawing is needed to help move new thawing technologies forward. This review discusses the principles involved, the applications to different types of foods, modeling of the various processes, new evaluation techniques, and patents obtained for the different systems. The benefits and weaknesses of these systems are also discussed to provide a more complete review of these new thawing techniques. This review will, hopefully, encourage additional work that may help reach the goal of having better food thawing systems.

    更新日期:2019-06-24
  • Understanding the Relations Among the Storage, Soaking, and Cooking Behavior of Pulses: A Scientific Basis for Innovations in Sustainable Foods for the Future
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Claire M. Chigwedere, Daniel M. Njoroge, Ann M. Van Loey, Marc E. Hendrickx

    The world faces challenges that require sustainable solutions: food and nutrition insecurity; replacement of animal‐based protein sources; and increasing demand for convenient, nutritious, and health‐beneficial foods; as well as functional ingredients. The irrefutable potential of pulses as future sustainable food systems is undermined by the hardening phenomenon that develops upon their storage under adverse conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Occurrence of this phenomenon indicates storage instability. In this review, the application of a material science approach, in particular the glass transition temperature concept, is presented to explain phenomena of storage instability such as the occurrence of hardening and loss of viability under adverse storage conditions. In addition to storage (in)stability, application of this concept during processing of pulses is discussed. The state‐of‐the‐art on how hardening occurs, that is, mechanistic insights, is provided, including a critical evaluation of some of the existing postulations using recent research findings. Moreover, the influence of hardening on the properties and processing of pulses is included. Prevention of hardening and curative actions for pulses affected by the hardening phenomenon are described in addition to the current trends on uses of pulses and pulse‐derived products. Based on the knowledge progress presented in this review, suggestions for the future include: first, the need for innovation toward implementation of recommended solutions for the prevention of hardening; second, the optimization of the identified most effective and efficient curative action against hardening; and third, areas to focus on for elucidation of mechanisms of hardening, although existing analytical methods require advancement.

    更新日期:2019-06-19
  • Prospective Applications of Cold Plasma for Processing Poultry Products: Benefits, Effects on Quality Attributes, and Limitations
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Mohsen Gavahian; Yan‐Hwa Chu; Cheorun Jo

    Eliminating the pathogens from the chicken egg and meat is of supreme value for food scientists. In this regard, researchers have explored the potential applications of cold plasma, as a promising technique, to increase the profitability of poultry farming and safety of the poultry products. In the present study, an overview of the conducted research on plasma treatment of poultry products is presented to highlight the potential benefits of this emerging technology for the food and poultry industries. The potential negative effects of plasma treatment on the quality attributes of the product are also discussed. Moreover, the limitations of this technology and considerations for its commercial applications are illustrated. Furthermore, the needs for future research in this area of science are pointed out. Several studies have confirmed the applicability of cold plasma for egg and chicken decontamination. Considering the number of the recently conducted research and on‐going advances in plasma science, this technique may assist food producers in enhancing the poultry product safety in the near future.

    更新日期:2019-06-13
  • Conditions Governing Food Protein Amyloid Fibril Formation. Part II: Milk and Legume Proteins
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Marlies A. Lambrecht; Koen J.A. Jansens; Ine Rombouts; Kristof Brijs; Frederic Rousseau; Joost Schymkowitz; Jan A. Delcour

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact amyloid formation of food proteins. We here review the impact of various conditions and food constituents on amyloid fibrillation of milk and legume proteins. Much less is known about casein and legume protein amyloid‐like fibril formation than about that of whey proteins such as β‐lactoglobulin, α‐lactalbumin, and bovine serum albumin. Proteins of both sources are often studied after heating under strong acidic (pH < 3) conditions. The latter induces changes in protein conformation and often peptide hydrolysis. At higher pH values, alcohols, chaotropic and/or reducing agents induce the conformational changes required to enhance fibrillation. Different types of food proteins can impact each other's fibrillation. Also, the presence of other food constituents can enhance or reduce it. No general conclusions on the mechanisms or impact of different food constituents on food proteins can be made. Optimal conditions for AF formation, that is, heating for several days at low pH, are rare in food processing. However, this does not exclude the possibility of AF formation in food products. For example, slow cooking of hydrolyzed proteins may enhance it. Future research should focus on the prevalence of AFs in complex food systems or model systems relevant for food processing.

    更新日期:2019-06-13
  • Modifying the Functional Properties of Egg Proteins Using Novel Processing Techniques: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Ya‐Fei Liu; Indrawati Oey; Phil Bremer; Alan Carne; Pat Silcock

    Egg proteins can be used in a wide range of food products, owing to their excellent foaming, emulsifying, and gelling properties. Another important functional property is the susceptibility of egg proteins to enzymatic hydrolysis, as protein digestion is closely related to its nutritional value. These functional properties of egg proteins are likely to be changed during food processing. Conventional thermal processing can easily induce protein denaturation and aggregation and consequently reduce the functionality of egg proteins due to the presence of heat‐labile proteins. Accordingly, there is interest from the food industry in seeking novel nonthermal or low‐thermal techniques that sustain protein functionality. To understand how novel processing techniques, including high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, pulsed light, ultrasound, ozone, and high pressure homogenization, affect protein functionality, this review introduces the mechanisms involved in protein structure modification and describes the structure–functionality relationships. Novel techniques differ in their mechanisms of protein structure modification and some have been shown to improve protein functionality for particular treatment conditions and product forms. Although there is considerable industrial potential for the use of novel techniques, further studies are required to make them a practical reality, as the processing of egg proteins often involves other influencing factors, such as different pH and the presence of other food additives (for example, salts, sugar, and polysaccharides).

    更新日期:2019-06-13
  • Technological, Regulatory, and Ethical Aspects of In Vitro Meat: A Future Slaughter‐Free Harvest
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Zuhaib F. Bhat; James D. Morton; Susan L. Mason; Alaa El‐Din A. Bekhit; Hina F. Bhat

    Defined as meat cultured in a laboratory within a bioreactor under controlled artificial conditions, in vitro meat is a relatively recent area that has opened a whole universe of possibilities and opportunities for the meat sector. With improved chemical and microbial safety and varied options, in vitro meat has been proposed as a green, healthy, environmentally friendly, and nutritionally better product that is free from animal suffering and death. Cell culture and tissue culture are the most probable technologies for the development of this futuristic muscle product. However, there are many challenges in the production of a suitable product at an industrial scale under a sustainable production system and a great body of research is required to fill the gaps in our knowledge. Many materials used in the product development are novel and untested within the food industry and demand urgent regulatory and safety assessment systems capable of managing any risks associated with the development of cultured meat. The future of this product will depend on the actions of governments and regulatory agencies. This article highlights emerging biotechnological options for the development of cultured meat and suggests ways to integrate these emerging technologies into meat research. It considers the problems and possibilities of developing cultured meat, opportunities, ethical issues as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area.

    更新日期:2019-06-13
  • Prevalence, Genetic Diversity, and Technological Functions of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in Sourdough: A Review
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Guohua Zhang; Jian Tu; Faizan Ahmed Sadiq; Weizhen Zhang; Wei Wang

    The use of sourdough as a leavening agent in bread making is a very old method that can be traced back to ancient times. Sourdoughs harbor a complex microbiota that is affected by multiple factors including factors related to cereal plants, grains, and sourdough processing techniques. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is the key autochthonous bacterium of the traditional sourdough microbiota and it is said to be “sourdough adapted” species. Despite the great dominance of this bacterium in sourdoughs, the origin of this species still remains unclear. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis positively influences all aspects of sourdough and fermented foods. However, the positive influence of this species on sourdough is a strain‐dependent characteristic. The first purpose of this review was to discuss factors affecting the microbiota of sourdoughs with particular emphasis on reasons behind the remarkable prevalence of L. sanfranciscensis in this ecological niche. The second objective was to discuss the genotypic and phenotypic classification of L. sanfranciscensis strains and the influence of this species on technological and functional characteristics of sourdough including its influence on rheological properties of dough and bread characteristics, texture, aroma, and shelf‐life through the inhibition of fungal growth.

    更新日期:2019-06-12
  • Conditions Governing Food Protein Amyloid Fibril Formation—Part I: Egg and Cereal Proteins
    Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. (IF 8.738) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Koen J.A. Jansens; Marlies A. Lambrecht; Ine Rombouts; Margarita Monge Morera; Kristof Brijs; Frederic Rousseau; Joost Schymkowitz; Jan A. Delcour

    Conditions including heating mode, time, temperature, pH, moisture and protein concentration, shear, and the presence of alcohols, chaotropic/reducing agents, enzymes, and/or salt influence amyloid fibril (AF) formation as they can affect the accessibility of amino acid sequences prone to aggregate. As some conditions applied on model protein resemble conditions in food processing unit operations, we here hypothesize that food processing can lead to formation of protein AFs with a compact cross β‐sheet structure. This paper reviews conditions and food constituents that affect amyloid fibrillation of egg and cereal proteins. While egg and cereal proteins often coexist in food products, their impact on each other's fibrillation remains unknown. Hen egg ovalbumin and lysozyme form AFs when subjected to moderate heating at acidic pH separately. AFs can also be formed at higher pH, especially in the presence of alcohols or chaotropic/reducing agents. Tryptic wheat gluten digests can form fibrillar structures at neutral pH and maize and rice proteins do so in aqueous ethanol or at acidic pH, respectively.

    更新日期:2019-06-11
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
上海纽约大学William Glover
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug